Android Development Tutorial

http://www.vogella.de/articles/Android/article.html

Home

Tutorials Trainings Books Social

Android Development Tutorial
Tutorial
2.7k

Based on Android 4.0 Lars Vogel
Version 10.0 Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Lars Vogel 06.03.2012
Revision History Revision 0.1 Created Revision 0.2 - 10.0 bug fixing and enhancements 07.07.2009 - 06.03.2012 04.07.2009

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
Table of Contents 1. What is Android? 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Google Play 1.3. Security and permissions 2. Android components 2.1. Activity 2.2. Views and ViewGroups 2.3. Intents 2.4. Services 2.5. ContentProvider 2.6. BroadcastReceiver 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets 2.8. Other 3. Android Development Tools 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools? 3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine 3.3. How to develop Android Applications 4. Android Application Architecture 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml 4.2. R.java and Resources 4.3. Assets 4.4. Activities and Layouts 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle 4.7. Configuration Change 4.8. Context 5. Installation 5.1. Eclipse 5.2. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK 5.4. Manually install Android SDK 5.5. Install a specific Android version 5.6. Android Source Code 6. Android virtual device - Emulator 6.1. What is the Android Emulator? 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts 6.4. Performance 6.5. Hardware button 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device 8. Error handling and typical problems 8.1. Clean Project 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)

1 of 43

3/9/2012 10:02 AM

Android Development Tutorial

http://www.vogella.de/articles/Android/article.html

Home

Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.5. Timeout during deployment 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage 8.7. Debug Certificate expired 8.8. Error message for @override 8.9. Missing Imports 8.10. Eclipse Tips 9. Conventions for the tutorials 9.1. API version, package and application name 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials 10. Your first Android project 10.1. Create Project 10.2. Two faces of things 10.3. Create attributes 10.4. Add UI Elements 10.5. Edit UI properties 10.6. Code your application 10.7. Start Project 11. Starting an deployed application 12. Menus and Action Bar 12.1. Definition of menu entries 12.2. Action bar tabs 12.3. Context menus 13. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.1. Project 13.2. Add a menu XML resource 14. Preferences 15. Tutorial: Preferences 15.1. Using preferences 15.2. Run 16. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16.1. Available Layout Manager 16.2. LinearLayout 16.3. RelativeLayout 16.4. Gridlayout 16.5. ScrollView 17. Tutorial: ScrollView 18. Styling 18.1. Overview 18.2. Example 19. Supporting different screen sizes 19.1. Using device independent pixel 19.2. Using resource qualifiers 20. Fragments 20.1. Overview 20.2. When to use Fragments 21. Fragments Tutorial 21.1. Overview 21.2. Create project 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode 21.4. Create Fragment classes 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode 21.6. Activities 21.7. Run 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 22.2. LogCat View 22.3. File explorer 23. Shell 23.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet 24. Deploy your application on a real device 25. Thank you 26. Questions and Discussion 27. Links and Literature 27.1. Source Code 27.2. Android Resources 27.3. vogella Resources

1. What is Android?
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) provides all necessary tools to develop Android

2 of 43

3/9/2012 10:02 AM

Android Development Tutorial

http://www.vogella.de/articles/Android/article.html

Home

Tutorials Trainings Books Social

run Android programs. Android is currently primarily developed by Google. Android allows background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. Android applications consist of different components and can re-use components of other applications, if these applications declare their components as available. This leads to the concept of a task in Android; an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task. For example you can write an application which integrates a map component and a camera component to archive a certain task.

1.2. Google Play
Google offers the "Google Play" service. Google hosts Android applications and the Google Play application allows to install new Android application on an Android device. Google Play used to be called "Android Market".

1.3. Security and permissions
During deployment on an Android device, the Android system will create a unique user and group ID for every Android application. Each application file is private to this generated user, e.g. other applications cannot access these files. In addition each Android application will be started in its own process. Therefore by means of the underlying Linux operating system, every Android application is isolated from other running applications. A misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications. If data should be shared, the application must do this explicitly, e.g. via a Service or a ContentProvider. Android also contains a permission system. Android predefines permissions for certain tasks but every application can also define its own permissions. An application must declare in its configuration file (AndroidManifest.xml) that it requires certain permissions. Depending on the details of the required permission, the Android system will either automatically grant the permission, reject it or ask the user if he grants this permission to the application during installation. If for example the application declares that it requires Internet access, the user needs to confirm the usage of this permission during installation. This is called "user driven security". The user decides to grant a permission or to deny it. If the user denies a permission required by the application, this application cannot be installed. The check of the permission is only performed during installation, permissions cannot be denied or granted after the installation. Typically not all users check the permissions in detail but some users do. If there is seems to be something strange in connection with them, they will write bad reviews on Google Play.

2. Android components
The following gives a short overview of the most important Android components.

2.1. Activity
Activity represents the presentation layer of an Android application. A simplified (and slightly incorrect)

description is that an Activity is a screen. This is slightly incorrect as Activities can be displayed as Dialogs or can be transparent. An Android application can have several Activities.

2.2. Views and ViewGroups
Views are user interface widgets, e.g. buttons or text fields. The base class for all Views is android.view.View. Views often have attributes which can be used to change their appearance and

3 of 43

3/9/2012 10:02 AM

Android Development Tutorial

http://www.vogella.de/articles/Android/article.html

Home

Tutorials Trainings Books Social

A ViewGroup is responsible for arranging other Views e.g. a ViewGroup is a layout manager. The base class for a layout manager is android.view.ViewGroups. ViewGroup also extends View. ViewGroups can be nestled to create complex layouts. You should not nestle ViewGroups too deeply as this has a negative impact on the performance.

2.3. Intents
Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other

components of the Android system, e.g. from Services or Activities. An application can call a component directly (explicit Intent ) or ask the Android system to evaluate registered components for a certain Intent (implicit Intents ). For example the application could implement sharing of data via an Intent and all components which allow sharing of data would be available for the user to select. Applications register themselves to an Intent via an IntentFilter.
Intents allow to combine loosely coupled components to perform certain tasks.

2.4. Services
Services perform background tasks without providing a user interface. They can notify the user via the

notification framework in Android.

2.5. ContentProvider
ContentProvider provides a structured interface to application data. Via a ContentProvider your

application can share data with other applications. Android contains an SQLite database which is frequently used in conjunction with a ContentProvider to persist the data of the ContentProvider.

2.6. BroadcastReceiver
BroadcastReceiver can be registered to receive system messages and Intents. A BroadcastReceiver

will get notified by the Android system, if the specified situation happens. For example a BroadcastReceiver could get called once the Android system completed the boot process or if a phone call is received.

2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
Widgets are interactive components which are primarily used on the Android homescreen. They typically

display some kind of data and allow the user to perform actions via them. For example a Widget could display a short summary of new emails and if the user selects an email, it could start the email application with the selected email.

2.8. Other
Android provide many more components but the list above describes the most important ones. Other Android components are "Live Folders" and "Live Wallpapers". Live Folders display data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

3. Android Development Tools
3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) to develop Android applications with Eclipse. ADT is a set of components (plug-ins) which extend the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. ADT contains all required functionalities to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the Eclipse IDE and from the command line. Other IDE's, e.g. IntellJ, are also reusing components of ADT. ADT also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone.

3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine

4 of 43

3/9/2012 10:02 AM

If you use the ADT tooling you press a button or run a script and the whole Android application (. are packed into an . During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the .vogella. The Android Development Tools (ADT) allows that all these steps are performed transparently to the user. All class files of one application are placed in one compressed . For example if the same String is found in different class files.apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the "adb" tool. the . It must also contain the required permissions for the application.action. The resulting .dex file and the resources of an Android project.de/articles/Android/article.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=".apk (Android Package) file.vogella. The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performs this packaging.category. The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler. These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the corresponding class files.1. Android Application Architecture 4. android:versionName and android:versionCode specify the version of your application.android. e. <?xml version="1. the images and XML files.com/apk/res/android" package="de. This will avoid collisions with other Android applications. it must be declared with the full qualified package name.intent.Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android. The .apk file) will be created and deployed.xml The components and settings of an Android application are described in the file AndroidManifest.dex file. For example all Activities and Services of the application must be declared in this file. Google Play requires that every Android application uses its own unique package. Android provides a tool called "dx"" which converts Java class files into a dex (Dalvik Executable) file.3.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" /> </manifest> The package attribute defines the base package for the Java objects referred to in this file.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social applications. Therefore you cannot directly run Java class files on Android.xml.g.MAIN" /> <category android:name="android. Therefore it is a good habit to use your reverse domain name as package name. How to develop Android Applications Android applications are primarily written in the Java programming language. If a Java object lies within a different package.android. Dalvik uses an own bytecode format which is different from Java bytecode. versionName is what the user sees and can be any String. AndroidManifest. 3.Android Development Tutorial http://www.dex file. either within Eclipse or via the command line. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here.intent. The Android Market determine based on the versionCode. 4.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas. they need to get converted in the Dalvik bytecode format.dex file contains only once reference of this String. versionCode must be an integer. if it should 5 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

vogella. you have to give the View a unique ID via the android:id attribute. The usage of resource file makes it easy to provide different resources. If a View needs to be accessed via Java code.string.temperature package. in this example pointing to the Convert class in the de. if you roll-out a new version of your application. 4. These references are static int values and define ID's for the resources. their relationship and their attributes for this specific layout. 4. Assets While the res directory contains structured values which are known to the Android platform.string. If you create a new resource. The layout defines the included Views (widgets) and their properties. The tag <activity> defines an Activity. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest.LAUNCHER" defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device. icons. colors. 6 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . strings.category. In Java you access this data via the AssetsManager and the getAssets() method . In most cases the layout is defined as an XML file.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social value by one. To assign a new ID to a View use @+id/yourvalue.vogella.yourString)) method.java via the Eclipse ADT tools. In your Java code you can later access a View via the method findViewById(R.id. You can for example define values. This file specifies the ViewGroups.Android Development Tutorial http://www.3. e. These resources must be defined in the "res" directory and can be XML files. manual changes are not necessary and will be overridden by the tooling. 4. Activities and Layouts The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the /res/layout folder.2. The @string/app_name value refers to resource files which contain the actual value of the application name. menus. for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications. you would use the getString(R. icons or pictures.4.yourvalue). This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions.xml" file defines the minimal SDK version for which your application is valid. the assets directory can be used to store any kind of data.java is a generated class which contains references to certain resources of the project.intent. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML.intent.java and Resources The " gen " directory in an Android project contains generated values. The category definition category android:name="android. layouts or animations via XML files.android.de/articles/Android/article. R.g. the corresponding reference is automatically created in R. For example to access a String with the R. R.yourString ID.action. <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> By conversion this will create and assign a new yourvalue ID to the corresponding View. The following shows an example in which a Button gets the "button1" ID assigned.MAIN" ).java is automatically created by the Eclipse development environment. The Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource via these ID's. An intent filter is registered for this class which defines that this Activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android. R. Views.

called if the Activity is stopped. The following Activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible). For an introduction into Eclipse please see the following tutorial: Eclipse IDE Tutorial.xml. It is the interface to global information about the application environment. if a so called "configuration change" happens. For example.always called if the Activity ends.5. you can refer to other resources via the @ sign. Installation 5. The author of this text has also published a Kindle book on the usage of the Eclipse IDE. 4. You find the necessary steps described in the following section of the tutorial: Eclipse Update Manager. e. <activity android:name=". In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11.content.8. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application. can be used to initialize fields 4. For example if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertically or horizontally). if you want to refer to a color which is defined in a XML resource. Activities and Services extend the Context class and can therefore be used as Context.Android Development Tutorial http://www. can be used to release resource or save data onResume() . Or if you defined a "hello" string in an XML resource. It also allows the definition of different layouts for different devices. You can also mix both approaches. The most important methods are: onSaveInstanceState() . This is required to install the Android Development Tools. for example your layout files. Configuration Change An Activity will also be restarted. Activities and Lifecycle The Android system controls the lifecycle of your application. because of an incoming call.1. which can be found here: Eclipse IDE Book for Kindle. e.6. You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your Activity definition in your AndroidManifest.called if the Activity is re-started. 4.g. 5. The Android system defines a lifecycle for Activities via predefined methods.ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 4.vogella. A configuration change happens if an event is triggered which may be relevant for the application. 7 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Android assumes that an Activity might want to use different resources for these orientations and restarts the Activity.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social definition.g. Context The class android. you can refer to it via @color/your_id.7. Eclipse The following assume that you have already Java and Eclipse installed and know how to use Eclipse. the Location Service. Used to save data so that the Activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() . Context also provides access to Android Services.Context provides the connections to the Android system. you could access it via @string/hello. Reference to resources in XML files In your XML files.de/articles/Android/article. The tutorial above also describes how to install new components into Eclipse.

For Ubuntu you can do this via the following command.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www.google. apt-get install ia32-libs Please check your distribution documentation. 5.com/android/eclipse/.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The Android SDK is 32bit. 8 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . if you are using a different flavor of Linux.de/articles/Android/article. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available components for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl.3. You can use the following wizard or go to the next section to learn how to do it manually. you will be prompted to install the Android SDK. After the new Android development components are installed. therefore on an 64bit Linux system you need to have the package ia32-libs installed.

on my Linux system I placed it under "/home/vogella/android-sdks". Manually install Android SDK After the installation of the ADT the Eclipse tooling allows to download the Android SDK automatically. In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via the menu Windows → Preferences. Select Window → Android SDK Manager from the Eclipse menu. which you can extract to any place in your file system. Alternatively you can also manually download the Android SDK from the Android SDK download page. Install a specific Android version The Android SDK Manager allows you to install specific versions of Android.de/articles/Android/article. You also have to define the location of the Android SDK in the Eclipse Preferences. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK.vogella. e. Avoid using spaces in the path name. otherwise you may experience problems with the usage of the Android SDK.5. 9 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. The download contains a zip file.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 5.g.4.

The sources are downloaded to the source directory located in "path_to_android_sdk/sources/android-xx".6.6.1. restart Eclipse. xx is the API level of Android. Select the Google API 15 (Android 4.de/articles/Android/article. 10 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .0 During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available. Press the "Install" button and confirm the license for all packages. 5. right click on your android. After the installation completes.0.jar in the Eclipse Package Explorer and select Properties → Java Source Attachment.vogella.3) version of the SDK and press "Install".3 version.0.jar file in your Android project.0 the Android development tools provides also the source code. Android Source Code The following step is optional.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The dialog allows you to install new packages and also allows you to delete them. To connect the sources with the android. 15 for the Android 4. e. Type in the source directory name and press OK. As of Android 4. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons". As of Android 4.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 5. You can download it via the Android SDK Manager by selecting the "Sources for Android SDK".g.

0 introduced that devices do not have to have hardware button anymore. 6. If you want to create such an AVD. Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adtaddons. Ctrl+F11 changes the orientation of the emulator.0 For earlier versions Haris Peco maintains plugins. This is the value "Device ram size" during the creation of the AVD. Also if you have sufficient memory on your computer.5. Emulator Shortcuts The following shortcuts are useful for working with the emulator. due to some initial setup. which is very slow. What is the Android Emulator? The Android Development Tools (ADT) include an emulator to run an Android system.eclipse. as for example HVGA. most notable the Google Maps application.Emulator 6. Google vrs.android. Nice for demos.4. the screen resolution and other relevant settings. These devices are called "Android Virtual Device" (AVD) and you can start several in parallel. You can define several devices with different configurations. To have a responsive emulator use a small resolution for your emulator.com/svn/trunk/source/com.3. Performance The graphics of the emulator are rendered in software. The ADT allow to deploy and run your Android program on the AVD. 11 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Starting a new emulator is very slow. 6. 6. the size of the SD card. An AVD created for the Google API's will also contain several Google applications.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5.update".ide. Android AVD During the creation of an AVD you decide if you want an Android device or an Google device.1.g.6.2. Prior to Android 4. e. The emulator behaves like a real Android device (in most cases) and allows you to test your application without having a real device. Cloud2DeviceMessaging or Google Maps you must run this application on an AVD with Google API's. F8 Turns network on / off.de/articles/Android/article. If you want to use functionality which is only provided via the Google API's. Also set the flag "Enabled" for Snapshots.2. More details can be found on the project website. You can configure the version of the Android system you would like to run. add the "Hardware Back/Home keys" property to the device configuration and set it to "false".vogella. add at least 1 GB of memory to your emulator. Hardware button Android 4.googlecode. 6. This will save the state of the emulator and let it start much faster. An AVD created for Android will contain the programs from the Android Open Source Project. 6. Android virtual device .source. Alt+Enter Maximizes the emulator.Android Development Tutorial http://www. which provide the Android Source code code.

Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 7.vogella. 12 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Enter the following. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device To define an Android Virtual Device (ADV) open the "AVD Manager" via Windows → AVD Manager and press "New".de/articles/Android/article.

8.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Clean Project Several users report that get the following errors: 1..2.. This communication is handled by the Android Debug Bridge (adb). At the end press the button "Create AVD". You are able to use it via the mouse and via the virtual keyboard of the emulator. 3. Project .de/articles/Android/article. is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2. This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster. Eclipse allows to reset the adb in case this causes problems. go to the project menu and select Project → Clean. This section gives an overview over typical problems and how to solve them. After (a long time) your AVD starts. select your device and press "Start". To test if your setup is correct. Select therefore the DDMS perspective via Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS 13 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Unable to open class file R.java. This will create the AVD configuration and display it under the "Virtual devices". Error handling and typical problems Things are not always working as they should. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved.1. To solve any of these errors. 8. 8. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb) The communication with the emulator or your Android device might have problems.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social We can also select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots.vogella.

Android Development Tutorial http://www. Select Window → Preferences → Android → DDMS and increase the "ADB connection timeout (in ms)" value. LogCat The "LogCat" View shows you the log messages of your Android device and help you analyze problems. if you press edit on the AVD you can set the "Ideal size of data partition" property via the "New" button.6.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8. An Android virtual device provides per default only 64M for internal storage of application. make sure that the android-sdk version is in a path without any spaces in the path name.3. To open this view. select Window → Show View → Other → Android → LogCat. Alternative you can set the the data partition size. Emulator does not start If your emulator does not start. Install failed due to insufficient storage Sometimes the emulator will refuse to install an application with the error message: INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE. 8. 8.de/articles/Android/article. Timeout during deployment If you face timeout issues during deployment you can increase the default timeout in the Eclipse preferences.5. You can clean your installed application by re-starting the emulator and selecting the "Wipe user data" flag. For example Java exceptions in your program would be shown here.4. 14 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . 8.vogella.

select Window → Preferences → Java → Editor → Save Actions and select that the source code should be formatted and that the imports should be organized at every save.g. if you are asked to create a 15 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .de/articles/Android/article.7.8.keystore" file.vogella.3. Eclipse Tips To work more efficiently with Eclipse. 8. API Level 15.1. package and application name The tutorials of this document have been developed and tested with Android 4. select Properties → Java Compiler → Compiler compliance level and select "1. The base package for the projects is always the same as the project name. e.10. try the recommended version. Error message for @override The @override annotation was introduced in Java 1.g.6.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8. 8. This file is only valid for a year and if not present Eclipse will regenerate the password. 8. but if you face issues. Missing Imports Java requires that classes which are not part of the standard Java Language be either fully qualified or declared via imports. Conventions for the tutorials 9. If you receive an error message for @override. Please use this version for all tutorials in this book.android" under Linux and delete the "debug. e.9. API version. Higher version usually should also work. Lower version of the Android API might also work. To do this right-click on the project.6. ".Android Development Tutorial http://www. right-click in your Editor and select Source → Organize Imports to important required packages.6" in the drop-down box.0. change the Java compiler level to Java 1. If you see error message with "XX cannot be resolved to a variable". 9. Debug Certificate expired If you get the error message "Debug Certificate expired" switch to the folder which contains the Android AVD.

Your first Android project 10. Select File → New → Other → Android → Android Project and create the Android project "de. Create Project This app is also available on the Android Marketplace.vogella. 9. Search for "vogella" for find this example.1.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "de. for example in layout files.2. will not be predefined. Android Exercises and Tutorials You find different types of exercises. Enter the following. Choose a name you like. The Application name.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Warnings Messages for Strings The Android development tools are show warnings if you use hard-coded strings. Some exercises explain every mouse click you have to do.android.de/articles/Android/article.test". which must be entered on the Android project generation wizard. 10.3. others just give you the task to do.android. 9.vogella. While for real application its best practice to use string resource files we use use Strings directly to simplify the creation of the examples. Most exercises try to give you a base example and ask you to extend this example.example.vogella. 16 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .temperature".

Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article. 17 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This should create the following directory structure.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Press "Finish".

10. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen. e. e. for strings or colors. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main.de/articles/Android/article.vogella. Two faces of things The Android SDK allows the developer to define certain artifacts. The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation the resulting XML is also displayed.g. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources.3.2. strings and UI's.Android Development Tutorial http://www.g. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. 18 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . and directly via XML. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets().xml". in two ways: via a rich editor. 10.

The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout.4. String Attributes Name celsius fahrenheit calc Value to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate Switch to the XML representation and validate the values.de/articles/Android/article. Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 10. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. Table 1. For changing the position and grouping elements you can use the outline view. Add UI Elements Select "res/layout/main. Add also the following "String" attributes.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. <?xml version="1.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "#3399CC" as the value. String attributes allow the developer to translate the application at a later point. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code. 19 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World.

they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Right-click on the text object “Hello World. Then. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group. Hello!” in the layout.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. <?xml version="1. Switch to "main.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella.android. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field.xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following.de/articles/Android/article.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> 20 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText". Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout. The result should look like the following. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object. from the “Palette” view. drag a Button object onto the layout. From the Palette section Form Widgets.

Most of the properties can be changed via the right mouse menu. Edit UI properties If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText.xml" and delete the android:text="EditText" property from the EditText part. Switch to the XML tab called "main. You can also edit properties of fields directy in XML.5.vogella. Assign the and "fahrenheit" string attribute to the second radio button. 21 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Typically you change properties directly in the XML file as this is much faster. But the right mouse functionality is nice if you are searching for a certain property.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property. Use the right mouse click on the first radio button to assign the "celsius" string attribute to its "text" property. You can either edit the XML file or modify the properties via right mouse click. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton.xml" We will delete the initial text for the EditText field in XML.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> 10.de/articles/Android/article. Open your file "main. From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements. Switch back to the "Graphical Layout" tab and check that the text is removed.

view. public class ConvertActivity extends Activity { private EditText text. Switch to the "main. android.widget. text = (EditText) findViewById(R.widget.radio1). Change your code in ConvertActivity.EditText.id. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.id.length() == 0) { 22 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .main).0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. } // This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view.Bundle. if (text.widget.app. <?xml version="1. Right-click on an empty space in Graphical Layout mode.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout> 10.RadioButton. android.temperature.layout.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R. setContentView(R. Note that the myClickHandler will be called based on the OnClick property of your button.de/articles/Android/article.onCreate(savedInstanceState). then select Other Properties → All by Name → Background. android.View.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained.getText().vogella.Toast. android.id.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social LinearLayout.getId()) { case R.java to the following.editText1). package de.android.os. RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.vogella.android.6.radio0). The project wizard also created the corresponding Java classs.Activity. import import import import import import android.id. Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.Android Development Tutorial http://www. android. Code your application During the generation of your new Android project you specified that an Activity called ConvertActivity should get created.

and select Run-As → Android Application.setChecked(false). right click on it. Start Project To start the Android Application. You should get the following result.setText(String . fahrenheitButton. the emulator starts up very slowly.valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue))). 23 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .isChecked()) { text. select your conversion and press the button. } // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32. } break. 11.vogella. Starting an deployed application After you run your application on the virtual device you can start it again on the device. } float inputValue = Float.toString()). If you press the Home button you can also select your application. } else { text.setChecked(true).setChecked(false).Android Development Tutorial http://www.parseFloat(text. Be patient.valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))).setChecked(true). } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit . Type in a number. celsiusButton. celsiusButton. The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.getText().html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social return. select your project. } } 10.setText(String .32) * 5 / 9).7.de/articles/Android/article. fahrenheitButton. if (celsiusButton.

and other interactive items.Android Development Tutorial http://www.1.vogella. The second option is that the app can open a menu which shows additional actions via a popup menu. Menus and Action Bar 12. Typically you define your menu entries in a way that they are added to the action bar if sufficient space is available in the 24 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Definition of menu entries Android provides two possible ways to display global actions which the user can select. The first one is the usage of the Action Bar in the application. The Action Bar is a window feature at the top of the activity that may display the activity title.de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 12. navigation modes.

FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP). If you select this icon the onOptionsItemSelected() method will be called with the value android. etc.Android Development Tutorial http://www.1.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences" > </Button> </LinearLayout> 25 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .id. A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view. The onCreateContextMenu() method is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage.id. The Android platform may also add options to your View. Each Activity has already an instance of the class available and this instance can get accessed via the getMenuInflator() method.home: Intent intent = new Intent(this. This example will be extended in the chapter about preferences. Action bar tabs It is also possible to add tabs to an action bar. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13. 12.vogella.home. startActivity(intent). The onCreateOptionsMenu() method is only called once.addFlags(Intent. 13. The recommendation is to return to the main Activity in your program.android. A context menu for a view is registered via the registerForContextMenu(view) method.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The option menu and the action bar of your activity is filled by the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity.g.xml" layout file in the diretory "/res/layout/" to the following: <?xml version="1. Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu which is displayed in the action bar if sufficient space is available.de/articles/Android/article. You can also add an action to this icon.class). e. EditText provides context options to select text.android. intent. Change the "main. break. // If home icon is clicked return to main Activity case android.vogella.R.2.3.socialapp" with the Activity called "OverviewActivity". The ActionBar also shows an icon of your application.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.R. OverviewActivity. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the onPrepareOptionsMenu() method. Context menus You can also assign a context menu to an UI widget (view). Create a project called "de. 12. In this method you can create the menu programmatically or you can use a pre-defined XML resources which you inflate via the MenuInflator class.

If that happens. 26 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella. Switch if necessary to the "Layout" tab of the editor. We will also define that the menu entry is displayed in the action bar if there is sufficient space available.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Right-click on your menu file and select Open with → Android Menu Editor. unfortunately this editor is not always automatically used due to bugs in the ADT.xml" in the folder "res/menu" of your project. Android provides a nice editor to edit this file. enter as File "mainmenu. This defines the entries in your menu.de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Select your project. right click on it and select New → Other → Android → Android XML File to create a new XML resource. Press Add and select "Item". you can open this editor manually.xml" and press the button "Finish". This will create a new file "mainmenu. Maintain the following value. Select the option "Menu".

menu).view.onCreate(savedInstanceState).menu.MenuItem. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.Activity. } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(). } } Run your application.vogella. } @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast.Android Development Tutorial http://www. android. android.de/articles/Android/article.makeText(this.socialapp.android. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called. return true.MenuInflater.mainmenu. 27 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . android.Bundle.Toast. android.main).os. "Just a test".LENGTH_SHORT). Toast. If you select the menu item you should see a small info message.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Change your Activity class "OverviewActivity" to the following. If there would be more items you could press "Menu" on the emulator to see them.inflate(R.view.widget. As there is enough space in the action bar your item will be displayed there.view. android.app.layout.show(). The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu.Menu. setContentView(R. return true. package de. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings. import import import import import import android. inflater.vogella.

Once you have changed the value you have to call commit() to apply your changes. To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() methods. PreferenceActivity supports the simple handling of preferences.putString("username". To communicate between different components Android uses Intents. Editor edit = preferences.1. edit. edit.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active. In your application you can access the preference manager via the following: SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager.android. String username = preferences. "new_value_for_user").commit(). 14. 28 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .getString("username".de/articles/Android/article. Values can get access via the key of the preference setting.edit().social". This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource(). The definition of Preferences can also be done via an XML resource. 15.xml" of type "PreferenceScreen". Tutorial: Preferences 15.vogella. Typically the PreferenceActivity is started from another activity via an Intent. Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de. We will use them in the next chapter. Android provides the class "PreferenceActivity" which extends the class Activity.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).vogella. Preferences are stored as key values. Preferences Android supports the usage of Preferences to allow you to save data for your application. "n/a").Android Development Tutorial http://www. Create an Android XML resource "preferences.

g.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Open the file via right-mouse click and Open-with → Android XML Resource Editor. e. You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField. the inputMethod.de/articles/Android/article. Press Add. add a "PreferenceCategory" and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password".vogella. 29 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

android.Button01).view. The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code.xml. android.PreferenceActivity. password).preference.xml" and the tab "Application". android.main).widget.vogella.OnClickListener.SharedPreferences.os. setContentView(R.xml" file. Select "AndroidManifest. // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager. android. "n/a").Editor.view.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences.Bundle.Button02). import android.onCreate(savedInstanceState). Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R.id. This Activity will load the "preference.onCreate(savedInstanceState).html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:inputType="textPassword" Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity. showPrefs(username.de/articles/Android/article.socialapp. "n/a"). package de. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { SharedPreferences preferences.MenuItem.preference.view. package de.SharedPreferences. Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.Bundle. android.vogella. android.app.content. import android.id. android.view. String password = preferences.PreferenceManager.View.Toast.preferences). android. } } To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest.View.socialapp.android.Android Development Tutorial http://www.widget. } }). android.android.Activity.layout.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { updatePreferenceValue(). To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity". @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. buttonChangePreferences.xml" file and will allow the user to change the values.getString("password".vogella. addPreferencesFromResource(R.content.Menu.os.getString("username". button.Button. import import import import import import import import import import import import android.view.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this). android. Scroll to the botton of the view and add your new activity via the "Add" button. } 30 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .MenuInflater. public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. android.

"n/a").this.length() .this. buffer. startActivity(i).de/articles/Android/article.vogella. String password){ Toast. // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer().show().makeText( OverviewActivity. } edit. If you press the second button the username should be reversed.LENGTH_LONG). "Enter your user credentials. } return true.toString()).". edit. MyPreferencesActivity. // Some feedback to the user Toast.Android Development Tutorial http://www. } To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() method. String username = preferences. // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user. i--) { buffer.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social private void showPrefs(String username.preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity. } // This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item. } 15.makeText(OverviewActivity. We give a little feedback Toast. You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity. for (int i = username. inflater. Toast.1.inflate(R. break.makeText(OverviewActivity.this.this.show(). return true. "Reverted string sequence of user name. i >= 0. Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences".LENGTH_LONG).2. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences. Toast.charAt(i)).append(username.menu. 31 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .mainmenu.putString("username".commit().show(). Run Run your application.". @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().getString("username". } private void updatePreferenceValue(){ Editor edit = preferences. "Input: " + username + " and password: " + password.edit(). menu).class).getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R. Toast.id. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button.LENGTH_LONG).

RelativeLayout and GridLayout. As of Android 4.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Just add one component to the RelativeLayout and set the android:layout_centerInParent attribute to true. LinearLayout can be nested to achieve more complex layouts. LinearLayout LinearLayout puts all its child elements into a single column or row depending on the android:orientation attribute.3. <?xml version="1. AbsoluteLayoutLayout is deprecated and TableLayout can be implemented more effectively via GridLayout 16.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <ProgressBar android:id="@+id/progressBar1" style="?android:attr/progressBarStyleLarge" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_centerInParent="true" /> 32 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .android. RelativeLayout RelativeLayout allow to position the widget relative to each other. Possible values for this attribute are horizontal and vertical. horizontal is the default value. Android supports different default layout managers.1.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16. A simple usage for RelativeLayout is if you want to center a single component. This allows for complex layouts. Available Layout Manager A layout manager is a subclass of ViewGroup and is responsible for the layout of itself and its child Views.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16. Children can also define attributes which may be evaluated by their parent layout. All layouts allow the developer to define attributes.de/articles/Android/article. FrameLayout. 16.0 the most relevant layout manager are LinearLayout.2.vogella.

one row and the position of a View depends on the order of the declaration of the Views.0" android:text="Submit" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. If not specified GridLayout uses defaults. ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen.g.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas. and cells. Create the following layout and class. columns.4. one column.android. e. Tutorial: ScrollView Create an android project "de. You can specify how many columns you want for define for each View in which row and column it should be placed and how many columns and rows it should use. GridLayout separates its drawing area into: rows. 17.de/articles/Android/article. <?xml version="1.vogella.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true" android:orientation="vertical" > <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" > </TextView> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1.Android Development Tutorial http://www.0. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context.0" android:text="@+id/TextView02" > </TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView". This layout allows you to organize a view into a Grid. Gridlayout GridLayout was introduced with Android 4. Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements.vogella. 16.0" android:text="Cancel" > 33 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .5.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.

android.os.TextView. String s="". This way you only have to set common attributes once and can later change the look in one central place. for (int i=0. i++) { s += "vogella. 34 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended.Bundle.app.view. Activitities or Views.layout. 18. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.android. android. i < 100. You can define styles in XML and assign them to these elements. Styling 18.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> package de.main).de ".1.2. android. } view.xml" XML file would be created in the "/res/xml" folder.id.Activity. These styles can get assigned to the complete Applications.vogella.View. setContentView(R.onCreate(savedInstanceState). 18. public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.widget.TextView02).setText(s).de/articles/Android/article.scrollview. Overview Styles in Android allow to define the look and feel of Android application in external files.vogella. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R. import import import import android. Example The following "styles.Android Development Tutorial http://www.

Fragments 20. If an Activity is stopped its Fragments will also be stopped.5f). Using resource qualifiers Android also allows to use resource qualifiers to specify that certain resources should only be used for certain resolutions. 20. 35 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . On a mdpi device "dp" will be equal to pixel but it will be smaller on a ldpi (approx.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Android will automatically scale it. The base class for Fragments is android.1.getDisplayMetrics(). public int convertToDp(int input) { // Get the screen's density scale final float scale = getResources(). dp refers to the base line of an Android device.vogella. The onStart() method is called once the Fragment gets visible. which was the size of the first Android device (G1). 320x480 with 160dpi (dots per inch). If you specify the size in "dp".app. Therefore it is recommended never to use fixed sized dimensions. The Android SDK expects that you specify everything in pixels. The unit of measurement which should be used is "dp" (which is the same as "dip" but shorter).2.g. layout files. the android:name attribute points to the Fragments class. Overview Fragment components allow you to organize your application code so that it is easier to support different sized devices. 240dpi) device.1. For special purposes you can also use more special classes.de/articles/Android/article. Here you can inflate an layout.Fragment. Fragments are components with their own lifecycle and their own user interface. 19. e. depending on the device. They can be defined via layout files or via coding. Fragments always run in the context of an Activity. if an Activity is destroyed its Fragments will also get destroyed. based on density scale return (int) (input * scale + 0. so that it always occupies the same physical space. 120dip) and larger on a hdip(approx. // Convert the dps to pixels. e.density. This size is also known as mdpi (medium dots per inch). } 19. The onCreateView() method is called by Android once the Fragment should create its user interface. You can use "dp" in your resources. If a Fragment component is defined in an XML layout file.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social <resources> <style name="text"> <item name="android:padding">4dip</item> <item name="android:textAppearance">?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge</item> <item name="android:textColor">#000000</item> </style> <style name="layout"> <item name="android:background">#C0C0C0</item> </style> </resources> You assign the style attribute to your elements. You can therefore use the following formulator to calculate the right amount of pixels for a dimension specified in dp. for example to the text elements via style=”@style/text”. like ListFragment or DialogFragment. Using device independent pixel Android devices are different in terms of resolution and in terms of density. Supporting different screen sizes 19.g.

the main activity tells the fragment that is should update itself. The first is again the Fragments which shows the list of names. you can build single-pane layouts for handsets (phones) and multi-pane layouts for tablets. Fragments Tutorial 21.isInLayout()) { // start new Activity } else { fragment. In this case the main activity checks if the detail fragment is available in the layout. when the tablet UI uses two Fragments in an activity. But as tablets offer significantly more space you typically include more views into the layout and Fragments makes that easier. use the same activity for handsets. This requires that the fragment is not declared in the layout file as such Fragments cannot be removed during runtime. When to use Fragments Fragments make it easy to re-use components in different layouts.. On a tablet the main activity contains both Fragments in its layout.g.. findFragmentById(R.e.id. If the detail fragment is not available the main activity starts the detailed activity. Use separate activities to host each fragment on a handset. 36 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . When you need to switch Fragments. e. 21.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social add the action to the history stack of the Activity. To check for an fragment you can use the FragmentManager.vogella.2.detail_frag). which displays two Fragments for tablets and only one on handsets devices.Android Development Tutorial http://www. In portrait mode MainActivity will show one Fragment with a list of names. } To create different layouts with Fragments you can: Use one activity.de/articles/Android/article. The following discussion will assume that you have two Fragments (main and detail) but you can also have more. For this purpose a Fragment typically implements an interface to get new data from its host Activity. In this case you would switch the Fragments in the activity whenever necessary. but the whole information will be shown on one screen. On a tablet you see the details immediately on the same screen on the right hand side if you click on item. on a handheld it only contains the main fragment. It also requires an update of the action bar if the action bar status depends on the fragment.1. The entry Activity (called MainActivity of our application ) will use different layouts for portrait and for landscape mode. In landscape mode MainActivity will show two Fragments. if (fragment==null || ! fragment. This is similar to the portrait mode.update(. i. The second Fragment shows the text of the current selected item. a second Activity called DetailActivity will start and show the selected text. The second approach is the most flexible and in general preferable way of using Fragments. 20. Overview The following tutorial demonstrates how to use Fragments. For example. We will also have one main activity and one detailed activity. but supply an alternative layout that includes just one fragment. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager(). The typical example is a list of items in an activity. for example you can use Fragments also to support different layout for landscape and portrait orientation. If the detailed fragment is there. start another activity that hosts the other fragment. It is good practice that Fragments do not manipulate each other. this will allow to revert the Fragment changes in the Activity via the back button.). This is not limited to tablets. If the user touches an item in the list. On a handset you jump to a new detail screen.

"Windows7".xml". This layout will be used by the DetailFragment.widget.vogella. public class ListFragment extends android. android. Create layouts for portrait mode Create or change the following layout files in the "res/layout/" folder. "Linux".com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/detailsText" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal|center_vertical" android:layout_marginTop="20dip" android:text="Large Text" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:textSize="30dip" /> </LinearLayout> Change the existing "main. Create Fragment classes Create now the Fragment classes.vogella.fragments.android.vogella. "WebOS".Intent.widget. <?xml version="1.content. <?xml version="1.onCreate(savedInstanceState). package de. "OS/2" }.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState). "Max OS X".View. First create the following file called "details.android.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article. "WindowsMobile". "Ubuntu".android.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. "iPhone". Create the ListFragment class. "Blackberry".DetailFragment" > <!-. 37 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . String[] values = new String[] { "Android".ListView. This layout will be used by MainActivity in landscape mode and shows two Fragments.android.fragments with an Activity called MainActivity.os.4. android.3.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. android. 21.app.ListFragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.view.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Create a new project de.fragments.Preview: layout=@layout/details --> </fragment> </LinearLayout> 21.xml" file.ListFragment" ></fragment> <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.android.vogella.ArrayAdapter. import import import import import android.android.vogella. android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="150dip" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.fragments.Bundle. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.

e("Test".TextView.app. "hello"). DetailActivity. Therefore create the following "main.Android Development Tutorial http://www.setText(item). int position. <?xml version="1.getItem(position). long id) { String item = (String) getListAdapter(). Android would check the "layout" folder.vogella.xml file in portrait model then in landscape mode.setText(item). android. android. android. package de.android.detailsText).inflate(R.isInLayout()) { fragment.ViewGroup. startActivity(intent). public class DetailFragment extends Fragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. android.Bundle. } else { Intent intent = new Intent(getActivity(). DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager() .xml" file in "layout-port".id.onCreate(savedInstanceState). } @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l.Log.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState). } } } Create the DetailFragment class. } } 21.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Log.findViewById(R.getApplicationContext().LayoutInflater. return view. In portrait mode Android will check the "layout-port" folder for fitting layout files.fragments.5. Create layouts for landscape mode We want that Android uses a different main.putExtra("value".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social setListAdapter(adapter). false).class). import import import import import import import android.util.findFragmentById(R. Only if we would not have a "main.details.xml" layout file in "res/layout-port". item). android.android.view.widget. } @Override public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater.layout. android. ViewGroup container.Fragment. container. view. intent.View.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" 38 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . For this reason create the "res/layout-port" folder.de/articles/Android/article.view.view. View v.id. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.vogella. if (fragment != null && fragment. Bundle savedInstanceState) { View view = inflater.os. } public void setText(String item) { TextView view = (TextView) getView().detailFragment).

import android. } } 21.DetailFragment" /> </LinearLayout> 21.fragments.widget. android.orientation == Configuration.layout.res. } } } MainActivity will remain unmodified.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.android.setText(s). but as it is only used in portrait mode it is best practise to place it into this folder. package de.android.ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE) { finish().Bundle.onCreate(savedInstanceState).content.android.vogella.layout. import import import import android.app. Run 39 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Activity. package de.Bundle. This layout will be used in the DetailActivity which is only used in portrait mode.fragments. public class MainActivity extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.detailsText). <?xml version="1.app. public class DetailActivity extends Activity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.fragments.id.TextView. } setContentView(R.de/articles/Android/article. finished and go back to the start Activity if (getResources().Configuration.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Activities Create a new Activity called DetailActivity with the following class.xml" layout file.vogella.os. Please note that we could have create this file also in the "layout" folder.details_activity_layout). view. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.6. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.android. // Need to check if Activity has been switched to landscape mode // If yes.onCreate(savedInstanceState). android.getConfiguration().fragments.os.android.getString("value"). Bundle extras = getIntent().Activity. setContentView(R.7.main).vogella. if (extras != null) { String s = extras.getExtras().0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.vogella.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de. return.ListFragment" /> </LinearLayout> Also create the "details_activity_layout. import android. android.

DDMS perspective and important views 22.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social to switch the orientation. Shell 40 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .3. LogCat View You can see the log (including System. 22.vogella. 22. File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the Android simulator. It also allows the application to set the current geo position and allows you to perform a performance trace of your application. 22.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your Android (virtual) device and your Android application program. 23.1. In horizontal mode your second Fragment should display the select item.2. If you select an item in portrait mode a new Activity should get started with the selected item.print() statements) via the LogCat view.out. DDMS . In horizontal mode you should see two Fragments. Select Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS to open this perspective.de/articles/Android/article. It includes several Views which can also be used independently and allows for example the application to place calls and send SMS to the device.

# Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 23. // Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social You can access your Android emulator also via the console. to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell". Open a shell. If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individual device. For details please see 41 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .2. Use "telnet localhost 5554" to connect to your simulated device. To exit the console session.3. Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell. adb uninstall <packagename> 23.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. This allows you to simulate certain things. For example to change the power settings of your phone. etc. incoming call. etc. adb shell You can also copy a file from and to your device via the following commands. switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". set your current geocodes.g. rm. e. ls. You can also uninstall an app via adb with the package name. # connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 24.g. mkdir. use the command "quit" or "exit". The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. Select in the settings Applications > Development. change the network "stability". then enable USB debugging. You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone.vogella. Switch the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application. e.de/articles/Android/article.

vogella. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www. Questions and Discussion Before posting questions. Thank you Please help me to support this article: 26. 27.de/articles/Android/article. select the "Run Configurations". Source Code Source Code of Examples 27.de Google Group.1.vogella. I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you. Android Resources Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android SQlite Database Android Widgets Android Live Wallpaper Android Services Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking 42 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . select "Manual" selection and select your device. please see the vogella FAQ. Links and Literature 27.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social version on your phone. To select your phone. 25.2.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Live Folder 27.3. vogella Resources Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system 43 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella.de/articles/Android/article.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful