Android Development Tutorial

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Android Development Tutorial
Tutorial
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Based on Android 4.0 Lars Vogel
Version 10.0 Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Lars Vogel 06.03.2012
Revision History Revision 0.1 Created Revision 0.2 - 10.0 bug fixing and enhancements 07.07.2009 - 06.03.2012 04.07.2009

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
Table of Contents 1. What is Android? 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Google Play 1.3. Security and permissions 2. Android components 2.1. Activity 2.2. Views and ViewGroups 2.3. Intents 2.4. Services 2.5. ContentProvider 2.6. BroadcastReceiver 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets 2.8. Other 3. Android Development Tools 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools? 3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine 3.3. How to develop Android Applications 4. Android Application Architecture 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml 4.2. R.java and Resources 4.3. Assets 4.4. Activities and Layouts 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle 4.7. Configuration Change 4.8. Context 5. Installation 5.1. Eclipse 5.2. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK 5.4. Manually install Android SDK 5.5. Install a specific Android version 5.6. Android Source Code 6. Android virtual device - Emulator 6.1. What is the Android Emulator? 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts 6.4. Performance 6.5. Hardware button 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device 8. Error handling and typical problems 8.1. Clean Project 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)

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Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.5. Timeout during deployment 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage 8.7. Debug Certificate expired 8.8. Error message for @override 8.9. Missing Imports 8.10. Eclipse Tips 9. Conventions for the tutorials 9.1. API version, package and application name 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials 10. Your first Android project 10.1. Create Project 10.2. Two faces of things 10.3. Create attributes 10.4. Add UI Elements 10.5. Edit UI properties 10.6. Code your application 10.7. Start Project 11. Starting an deployed application 12. Menus and Action Bar 12.1. Definition of menu entries 12.2. Action bar tabs 12.3. Context menus 13. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.1. Project 13.2. Add a menu XML resource 14. Preferences 15. Tutorial: Preferences 15.1. Using preferences 15.2. Run 16. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16.1. Available Layout Manager 16.2. LinearLayout 16.3. RelativeLayout 16.4. Gridlayout 16.5. ScrollView 17. Tutorial: ScrollView 18. Styling 18.1. Overview 18.2. Example 19. Supporting different screen sizes 19.1. Using device independent pixel 19.2. Using resource qualifiers 20. Fragments 20.1. Overview 20.2. When to use Fragments 21. Fragments Tutorial 21.1. Overview 21.2. Create project 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode 21.4. Create Fragment classes 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode 21.6. Activities 21.7. Run 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 22.2. LogCat View 22.3. File explorer 23. Shell 23.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet 24. Deploy your application on a real device 25. Thank you 26. Questions and Discussion 27. Links and Literature 27.1. Source Code 27.2. Android Resources 27.3. vogella Resources

1. What is Android?
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) provides all necessary tools to develop Android

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run Android programs. Android is currently primarily developed by Google. Android allows background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. Android applications consist of different components and can re-use components of other applications, if these applications declare their components as available. This leads to the concept of a task in Android; an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task. For example you can write an application which integrates a map component and a camera component to archive a certain task.

1.2. Google Play
Google offers the "Google Play" service. Google hosts Android applications and the Google Play application allows to install new Android application on an Android device. Google Play used to be called "Android Market".

1.3. Security and permissions
During deployment on an Android device, the Android system will create a unique user and group ID for every Android application. Each application file is private to this generated user, e.g. other applications cannot access these files. In addition each Android application will be started in its own process. Therefore by means of the underlying Linux operating system, every Android application is isolated from other running applications. A misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications. If data should be shared, the application must do this explicitly, e.g. via a Service or a ContentProvider. Android also contains a permission system. Android predefines permissions for certain tasks but every application can also define its own permissions. An application must declare in its configuration file (AndroidManifest.xml) that it requires certain permissions. Depending on the details of the required permission, the Android system will either automatically grant the permission, reject it or ask the user if he grants this permission to the application during installation. If for example the application declares that it requires Internet access, the user needs to confirm the usage of this permission during installation. This is called "user driven security". The user decides to grant a permission or to deny it. If the user denies a permission required by the application, this application cannot be installed. The check of the permission is only performed during installation, permissions cannot be denied or granted after the installation. Typically not all users check the permissions in detail but some users do. If there is seems to be something strange in connection with them, they will write bad reviews on Google Play.

2. Android components
The following gives a short overview of the most important Android components.

2.1. Activity
Activity represents the presentation layer of an Android application. A simplified (and slightly incorrect)

description is that an Activity is a screen. This is slightly incorrect as Activities can be displayed as Dialogs or can be transparent. An Android application can have several Activities.

2.2. Views and ViewGroups
Views are user interface widgets, e.g. buttons or text fields. The base class for all Views is android.view.View. Views often have attributes which can be used to change their appearance and

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A ViewGroup is responsible for arranging other Views e.g. a ViewGroup is a layout manager. The base class for a layout manager is android.view.ViewGroups. ViewGroup also extends View. ViewGroups can be nestled to create complex layouts. You should not nestle ViewGroups too deeply as this has a negative impact on the performance.

2.3. Intents
Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other

components of the Android system, e.g. from Services or Activities. An application can call a component directly (explicit Intent ) or ask the Android system to evaluate registered components for a certain Intent (implicit Intents ). For example the application could implement sharing of data via an Intent and all components which allow sharing of data would be available for the user to select. Applications register themselves to an Intent via an IntentFilter.
Intents allow to combine loosely coupled components to perform certain tasks.

2.4. Services
Services perform background tasks without providing a user interface. They can notify the user via the

notification framework in Android.

2.5. ContentProvider
ContentProvider provides a structured interface to application data. Via a ContentProvider your

application can share data with other applications. Android contains an SQLite database which is frequently used in conjunction with a ContentProvider to persist the data of the ContentProvider.

2.6. BroadcastReceiver
BroadcastReceiver can be registered to receive system messages and Intents. A BroadcastReceiver

will get notified by the Android system, if the specified situation happens. For example a BroadcastReceiver could get called once the Android system completed the boot process or if a phone call is received.

2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
Widgets are interactive components which are primarily used on the Android homescreen. They typically

display some kind of data and allow the user to perform actions via them. For example a Widget could display a short summary of new emails and if the user selects an email, it could start the email application with the selected email.

2.8. Other
Android provide many more components but the list above describes the most important ones. Other Android components are "Live Folders" and "Live Wallpapers". Live Folders display data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

3. Android Development Tools
3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) to develop Android applications with Eclipse. ADT is a set of components (plug-ins) which extend the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. ADT contains all required functionalities to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the Eclipse IDE and from the command line. Other IDE's, e.g. IntellJ, are also reusing components of ADT. ADT also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone.

3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine

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android:versionName and android:versionCode specify the version of your application. It must also contain the required permissions for the application. versionName is what the user sees and can be any String.g.apk (Android Package) file.dex file.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social applications. For example if the same String is found in different class files.intent.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=".de/articles/Android/article. 3. The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performs this packaging. This will avoid collisions with other Android applications.vogella. The resulting . During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the . AndroidManifest. if it should 5 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .dex file.vogella.apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the "adb" tool. All class files of one application are placed in one compressed .dex file and the resources of an Android project. 4. it must be declared with the full qualified package name. The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler. e.android.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1. Android provides a tool called "dx"" which converts Java class files into a dex (Dalvik Executable) file.dex file contains only once reference of this String. If a Java object lies within a different package. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" /> </manifest> The package attribute defines the base package for the Java objects referred to in this file.Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android. the . Google Play requires that every Android application uses its own unique package. If you use the ADT tooling you press a button or run a script and the whole Android application (. Therefore you cannot directly run Java class files on Android. <?xml version="1. The Android Development Tools (ADT) allows that all these steps are performed transparently to the user.apk file) will be created and deployed.1.category. Android Application Architecture 4.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas. Therefore it is a good habit to use your reverse domain name as package name.xml The components and settings of an Android application are described in the file AndroidManifest.3. the images and XML files. How to develop Android Applications Android applications are primarily written in the Java programming language. The .com/apk/res/android" package="de. they need to get converted in the Dalvik bytecode format. These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the corresponding class files. versionCode must be an integer.xml. Dalvik uses an own bytecode format which is different from Java bytecode. For example all Activities and Services of the application must be declared in this file. are packed into an .intent.action.android. The Android Market determine based on the versionCode. either within Eclipse or via the command line.MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.

the corresponding reference is automatically created in R. R.string.intent. manual changes are not necessary and will be overridden by the tooling. The Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource via these ID's. The tag <activity> defines an Activity.vogella.java is a generated class which contains references to certain resources of the project. Activities and Layouts The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts. For example to access a String with the R. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the /res/layout folder. You can for example define values. their relationship and their attributes for this specific layout.LAUNCHER" defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device.yourString ID.2. 4. R. 4.action. If you create a new resource.g. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML. colors. icons.category. To assign a new ID to a View use @+id/yourvalue. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions. 6 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . the assets directory can be used to store any kind of data.intent. In most cases the layout is defined as an XML file. layouts or animations via XML files. The layout defines the included Views (widgets) and their properties.id. if you roll-out a new version of your application. In Java you access this data via the AssetsManager and the getAssets() method . This file specifies the ViewGroups. Views. The @string/app_name value refers to resource files which contain the actual value of the application name.string.android.yourvalue).de/articles/Android/article. strings. you would use the getString(R.java via the Eclipse ADT tools. icons or pictures. e. for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications. menus.3.4.xml" file defines the minimal SDK version for which your application is valid. in this example pointing to the Convert class in the de. If a View needs to be accessed via Java code. In your Java code you can later access a View via the method findViewById(R.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social value by one. Assets While the res directory contains structured values which are known to the Android platform. 4. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest. R. The following shows an example in which a Button gets the "button1" ID assigned.java is automatically created by the Eclipse development environment.MAIN" ).yourString)) method. These references are static int values and define ID's for the resources.vogella. you have to give the View a unique ID via the android:id attribute. The category definition category android:name="android. The usage of resource file makes it easy to provide different resources.Android Development Tutorial http://www.temperature package. An intent filter is registered for this class which defines that this Activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android.java and Resources The " gen " directory in an Android project contains generated values. These resources must be defined in the "res" directory and can be XML files. <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> By conversion this will create and assign a new yourvalue ID to the corresponding View.

the Location Service. Activities and Lifecycle The Android system controls the lifecycle of your application.Android Development Tutorial http://www. if you want to refer to a color which is defined in a XML resource. It also allows the definition of different layouts for different devices. Reference to resources in XML files In your XML files.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social definition. You can also mix both approaches.8. because of an incoming call. e. Configuration Change An Activity will also be restarted. if a so called "configuration change" happens. e. can be used to initialize fields 4.vogella.Context provides the connections to the Android system. You find the necessary steps described in the following section of the tutorial: Eclipse Update Manager. Eclipse The following assume that you have already Java and Eclipse installed and know how to use Eclipse.called if the Activity is stopped. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application. 5.xml. you can refer to other resources via the @ sign.de/articles/Android/article.content. <activity android:name=". Android assumes that an Activity might want to use different resources for these orientations and restarts the Activity. The Android system defines a lifecycle for Activities via predefined methods. The most important methods are: onSaveInstanceState() . Context also provides access to Android Services. In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11. You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your Activity definition in your AndroidManifest.ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 4.7. For an introduction into Eclipse please see the following tutorial: Eclipse IDE Tutorial. Activities and Services extend the Context class and can therefore be used as Context. For example if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertically or horizontally). 7 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . It is the interface to global information about the application environment.always called if the Activity ends.called if the Activity is re-started. for example your layout files. 4. which can be found here: Eclipse IDE Book for Kindle. can be used to release resource or save data onResume() . The author of this text has also published a Kindle book on the usage of the Eclipse IDE.g. Or if you defined a "hello" string in an XML resource.5. Used to save data so that the Activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() . The following Activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible). Context The class android. For example. 4. The tutorial above also describes how to install new components into Eclipse.1. This is required to install the Android Development Tools. you could access it via @string/hello.6. you can refer to it via @color/your_id. Installation 5. A configuration change happens if an event is triggered which may be relevant for the application.g.

You can use the following wizard or go to the next section to learn how to do it manually.3. apt-get install ia32-libs Please check your distribution documentation. you will be prompted to install the Android SDK. For Ubuntu you can do this via the following command.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The Android SDK is 32bit.com/android/eclipse/. 8 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article.vogella. After the new Android development components are installed.google. 5. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available components for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl. if you are using a different flavor of Linux. therefore on an 64bit Linux system you need to have the package ia32-libs installed.

Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK. Avoid using spaces in the path name. Install a specific Android version The Android SDK Manager allows you to install specific versions of Android. The download contains a zip file. 5. Alternatively you can also manually download the Android SDK from the Android SDK download page.vogella. otherwise you may experience problems with the usage of the Android SDK.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 9 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Manually install Android SDK After the installation of the ADT the Eclipse tooling allows to download the Android SDK automatically. In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via the menu Windows → Preferences. on my Linux system I placed it under "/home/vogella/android-sdks". which you can extract to any place in your file system.g.5. e. Select Window → Android SDK Manager from the Eclipse menu.4.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. You also have to define the location of the Android SDK in the Eclipse Preferences.de/articles/Android/article.

5. After the installation completes. 10 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . e. restart Eclipse.6. The sources are downloaded to the source directory located in "path_to_android_sdk/sources/android-xx". Press the "Install" button and confirm the license for all packages.g. Android Source Code The following step is optional.0. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons".jar in the Eclipse Package Explorer and select Properties → Java Source Attachment. xx is the API level of Android. As of Android 4.Android Development Tutorial http://www.jar file in your Android project.1. You can download it via the Android SDK Manager by selecting the "Sources for Android SDK". 5. To connect the sources with the android. 15 for the Android 4.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The dialog allows you to install new packages and also allows you to delete them.0 the Android development tools provides also the source code. right click on your android. As of Android 4.6.de/articles/Android/article.0.vogella.3) version of the SDK and press "Install".3 version.0 During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available. Type in the source directory name and press OK. Select the Google API 15 (Android 4.

0 For earlier versions Haris Peco maintains plugins. More details can be found on the project website. These devices are called "Android Virtual Device" (AVD) and you can start several in parallel. F8 Turns network on / off. Ctrl+F11 changes the orientation of the emulator. the size of the SD card. To have a responsive emulator use a small resolution for your emulator.com/svn/trunk/source/com. You can configure the version of the Android system you would like to run. You can define several devices with different configurations. Also if you have sufficient memory on your computer. Nice for demos. If you want to create such an AVD. An AVD created for the Google API's will also contain several Google applications. If you want to use functionality which is only provided via the Google API's.g. Emulator Shortcuts The following shortcuts are useful for working with the emulator.vogella. Prior to Android 4. This is the value "Device ram size" during the creation of the AVD. 6. Starting a new emulator is very slow. Google vrs. Hardware button Android 4.6. The emulator behaves like a real Android device (in most cases) and allows you to test your application without having a real device. which is very slow.0 introduced that devices do not have to have hardware button anymore.3. Alt+Enter Maximizes the emulator.eclipse. Also set the flag "Enabled" for Snapshots. Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adtaddons. 6. the screen resolution and other relevant settings.android.Android Development Tutorial http://www. which provide the Android Source code code.Emulator 6.update". This will save the state of the emulator and let it start much faster. due to some initial setup. Cloud2DeviceMessaging or Google Maps you must run this application on an AVD with Google API's.1. 11 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . most notable the Google Maps application. 6. add at least 1 GB of memory to your emulator. as for example HVGA.ide.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. 6.de/articles/Android/article. 6. Performance The graphics of the emulator are rendered in software.2. Android AVD During the creation of an AVD you decide if you want an Android device or an Google device.source.2.5. Android virtual device . An AVD created for Android will contain the programs from the Android Open Source Project. The ADT allow to deploy and run your Android program on the AVD. e.googlecode. What is the Android Emulator? The Android Development Tools (ADT) include an emulator to run an Android system.4. add the "Hardware Back/Home keys" property to the device configuration and set it to "false".

Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device To define an Android Virtual Device (ADV) open the "AVD Manager" via Windows → AVD Manager and press "New". 12 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 7.vogella. Enter the following.

Android Development Tutorial http://www. This section gives an overview over typical problems and how to solve them.vogella. After (a long time) your AVD starts. To test if your setup is correct. select your device and press "Start". The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved. This will create the AVD configuration and display it under the "Virtual devices". Select therefore the DDMS perspective via Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS 13 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .de/articles/Android/article. Project . You are able to use it via the mouse and via the virtual keyboard of the emulator. Clean Project Several users report that get the following errors: 1. go to the project menu and select Project → Clean.1. Eclipse allows to reset the adb in case this causes problems. Unable to open class file R.java.2.. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb) The communication with the emulator or your Android device might have problems. This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social We can also select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots. 8. At the end press the button "Create AVD". Error handling and typical problems Things are not always working as they should.. 8. To solve any of these errors. This communication is handled by the Android Debug Bridge (adb). 8. is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2. 3.

select Window → Show View → Other → Android → LogCat.3.de/articles/Android/article. 8. For example Java exceptions in your program would be shown here. 8. An Android virtual device provides per default only 64M for internal storage of application.5. You can clean your installed application by re-starting the emulator and selecting the "Wipe user data" flag. Install failed due to insufficient storage Sometimes the emulator will refuse to install an application with the error message: INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE. Timeout during deployment If you face timeout issues during deployment you can increase the default timeout in the Eclipse preferences. Select Window → Preferences → Android → DDMS and increase the "ADB connection timeout (in ms)" value.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8. make sure that the android-sdk version is in a path without any spaces in the path name.6.Android Development Tutorial http://www.4. To open this view. if you press edit on the AVD you can set the "Ideal size of data partition" property via the "New" button. Emulator does not start If your emulator does not start. 8. Alternative you can set the the data partition size. 14 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella. LogCat The "LogCat" View shows you the log messages of your Android device and help you analyze problems.

change the Java compiler level to Java 1. API Level 15. if you are asked to create a 15 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Error message for @override The @override annotation was introduced in Java 1.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Missing Imports Java requires that classes which are not part of the standard Java Language be either fully qualified or declared via imports. Conventions for the tutorials 9. API version. If you see error message with "XX cannot be resolved to a variable".1. 9.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.10. try the recommended version. 8. Lower version of the Android API might also work. select Window → Preferences → Java → Editor → Save Actions and select that the source code should be formatted and that the imports should be organized at every save. package and application name The tutorials of this document have been developed and tested with Android 4. but if you face issues. e.g. To do this right-click on the project.6. The base package for the projects is always the same as the project name.7.9. select Properties → Java Compiler → Compiler compliance level and select "1.android" under Linux and delete the "debug.vogella. Higher version usually should also work.0. Please use this version for all tutorials in this book.6" in the drop-down box.8. 8. If you receive an error message for @override. Debug Certificate expired If you get the error message "Debug Certificate expired" switch to the folder which contains the Android AVD. 8. Eclipse Tips To work more efficiently with Eclipse. e.g.6. ". This file is only valid for a year and if not present Eclipse will regenerate the password.de/articles/Android/article.3.keystore" file. right-click in your Editor and select Source → Organize Imports to important required packages.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "de.de/articles/Android/article. Enter the following. Android Exercises and Tutorials You find different types of exercises. for example in layout files. Create Project This app is also available on the Android Marketplace. Choose a name you like. Some exercises explain every mouse click you have to do. 16 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www. Select File → New → Other → Android → Android Project and create the Android project "de.vogella. The Application name. 10. will not be predefined. While for real application its best practice to use string resource files we use use Strings directly to simplify the creation of the examples. others just give you the task to do. Warnings Messages for Strings The Android development tools are show warnings if you use hard-coded strings. 9.vogella. Most exercises try to give you a base example and ask you to extend this example.temperature".test".vogella.android. 9.2. which must be entered on the Android project generation wizard.example. Your first Android project 10.1.android.3. Search for "vogella" for find this example.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Press "Finish". 17 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella.de/articles/Android/article. This should create the following directory structure.Android Development Tutorial http://www.

and directly via XML.vogella. in two ways: via a rich editor.3.2. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code. for strings or colors. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main. strings and UI's. e.g. 10. 18 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www. e.de/articles/Android/article. 10.g. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets(). Two faces of things The Android SDK allows the developer to define certain artifacts.xml". The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation the resulting XML is also displayed.

xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. Add also the following "String" attributes. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code. 19 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . String attributes allow the developer to translate the application at a later point. String Attributes Name celsius fahrenheit calc Value to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate Switch to the XML representation and validate the values. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor. Table 1. Add UI Elements Select "res/layout/main. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different.vogella. <?xml version="1. The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout.4.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World. For changing the position and grouping elements you can use the outline view. Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 10.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "#3399CC" as the value.de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www.

com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> 20 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . The result should look like the following. Then. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field.xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following. they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”. <?xml version="1.vogella. Hello!” in the layout. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Right-click on the text object “Hello World. from the “Palette” view. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group.Android Development Tutorial http://www. All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText".de/articles/Android/article.android. Switch to "main. drag a Button object onto the layout. From the Palette section Form Widgets.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout.

xml" We will delete the initial text for the EditText field in XML.vogella. Switch back to the "Graphical Layout" tab and check that the text is removed.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Use the right mouse click on the first radio button to assign the "celsius" string attribute to its "text" property. Open your file "main. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property.de/articles/Android/article. From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements. Typically you change properties directly in the XML file as this is much faster.5. Switch to the XML tab called "main. Assign the and "fahrenheit" string attribute to the second radio button. 21 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Edit UI properties If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton.xml" and delete the android:text="EditText" property from the EditText part. But the right mouse functionality is nice if you are searching for a certain property.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> 10. Most of the properties can be changed via the right mouse menu. You can either edit the XML file or modify the properties via right mouse click. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText. You can also edit properties of fields directy in XML.

Toast.widget.app. import import import import import import android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social LinearLayout.6.getText(). setContentView(R.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained.id. Switch to the "main. <?xml version="1.View.length() == 0) { 22 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.EditText. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.widget. Note that the myClickHandler will be called based on the OnClick property of your button. android. public class ConvertActivity extends Activity { private EditText text.main). android. then select Other Properties → All by Name → Background.radio0). The project wizard also created the corresponding Java classs.id.editText1). text = (EditText) findViewById(R. } // This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.layout.temperature. android.vogella.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout> 10.widget.Android Development Tutorial http://www.view. Right-click on an empty space in Graphical Layout mode. Change your code in ConvertActivity. Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.radio1).android.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.vogella. android.os.java to the following. android.Bundle. if (text.getId()) { case R. Code your application During the generation of your new Android project you specified that an Activity called ConvertActivity should get created.de/articles/Android/article.RadioButton.onCreate(savedInstanceState).Activity.id.id.android. package de.

vogella.setChecked(true).toString()).de/articles/Android/article. if (celsiusButton. You should get the following result. } else { text. fahrenheitButton. select your conversion and press the button. } } 10. } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit . Start Project To start the Android Application.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 11.setText(String . select your project. Be patient. } float inputValue = Float. Type in a number. celsiusButton.32) * 5 / 9). } // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32. } break. right click on it. If you press the Home button you can also select your application. fahrenheitButton.isChecked()) { text.parseFloat(text.valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))).getText(). The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.setChecked(true). and select Run-As → Android Application. the emulator starts up very slowly.7.valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue))). Starting an deployed application After you run your application on the virtual device you can start it again on the device. 23 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social return. celsiusButton.setChecked(false).setText(String .setChecked(false).

Menus and Action Bar 12.vogella. The first one is the usage of the Action Bar in the application. The second option is that the app can open a menu which shows additional actions via a popup menu. navigation modes. The Action Bar is a window feature at the top of the activity that may display the activity title.1.de/articles/Android/article. Definition of menu entries Android provides two possible ways to display global actions which the user can select.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 12. Typically you define your menu entries in a way that they are added to the action bar if sufficient space is available in the 24 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www. and other interactive items.

addFlags(Intent. 12. startActivity(intent).xml" layout file in the diretory "/res/layout/" to the following: <?xml version="1.R.3. Context menus You can also assign a context menu to an UI widget (view).g. A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view.home: Intent intent = new Intent(this. Action bar tabs It is also possible to add tabs to an action bar.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The option menu and the action bar of your activity is filled by the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.1.class).socialapp" with the Activity called "OverviewActivity". This example will be extended in the chapter about preferences. The recommendation is to return to the main Activity in your program. 13. The onCreateOptionsMenu() method is only called once. OverviewActivity.2.R. Change the "main.android. The ActionBar also shows an icon of your application.android.home. The onCreateContextMenu() method is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage. In this method you can create the menu programmatically or you can use a pre-defined XML resources which you inflate via the MenuInflator class.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. Each Activity has already an instance of the class available and this instance can get accessed via the getMenuInflator() method. // If home icon is clicked return to main Activity case android. etc. EditText provides context options to select text. If you select this icon the onOptionsItemSelected() method will be called with the value android. break.vogella.id.FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP). 12. You can also add an action to this icon. A context menu for a view is registered via the registerForContextMenu(view) method. The Android platform may also add options to your View. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.de/articles/Android/article. e. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the onPrepareOptionsMenu() method.id.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences" > </Button> </LinearLayout> 25 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu which is displayed in the action bar if sufficient space is available. intent. Create a project called "de.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Select your project. We will also define that the menu entry is displayed in the action bar if there is sufficient space available. This defines the entries in your menu. right click on it and select New → Other → Android → Android XML File to create a new XML resource. Right-click on your menu file and select Open with → Android Menu Editor. Maintain the following value.vogella.xml" in the folder "res/menu" of your project.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Switch if necessary to the "Layout" tab of the editor. enter as File "mainmenu. This will create a new file "mainmenu. Select the option "Menu".xml" and press the button "Finish". unfortunately this editor is not always automatically used due to bugs in the ADT.de/articles/Android/article. you can open this editor manually. Press Add and select "Item". If that happens. 26 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Android provides a nice editor to edit this file.

inflater.Menu. android.view. android.menu. The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu. android.MenuItem. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.show().app.os. import import import import import import android.widget. If you select the menu item you should see a small info message.makeText(this. menu).Activity.mainmenu.LENGTH_SHORT). android.Bundle. If there would be more items you could press "Menu" on the emulator to see them.view.socialapp.de/articles/Android/article. "Just a test".view. } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(). package de. return true.vogella. As there is enough space in the action bar your item will be displayed there. android. } @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast.main).html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Change your Activity class "OverviewActivity" to the following. setContentView(R.Toast.vogella. 27 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Toast.inflate(R.android.onCreate(savedInstanceState).Android Development Tutorial http://www. return true. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called.layout. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings. } } Run your application.MenuInflater.

14. edit.commit().edit(). 15. Create an Android XML resource "preferences.android. Values can get access via the key of the preference setting. "new_value_for_user"). We will use them in the next chapter. The definition of Preferences can also be done via an XML resource.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this). To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() methods. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource().de/articles/Android/article.vogella. PreferenceActivity supports the simple handling of preferences. To communicate between different components Android uses Intents. In your application you can access the preference manager via the following: SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager.xml" of type "PreferenceScreen". Preferences are stored as key values.vogella.getString("username". Typically the PreferenceActivity is started from another activity via an Intent.1. "n/a"). Once you have changed the value you have to call commit() to apply your changes.putString("username". String username = preferences. Editor edit = preferences. Android provides the class "PreferenceActivity" which extends the class Activity.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 28 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active. Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de.social". edit. Preferences Android supports the usage of Preferences to allow you to save data for your application. Tutorial: Preferences 15.

Android Development Tutorial http://www. 29 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella.de/articles/Android/article. You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Open the file via right-mouse click and Open-with → Android XML Resource Editor.g. add a "PreferenceCategory" and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password". e. Press Add. the inputMethod.

View. android.view. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { SharedPreferences preferences.view.View. setContentView(R.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this). android. import import import import import import import import import import import import android. Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R.content. Scroll to the botton of the view and add your new activity via the "Add" button. android. "n/a").xml" file.widget. // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager.vogella.getString("password".MenuInflater.socialapp. android.xml" file and will allow the user to change the values.android.onCreate(savedInstanceState). android.SharedPreferences.vogella.Bundle.android.Button.Activity.onCreate(savedInstanceState). To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity". package de.preference.OnClickListener. The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code.id.view. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.Button02). import android.MenuItem.id. import android.vogella.main). android. } } To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest. button. password). Select "AndroidManifest.xml.Toast.Editor.content. addPreferencesFromResource(R.app. android. public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.xml" and the tab "Application". "n/a").Bundle. showPrefs(username.SharedPreferences.PreferenceActivity.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:inputType="textPassword" Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity. android. String password = preferences.os.Android Development Tutorial http://www.preferences). } 30 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . android. android.view.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences. } }).Button01). buttonChangePreferences.Menu.preference.getString("username". Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.socialapp.os. package de.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { updatePreferenceValue().layout. android.de/articles/Android/article.widget.PreferenceManager. This Activity will load the "preference.view.

getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R. We give a little feedback Toast. // Some feedback to the user Toast.1. Toast. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries. 31 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . "Input: " + username + " and password: " + password.LENGTH_LONG). If you press the second button the username should be reversed. } // This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item.makeText(OverviewActivity.2. Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences". The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button. // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(). Run Run your application. break.id. edit.putString("username". } edit.mainmenu.menu.class). MyPreferencesActivity.length() .charAt(i)).getString("username". Toast.append(username. i >= 0. for (int i = username. "Enter your user credentials. "Reverted string sequence of user name.show().makeText( OverviewActivity.Android Development Tutorial http://www.this.inflate(R.show(). } 15.LENGTH_LONG).html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social private void showPrefs(String username.show().de/articles/Android/article.".this. } private void updatePreferenceValue(){ Editor edit = preferences. i--) { buffer.LENGTH_LONG). To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences.vogella. menu). } return true.commit(). return true.preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity. // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user.this. Toast. You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity.toString()). } To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() method.this. buffer. String password){ Toast. inflater. String username = preferences.edit(). "n/a"). @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().makeText(OverviewActivity. startActivity(i).".

RelativeLayout RelativeLayout allow to position the widget relative to each other. FrameLayout. All layouts allow the developer to define attributes.2. LinearLayout can be nested to achieve more complex layouts. horizontal is the default value. A simple usage for RelativeLayout is if you want to center a single component. This allows for complex layouts. <?xml version="1. AbsoluteLayoutLayout is deprecated and TableLayout can be implemented more effectively via GridLayout 16. RelativeLayout and GridLayout.0 the most relevant layout manager are LinearLayout.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Just add one component to the RelativeLayout and set the android:layout_centerInParent attribute to true.android.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. 16.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.de/articles/Android/article.vogella.3. Available Layout Manager A layout manager is a subclass of ViewGroup and is responsible for the layout of itself and its child Views. Children can also define attributes which may be evaluated by their parent layout. Possible values for this attribute are horizontal and vertical. Android supports different default layout managers.1.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <ProgressBar android:id="@+id/progressBar1" style="?android:attr/progressBarStyleLarge" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_centerInParent="true" /> 32 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16. As of Android 4. LinearLayout LinearLayout puts all its child elements into a single column or row depending on the android:orientation attribute.

de/articles/Android/article. If not specified GridLayout uses defaults.android. and cells. e.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView".0" android:text="Submit" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. You can specify how many columns you want for define for each View in which row and column it should be placed and how many columns and rows it should use. <?xml version="1.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true" android:orientation="vertical" > <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" > </TextView> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1.0" android:text="@+id/TextView02" > </TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. one row and the position of a View depends on the order of the declaration of the Views. GridLayout separates its drawing area into: rows. Tutorial: ScrollView Create an android project "de.Android Development Tutorial http://www.4.5. Gridlayout GridLayout was introduced with Android 4. This layout allows you to organize a view into a Grid. Create the following layout and class.g. columns.vogella.0.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16. 17. 16. one column. ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context.vogella. Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements.0" android:text="Cancel" > 33 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

android. for (int i=0.id.os. } view. Activitities or Views. This way you only have to set common attributes once and can later change the look in one central place.vogella. You can define styles in XML and assign them to these elements.app.de ". public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created. 18. i < 100.main). These styles can get assigned to the complete Applications.vogella. android.1. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R. 34 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Bundle.de/articles/Android/article. } } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended.Android Development Tutorial http://www. android.widget.view. String s="". */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. 18. import import import import android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> package de.View.Activity.onCreate(savedInstanceState).layout. Overview Styles in Android allow to define the look and feel of Android application in external files.setText(s).xml" XML file would be created in the "/res/xml" folder. i++) { s += "vogella. Example The following "styles.scrollview. setContentView(R. android.TextView. Styling 18.TextView02).2.

Supporting different screen sizes 19.1. 320x480 with 160dpi (dots per inch). You can use "dp" in your resources. 120dip) and larger on a hdip(approx.app.de/articles/Android/article. The onStart() method is called once the Fragment gets visible.g. public int convertToDp(int input) { // Get the screen's density scale final float scale = getResources(). If an Activity is stopped its Fragments will also be stopped. The unit of measurement which should be used is "dp" (which is the same as "dip" but shorter). for example to the text elements via style=”@style/text”. Fragments 20.g. like ListFragment or DialogFragment.1. } 19. which was the size of the first Android device (G1).getDisplayMetrics(). depending on the device.Fragment. If you specify the size in "dp". Here you can inflate an layout.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social <resources> <style name="text"> <item name="android:padding">4dip</item> <item name="android:textAppearance">?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge</item> <item name="android:textColor">#000000</item> </style> <style name="layout"> <item name="android:background">#C0C0C0</item> </style> </resources> You assign the style attribute to your elements. Fragments are components with their own lifecycle and their own user interface. 20.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. They can be defined via layout files or via coding. based on density scale return (int) (input * scale + 0. Fragments always run in the context of an Activity. if an Activity is destroyed its Fragments will also get destroyed.density. For special purposes you can also use more special classes. 35 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . dp refers to the base line of an Android device. 19. 240dpi) device. This size is also known as mdpi (medium dots per inch). so that it always occupies the same physical space.2. On a mdpi device "dp" will be equal to pixel but it will be smaller on a ldpi (approx.5f). Android will automatically scale it. The base class for Fragments is android. Therefore it is recommended never to use fixed sized dimensions. // Convert the dps to pixels. layout files. The onCreateView() method is called by Android once the Fragment should create its user interface. the android:name attribute points to the Fragments class. e. Using resource qualifiers Android also allows to use resource qualifiers to specify that certain resources should only be used for certain resolutions. You can therefore use the following formulator to calculate the right amount of pixels for a dimension specified in dp. Overview Fragment components allow you to organize your application code so that it is easier to support different sized devices. The Android SDK expects that you specify everything in pixels. Using device independent pixel Android devices are different in terms of resolution and in terms of density. If a Fragment component is defined in an XML layout file. e.

The second approach is the most flexible and in general preferable way of using Fragments. 20. start another activity that hosts the other fragment. but the whole information will be shown on one screen. When to use Fragments Fragments make it easy to re-use components in different layouts. The second Fragment shows the text of the current selected item. In landscape mode MainActivity will show two Fragments. for example you can use Fragments also to support different layout for landscape and portrait orientation. the main activity tells the fragment that is should update itself. The following discussion will assume that you have two Fragments (main and detail) but you can also have more. 36 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www. If the user touches an item in the list. For this purpose a Fragment typically implements an interface to get new data from its host Activity. 21. In portrait mode MainActivity will show one Fragment with a list of names. This is not limited to tablets. In this case you would switch the Fragments in the activity whenever necessary. if (fragment==null || ! fragment. a second Activity called DetailActivity will start and show the selected text.1. findFragmentById(R. This is similar to the portrait mode.. For example. but supply an alternative layout that includes just one fragment. you can build single-pane layouts for handsets (phones) and multi-pane layouts for tablets.isInLayout()) { // start new Activity } else { fragment.id. Fragments Tutorial 21.update(.e. On a tablet you see the details immediately on the same screen on the right hand side if you click on item. Overview The following tutorial demonstrates how to use Fragments. On a tablet the main activity contains both Fragments in its layout. use the same activity for handsets. } To create different layouts with Fragments you can: Use one activity. this will allow to revert the Fragment changes in the Activity via the back button. i. To check for an fragment you can use the FragmentManager. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager(). In this case the main activity checks if the detail fragment is available in the layout. Use separate activities to host each fragment on a handset.de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social add the action to the history stack of the Activity. The entry Activity (called MainActivity of our application ) will use different layouts for portrait and for landscape mode. The typical example is a list of items in an activity. We will also have one main activity and one detailed activity.2. It is good practice that Fragments do not manipulate each other. on a handheld it only contains the main fragment. When you need to switch Fragments. But as tablets offer significantly more space you typically include more views into the layout and Fragments makes that easier. If the detail fragment is not available the main activity starts the detailed activity. If the detailed fragment is there.detail_frag).vogella.). The first is again the Fragments which shows the list of names. which displays two Fragments for tablets and only one on handsets devices.. This requires that the fragment is not declared in the layout file as such Fragments cannot be removed during runtime. It also requires an update of the action bar if the action bar status depends on the fragment. On a handset you jump to a new detail screen. e.g. when the tablet UI uses two Fragments in an activity.

"Linux".fragments.vogella.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.widget.fragments.android. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. import import import import import android. 37 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .android.vogella.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="150dip" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de. android. android.ListFragment" ></fragment> <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.ListFragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. package de. Create Fragment classes Create now the Fragment classes.ArrayAdapter.de/articles/Android/article.app. "Blackberry". public class ListFragment extends android. "OS/2" }. First create the following file called "details.Android Development Tutorial http://www.3.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Create a new project de. String[] values = new String[] { "Android".com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/detailsText" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal|center_vertical" android:layout_marginTop="20dip" android:text="Large Text" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:textSize="30dip" /> </LinearLayout> Change the existing "main. This layout will be used by the DetailFragment.vogella. "WebOS".vogella.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. <?xml version="1.Intent.os.android. Create the ListFragment class. This layout will be used by MainActivity in landscape mode and shows two Fragments. "Windows7".fragments with an Activity called MainActivity. 21.widget. "Ubuntu". <?xml version="1.Bundle.onCreate(savedInstanceState).fragments. "WindowsMobile".content.android. android. "iPhone". "Max OS X".vogella.android.xml" file.DetailFragment" > <!-.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState).Preview: layout=@layout/details --> </fragment> </LinearLayout> 21.View.ListView. android. Create layouts for portrait mode Create or change the following layout files in the "res/layout/" folder.android.view.xml".4.

if (fragment != null && fragment. Create layouts for landscape mode We want that Android uses a different main. } else { Intent intent = new Intent(getActivity(). } } } Create the DetailFragment class.id. DetailActivity.view.findFragmentById(R.android. Android would check the "layout" folder.id. Therefore create the following "main.details. } public void setText(String item) { TextView view = (TextView) getView(). ViewGroup container.setText(item). android. In portrait mode Android will check the "layout-port" folder for fitting layout files. } } 21. android. android.e("Test". DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager() .5.ViewGroup. android.detailFragment). false).android.Android Development Tutorial http://www.onCreate(savedInstanceState).detailsText).xml" file in "layout-port".view.vogella. startActivity(intent). import import import import import import import android. view.TextView.class). package de. android. Log.isInLayout()) { fragment.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" 38 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Log. } @Override public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater.Bundle.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState).layout.view.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. "hello"). } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. int position.Fragment. Bundle savedInstanceState) { View view = inflater. long id) { String item = (String) getListAdapter().de/articles/Android/article. Only if we would not have a "main. <?xml version="1. } @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l. return view. View v.View.app.inflate(R.vogella.LayoutInflater.os.putExtra("value". intent.fragments.getApplicationContext().findViewById(R. container.widget. item).xml" layout file in "res/layout-port".setText(item). For this reason create the "res/layout-port" folder. public class DetailFragment extends Fragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.getItem(position). android.xml file in portrait model then in landscape mode.util.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social setListAdapter(adapter).

package de.res.Configuration.Bundle. Bundle extras = getIntent().Bundle.detailsText). setContentView(R. Run 39 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This layout will be used in the DetailActivity which is only used in portrait mode. Please note that we could have create this file also in the "layout" folder.onCreate(savedInstanceState).getExtras().app.vogella.fragments.content. import import import import android.ListFragment" /> </LinearLayout> Also create the "details_activity_layout. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de. public class DetailActivity extends Activity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. } } } MainActivity will remain unmodified.vogella.android.vogella. import android.getString("value"). Activities Create a new Activity called DetailActivity with the following class.fragments.DetailFragment" /> </LinearLayout> 21.os.7.android.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.android. but as it is only used in portrait mode it is best practise to place it into this folder. <?xml version="1.Activity.fragments.android.6. import android.ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE) { finish().widget. return.xml" layout file. public class MainActivity extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.os. package de.details_activity_layout).setText(s).de/articles/Android/article. // Need to check if Activity has been switched to landscape mode // If yes.vogella.main).Android Development Tutorial http://www.orientation == Configuration. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. finished and go back to the start Activity if (getResources().layout.layout.Activity. android. if (extras != null) { String s = extras.android. view.fragments.getConfiguration(). } } 21. android.app. android.TextView. } setContentView(R.id.onCreate(savedInstanceState).

Android Development Tutorial http://www. File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the Android simulator. DDMS . It also allows the application to set the current geo position and allows you to perform a performance trace of your application.3. 22. It includes several Views which can also be used independently and allows for example the application to place calls and send SMS to the device.de/articles/Android/article.1.out. If you select an item in portrait mode a new Activity should get started with the selected item.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your Android (virtual) device and your Android application program. 22.2.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social to switch the orientation. In horizontal mode your second Fragment should display the select item. Shell 40 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.print() statements) via the LogCat view.vogella. LogCat View You can see the log (including System. In horizontal mode you should see two Fragments. Select Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS to open this perspective. 23.

etc. incoming call. adb shell You can also copy a file from and to your device via the following commands. If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individual device. Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell". You can also uninstall an app via adb with the package name. # connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 24.2. mkdir.de/articles/Android/article. then enable USB debugging. use the command "quit" or "exit". You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone.g.g. // Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system. For example to change the power settings of your phone. change the network "stability". Select in the settings Applications > Development. Open a shell. To exit the console session. Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. For details please see 41 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . etc. to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following. ls. set your current geocodes. This allows you to simulate certain things.vogella. The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". Use "telnet localhost 5554" to connect to your simulated device. Switch the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application. switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". rm. e. e. adb uninstall <packagename> 23.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social You can access your Android emulator also via the console. # Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 23.3.

select the "Run Configurations". I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you.1. Source Code Source Code of Examples 27. Questions and Discussion Before posting questions. Links and Literature 27.de Google Group. please see the vogella FAQ. select "Manual" selection and select your device.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social version on your phone.vogella. Android Resources Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android SQlite Database Android Widgets Android Live Wallpaper Android Services Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking 42 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella.2. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www. To select your phone. 25. Thank you Please help me to support this article: 26. 27.de/articles/Android/article.

vogella.3.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Live Folder 27.Android Development Tutorial http://www. vogella Resources Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system 43 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .de/articles/Android/article.

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