Android Development Tutorial

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Android Development Tutorial
Tutorial
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Based on Android 4.0 Lars Vogel
Version 10.0 Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Lars Vogel 06.03.2012
Revision History Revision 0.1 Created Revision 0.2 - 10.0 bug fixing and enhancements 07.07.2009 - 06.03.2012 04.07.2009

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
Table of Contents 1. What is Android? 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Google Play 1.3. Security and permissions 2. Android components 2.1. Activity 2.2. Views and ViewGroups 2.3. Intents 2.4. Services 2.5. ContentProvider 2.6. BroadcastReceiver 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets 2.8. Other 3. Android Development Tools 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools? 3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine 3.3. How to develop Android Applications 4. Android Application Architecture 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml 4.2. R.java and Resources 4.3. Assets 4.4. Activities and Layouts 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle 4.7. Configuration Change 4.8. Context 5. Installation 5.1. Eclipse 5.2. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK 5.4. Manually install Android SDK 5.5. Install a specific Android version 5.6. Android Source Code 6. Android virtual device - Emulator 6.1. What is the Android Emulator? 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts 6.4. Performance 6.5. Hardware button 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device 8. Error handling and typical problems 8.1. Clean Project 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)

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Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.5. Timeout during deployment 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage 8.7. Debug Certificate expired 8.8. Error message for @override 8.9. Missing Imports 8.10. Eclipse Tips 9. Conventions for the tutorials 9.1. API version, package and application name 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials 10. Your first Android project 10.1. Create Project 10.2. Two faces of things 10.3. Create attributes 10.4. Add UI Elements 10.5. Edit UI properties 10.6. Code your application 10.7. Start Project 11. Starting an deployed application 12. Menus and Action Bar 12.1. Definition of menu entries 12.2. Action bar tabs 12.3. Context menus 13. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.1. Project 13.2. Add a menu XML resource 14. Preferences 15. Tutorial: Preferences 15.1. Using preferences 15.2. Run 16. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16.1. Available Layout Manager 16.2. LinearLayout 16.3. RelativeLayout 16.4. Gridlayout 16.5. ScrollView 17. Tutorial: ScrollView 18. Styling 18.1. Overview 18.2. Example 19. Supporting different screen sizes 19.1. Using device independent pixel 19.2. Using resource qualifiers 20. Fragments 20.1. Overview 20.2. When to use Fragments 21. Fragments Tutorial 21.1. Overview 21.2. Create project 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode 21.4. Create Fragment classes 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode 21.6. Activities 21.7. Run 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 22.2. LogCat View 22.3. File explorer 23. Shell 23.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet 24. Deploy your application on a real device 25. Thank you 26. Questions and Discussion 27. Links and Literature 27.1. Source Code 27.2. Android Resources 27.3. vogella Resources

1. What is Android?
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) provides all necessary tools to develop Android

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run Android programs. Android is currently primarily developed by Google. Android allows background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. Android applications consist of different components and can re-use components of other applications, if these applications declare their components as available. This leads to the concept of a task in Android; an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task. For example you can write an application which integrates a map component and a camera component to archive a certain task.

1.2. Google Play
Google offers the "Google Play" service. Google hosts Android applications and the Google Play application allows to install new Android application on an Android device. Google Play used to be called "Android Market".

1.3. Security and permissions
During deployment on an Android device, the Android system will create a unique user and group ID for every Android application. Each application file is private to this generated user, e.g. other applications cannot access these files. In addition each Android application will be started in its own process. Therefore by means of the underlying Linux operating system, every Android application is isolated from other running applications. A misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications. If data should be shared, the application must do this explicitly, e.g. via a Service or a ContentProvider. Android also contains a permission system. Android predefines permissions for certain tasks but every application can also define its own permissions. An application must declare in its configuration file (AndroidManifest.xml) that it requires certain permissions. Depending on the details of the required permission, the Android system will either automatically grant the permission, reject it or ask the user if he grants this permission to the application during installation. If for example the application declares that it requires Internet access, the user needs to confirm the usage of this permission during installation. This is called "user driven security". The user decides to grant a permission or to deny it. If the user denies a permission required by the application, this application cannot be installed. The check of the permission is only performed during installation, permissions cannot be denied or granted after the installation. Typically not all users check the permissions in detail but some users do. If there is seems to be something strange in connection with them, they will write bad reviews on Google Play.

2. Android components
The following gives a short overview of the most important Android components.

2.1. Activity
Activity represents the presentation layer of an Android application. A simplified (and slightly incorrect)

description is that an Activity is a screen. This is slightly incorrect as Activities can be displayed as Dialogs or can be transparent. An Android application can have several Activities.

2.2. Views and ViewGroups
Views are user interface widgets, e.g. buttons or text fields. The base class for all Views is android.view.View. Views often have attributes which can be used to change their appearance and

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A ViewGroup is responsible for arranging other Views e.g. a ViewGroup is a layout manager. The base class for a layout manager is android.view.ViewGroups. ViewGroup also extends View. ViewGroups can be nestled to create complex layouts. You should not nestle ViewGroups too deeply as this has a negative impact on the performance.

2.3. Intents
Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other

components of the Android system, e.g. from Services or Activities. An application can call a component directly (explicit Intent ) or ask the Android system to evaluate registered components for a certain Intent (implicit Intents ). For example the application could implement sharing of data via an Intent and all components which allow sharing of data would be available for the user to select. Applications register themselves to an Intent via an IntentFilter.
Intents allow to combine loosely coupled components to perform certain tasks.

2.4. Services
Services perform background tasks without providing a user interface. They can notify the user via the

notification framework in Android.

2.5. ContentProvider
ContentProvider provides a structured interface to application data. Via a ContentProvider your

application can share data with other applications. Android contains an SQLite database which is frequently used in conjunction with a ContentProvider to persist the data of the ContentProvider.

2.6. BroadcastReceiver
BroadcastReceiver can be registered to receive system messages and Intents. A BroadcastReceiver

will get notified by the Android system, if the specified situation happens. For example a BroadcastReceiver could get called once the Android system completed the boot process or if a phone call is received.

2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
Widgets are interactive components which are primarily used on the Android homescreen. They typically

display some kind of data and allow the user to perform actions via them. For example a Widget could display a short summary of new emails and if the user selects an email, it could start the email application with the selected email.

2.8. Other
Android provide many more components but the list above describes the most important ones. Other Android components are "Live Folders" and "Live Wallpapers". Live Folders display data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

3. Android Development Tools
3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) to develop Android applications with Eclipse. ADT is a set of components (plug-ins) which extend the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. ADT contains all required functionalities to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the Eclipse IDE and from the command line. Other IDE's, e.g. IntellJ, are also reusing components of ADT. ADT also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone.

3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine

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e.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas. are packed into an . Google Play requires that every Android application uses its own unique package.action. Therefore you cannot directly run Java class files on Android. if it should 5 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . AndroidManifest.android. For example if the same String is found in different class files.de/articles/Android/article.apk (Android Package) file.intent.xml The components and settings of an Android application are described in the file AndroidManifest. The resulting . If you use the ADT tooling you press a button or run a script and the whole Android application (. How to develop Android Applications Android applications are primarily written in the Java programming language.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1. android:versionName and android:versionCode specify the version of your application. versionCode must be an integer. The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performs this packaging. The Android Development Tools (ADT) allows that all these steps are performed transparently to the user. The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler. The . If a Java object lies within a different package. Therefore it is a good habit to use your reverse domain name as package name. These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the corresponding class files.com/apk/res/android" package="de.vogella.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social applications. This will avoid collisions with other Android applications. Dalvik uses an own bytecode format which is different from Java bytecode.dex file and the resources of an Android project. For example all Activities and Services of the application must be declared in this file. the . the images and XML files. The Android Market determine based on the versionCode.3. Android provides a tool called "dx"" which converts Java class files into a dex (Dalvik Executable) file. <?xml version="1.dex file. either within Eclipse or via the command line.android.dex file. they need to get converted in the Dalvik bytecode format.Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android. versionName is what the user sees and can be any String.category. it must be declared with the full qualified package name. Android Application Architecture 4.apk file) will be created and deployed. 3.apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the "adb" tool. During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the . 4.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" /> </manifest> The package attribute defines the base package for the Java objects referred to in this file.xml.intent. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=".dex file contains only once reference of this String.MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.g.1. It must also contain the required permissions for the application. All class files of one application are placed in one compressed .Android Development Tutorial http://www.

2. These references are static int values and define ID's for the resources. for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications.id. in this example pointing to the Convert class in the de. If you create a new resource. The layout defines the included Views (widgets) and their properties. An intent filter is registered for this class which defines that this Activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social value by one. For example to access a String with the R. Views. In Java you access this data via the AssetsManager and the getAssets() method . their relationship and their attributes for this specific layout.Android Development Tutorial http://www.action. This file specifies the ViewGroups. In most cases the layout is defined as an XML file. you have to give the View a unique ID via the android:id attribute.yourString)) method. <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> By conversion this will create and assign a new yourvalue ID to the corresponding View. If a View needs to be accessed via Java code. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest. The usage of resource file makes it easy to provide different resources.4. the assets directory can be used to store any kind of data. R. The @string/app_name value refers to resource files which contain the actual value of the application name. e.vogella.3. the corresponding reference is automatically created in R.vogella. The tag <activity> defines an Activity.yourString ID.g.string. if you roll-out a new version of your application. R.java is automatically created by the Eclipse development environment. R.de/articles/Android/article. 4. The category definition category android:name="android. layouts or animations via XML files.xml" file defines the minimal SDK version for which your application is valid. you would use the getString(R. manual changes are not necessary and will be overridden by the tooling. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the /res/layout folder. To assign a new ID to a View use @+id/yourvalue. These resources must be defined in the "res" directory and can be XML files. 4.java via the Eclipse ADT tools.string.android. The Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource via these ID's.temperature package. 4. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML.intent. Assets While the res directory contains structured values which are known to the Android platform. icons or pictures.category.yourvalue).java and Resources The " gen " directory in an Android project contains generated values. menus. The following shows an example in which a Button gets the "button1" ID assigned. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions.MAIN" ). 6 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . In your Java code you can later access a View via the method findViewById(R. icons. strings. You can for example define values. colors.LAUNCHER" defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device. Activities and Layouts The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts.intent.java is a generated class which contains references to certain resources of the project.

the Location Service.5. 4. Context The class android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social definition. For an introduction into Eclipse please see the following tutorial: Eclipse IDE Tutorial. The most important methods are: onSaveInstanceState() . e. A configuration change happens if an event is triggered which may be relevant for the application. Installation 5. because of an incoming call. Configuration Change An Activity will also be restarted. The Android system defines a lifecycle for Activities via predefined methods. Context also provides access to Android Services. you could access it via @string/hello. 4. The author of this text has also published a Kindle book on the usage of the Eclipse IDE.vogella. It also allows the definition of different layouts for different devices. Reference to resources in XML files In your XML files.6. For example. It is the interface to global information about the application environment. if you want to refer to a color which is defined in a XML resource. can be used to release resource or save data onResume() .always called if the Activity ends.xml.Context provides the connections to the Android system. you can refer to it via @color/your_id.g. You find the necessary steps described in the following section of the tutorial: Eclipse Update Manager. 5. which can be found here: Eclipse IDE Book for Kindle.de/articles/Android/article. Activities and Services extend the Context class and can therefore be used as Context. Eclipse The following assume that you have already Java and Eclipse installed and know how to use Eclipse. if a so called "configuration change" happens. Or if you defined a "hello" string in an XML resource.ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 4. Android assumes that an Activity might want to use different resources for these orientations and restarts the Activity. can be used to initialize fields 4. Activities and Lifecycle The Android system controls the lifecycle of your application.content. you can refer to other resources via the @ sign.called if the Activity is stopped. The tutorial above also describes how to install new components into Eclipse. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application. Used to save data so that the Activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() . You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your Activity definition in your AndroidManifest. for example your layout files.8.7. This is required to install the Android Development Tools. The following Activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible).called if the Activity is re-started.Android Development Tutorial http://www. e. You can also mix both approaches. <activity android:name=". For example if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertically or horizontally). 7 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11.g.1.

8 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . apt-get install ia32-libs Please check your distribution documentation.3. 5. if you are using a different flavor of Linux.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article. For Ubuntu you can do this via the following command. therefore on an 64bit Linux system you need to have the package ia32-libs installed.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The Android SDK is 32bit. You can use the following wizard or go to the next section to learn how to do it manually.com/android/eclipse/. After the new Android development components are installed. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available components for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl.vogella.google. you will be prompted to install the Android SDK.

g.vogella. Select Window → Android SDK Manager from the Eclipse menu. The download contains a zip file. on my Linux system I placed it under "/home/vogella/android-sdks".4.5. You also have to define the location of the Android SDK in the Eclipse Preferences. In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via the menu Windows → Preferences.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. 9 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . e. Avoid using spaces in the path name.Android Development Tutorial http://www. which you can extract to any place in your file system. Manually install Android SDK After the installation of the ADT the Eclipse tooling allows to download the Android SDK automatically. 5. Install a specific Android version The Android SDK Manager allows you to install specific versions of Android. Alternatively you can also manually download the Android SDK from the Android SDK download page. otherwise you may experience problems with the usage of the Android SDK.de/articles/Android/article. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK.

As of Android 4. 15 for the Android 4.0. As of Android 4. Android Source Code The following step is optional.0 During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available.jar file in your Android project.0 the Android development tools provides also the source code. restart Eclipse. 5.vogella. e.6.6. To connect the sources with the android. You can download it via the Android SDK Manager by selecting the "Sources for Android SDK".de/articles/Android/article. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons". The sources are downloaded to the source directory located in "path_to_android_sdk/sources/android-xx".3) version of the SDK and press "Install".jar in the Eclipse Package Explorer and select Properties → Java Source Attachment.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The dialog allows you to install new packages and also allows you to delete them.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Select the Google API 15 (Android 4. After the installation completes. 5.0.3 version. Press the "Install" button and confirm the license for all packages. 10 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .1. right click on your android. Type in the source directory name and press OK.g. xx is the API level of Android.

which provide the Android Source code code. due to some initial setup. which is very slow.0 introduced that devices do not have to have hardware button anymore.g. Prior to Android 4. Android virtual device .eclipse. Android AVD During the creation of an AVD you decide if you want an Android device or an Google device. Nice for demos. 11 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .5. Ctrl+F11 changes the orientation of the emulator. Hardware button Android 4.de/articles/Android/article. If you want to create such an AVD. The ADT allow to deploy and run your Android program on the AVD. More details can be found on the project website.0 For earlier versions Haris Peco maintains plugins. Alt+Enter Maximizes the emulator.update".com/svn/trunk/source/com. You can define several devices with different configurations.googlecode.android. If you want to use functionality which is only provided via the Google API's.Emulator 6. The emulator behaves like a real Android device (in most cases) and allows you to test your application without having a real device. Emulator Shortcuts The following shortcuts are useful for working with the emulator. 6.ide.source. Starting a new emulator is very slow. These devices are called "Android Virtual Device" (AVD) and you can start several in parallel.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. An AVD created for Android will contain the programs from the Android Open Source Project. Cloud2DeviceMessaging or Google Maps you must run this application on an AVD with Google API's.3. An AVD created for the Google API's will also contain several Google applications.2. To have a responsive emulator use a small resolution for your emulator. You can configure the version of the Android system you would like to run.2. What is the Android Emulator? The Android Development Tools (ADT) include an emulator to run an Android system. the screen resolution and other relevant settings. add the "Hardware Back/Home keys" property to the device configuration and set it to "false". 6. e. Also if you have sufficient memory on your computer.6.vogella. add at least 1 GB of memory to your emulator. This will save the state of the emulator and let it start much faster. as for example HVGA. Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adtaddons. Performance The graphics of the emulator are rendered in software. 6.4. most notable the Google Maps application.1. Also set the flag "Enabled" for Snapshots. the size of the SD card. F8 Turns network on / off. 6. Google vrs. This is the value "Device ram size" during the creation of the AVD. 6.

de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device To define an Android Virtual Device (ADV) open the "AVD Manager" via Windows → AVD Manager and press "New". Enter the following.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 12 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social We can also select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots.2.de/articles/Android/article. 3. Error handling and typical problems Things are not always working as they should. This communication is handled by the Android Debug Bridge (adb). select your device and press "Start". This will create the AVD configuration and display it under the "Virtual devices".vogella.. Clean Project Several users report that get the following errors: 1. This section gives an overview over typical problems and how to solve them.1. 8. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved. After (a long time) your AVD starts. Unable to open class file R. To solve any of these errors. 8. Select therefore the DDMS perspective via Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS 13 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .. go to the project menu and select Project → Clean. Eclipse allows to reset the adb in case this causes problems. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb) The communication with the emulator or your Android device might have problems. is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2. Project .Android Development Tutorial http://www. At the end press the button "Create AVD".java. To test if your setup is correct. You are able to use it via the mouse and via the virtual keyboard of the emulator. 8.

8. Install failed due to insufficient storage Sometimes the emulator will refuse to install an application with the error message: INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE. make sure that the android-sdk version is in a path without any spaces in the path name.vogella. Select Window → Preferences → Android → DDMS and increase the "ADB connection timeout (in ms)" value. 8.de/articles/Android/article.4.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8. select Window → Show View → Other → Android → LogCat. Emulator does not start If your emulator does not start.6. You can clean your installed application by re-starting the emulator and selecting the "Wipe user data" flag. Alternative you can set the the data partition size. Timeout during deployment If you face timeout issues during deployment you can increase the default timeout in the Eclipse preferences.Android Development Tutorial http://www. To open this view.3. An Android virtual device provides per default only 64M for internal storage of application. if you press edit on the AVD you can set the "Ideal size of data partition" property via the "New" button. LogCat The "LogCat" View shows you the log messages of your Android device and help you analyze problems.5. 8. For example Java exceptions in your program would be shown here. 14 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

Android Development Tutorial http://www. API version. Eclipse Tips To work more efficiently with Eclipse. 8. if you are asked to create a 15 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . e.6. 8. 9. To do this right-click on the project. select Window → Preferences → Java → Editor → Save Actions and select that the source code should be formatted and that the imports should be organized at every save. but if you face issues. change the Java compiler level to Java 1. This file is only valid for a year and if not present Eclipse will regenerate the password. package and application name The tutorials of this document have been developed and tested with Android 4.1. API Level 15. Please use this version for all tutorials in this book. right-click in your Editor and select Source → Organize Imports to important required packages.8.vogella. ". If you see error message with "XX cannot be resolved to a variable". Debug Certificate expired If you get the error message "Debug Certificate expired" switch to the folder which contains the Android AVD.3. If you receive an error message for @override.6.keystore" file. Missing Imports Java requires that classes which are not part of the standard Java Language be either fully qualified or declared via imports. 8.de/articles/Android/article. Conventions for the tutorials 9.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8. The base package for the projects is always the same as the project name.0. Higher version usually should also work. e.android" under Linux and delete the "debug.g. Error message for @override The @override annotation was introduced in Java 1.6" in the drop-down box. Lower version of the Android API might also work.10.7.9. try the recommended version.g. select Properties → Java Compiler → Compiler compliance level and select "1.

vogella.android. will not be predefined.de/articles/Android/article. Warnings Messages for Strings The Android development tools are show warnings if you use hard-coded strings.2. which must be entered on the Android project generation wizard. Select File → New → Other → Android → Android Project and create the Android project "de.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "de. Choose a name you like.temperature". others just give you the task to do.android.vogella. for example in layout files. Most exercises try to give you a base example and ask you to extend this example. 9. Search for "vogella" for find this example. Your first Android project 10. Some exercises explain every mouse click you have to do.test".1.example. 10.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. Enter the following.3. 16 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Create Project This app is also available on the Android Marketplace. The Application name. 9. Android Exercises and Tutorials You find different types of exercises. While for real application its best practice to use string resource files we use use Strings directly to simplify the creation of the examples.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Press "Finish". This should create the following directory structure.de/articles/Android/article.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 17 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

2. Two faces of things The Android SDK allows the developer to define certain artifacts.g. strings and UI's. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen. e.g.Android Development Tutorial http://www. and directly via XML.3. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets(). for strings or colors. in two ways: via a rich editor. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main.xml". 18 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. 10.vogella. e. The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation the resulting XML is also displayed. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources. 10.de/articles/Android/article.

String attributes allow the developer to translate the application at a later point. <?xml version="1. String Attributes Name celsius fahrenheit calc Value to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate Switch to the XML representation and validate the values.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World. Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 10. For changing the position and grouping elements you can use the outline view.4. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code. Table 1.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. 19 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Add also the following "String" attributes. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella.de/articles/Android/article. Add UI Elements Select "res/layout/main.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "#3399CC" as the value. The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout.

Switch to "main.de/articles/Android/article. Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout.xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group.android.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText". Hello!” in the layout.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Right-click on the text object “Hello World.Android Development Tutorial http://www. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object. they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. Then. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field. drag a Button object onto the layout. <?xml version="1.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> 20 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . From the Palette section Form Widgets. The result should look like the following.vogella. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”. from the “Palette” view.

Typically you change properties directly in the XML file as this is much faster.vogella. Use the right mouse click on the first radio button to assign the "celsius" string attribute to its "text" property. Assign the and "fahrenheit" string attribute to the second radio button.5. Edit UI properties If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. Open your file "main.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> 10.xml" We will delete the initial text for the EditText field in XML.xml" and delete the android:text="EditText" property from the EditText part. Switch to the XML tab called "main. But the right mouse functionality is nice if you are searching for a certain property. From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton.Android Development Tutorial http://www. You can also edit properties of fields directy in XML.de/articles/Android/article. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText. Most of the properties can be changed via the right mouse menu. You can either edit the XML file or modify the properties via right mouse click. 21 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Switch back to the "Graphical Layout" tab and check that the text is removed. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property.

de/articles/Android/article.widget.id. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.Toast. if (text.getId()) { case R.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social LinearLayout. Change your code in ConvertActivity.View. then select Other Properties → All by Name → Background. android.java to the following. setContentView(R.widget. text = (EditText) findViewById(R.Activity.length() == 0) { 22 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .radio1). Note that the myClickHandler will be called based on the OnClick property of your button.app.Bundle. package de.getText(). android.EditText. android. <?xml version="1.layout.android.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout> 10.radio0).vogella.id. android. Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.android.os.id. import import import import import import android. public class ConvertActivity extends Activity { private EditText text.Android Development Tutorial http://www.widget. Switch to the "main. Code your application During the generation of your new Android project you specified that an Activity called ConvertActivity should get created. The project wizard also created the corresponding Java classs.temperature.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.main).onCreate(savedInstanceState).id.vogella.view. Right-click on an empty space in Graphical Layout mode.6.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained.RadioButton. RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R. android.editText1). } // This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view.

} break.de/articles/Android/article. celsiusButton.setText(String . and select Run-As → Android Application. } } 10.setChecked(false).Android Development Tutorial http://www. if (celsiusButton.7. Be patient.valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue))).setChecked(true). Start Project To start the Android Application. } float inputValue = Float. Starting an deployed application After you run your application on the virtual device you can start it again on the device. The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.isChecked()) { text. You should get the following result.parseFloat(text. fahrenheitButton. celsiusButton. } else { text. select your conversion and press the button.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social return.setChecked(false). right click on it.32) * 5 / 9).vogella. 23 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .setChecked(true). If you press the Home button you can also select your application. 11. } // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32. select your project. Type in a number.toString()). the emulator starts up very slowly.setText(String .getText().valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))). fahrenheitButton. } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit .

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 12. The first one is the usage of the Action Bar in the application. Typically you define your menu entries in a way that they are added to the action bar if sufficient space is available in the 24 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Menus and Action Bar 12.1. and other interactive items.vogella.de/articles/Android/article. The second option is that the app can open a menu which shows additional actions via a popup menu. Definition of menu entries Android provides two possible ways to display global actions which the user can select. navigation modes.Android Development Tutorial http://www. The Action Bar is a window feature at the top of the activity that may display the activity title.

1. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13. 13. Create a project called "de. intent. This example will be extended in the chapter about preferences. Action bar tabs It is also possible to add tabs to an action bar. e.android. A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view. 12. The Android platform may also add options to your View. EditText provides context options to select text.3.addFlags(Intent. The onCreateOptionsMenu() method is only called once.class).vogella. 12.R. etc.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences" > </Button> </LinearLayout> 25 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Each Activity has already an instance of the class available and this instance can get accessed via the getMenuInflator() method.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The option menu and the action bar of your activity is filled by the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity.id. A context menu for a view is registered via the registerForContextMenu(view) method.xml" layout file in the diretory "/res/layout/" to the following: <?xml version="1. Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu which is displayed in the action bar if sufficient space is available.g. In this method you can create the menu programmatically or you can use a pre-defined XML resources which you inflate via the MenuInflator class.2.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP). startActivity(intent). break. Context menus You can also assign a context menu to an UI widget (view).socialapp" with the Activity called "OverviewActivity". Change the "main. The onCreateContextMenu() method is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage. The recommendation is to return to the main Activity in your program.android. // If home icon is clicked return to main Activity case android.home.home: Intent intent = new Intent(this.R. OverviewActivity. If you select this icon the onOptionsItemSelected() method will be called with the value android. You can also add an action to this icon.id. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the onPrepareOptionsMenu() method.de/articles/Android/article. The ActionBar also shows an icon of your application.

Android provides a nice editor to edit this file. Maintain the following value. you can open this editor manually. enter as File "mainmenu. Press Add and select "Item". Switch if necessary to the "Layout" tab of the editor. We will also define that the menu entry is displayed in the action bar if there is sufficient space available. 26 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella. unfortunately this editor is not always automatically used due to bugs in the ADT.de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Select your project.xml" and press the button "Finish".xml" in the folder "res/menu" of your project. This will create a new file "mainmenu. If that happens. This defines the entries in your menu.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Right-click on your menu file and select Open with → Android Menu Editor. Select the option "Menu". right click on it and select New → Other → Android → Android XML File to create a new XML resource.

MenuItem. } @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast. inflater. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called.makeText(this.menu. setContentView(R.Android Development Tutorial http://www.LENGTH_SHORT). return true. "Just a test". android. return true.view.main).inflate(R. import import import import import import android.layout.Toast. If you select the menu item you should see a small info message. android. } } Run your application.onCreate(savedInstanceState).MenuInflater. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(). The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu. menu).mainmenu.show().vogella.Bundle.os. 27 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .app. As there is enough space in the action bar your item will be displayed there.vogella.Activity. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings.widget. android. If there would be more items you could press "Menu" on the emulator to see them.view.socialapp. Toast. android.android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Change your Activity class "OverviewActivity" to the following.Menu. package de.de/articles/Android/article. android.view.

Values can get access via the key of the preference setting. Android provides the class "PreferenceActivity" which extends the class Activity. 15. 14.android. Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Editor edit = preferences.1.de/articles/Android/article. "new_value_for_user"). edit.social".vogella. Once you have changed the value you have to call commit() to apply your changes. We will use them in the next chapter. To communicate between different components Android uses Intents. Preferences are stored as key values.vogella. In your application you can access the preference manager via the following: SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager.edit().getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).xml" of type "PreferenceScreen". To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() methods. The definition of Preferences can also be done via an XML resource.getString("username". Typically the PreferenceActivity is started from another activity via an Intent. Tutorial: Preferences 15. 28 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . "n/a"). String username = preferences. edit. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource().commit(). Create an Android XML resource "preferences. Preferences Android supports the usage of Preferences to allow you to save data for your application.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active. PreferenceActivity supports the simple handling of preferences.putString("username".

the inputMethod. 29 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Open the file via right-mouse click and Open-with → Android XML Resource Editor.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Press Add.de/articles/Android/article. add a "PreferenceCategory" and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password".g. You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField. e.

android.vogella.Button01). password).View. package de.OnClickListener.de/articles/Android/article.android.socialapp.view.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { updatePreferenceValue(). "n/a").id.socialapp.id.widget.SharedPreferences.view.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).vogella. Button button = (Button) findViewById(R. android. To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity".xml.Bundle.content. android. } } To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { SharedPreferences preferences.xml" file. Select "AndroidManifest.MenuItem.xml" file and will allow the user to change the values. android.preferences). @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.Toast.os.SharedPreferences.preference. } }). setContentView(R. import import import import import import import import import import import import android. button.content. } 30 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella. showPrefs(username.PreferenceActivity. The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code.app. android.android.Button02).Editor. public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R. import android.View. Scroll to the botton of the view and add your new activity via the "Add" button.layout. android. package de.getString("password".view.Menu.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences.os. This Activity will load the "preference.onCreate(savedInstanceState).main). android.widget.Android Development Tutorial http://www.Activity.preference.Button.Bundle.view. String password = preferences.PreferenceManager. "n/a").onCreate(savedInstanceState).xml" and the tab "Application".view. android. import android. addPreferencesFromResource(R.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:inputType="textPassword" Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity. buttonChangePreferences.MenuInflater.getString("username". android. android. android. // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager.

startActivity(i).". } return true.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social private void showPrefs(String username.LENGTH_LONG). Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries. @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().Android Development Tutorial http://www. break.preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity. inflater.1. // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer().makeText(OverviewActivity.makeText( OverviewActivity. // Some feedback to the user Toast.makeText(OverviewActivity. i--) { buffer.getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R. Toast. String password){ Toast.show(). We give a little feedback Toast.this. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button.length() .charAt(i)).show(). // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user.toString()). To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences.show(). i >= 0. "Reverted string sequence of user name.edit().this. You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity.commit(). Toast. MyPreferencesActivity.class). } To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() method. "n/a"). Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences".2.inflate(R. return true.LENGTH_LONG).getString("username". 31 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Toast. } // This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item. for (int i = username.vogella.de/articles/Android/article.this. If you press the second button the username should be reversed. Run Run your application. edit.this.". } edit.append(username. } private void updatePreferenceValue(){ Editor edit = preferences.putString("username". } 15.id. buffer. "Enter your user credentials. menu). "Input: " + username + " and password: " + password.menu.mainmenu.LENGTH_LONG). String username = preferences.

This allows for complex layouts. horizontal is the default value.vogella. As of Android 4. 16. Just add one component to the RelativeLayout and set the android:layout_centerInParent attribute to true.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16. RelativeLayout and GridLayout. Children can also define attributes which may be evaluated by their parent layout.1. A simple usage for RelativeLayout is if you want to center a single component. Android supports different default layout managers.0 the most relevant layout manager are LinearLayout. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16. AbsoluteLayoutLayout is deprecated and TableLayout can be implemented more effectively via GridLayout 16.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <ProgressBar android:id="@+id/progressBar1" style="?android:attr/progressBarStyleLarge" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_centerInParent="true" /> 32 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Available Layout Manager A layout manager is a subclass of ViewGroup and is responsible for the layout of itself and its child Views.android.2. All layouts allow the developer to define attributes. LinearLayout can be nested to achieve more complex layouts.Android Development Tutorial http://www. LinearLayout LinearLayout puts all its child elements into a single column or row depending on the android:orientation attribute. <?xml version="1. Possible values for this attribute are horizontal and vertical.de/articles/Android/article.3. FrameLayout. RelativeLayout RelativeLayout allow to position the widget relative to each other.

and cells.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView". e. 17. If not specified GridLayout uses defaults.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.de/articles/Android/article.0" android:text="Submit" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true" android:orientation="vertical" > <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" > </TextView> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1. columns. Tutorial: ScrollView Create an android project "de.0. This layout allows you to organize a view into a Grid. ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen.g.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas.0" android:text="@+id/TextView02" > </TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Create the following layout and class. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context. 16.0" android:text="Cancel" > 33 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .android.vogella. one column.vogella. Gridlayout GridLayout was introduced with Android 4.4. <?xml version="1.5. one row and the position of a View depends on the order of the declaration of the Views.android. Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements. You can specify how many columns you want for define for each View in which row and column it should be placed and how many columns and rows it should use. GridLayout separates its drawing area into: rows.

This way you only have to set common attributes once and can later change the look in one central place.vogella.app. These styles can get assigned to the complete Applications. } view.layout. 18. android.vogella.os.Activity.onCreate(savedInstanceState). for (int i=0.main). 18.de/articles/Android/article. setContentView(R. Styling 18. public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R. Activitities or Views.setText(s).TextView. Example The following "styles. android. You can define styles in XML and assign them to these elements.xml" XML file would be created in the "/res/xml" folder.Bundle. Overview Styles in Android allow to define the look and feel of Android application in external files.2.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de ".widget.android. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.View. 34 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended. i++) { s += "vogella.id.view. android.1.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> package de.TextView02). String s="".scrollview. i < 100. import import import import android.

e. The onStart() method is called once the Fragment gets visible. Overview Fragment components allow you to organize your application code so that it is easier to support different sized devices. if an Activity is destroyed its Fragments will also get destroyed. The base class for Fragments is android. Fragments always run in the context of an Activity.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social <resources> <style name="text"> <item name="android:padding">4dip</item> <item name="android:textAppearance">?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge</item> <item name="android:textColor">#000000</item> </style> <style name="layout"> <item name="android:background">#C0C0C0</item> </style> </resources> You assign the style attribute to your elements. 20.2. // Convert the dps to pixels. for example to the text elements via style=”@style/text”. This size is also known as mdpi (medium dots per inch). like ListFragment or DialogFragment.1. which was the size of the first Android device (G1). If a Fragment component is defined in an XML layout file. Here you can inflate an layout.app. Android will automatically scale it.g. 120dip) and larger on a hdip(approx. If an Activity is stopped its Fragments will also be stopped.Android Development Tutorial http://www. They can be defined via layout files or via coding. Using device independent pixel Android devices are different in terms of resolution and in terms of density. You can therefore use the following formulator to calculate the right amount of pixels for a dimension specified in dp.vogella.1. 320x480 with 160dpi (dots per inch).density.getDisplayMetrics(). Fragments 20.g. Using resource qualifiers Android also allows to use resource qualifiers to specify that certain resources should only be used for certain resolutions. } 19. Supporting different screen sizes 19. The onCreateView() method is called by Android once the Fragment should create its user interface. Therefore it is recommended never to use fixed sized dimensions. e. based on density scale return (int) (input * scale + 0. You can use "dp" in your resources. For special purposes you can also use more special classes.5f). layout files.Fragment. Fragments are components with their own lifecycle and their own user interface.de/articles/Android/article. The unit of measurement which should be used is "dp" (which is the same as "dip" but shorter). 35 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . so that it always occupies the same physical space. The Android SDK expects that you specify everything in pixels. dp refers to the base line of an Android device. If you specify the size in "dp". 240dpi) device. On a mdpi device "dp" will be equal to pixel but it will be smaller on a ldpi (approx. the android:name attribute points to the Fragments class. public int convertToDp(int input) { // Get the screen's density scale final float scale = getResources(). depending on the device. 19.

36 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . but the whole information will be shown on one screen. Fragments Tutorial 21. When you need to switch Fragments. This is not limited to tablets.isInLayout()) { // start new Activity } else { fragment. when the tablet UI uses two Fragments in an activity. This is similar to the portrait mode. In this case the main activity checks if the detail fragment is available in the layout. this will allow to revert the Fragment changes in the Activity via the back button.de/articles/Android/article. 20. It also requires an update of the action bar if the action bar status depends on the fragment. a second Activity called DetailActivity will start and show the selected text. The second approach is the most flexible and in general preferable way of using Fragments. For this purpose a Fragment typically implements an interface to get new data from its host Activity. which displays two Fragments for tablets and only one on handsets devices.. The following discussion will assume that you have two Fragments (main and detail) but you can also have more. In portrait mode MainActivity will show one Fragment with a list of names. Use separate activities to host each fragment on a handset. 21. On a tablet the main activity contains both Fragments in its layout. If the detailed fragment is there.id. } To create different layouts with Fragments you can: Use one activity. start another activity that hosts the other fragment. The typical example is a list of items in an activity. For example. On a tablet you see the details immediately on the same screen on the right hand side if you click on item. e.g.). on a handheld it only contains the main fragment. you can build single-pane layouts for handsets (phones) and multi-pane layouts for tablets. The entry Activity (called MainActivity of our application ) will use different layouts for portrait and for landscape mode.detail_frag). DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager(). use the same activity for handsets. To check for an fragment you can use the FragmentManager. On a handset you jump to a new detail screen.vogella. but supply an alternative layout that includes just one fragment. the main activity tells the fragment that is should update itself. for example you can use Fragments also to support different layout for landscape and portrait orientation. The second Fragment shows the text of the current selected item. If the detail fragment is not available the main activity starts the detailed activity. In landscape mode MainActivity will show two Fragments. if (fragment==null || ! fragment.e.update(.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social add the action to the history stack of the Activity. But as tablets offer significantly more space you typically include more views into the layout and Fragments makes that easier. i. When to use Fragments Fragments make it easy to re-use components in different layouts. This requires that the fragment is not declared in the layout file as such Fragments cannot be removed during runtime.1.2. The first is again the Fragments which shows the list of names. In this case you would switch the Fragments in the activity whenever necessary.Android Development Tutorial http://www. findFragmentById(R. Overview The following tutorial demonstrates how to use Fragments. It is good practice that Fragments do not manipulate each other. We will also have one main activity and one detailed activity.. If the user touches an item in the list.

onCreate(savedInstanceState).fragments.fragments.xml" file. 21.android.content.ListFragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.ListFragment" ></fragment> <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de. "Windows7".onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState). } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.4. This layout will be used by the DetailFragment.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Create a new project de. "Ubuntu".vogella.vogella.android. public class ListFragment extends android. Create Fragment classes Create now the Fragment classes.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. "WindowsMobile".app. "Max OS X".com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/detailsText" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal|center_vertical" android:layout_marginTop="20dip" android:text="Large Text" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:textSize="30dip" /> </LinearLayout> Change the existing "main.DetailFragment" > <!-.android. First create the following file called "details.android.widget.3. "iPhone". Create the ListFragment class.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="150dip" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.view. import import import import import android.de/articles/Android/article.vogella. 37 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .widget.Bundle.Intent.Preview: layout=@layout/details --> </fragment> </LinearLayout> 21.Android Development Tutorial http://www. <?xml version="1. This layout will be used by MainActivity in landscape mode and shows two Fragments. android. android.xml".vogella. android. "OS/2" }. package de. <?xml version="1.ArrayAdapter.fragments with an Activity called MainActivity.ListView.vogella.fragments. android.android.android. "WebOS". String[] values = new String[] { "Android".os. "Blackberry". Create layouts for portrait mode Create or change the following layout files in the "res/layout/" folder.View. "Linux".

5. int position. android.widget.layout. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. <?xml version="1. Android would check the "layout" folder. intent.Android Development Tutorial http://www.LayoutInflater.setText(item). } } } Create the DetailFragment class. return view.id. ViewGroup container. android.TextView. Therefore create the following "main.isInLayout()) { fragment. For this reason create the "res/layout-port" folder. "hello").details. DetailActivity.android.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.putExtra("value".view.findViewById(R.detailFragment).util. android.view. public class DetailFragment extends Fragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. if (fragment != null && fragment. Only if we would not have a "main.Fragment.id.detailsText). android.getApplicationContext().e("Test". In portrait mode Android will check the "layout-port" folder for fitting layout files. } public void setText(String item) { TextView view = (TextView) getView().setText(item).android. } @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l. long id) { String item = (String) getListAdapter(). view. startActivity(intent). package de. android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" 38 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } else { Intent intent = new Intent(getActivity(). } @Override public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater. false). android. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager() . item).onCreate(savedInstanceState). } } 21.View. Create layouts for landscape mode We want that Android uses a different main. Log.vogella.vogella. View v.getItem(position). Bundle savedInstanceState) { View view = inflater.os.class).fragments. import import import import import import import android.ViewGroup.inflate(R.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState).xml" file in "layout-port".de/articles/Android/article.view.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social setListAdapter(adapter).Bundle.Log. container.xml" layout file in "res/layout-port".xml file in portrait model then in landscape mode.findFragmentById(R.app.

package de. <?xml version="1. public class DetailActivity extends Activity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.fragments.android. Activities Create a new Activity called DetailActivity with the following class. if (extras != null) { String s = extras.Android Development Tutorial http://www.Activity. This layout will be used in the DetailActivity which is only used in portrait mode.android.id. android. return.7.vogella.vogella.android.vogella.os. android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de. } } 21.xml" layout file.6.layout.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. setContentView(R. package de.fragments.app.Bundle.content. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. Bundle extras = getIntent().onCreate(savedInstanceState).vogella.Activity.getConfiguration().app. // Need to check if Activity has been switched to landscape mode // If yes. view.orientation == Configuration.Bundle.ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE) { finish().main).vogella.fragments.android. android. Run 39 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .fragments. import import import import android.os. public class MainActivity extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.de/articles/Android/article. import android. } setContentView(R.ListFragment" /> </LinearLayout> Also create the "details_activity_layout.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.detailsText).onCreate(savedInstanceState). Please note that we could have create this file also in the "layout" folder.TextView. but as it is only used in portrait mode it is best practise to place it into this folder. finished and go back to the start Activity if (getResources(). } } } MainActivity will remain unmodified.getExtras().setText(s). import android.res.DetailFragment" /> </LinearLayout> 21.getString("value").widget.Configuration.android.layout.details_activity_layout).

2.out. In horizontal mode your second Fragment should display the select item.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your Android (virtual) device and your Android application program. 22. 22.print() statements) via the LogCat view.de/articles/Android/article. Shell 40 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social to switch the orientation.3.vogella. LogCat View You can see the log (including System. DDMS perspective and important views 22.1. If you select an item in portrait mode a new Activity should get started with the selected item. 23. Select Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS to open this perspective.Android Development Tutorial http://www. File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the Android simulator. DDMS . In horizontal mode you should see two Fragments. 22. It also allows the application to set the current geo position and allows you to perform a performance trace of your application. It includes several Views which can also be used independently and allows for example the application to place calls and send SMS to the device.

The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". use the command "quit" or "exit". adb shell You can also copy a file from and to your device via the following commands. ls.vogella. switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". adb uninstall <packagename> 23.3.2. e. To exit the console session.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone. rm.g. If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individual device. e. Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell. change the network "stability". You can also uninstall an app via adb with the package name. This allows you to simulate certain things. etc. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell". Use "telnet localhost 5554" to connect to your simulated device. // Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system. For details please see 41 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . incoming call. mkdir. # connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 24. # Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 23.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social You can access your Android emulator also via the console.de/articles/Android/article. to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following. set your current geocodes.g. For example to change the power settings of your phone. Open a shell. Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. Select in the settings Applications > Development. Switch the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application. then enable USB debugging. etc.

Questions and Discussion Before posting questions. 27. To select your phone.vogella. Source Code Source Code of Examples 27. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social version on your phone. select "Manual" selection and select your device.1. select the "Run Configurations".de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www. please see the vogella FAQ.2. I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you.vogella. Links and Literature 27.de Google Group. 25. Android Resources Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android SQlite Database Android Widgets Android Live Wallpaper Android Services Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking 42 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Thank you Please help me to support this article: 26.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Live Folder 27.de/articles/Android/article. vogella Resources Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system 43 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .3.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella.

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