Android Development Tutorial

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Android Development Tutorial
Tutorial
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Based on Android 4.0 Lars Vogel
Version 10.0 Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Lars Vogel 06.03.2012
Revision History Revision 0.1 Created Revision 0.2 - 10.0 bug fixing and enhancements 07.07.2009 - 06.03.2012 04.07.2009

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
Table of Contents 1. What is Android? 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Google Play 1.3. Security and permissions 2. Android components 2.1. Activity 2.2. Views and ViewGroups 2.3. Intents 2.4. Services 2.5. ContentProvider 2.6. BroadcastReceiver 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets 2.8. Other 3. Android Development Tools 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools? 3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine 3.3. How to develop Android Applications 4. Android Application Architecture 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml 4.2. R.java and Resources 4.3. Assets 4.4. Activities and Layouts 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle 4.7. Configuration Change 4.8. Context 5. Installation 5.1. Eclipse 5.2. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK 5.4. Manually install Android SDK 5.5. Install a specific Android version 5.6. Android Source Code 6. Android virtual device - Emulator 6.1. What is the Android Emulator? 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts 6.4. Performance 6.5. Hardware button 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device 8. Error handling and typical problems 8.1. Clean Project 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)

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Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.5. Timeout during deployment 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage 8.7. Debug Certificate expired 8.8. Error message for @override 8.9. Missing Imports 8.10. Eclipse Tips 9. Conventions for the tutorials 9.1. API version, package and application name 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials 10. Your first Android project 10.1. Create Project 10.2. Two faces of things 10.3. Create attributes 10.4. Add UI Elements 10.5. Edit UI properties 10.6. Code your application 10.7. Start Project 11. Starting an deployed application 12. Menus and Action Bar 12.1. Definition of menu entries 12.2. Action bar tabs 12.3. Context menus 13. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.1. Project 13.2. Add a menu XML resource 14. Preferences 15. Tutorial: Preferences 15.1. Using preferences 15.2. Run 16. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16.1. Available Layout Manager 16.2. LinearLayout 16.3. RelativeLayout 16.4. Gridlayout 16.5. ScrollView 17. Tutorial: ScrollView 18. Styling 18.1. Overview 18.2. Example 19. Supporting different screen sizes 19.1. Using device independent pixel 19.2. Using resource qualifiers 20. Fragments 20.1. Overview 20.2. When to use Fragments 21. Fragments Tutorial 21.1. Overview 21.2. Create project 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode 21.4. Create Fragment classes 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode 21.6. Activities 21.7. Run 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 22.2. LogCat View 22.3. File explorer 23. Shell 23.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet 24. Deploy your application on a real device 25. Thank you 26. Questions and Discussion 27. Links and Literature 27.1. Source Code 27.2. Android Resources 27.3. vogella Resources

1. What is Android?
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) provides all necessary tools to develop Android

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run Android programs. Android is currently primarily developed by Google. Android allows background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. Android applications consist of different components and can re-use components of other applications, if these applications declare their components as available. This leads to the concept of a task in Android; an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task. For example you can write an application which integrates a map component and a camera component to archive a certain task.

1.2. Google Play
Google offers the "Google Play" service. Google hosts Android applications and the Google Play application allows to install new Android application on an Android device. Google Play used to be called "Android Market".

1.3. Security and permissions
During deployment on an Android device, the Android system will create a unique user and group ID for every Android application. Each application file is private to this generated user, e.g. other applications cannot access these files. In addition each Android application will be started in its own process. Therefore by means of the underlying Linux operating system, every Android application is isolated from other running applications. A misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications. If data should be shared, the application must do this explicitly, e.g. via a Service or a ContentProvider. Android also contains a permission system. Android predefines permissions for certain tasks but every application can also define its own permissions. An application must declare in its configuration file (AndroidManifest.xml) that it requires certain permissions. Depending on the details of the required permission, the Android system will either automatically grant the permission, reject it or ask the user if he grants this permission to the application during installation. If for example the application declares that it requires Internet access, the user needs to confirm the usage of this permission during installation. This is called "user driven security". The user decides to grant a permission or to deny it. If the user denies a permission required by the application, this application cannot be installed. The check of the permission is only performed during installation, permissions cannot be denied or granted after the installation. Typically not all users check the permissions in detail but some users do. If there is seems to be something strange in connection with them, they will write bad reviews on Google Play.

2. Android components
The following gives a short overview of the most important Android components.

2.1. Activity
Activity represents the presentation layer of an Android application. A simplified (and slightly incorrect)

description is that an Activity is a screen. This is slightly incorrect as Activities can be displayed as Dialogs or can be transparent. An Android application can have several Activities.

2.2. Views and ViewGroups
Views are user interface widgets, e.g. buttons or text fields. The base class for all Views is android.view.View. Views often have attributes which can be used to change their appearance and

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A ViewGroup is responsible for arranging other Views e.g. a ViewGroup is a layout manager. The base class for a layout manager is android.view.ViewGroups. ViewGroup also extends View. ViewGroups can be nestled to create complex layouts. You should not nestle ViewGroups too deeply as this has a negative impact on the performance.

2.3. Intents
Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other

components of the Android system, e.g. from Services or Activities. An application can call a component directly (explicit Intent ) or ask the Android system to evaluate registered components for a certain Intent (implicit Intents ). For example the application could implement sharing of data via an Intent and all components which allow sharing of data would be available for the user to select. Applications register themselves to an Intent via an IntentFilter.
Intents allow to combine loosely coupled components to perform certain tasks.

2.4. Services
Services perform background tasks without providing a user interface. They can notify the user via the

notification framework in Android.

2.5. ContentProvider
ContentProvider provides a structured interface to application data. Via a ContentProvider your

application can share data with other applications. Android contains an SQLite database which is frequently used in conjunction with a ContentProvider to persist the data of the ContentProvider.

2.6. BroadcastReceiver
BroadcastReceiver can be registered to receive system messages and Intents. A BroadcastReceiver

will get notified by the Android system, if the specified situation happens. For example a BroadcastReceiver could get called once the Android system completed the boot process or if a phone call is received.

2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
Widgets are interactive components which are primarily used on the Android homescreen. They typically

display some kind of data and allow the user to perform actions via them. For example a Widget could display a short summary of new emails and if the user selects an email, it could start the email application with the selected email.

2.8. Other
Android provide many more components but the list above describes the most important ones. Other Android components are "Live Folders" and "Live Wallpapers". Live Folders display data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

3. Android Development Tools
3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) to develop Android applications with Eclipse. ADT is a set of components (plug-ins) which extend the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. ADT contains all required functionalities to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the Eclipse IDE and from the command line. Other IDE's, e.g. IntellJ, are also reusing components of ADT. ADT also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone.

3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine

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MAIN" /> <category android:name="android. the images and XML files. AndroidManifest. The Android Market determine based on the versionCode. For example if the same String is found in different class files.1.dex file. The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler.vogella. Dalvik uses an own bytecode format which is different from Java bytecode.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social applications.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas. are packed into an .android. Android provides a tool called "dx"" which converts Java class files into a dex (Dalvik Executable) file. The Android Development Tools (ADT) allows that all these steps are performed transparently to the user. Therefore you cannot directly run Java class files on Android. the .apk (Android Package) file. How to develop Android Applications Android applications are primarily written in the Java programming language.com/apk/res/android" package="de.apk file) will be created and deployed.action.g. The resulting . either within Eclipse or via the command line. If you use the ADT tooling you press a button or run a script and the whole Android application (.Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android. it must be declared with the full qualified package name. versionCode must be an integer. During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the .LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" /> </manifest> The package attribute defines the base package for the Java objects referred to in this file. The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performs this packaging. <?xml version="1. versionName is what the user sees and can be any String.dex file. These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the corresponding class files. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here. All class files of one application are placed in one compressed .Android Development Tutorial http://www.apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the "adb" tool. Therefore it is a good habit to use your reverse domain name as package name.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1.xml The components and settings of an Android application are described in the file AndroidManifest. 4.xml.intent.dex file contains only once reference of this String. Android Application Architecture 4.intent. For example all Activities and Services of the application must be declared in this file.vogella. 3. If a Java object lies within a different package.android. This will avoid collisions with other Android applications.3.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=".category.de/articles/Android/article.dex file and the resources of an Android project. The . e. It must also contain the required permissions for the application. if it should 5 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . android:versionName and android:versionCode specify the version of your application. they need to get converted in the Dalvik bytecode format. Google Play requires that every Android application uses its own unique package.

The layout defines the included Views (widgets) and their properties.vogella. In Java you access this data via the AssetsManager and the getAssets() method .LAUNCHER" defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device.intent. e. 4.java via the Eclipse ADT tools. These resources must be defined in the "res" directory and can be XML files. The @string/app_name value refers to resource files which contain the actual value of the application name. R. To assign a new ID to a View use @+id/yourvalue.id. <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> By conversion this will create and assign a new yourvalue ID to the corresponding View. The usage of resource file makes it easy to provide different resources.de/articles/Android/article. If a View needs to be accessed via Java code. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest.yourString)) method. In most cases the layout is defined as an XML file. their relationship and their attributes for this specific layout. In your Java code you can later access a View via the method findViewById(R.android. 4. the assets directory can be used to store any kind of data.string. The following shows an example in which a Button gets the "button1" ID assigned.yourString ID.xml" file defines the minimal SDK version for which your application is valid. manual changes are not necessary and will be overridden by the tooling.vogella. If you create a new resource. Activities and Layouts The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts.2.Android Development Tutorial http://www.MAIN" ). you have to give the View a unique ID via the android:id attribute. These references are static int values and define ID's for the resources.string.java is automatically created by the Eclipse development environment.action. you would use the getString(R.intent. colors. For example to access a String with the R.temperature package. the corresponding reference is automatically created in R. Assets While the res directory contains structured values which are known to the Android platform.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social value by one. strings. R.java and Resources The " gen " directory in an Android project contains generated values. You can for example define values. menus. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the /res/layout folder. if you roll-out a new version of your application.3. The tag <activity> defines an Activity. for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications.yourvalue).g. R. The Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource via these ID's. layouts or animations via XML files.java is a generated class which contains references to certain resources of the project. Views. icons. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML. in this example pointing to the Convert class in the de. icons or pictures. 4. The category definition category android:name="android.category.4. An intent filter is registered for this class which defines that this Activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions. 6 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This file specifies the ViewGroups.

You find the necessary steps described in the following section of the tutorial: Eclipse Update Manager.7. which can be found here: Eclipse IDE Book for Kindle. Activities and Services extend the Context class and can therefore be used as Context. 4. For example if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertically or horizontally). The Android system defines a lifecycle for Activities via predefined methods. you could access it via @string/hello.called if the Activity is re-started. can be used to release resource or save data onResume() .always called if the Activity ends.5. You can also mix both approaches. 4.xml.content. You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your Activity definition in your AndroidManifest. The author of this text has also published a Kindle book on the usage of the Eclipse IDE. The following Activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible). In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11.8. you can refer to it via @color/your_id. because of an incoming call. It is the interface to global information about the application environment. the Location Service. Configuration Change An Activity will also be restarted. A configuration change happens if an event is triggered which may be relevant for the application.ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 4.g. It also allows the definition of different layouts for different devices. Android assumes that an Activity might want to use different resources for these orientations and restarts the Activity.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Eclipse The following assume that you have already Java and Eclipse installed and know how to use Eclipse. 5. 7 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . For example. The most important methods are: onSaveInstanceState() . if a so called "configuration change" happens. you can refer to other resources via the @ sign. <activity android:name=".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social definition.g. Activities and Lifecycle The Android system controls the lifecycle of your application.de/articles/Android/article. e. Installation 5.6. The tutorial above also describes how to install new components into Eclipse.Context provides the connections to the Android system. This is required to install the Android Development Tools. Context The class android.called if the Activity is stopped. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application. Reference to resources in XML files In your XML files. can be used to initialize fields 4. Or if you defined a "hello" string in an XML resource. Context also provides access to Android Services.vogella. For an introduction into Eclipse please see the following tutorial: Eclipse IDE Tutorial. if you want to refer to a color which is defined in a XML resource. Used to save data so that the Activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() . for example your layout files. e.1.

After the new Android development components are installed.google. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available components for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl.3.com/android/eclipse/. You can use the following wizard or go to the next section to learn how to do it manually.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The Android SDK is 32bit. apt-get install ia32-libs Please check your distribution documentation. 5. therefore on an 64bit Linux system you need to have the package ia32-libs installed. 8 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. you will be prompted to install the Android SDK. For Ubuntu you can do this via the following command. if you are using a different flavor of Linux.de/articles/Android/article.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. e.vogella.4. otherwise you may experience problems with the usage of the Android SDK. You also have to define the location of the Android SDK in the Eclipse Preferences.5. Alternatively you can also manually download the Android SDK from the Android SDK download page.Android Development Tutorial http://www. which you can extract to any place in your file system. on my Linux system I placed it under "/home/vogella/android-sdks". Avoid using spaces in the path name. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK. 5. Install a specific Android version The Android SDK Manager allows you to install specific versions of Android.de/articles/Android/article. The download contains a zip file. Select Window → Android SDK Manager from the Eclipse menu. In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via the menu Windows → Preferences.g. Manually install Android SDK After the installation of the ADT the Eclipse tooling allows to download the Android SDK automatically. 9 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

xx is the API level of Android.0 During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available. right click on your android.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 15 for the Android 4. Press the "Install" button and confirm the license for all packages.0. 5.1. e.de/articles/Android/article.3 version.jar file in your Android project. After the installation completes. Android Source Code The following step is optional. Type in the source directory name and press OK. You can download it via the Android SDK Manager by selecting the "Sources for Android SDK". To connect the sources with the android.vogella. As of Android 4. Select the Google API 15 (Android 4.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The dialog allows you to install new packages and also allows you to delete them. The sources are downloaded to the source directory located in "path_to_android_sdk/sources/android-xx".0 the Android development tools provides also the source code.jar in the Eclipse Package Explorer and select Properties → Java Source Attachment. 10 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .0.3) version of the SDK and press "Install".g. 5.6. As of Android 4. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons". restart Eclipse.6.

e.Emulator 6.2. add at least 1 GB of memory to your emulator. the screen resolution and other relevant settings. due to some initial setup. You can configure the version of the Android system you would like to run. The emulator behaves like a real Android device (in most cases) and allows you to test your application without having a real device.com/svn/trunk/source/com. This is the value "Device ram size" during the creation of the AVD. F8 Turns network on / off. Nice for demos. To have a responsive emulator use a small resolution for your emulator. Android AVD During the creation of an AVD you decide if you want an Android device or an Google device. which is very slow. 6. Android virtual device . An AVD created for the Google API's will also contain several Google applications. Google vrs. 11 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .googlecode. add the "Hardware Back/Home keys" property to the device configuration and set it to "false". Alt+Enter Maximizes the emulator. 6.6. which provide the Android Source code code.4.source. What is the Android Emulator? The Android Development Tools (ADT) include an emulator to run an Android system. the size of the SD card.update".g. Cloud2DeviceMessaging or Google Maps you must run this application on an AVD with Google API's.Android Development Tutorial http://www. This will save the state of the emulator and let it start much faster.2. If you want to create such an AVD. The ADT allow to deploy and run your Android program on the AVD. most notable the Google Maps application.0 introduced that devices do not have to have hardware button anymore.5.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. More details can be found on the project website.ide. 6. 6. Ctrl+F11 changes the orientation of the emulator. Emulator Shortcuts The following shortcuts are useful for working with the emulator. as for example HVGA.vogella. You can define several devices with different configurations.android. Starting a new emulator is very slow. An AVD created for Android will contain the programs from the Android Open Source Project.0 For earlier versions Haris Peco maintains plugins.1. 6.3.de/articles/Android/article.eclipse. Also if you have sufficient memory on your computer. Performance The graphics of the emulator are rendered in software. Also set the flag "Enabled" for Snapshots. These devices are called "Android Virtual Device" (AVD) and you can start several in parallel. Hardware button Android 4. Prior to Android 4. If you want to use functionality which is only provided via the Google API's. Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adtaddons.

de/articles/Android/article. Enter the following.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 7.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device To define an Android Virtual Device (ADV) open the "AVD Manager" via Windows → AVD Manager and press "New". 12 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella.

is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2.java. This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social We can also select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots. To test if your setup is correct. go to the project menu and select Project → Clean. Eclipse allows to reset the adb in case this causes problems. This section gives an overview over typical problems and how to solve them.. Project ..de/articles/Android/article. 3.1. 8.vogella. Unable to open class file R. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb) The communication with the emulator or your Android device might have problems.2. This will create the AVD configuration and display it under the "Virtual devices". You are able to use it via the mouse and via the virtual keyboard of the emulator. select your device and press "Start". 8.Android Development Tutorial http://www. This communication is handled by the Android Debug Bridge (adb). At the end press the button "Create AVD". After (a long time) your AVD starts. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved. Error handling and typical problems Things are not always working as they should. Select therefore the DDMS perspective via Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS 13 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Clean Project Several users report that get the following errors: 1. To solve any of these errors. 8.

Alternative you can set the the data partition size. Emulator does not start If your emulator does not start. Select Window → Preferences → Android → DDMS and increase the "ADB connection timeout (in ms)" value. For example Java exceptions in your program would be shown here. make sure that the android-sdk version is in a path without any spaces in the path name.vogella. Timeout during deployment If you face timeout issues during deployment you can increase the default timeout in the Eclipse preferences.3. select Window → Show View → Other → Android → LogCat. To open this view. 8. Install failed due to insufficient storage Sometimes the emulator will refuse to install an application with the error message: INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE.5. You can clean your installed application by re-starting the emulator and selecting the "Wipe user data" flag. 8. 8. 14 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . if you press edit on the AVD you can set the "Ideal size of data partition" property via the "New" button.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www. An Android virtual device provides per default only 64M for internal storage of application. LogCat The "LogCat" View shows you the log messages of your Android device and help you analyze problems.6.4.

9.g. API Level 15.keystore" file. 8.Android Development Tutorial http://www.6. but if you face issues. Missing Imports Java requires that classes which are not part of the standard Java Language be either fully qualified or declared via imports.7.g. ". To do this right-click on the project. select Properties → Java Compiler → Compiler compliance level and select "1.10. If you receive an error message for @override. select Window → Preferences → Java → Editor → Save Actions and select that the source code should be formatted and that the imports should be organized at every save.vogella. if you are asked to create a 15 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . The base package for the projects is always the same as the project name.6" in the drop-down box. If you see error message with "XX cannot be resolved to a variable". e. Lower version of the Android API might also work. API version. package and application name The tutorials of this document have been developed and tested with Android 4.6. Higher version usually should also work.de/articles/Android/article.0. This file is only valid for a year and if not present Eclipse will regenerate the password. Error message for @override The @override annotation was introduced in Java 1. right-click in your Editor and select Source → Organize Imports to important required packages. change the Java compiler level to Java 1.1. 8. 9.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.3. Please use this version for all tutorials in this book. Eclipse Tips To work more efficiently with Eclipse. try the recommended version.8. 8.android" under Linux and delete the "debug. e. Debug Certificate expired If you get the error message "Debug Certificate expired" switch to the folder which contains the Android AVD. Conventions for the tutorials 9.

The Application name.vogella. 16 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . for example in layout files.android.1. Select File → New → Other → Android → Android Project and create the Android project "de. will not be predefined.de/articles/Android/article.example.temperature". While for real application its best practice to use string resource files we use use Strings directly to simplify the creation of the examples.vogella. 9.android. Enter the following. Your first Android project 10. Warnings Messages for Strings The Android development tools are show warnings if you use hard-coded strings. Android Exercises and Tutorials You find different types of exercises.3.test". Create Project This app is also available on the Android Marketplace. others just give you the task to do.2. Choose a name you like.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Some exercises explain every mouse click you have to do. Most exercises try to give you a base example and ask you to extend this example. 10. Search for "vogella" for find this example.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "de. which must be entered on the Android project generation wizard. 9.

17 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This should create the following directory structure.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Press "Finish".de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www.

10. e. for strings or colors. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources.de/articles/Android/article.g. in two ways: via a rich editor. The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation the resulting XML is also displayed.vogella. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets(). Two faces of things The Android SDK allows the developer to define certain artifacts.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main. 10.2.g.Android Development Tutorial http://www. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code.3. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen. e.xml". strings and UI's. 18 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . and directly via XML.

<?xml version="1. 19 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Table 1. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor. The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout.de/articles/Android/article.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different.4.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click.Android Development Tutorial http://www. For changing the position and grouping elements you can use the outline view.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "#3399CC" as the value.vogella. Add also the following "String" attributes. Add UI Elements Select "res/layout/main. String attributes allow the developer to translate the application at a later point. String Attributes Name celsius fahrenheit calc Value to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate Switch to the XML representation and validate the values. Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 10.

they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used.vogella. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group. The result should look like the following. All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Right-click on the text object “Hello World. Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout. Switch to "main.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> 20 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Hello!” in the layout. <?xml version="1. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object. from the “Palette” view.android.xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following.de/articles/Android/article. From the Palette section Form Widgets. Then. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.Android Development Tutorial http://www. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”. drag a Button object onto the layout.

Switch to the XML tab called "main. 21 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .xml" We will delete the initial text for the EditText field in XML. Typically you change properties directly in the XML file as this is much faster. Most of the properties can be changed via the right mouse menu. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton. Use the right mouse click on the first radio button to assign the "celsius" string attribute to its "text" property. Edit UI properties If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. But the right mouse functionality is nice if you are searching for a certain property.vogella.5. Assign the and "fahrenheit" string attribute to the second radio button. You can also edit properties of fields directy in XML.de/articles/Android/article. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property. From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements. Switch back to the "Graphical Layout" tab and check that the text is removed. You can either edit the XML file or modify the properties via right mouse click.xml" and delete the android:text="EditText" property from the EditText part.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> 10.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Open your file "main. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText.

com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout> 10. <?xml version="1.editText1).de/articles/Android/article. Change your code in ConvertActivity. Right-click on an empty space in Graphical Layout mode.vogella.os. package de.RadioButton.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.getText(). setContentView(R.Activity. text = (EditText) findViewById(R.radio0). android.java to the following.Android Development Tutorial http://www.getId()) { case R.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained.EditText.vogella. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. The project wizard also created the corresponding Java classs.widget.length() == 0) { 22 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .id.widget. public class ConvertActivity extends Activity { private EditText text. android.android.temperature.id.onCreate(savedInstanceState).id. } // This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view. if (text.android. RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R. Note that the myClickHandler will be called based on the OnClick property of your button. Code your application During the generation of your new Android project you specified that an Activity called ConvertActivity should get created. android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social LinearLayout.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.view.View.widget. android.6. android. Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.id. then select Other Properties → All by Name → Background. import import import import import import android.app. Switch to the "main.main).Bundle.Toast.layout.radio1).

Type in a number. Start Project To start the Android Application. } // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32. } float inputValue = Float.setChecked(false). celsiusButton.parseFloat(text.Android Development Tutorial http://www.setChecked(true).setChecked(false). fahrenheitButton.setChecked(true). The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social return. celsiusButton. You should get the following result. 23 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue))).isChecked()) { text. } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit .de/articles/Android/article.vogella. select your project. if (celsiusButton. and select Run-As → Android Application.toString()). Starting an deployed application After you run your application on the virtual device you can start it again on the device.setText(String . 11.getText(). If you press the Home button you can also select your application. right click on it.setText(String .7.valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))). } } 10. Be patient. } else { text. fahrenheitButton. } break. select your conversion and press the button.32) * 5 / 9). the emulator starts up very slowly.

Definition of menu entries Android provides two possible ways to display global actions which the user can select.Android Development Tutorial http://www. The Action Bar is a window feature at the top of the activity that may display the activity title. Typically you define your menu entries in a way that they are added to the action bar if sufficient space is available in the 24 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .1.de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 12.vogella. Menus and Action Bar 12. and other interactive items. The second option is that the app can open a menu which shows additional actions via a popup menu. navigation modes. The first one is the usage of the Action Bar in the application.

vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article. // If home icon is clicked return to main Activity case android.vogella.socialapp" with the Activity called "OverviewActivity".g.addFlags(Intent. Create a project called "de. break.class). e. A context menu for a view is registered via the registerForContextMenu(view) method.xml" layout file in the diretory "/res/layout/" to the following: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view. OverviewActivity.android. The onCreateContextMenu() method is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage. 12. You can also add an action to this icon.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences" > </Button> </LinearLayout> 25 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .2. Context menus You can also assign a context menu to an UI widget (view).R. EditText provides context options to select text.home: Intent intent = new Intent(this. In this method you can create the menu programmatically or you can use a pre-defined XML resources which you inflate via the MenuInflator class.FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP). intent. Action bar tabs It is also possible to add tabs to an action bar.1. The ActionBar also shows an icon of your application.home.android. Change the "main. 12. The onCreateOptionsMenu() method is only called once.id. The recommendation is to return to the main Activity in your program.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The option menu and the action bar of your activity is filled by the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity. startActivity(intent). The Android platform may also add options to your View. This example will be extended in the chapter about preferences. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the onPrepareOptionsMenu() method. 13.3. etc. If you select this icon the onOptionsItemSelected() method will be called with the value android. Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu which is displayed in the action bar if sufficient space is available.id. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.R. Each Activity has already an instance of the class available and this instance can get accessed via the getMenuInflator() method.

Select the option "Menu". enter as File "mainmenu.vogella.xml" in the folder "res/menu" of your project. We will also define that the menu entry is displayed in the action bar if there is sufficient space available. Switch if necessary to the "Layout" tab of the editor. This will create a new file "mainmenu. If that happens.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Select your project. This defines the entries in your menu. Android provides a nice editor to edit this file. you can open this editor manually.xml" and press the button "Finish".de/articles/Android/article. Maintain the following value. Press Add and select "Item". Right-click on your menu file and select Open with → Android Menu Editor.Android Development Tutorial http://www. unfortunately this editor is not always automatically used due to bugs in the ADT. 26 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . right click on it and select New → Other → Android → Android XML File to create a new XML resource.

android. } } Run your application.makeText(this.vogella.Activity.inflate(R. } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().LENGTH_SHORT).main). The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu. setContentView(R.vogella. "Just a test". The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. Toast. As there is enough space in the action bar your item will be displayed there. import import import import import import android. return true.app. If you select the menu item you should see a small info message.menu. android.widget. return true.android.socialapp.view.Bundle.MenuItem. 27 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .view.layout. If there would be more items you could press "Menu" on the emulator to see them. android. } @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast.Menu.show().view. android.MenuInflater.de/articles/Android/article. menu).onCreate(savedInstanceState). In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called.Android Development Tutorial http://www. android.Toast.mainmenu. package de.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Change your Activity class "OverviewActivity" to the following. inflater.os.

To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() methods. "n/a"). Typically the PreferenceActivity is started from another activity via an Intent. In your application you can access the preference manager via the following: SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager.Android Development Tutorial http://www.getString("username". Android provides the class "PreferenceActivity" which extends the class Activity. 28 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Preferences Android supports the usage of Preferences to allow you to save data for your application. edit. Preferences are stored as key values. PreferenceActivity supports the simple handling of preferences. To communicate between different components Android uses Intents. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource(). Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de.1. String username = preferences.commit(). Once you have changed the value you have to call commit() to apply your changes.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active. Values can get access via the key of the preference setting. Create an Android XML resource "preferences. edit. 15.vogella. "new_value_for_user").vogella.de/articles/Android/article. Editor edit = preferences. The definition of Preferences can also be done via an XML resource.xml" of type "PreferenceScreen".android. We will use them in the next chapter. 14.social".putString("username".edit().getDefaultSharedPreferences(this). Tutorial: Preferences 15.

g. You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField. e. add a "PreferenceCategory" and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password". 29 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . the inputMethod.vogella.de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Open the file via right-mouse click and Open-with → Android XML Resource Editor. Press Add.Android Development Tutorial http://www.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:inputType="textPassword" Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity. setContentView(R. Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { updatePreferenceValue(). // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager. buttonChangePreferences.getString("password". To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity". button.PreferenceManager.socialapp. android.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences.view. android.MenuItem.widget.View.SharedPreferences. public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.os.Toast. android.view. Select "AndroidManifest.main). The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code. android. android. "n/a").View.Button02). android.view.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).content.layout. import android. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { SharedPreferences preferences.onCreate(savedInstanceState). package de.MenuInflater. import android.socialapp.view. String password = preferences.preference.widget. android. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.Editor.preferences). } 30 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .getString("username". package de.app.vogella. } }).de/articles/Android/article.Menu. "n/a"). Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R.Button01). android.SharedPreferences.Bundle.vogella. android.vogella.PreferenceActivity. Scroll to the botton of the view and add your new activity via the "Add" button.xml" file.android.content.os.xml" and the tab "Application". password).preference. } } To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest. showPrefs(username.android.id. android.xml.Activity.view. This Activity will load the "preference.Bundle.onCreate(savedInstanceState).OnClickListener. android. import import import import import import import import import import import import android.Android Development Tutorial http://www. addPreferencesFromResource(R.Button.xml" file and will allow the user to change the values.id.

this.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social private void showPrefs(String username. String username = preferences. } return true. "Reverted string sequence of user name. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button. "Enter your user credentials.putString("username". i--) { buffer. Toast.vogella.this.edit(). break.makeText(OverviewActivity. @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().". MyPreferencesActivity. buffer. inflater.show().2.". Toast.LENGTH_LONG). Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences". String password){ Toast. We give a little feedback Toast. for (int i = username. return true.Android Development Tutorial http://www.id. } 15. } edit. Toast.menu. } private void updatePreferenceValue(){ Editor edit = preferences.commit(). i >= 0.class).1. If you press the second button the username should be reversed.makeText( OverviewActivity.makeText(OverviewActivity.toString()).getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R. 31 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(). Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries.LENGTH_LONG).de/articles/Android/article. "Input: " + username + " and password: " + password. menu). "n/a"). startActivity(i).show().charAt(i)). Run Run your application.length() . You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity. } To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() method. // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user. } // This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences.append(username.mainmenu.show().inflate(R.this.preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity. edit.this. // Some feedback to the user Toast.LENGTH_LONG).getString("username".

LinearLayout LinearLayout puts all its child elements into a single column or row depending on the android:orientation attribute. 16.0 the most relevant layout manager are LinearLayout. <?xml version="1. RelativeLayout RelativeLayout allow to position the widget relative to each other.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <ProgressBar android:id="@+id/progressBar1" style="?android:attr/progressBarStyleLarge" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_centerInParent="true" /> 32 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . As of Android 4. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16. horizontal is the default value.de/articles/Android/article. Possible values for this attribute are horizontal and vertical. LinearLayout can be nested to achieve more complex layouts. All layouts allow the developer to define attributes.1.android. AbsoluteLayoutLayout is deprecated and TableLayout can be implemented more effectively via GridLayout 16.vogella. Children can also define attributes which may be evaluated by their parent layout. FrameLayout. This allows for complex layouts.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16. Android supports different default layout managers.3. Just add one component to the RelativeLayout and set the android:layout_centerInParent attribute to true.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Available Layout Manager A layout manager is a subclass of ViewGroup and is responsible for the layout of itself and its child Views.Android Development Tutorial http://www. A simple usage for RelativeLayout is if you want to center a single component. RelativeLayout and GridLayout.2.

If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context. GridLayout separates its drawing area into: rows.0" android:text="@+id/TextView02" > </TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1.g.0" android:text="Cancel" > 33 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .4. Gridlayout GridLayout was introduced with Android 4. Create the following layout and class. This layout allows you to organize a view into a Grid.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas. columns.0" android:text="Submit" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1.0. If not specified GridLayout uses defaults. You can specify how many columns you want for define for each View in which row and column it should be placed and how many columns and rows it should use. 17.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView". e.android.5. one column.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true" android:orientation="vertical" > <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" > </TextView> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1. Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements. ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen.android. one row and the position of a View depends on the order of the declaration of the Views. and cells. 16.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article. <?xml version="1. Tutorial: ScrollView Create an android project "de.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.vogella.

id. android.1.layout. 34 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . i++) { s += "vogella. Styling 18.view. i < 100. Example The following "styles.vogella. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.xml" XML file would be created in the "/res/xml" folder. Activitities or Views.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> package de. This way you only have to set common attributes once and can later change the look in one central place.TextView. You can define styles in XML and assign them to these elements. for (int i=0. } view.app. setContentView(R.widget.vogella.onCreate(savedInstanceState). Overview Styles in Android allow to define the look and feel of Android application in external files. String s="".os.2.View. These styles can get assigned to the complete Applications. 18. android. 18.Bundle.Activity.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de ".android. android. } } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended.TextView02).de/articles/Android/article.setText(s). public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.main).scrollview. import import import import android.

If a Fragment component is defined in an XML layout file.2. 35 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .app. For special purposes you can also use more special classes. They can be defined via layout files or via coding.g. dp refers to the base line of an Android device. Overview Fragment components allow you to organize your application code so that it is easier to support different sized devices. 320x480 with 160dpi (dots per inch). e.1. Supporting different screen sizes 19. e. so that it always occupies the same physical space. Using device independent pixel Android devices are different in terms of resolution and in terms of density. layout files. The onCreateView() method is called by Android once the Fragment should create its user interface. public int convertToDp(int input) { // Get the screen's density scale final float scale = getResources(). 120dip) and larger on a hdip(approx. based on density scale return (int) (input * scale + 0.1.vogella.de/articles/Android/article. for example to the text elements via style=”@style/text”. the android:name attribute points to the Fragments class. This size is also known as mdpi (medium dots per inch). // Convert the dps to pixels. 240dpi) device.getDisplayMetrics(). The onStart() method is called once the Fragment gets visible. which was the size of the first Android device (G1). 19.g.5f). On a mdpi device "dp" will be equal to pixel but it will be smaller on a ldpi (approx. Fragments 20.Fragment. if an Activity is destroyed its Fragments will also get destroyed. Here you can inflate an layout. depending on the device.Android Development Tutorial http://www. You can use "dp" in your resources. Therefore it is recommended never to use fixed sized dimensions. } 19. The unit of measurement which should be used is "dp" (which is the same as "dip" but shorter). like ListFragment or DialogFragment. 20. Fragments always run in the context of an Activity. Fragments are components with their own lifecycle and their own user interface. The Android SDK expects that you specify everything in pixels. If an Activity is stopped its Fragments will also be stopped. You can therefore use the following formulator to calculate the right amount of pixels for a dimension specified in dp. Using resource qualifiers Android also allows to use resource qualifiers to specify that certain resources should only be used for certain resolutions.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social <resources> <style name="text"> <item name="android:padding">4dip</item> <item name="android:textAppearance">?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge</item> <item name="android:textColor">#000000</item> </style> <style name="layout"> <item name="android:background">#C0C0C0</item> </style> </resources> You assign the style attribute to your elements. The base class for Fragments is android. Android will automatically scale it.density. If you specify the size in "dp".

for example you can use Fragments also to support different layout for landscape and portrait orientation. The second Fragment shows the text of the current selected item. the main activity tells the fragment that is should update itself. If the user touches an item in the list. e. On a handset you jump to a new detail screen..update(. This is not limited to tablets. use the same activity for handsets.2. 21. start another activity that hosts the other fragment. For example. This is similar to the portrait mode.). In landscape mode MainActivity will show two Fragments.1. this will allow to revert the Fragment changes in the Activity via the back button. a second Activity called DetailActivity will start and show the selected text.isInLayout()) { // start new Activity } else { fragment. if (fragment==null || ! fragment. To check for an fragment you can use the FragmentManager.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social add the action to the history stack of the Activity. In this case you would switch the Fragments in the activity whenever necessary. It is good practice that Fragments do not manipulate each other.g. If the detailed fragment is there. } To create different layouts with Fragments you can: Use one activity. Use separate activities to host each fragment on a handset. but the whole information will be shown on one screen. i. But as tablets offer significantly more space you typically include more views into the layout and Fragments makes that easier. when the tablet UI uses two Fragments in an activity.detail_frag). but supply an alternative layout that includes just one fragment. It also requires an update of the action bar if the action bar status depends on the fragment.vogella. On a tablet you see the details immediately on the same screen on the right hand side if you click on item. When you need to switch Fragments. which displays two Fragments for tablets and only one on handsets devices. In portrait mode MainActivity will show one Fragment with a list of names. The first is again the Fragments which shows the list of names.. 36 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .e. On a tablet the main activity contains both Fragments in its layout.id. The entry Activity (called MainActivity of our application ) will use different layouts for portrait and for landscape mode. This requires that the fragment is not declared in the layout file as such Fragments cannot be removed during runtime. In this case the main activity checks if the detail fragment is available in the layout. For this purpose a Fragment typically implements an interface to get new data from its host Activity. Fragments Tutorial 21. The following discussion will assume that you have two Fragments (main and detail) but you can also have more. The typical example is a list of items in an activity. Overview The following tutorial demonstrates how to use Fragments. If the detail fragment is not available the main activity starts the detailed activity. The second approach is the most flexible and in general preferable way of using Fragments. on a handheld it only contains the main fragment. you can build single-pane layouts for handsets (phones) and multi-pane layouts for tablets.de/articles/Android/article. When to use Fragments Fragments make it easy to re-use components in different layouts.Android Development Tutorial http://www. We will also have one main activity and one detailed activity. findFragmentById(R. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager(). 20.

xml" file. "Windows7".ListFragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Create a new project de. <?xml version="1.fragments.content.vogella.app.onCreate(savedInstanceState). This layout will be used by MainActivity in landscape mode and shows two Fragments.ListFragment" ></fragment> <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.3. First create the following file called "details. "Ubuntu".widget. "iPhone".vogella.xml".widget. android.android.Intent. package de. import import import import import android. "WebOS".Android Development Tutorial http://www.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="150dip" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de. public class ListFragment extends android.4. "WindowsMobile". String[] values = new String[] { "Android".fragments. "Blackberry". android.os.android.ArrayAdapter.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/detailsText" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal|center_vertical" android:layout_marginTop="20dip" android:text="Large Text" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:textSize="30dip" /> </LinearLayout> Change the existing "main.Preview: layout=@layout/details --> </fragment> </LinearLayout> 21. android. 37 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. "OS/2" }.android. android.View. "Linux".ListView. Create layouts for portrait mode Create or change the following layout files in the "res/layout/" folder.DetailFragment" > <!-.view.android.vogella. <?xml version="1.android.android. Create the ListFragment class. 21.vogella.fragments with an Activity called MainActivity. "Max OS X".0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState).de/articles/Android/article.Bundle.fragments. Create Fragment classes Create now the Fragment classes. This layout will be used by the DetailFragment.

5. public class DetailFragment extends Fragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.getApplicationContext(). package de.android. false). android.ViewGroup.detailsText).setText(item). In portrait mode Android will check the "layout-port" folder for fitting layout files. android.isInLayout()) { fragment. } @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l. <?xml version="1.os.view.class). view.xml file in portrait model then in landscape mode.inflate(R.putExtra("value".findFragmentById(R.Log.android. startActivity(intent).xml" layout file in "res/layout-port".findViewById(R.Bundle. Therefore create the following "main. long id) { String item = (String) getListAdapter(). } public void setText(String item) { TextView view = (TextView) getView().getItem(position). Create layouts for landscape mode We want that Android uses a different main. Log. android. intent.detailFragment).util.setText(item).id. import import import import import import import android.vogella.TextView. Only if we would not have a "main. if (fragment != null && fragment. } } } Create the DetailFragment class. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.View.xml" file in "layout-port". ViewGroup container. View v.Fragment. "hello").de/articles/Android/article.view.e("Test".view.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" 38 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } @Override public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater.onCreate(savedInstanceState). } } 21.fragments. android.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState). item).0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.LayoutInflater. Android would check the "layout" folder. return view.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Bundle savedInstanceState) { View view = inflater. } else { Intent intent = new Intent(getActivity().widget.app.vogella. int position. For this reason create the "res/layout-port" folder. container. DetailActivity. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager() .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social setListAdapter(adapter).details. android.layout.id. android.

view. setContentView(R.orientation == Configuration.Android Development Tutorial http://www.id.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.detailsText).vogella.onCreate(savedInstanceState).android.vogella.vogella. Run 39 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .os.7.getString("value"). import android.6. if (extras != null) { String s = extras. import android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.de/articles/Android/article. public class MainActivity extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.fragments. public class DetailActivity extends Activity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. package de. Activities Create a new Activity called DetailActivity with the following class.Bundle.android. android.widget.main). } } 21.fragments.app.vogella.layout.layout.details_activity_layout).TextView.res. Bundle extras = getIntent(). Please note that we could have create this file also in the "layout" folder. return.ListFragment" /> </LinearLayout> Also create the "details_activity_layout.vogella. } } } MainActivity will remain unmodified.android. android.Bundle.android.android.Configuration.app.Activity. <?xml version="1.fragments. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.os. package de. android. This layout will be used in the DetailActivity which is only used in portrait mode. finished and go back to the start Activity if (getResources().html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.fragments. but as it is only used in portrait mode it is best practise to place it into this folder.DetailFragment" /> </LinearLayout> 21.xml" layout file.Activity.getConfiguration().getExtras(). import import import import android.ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE) { finish().setText(s).onCreate(savedInstanceState). } setContentView(R. // Need to check if Activity has been switched to landscape mode // If yes.content. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.

23.1.print() statements) via the LogCat view. Select Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS to open this perspective. It also allows the application to set the current geo position and allows you to perform a performance trace of your application. DDMS . In horizontal mode you should see two Fragments.de/articles/Android/article. Shell 40 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www. 22. File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the Android simulator.vogella.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your Android (virtual) device and your Android application program. In horizontal mode your second Fragment should display the select item.out. If you select an item in portrait mode a new Activity should get started with the selected item.3. It includes several Views which can also be used independently and allows for example the application to place calls and send SMS to the device.2.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social to switch the orientation. LogCat View You can see the log (including System. 22. 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.

adb uninstall <packagename> 23.g. Open a shell. The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following. Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. mkdir. You can also uninstall an app via adb with the package name.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individual device.g. Select in the settings Applications > Development. # Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 23.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social You can access your Android emulator also via the console. incoming call. // Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system. adb shell You can also copy a file from and to your device via the following commands. Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. use the command "quit" or "exit". For example to change the power settings of your phone.de/articles/Android/article. You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell". switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell. change the network "stability". Use "telnet localhost 5554" to connect to your simulated device. rm. etc. Switch the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application. To exit the console session. # connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 24.3. then enable USB debugging. This allows you to simulate certain things. ls.2. e. set your current geocodes. etc. For details please see 41 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . e.

Android Development Tutorial http://www. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www. Android Resources Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android SQlite Database Android Widgets Android Live Wallpaper Android Services Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking 42 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .de Google Group. Source Code Source Code of Examples 27. 27.de/articles/Android/article. 25.2.1. Links and Literature 27.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social version on your phone.vogella. I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you. To select your phone.vogella. Questions and Discussion Before posting questions. select "Manual" selection and select your device. please see the vogella FAQ. Thank you Please help me to support this article: 26. select the "Run Configurations".

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Live Folder 27.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article.3. vogella Resources Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system 43 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

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