Android Development Tutorial

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Android Development Tutorial
Tutorial
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Based on Android 4.0 Lars Vogel
Version 10.0 Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Lars Vogel 06.03.2012
Revision History Revision 0.1 Created Revision 0.2 - 10.0 bug fixing and enhancements 07.07.2009 - 06.03.2012 04.07.2009

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
Table of Contents 1. What is Android? 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Google Play 1.3. Security and permissions 2. Android components 2.1. Activity 2.2. Views and ViewGroups 2.3. Intents 2.4. Services 2.5. ContentProvider 2.6. BroadcastReceiver 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets 2.8. Other 3. Android Development Tools 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools? 3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine 3.3. How to develop Android Applications 4. Android Application Architecture 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml 4.2. R.java and Resources 4.3. Assets 4.4. Activities and Layouts 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle 4.7. Configuration Change 4.8. Context 5. Installation 5.1. Eclipse 5.2. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK 5.4. Manually install Android SDK 5.5. Install a specific Android version 5.6. Android Source Code 6. Android virtual device - Emulator 6.1. What is the Android Emulator? 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts 6.4. Performance 6.5. Hardware button 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device 8. Error handling and typical problems 8.1. Clean Project 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)

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Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.5. Timeout during deployment 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage 8.7. Debug Certificate expired 8.8. Error message for @override 8.9. Missing Imports 8.10. Eclipse Tips 9. Conventions for the tutorials 9.1. API version, package and application name 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials 10. Your first Android project 10.1. Create Project 10.2. Two faces of things 10.3. Create attributes 10.4. Add UI Elements 10.5. Edit UI properties 10.6. Code your application 10.7. Start Project 11. Starting an deployed application 12. Menus and Action Bar 12.1. Definition of menu entries 12.2. Action bar tabs 12.3. Context menus 13. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.1. Project 13.2. Add a menu XML resource 14. Preferences 15. Tutorial: Preferences 15.1. Using preferences 15.2. Run 16. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16.1. Available Layout Manager 16.2. LinearLayout 16.3. RelativeLayout 16.4. Gridlayout 16.5. ScrollView 17. Tutorial: ScrollView 18. Styling 18.1. Overview 18.2. Example 19. Supporting different screen sizes 19.1. Using device independent pixel 19.2. Using resource qualifiers 20. Fragments 20.1. Overview 20.2. When to use Fragments 21. Fragments Tutorial 21.1. Overview 21.2. Create project 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode 21.4. Create Fragment classes 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode 21.6. Activities 21.7. Run 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 22.2. LogCat View 22.3. File explorer 23. Shell 23.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet 24. Deploy your application on a real device 25. Thank you 26. Questions and Discussion 27. Links and Literature 27.1. Source Code 27.2. Android Resources 27.3. vogella Resources

1. What is Android?
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) provides all necessary tools to develop Android

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run Android programs. Android is currently primarily developed by Google. Android allows background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. Android applications consist of different components and can re-use components of other applications, if these applications declare their components as available. This leads to the concept of a task in Android; an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task. For example you can write an application which integrates a map component and a camera component to archive a certain task.

1.2. Google Play
Google offers the "Google Play" service. Google hosts Android applications and the Google Play application allows to install new Android application on an Android device. Google Play used to be called "Android Market".

1.3. Security and permissions
During deployment on an Android device, the Android system will create a unique user and group ID for every Android application. Each application file is private to this generated user, e.g. other applications cannot access these files. In addition each Android application will be started in its own process. Therefore by means of the underlying Linux operating system, every Android application is isolated from other running applications. A misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications. If data should be shared, the application must do this explicitly, e.g. via a Service or a ContentProvider. Android also contains a permission system. Android predefines permissions for certain tasks but every application can also define its own permissions. An application must declare in its configuration file (AndroidManifest.xml) that it requires certain permissions. Depending on the details of the required permission, the Android system will either automatically grant the permission, reject it or ask the user if he grants this permission to the application during installation. If for example the application declares that it requires Internet access, the user needs to confirm the usage of this permission during installation. This is called "user driven security". The user decides to grant a permission or to deny it. If the user denies a permission required by the application, this application cannot be installed. The check of the permission is only performed during installation, permissions cannot be denied or granted after the installation. Typically not all users check the permissions in detail but some users do. If there is seems to be something strange in connection with them, they will write bad reviews on Google Play.

2. Android components
The following gives a short overview of the most important Android components.

2.1. Activity
Activity represents the presentation layer of an Android application. A simplified (and slightly incorrect)

description is that an Activity is a screen. This is slightly incorrect as Activities can be displayed as Dialogs or can be transparent. An Android application can have several Activities.

2.2. Views and ViewGroups
Views are user interface widgets, e.g. buttons or text fields. The base class for all Views is android.view.View. Views often have attributes which can be used to change their appearance and

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A ViewGroup is responsible for arranging other Views e.g. a ViewGroup is a layout manager. The base class for a layout manager is android.view.ViewGroups. ViewGroup also extends View. ViewGroups can be nestled to create complex layouts. You should not nestle ViewGroups too deeply as this has a negative impact on the performance.

2.3. Intents
Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other

components of the Android system, e.g. from Services or Activities. An application can call a component directly (explicit Intent ) or ask the Android system to evaluate registered components for a certain Intent (implicit Intents ). For example the application could implement sharing of data via an Intent and all components which allow sharing of data would be available for the user to select. Applications register themselves to an Intent via an IntentFilter.
Intents allow to combine loosely coupled components to perform certain tasks.

2.4. Services
Services perform background tasks without providing a user interface. They can notify the user via the

notification framework in Android.

2.5. ContentProvider
ContentProvider provides a structured interface to application data. Via a ContentProvider your

application can share data with other applications. Android contains an SQLite database which is frequently used in conjunction with a ContentProvider to persist the data of the ContentProvider.

2.6. BroadcastReceiver
BroadcastReceiver can be registered to receive system messages and Intents. A BroadcastReceiver

will get notified by the Android system, if the specified situation happens. For example a BroadcastReceiver could get called once the Android system completed the boot process or if a phone call is received.

2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
Widgets are interactive components which are primarily used on the Android homescreen. They typically

display some kind of data and allow the user to perform actions via them. For example a Widget could display a short summary of new emails and if the user selects an email, it could start the email application with the selected email.

2.8. Other
Android provide many more components but the list above describes the most important ones. Other Android components are "Live Folders" and "Live Wallpapers". Live Folders display data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

3. Android Development Tools
3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) to develop Android applications with Eclipse. ADT is a set of components (plug-ins) which extend the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. ADT contains all required functionalities to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the Eclipse IDE and from the command line. Other IDE's, e.g. IntellJ, are also reusing components of ADT. ADT also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone.

3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine

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vogella. If you use the ADT tooling you press a button or run a script and the whole Android application (. versionCode must be an integer. the images and XML files.1. It must also contain the required permissions for the application. they need to get converted in the Dalvik bytecode format. if it should 5 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .xml. e. This will avoid collisions with other Android applications. The Android Market determine based on the versionCode. 4. How to develop Android Applications Android applications are primarily written in the Java programming language.dex file.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social applications.com/apk/res/android" package="de.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas. For example if the same String is found in different class files. For example all Activities and Services of the application must be declared in this file. 3. The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performs this packaging. AndroidManifest. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=". All class files of one application are placed in one compressed .Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" /> </manifest> The package attribute defines the base package for the Java objects referred to in this file.dex file and the resources of an Android project.3.Android Development Tutorial http://www. android:versionName and android:versionCode specify the version of your application. versionName is what the user sees and can be any String.android. Therefore it is a good habit to use your reverse domain name as package name. These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the corresponding class files.dex file contains only once reference of this String.apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the "adb" tool. Google Play requires that every Android application uses its own unique package. <?xml version="1. either within Eclipse or via the command line.apk file) will be created and deployed.dex file. Android provides a tool called "dx"" which converts Java class files into a dex (Dalvik Executable) file.intent.g. the . The .android.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1. Dalvik uses an own bytecode format which is different from Java bytecode. are packed into an . Android Application Architecture 4.vogella. The resulting .category.apk (Android Package) file.xml The components and settings of an Android application are described in the file AndroidManifest.intent. it must be declared with the full qualified package name. The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler. Therefore you cannot directly run Java class files on Android. The Android Development Tools (ADT) allows that all these steps are performed transparently to the user. During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the .MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.de/articles/Android/article.action. If a Java object lies within a different package.

yourvalue).java and Resources The " gen " directory in an Android project contains generated values. colors. Assets While the res directory contains structured values which are known to the Android platform. their relationship and their attributes for this specific layout. Views. strings. manual changes are not necessary and will be overridden by the tooling. e. The tag <activity> defines an Activity. The usage of resource file makes it easy to provide different resources. To assign a new ID to a View use @+id/yourvalue.java is a generated class which contains references to certain resources of the project. icons. You can for example define values. icons or pictures. you have to give the View a unique ID via the android:id attribute. These references are static int values and define ID's for the resources. the assets directory can be used to store any kind of data.string. This file specifies the ViewGroups.LAUNCHER" defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device. in this example pointing to the Convert class in the de.4. menus. In Java you access this data via the AssetsManager and the getAssets() method .temperature package.g. 6 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . If you create a new resource.android.java via the Eclipse ADT tools.Android Development Tutorial http://www. The Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource via these ID's. if you roll-out a new version of your application. In your Java code you can later access a View via the method findViewById(R.yourString ID. 4.id. The @string/app_name value refers to resource files which contain the actual value of the application name. <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> By conversion this will create and assign a new yourvalue ID to the corresponding View.java is automatically created by the Eclipse development environment.category. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the /res/layout folder.action. the corresponding reference is automatically created in R.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social value by one. R.xml" file defines the minimal SDK version for which your application is valid. R. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest. The category definition category android:name="android.2.vogella.vogella.3. For example to access a String with the R. 4. These resources must be defined in the "res" directory and can be XML files. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML. Activities and Layouts The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts.string. you would use the getString(R. for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications.intent.intent. 4.yourString)) method. If a View needs to be accessed via Java code. In most cases the layout is defined as an XML file. The following shows an example in which a Button gets the "button1" ID assigned. layouts or animations via XML files. An intent filter is registered for this class which defines that this Activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions. The layout defines the included Views (widgets) and their properties. R.de/articles/Android/article.MAIN" ).

Context also provides access to Android Services. the Location Service. You can also mix both approaches. 5.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social definition. can be used to release resource or save data onResume() . Android assumes that an Activity might want to use different resources for these orientations and restarts the Activity.Context provides the connections to the Android system. A configuration change happens if an event is triggered which may be relevant for the application. which can be found here: Eclipse IDE Book for Kindle.8.always called if the Activity ends.vogella. Eclipse The following assume that you have already Java and Eclipse installed and know how to use Eclipse.xml.de/articles/Android/article. Configuration Change An Activity will also be restarted. It is the interface to global information about the application environment.5. Activities and Lifecycle The Android system controls the lifecycle of your application. you can refer to it via @color/your_id. because of an incoming call. can be used to initialize fields 4. you can refer to other resources via the @ sign.7. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application. This is required to install the Android Development Tools. Used to save data so that the Activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() . if you want to refer to a color which is defined in a XML resource.content. The tutorial above also describes how to install new components into Eclipse. The Android system defines a lifecycle for Activities via predefined methods. Context The class android.called if the Activity is re-started. 4. if a so called "configuration change" happens. You find the necessary steps described in the following section of the tutorial: Eclipse Update Manager. It also allows the definition of different layouts for different devices. <activity android:name=". Reference to resources in XML files In your XML files. Installation 5. In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11. The following Activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible).ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 4. for example your layout files.6. 7 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .called if the Activity is stopped. Activities and Services extend the Context class and can therefore be used as Context. For example.Android Development Tutorial http://www. you could access it via @string/hello. Or if you defined a "hello" string in an XML resource. The author of this text has also published a Kindle book on the usage of the Eclipse IDE. 4. The most important methods are: onSaveInstanceState() . You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your Activity definition in your AndroidManifest. For example if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertically or horizontally). e. For an introduction into Eclipse please see the following tutorial: Eclipse IDE Tutorial.g.1.g. e.

3.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 5. if you are using a different flavor of Linux. After the new Android development components are installed.vogella.de/articles/Android/article. you will be prompted to install the Android SDK. For Ubuntu you can do this via the following command. 8 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . therefore on an 64bit Linux system you need to have the package ia32-libs installed.google. apt-get install ia32-libs Please check your distribution documentation. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available components for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl. You can use the following wizard or go to the next section to learn how to do it manually.com/android/eclipse/.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The Android SDK is 32bit.

Manually install Android SDK After the installation of the ADT the Eclipse tooling allows to download the Android SDK automatically. which you can extract to any place in your file system. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK. 5. Alternatively you can also manually download the Android SDK from the Android SDK download page. otherwise you may experience problems with the usage of the Android SDK. In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via the menu Windows → Preferences. The download contains a zip file. You also have to define the location of the Android SDK in the Eclipse Preferences.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. Select Window → Android SDK Manager from the Eclipse menu. on my Linux system I placed it under "/home/vogella/android-sdks". 9 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .4. e.g.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. Install a specific Android version The Android SDK Manager allows you to install specific versions of Android.de/articles/Android/article. Avoid using spaces in the path name.5.

As of Android 4.3) version of the SDK and press "Install". Select the Google API 15 (Android 4. e.de/articles/Android/article. right click on your android. Type in the source directory name and press OK.3 version.jar file in your Android project.g. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons".jar in the Eclipse Package Explorer and select Properties → Java Source Attachment. As of Android 4.6.Android Development Tutorial http://www.1. You can download it via the Android SDK Manager by selecting the "Sources for Android SDK".0 During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available. 10 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . 5.0. The sources are downloaded to the source directory located in "path_to_android_sdk/sources/android-xx". To connect the sources with the android. Android Source Code The following step is optional. xx is the API level of Android. 15 for the Android 4.0.6.0 the Android development tools provides also the source code. Press the "Install" button and confirm the license for all packages. 5.vogella. After the installation completes. restart Eclipse.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The dialog allows you to install new packages and also allows you to delete them.

3. e. Hardware button Android 4. 11 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Also if you have sufficient memory on your computer. You can configure the version of the Android system you would like to run. due to some initial setup. Starting a new emulator is very slow. To have a responsive emulator use a small resolution for your emulator. Also set the flag "Enabled" for Snapshots.ide.0 introduced that devices do not have to have hardware button anymore.5. 6. If you want to use functionality which is only provided via the Google API's. 6. most notable the Google Maps application.1. Ctrl+F11 changes the orientation of the emulator. This is the value "Device ram size" during the creation of the AVD. The ADT allow to deploy and run your Android program on the AVD. This will save the state of the emulator and let it start much faster. Performance The graphics of the emulator are rendered in software.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 6.2. What is the Android Emulator? The Android Development Tools (ADT) include an emulator to run an Android system. add at least 1 GB of memory to your emulator. The emulator behaves like a real Android device (in most cases) and allows you to test your application without having a real device.update".Emulator 6. Nice for demos. You can define several devices with different configurations. which provide the Android Source code code. Emulator Shortcuts The following shortcuts are useful for working with the emulator.android. An AVD created for the Google API's will also contain several Google applications. as for example HVGA. Android AVD During the creation of an AVD you decide if you want an Android device or an Google device.de/articles/Android/article.googlecode.vogella. Google vrs. Alt+Enter Maximizes the emulator. More details can be found on the project website. These devices are called "Android Virtual Device" (AVD) and you can start several in parallel. Cloud2DeviceMessaging or Google Maps you must run this application on an AVD with Google API's. 6. An AVD created for Android will contain the programs from the Android Open Source Project. the size of the SD card. If you want to create such an AVD. add the "Hardware Back/Home keys" property to the device configuration and set it to "false".4.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5.g. F8 Turns network on / off. Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adtaddons.2. 6. Prior to Android 4.com/svn/trunk/source/com.0 For earlier versions Haris Peco maintains plugins.source. which is very slow.6.eclipse. the screen resolution and other relevant settings. Android virtual device .

vogella.de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 7. Enter the following. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device To define an Android Virtual Device (ADV) open the "AVD Manager" via Windows → AVD Manager and press "New".Android Development Tutorial http://www. 12 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

At the end press the button "Create AVD". Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb) The communication with the emulator or your Android device might have problems. 8. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved. 3. You are able to use it via the mouse and via the virtual keyboard of the emulator. Select therefore the DDMS perspective via Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS 13 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This will create the AVD configuration and display it under the "Virtual devices".. 8.1. This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster. Project . This section gives an overview over typical problems and how to solve them. Eclipse allows to reset the adb in case this causes problems.java.2. 8. After (a long time) your AVD starts. To test if your setup is correct. Clean Project Several users report that get the following errors: 1. go to the project menu and select Project → Clean. Unable to open class file R. To solve any of these errors. This communication is handled by the Android Debug Bridge (adb). is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social We can also select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots. select your device and press "Start". Error handling and typical problems Things are not always working as they should..vogella.de/articles/Android/article.

Android Development Tutorial http://www. For example Java exceptions in your program would be shown here.de/articles/Android/article. make sure that the android-sdk version is in a path without any spaces in the path name.3. Select Window → Preferences → Android → DDMS and increase the "ADB connection timeout (in ms)" value. LogCat The "LogCat" View shows you the log messages of your Android device and help you analyze problems. 14 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8. To open this view. 8. 8.vogella. select Window → Show View → Other → Android → LogCat.5. if you press edit on the AVD you can set the "Ideal size of data partition" property via the "New" button. Emulator does not start If your emulator does not start. Timeout during deployment If you face timeout issues during deployment you can increase the default timeout in the Eclipse preferences. 8.6. You can clean your installed application by re-starting the emulator and selecting the "Wipe user data" flag. Install failed due to insufficient storage Sometimes the emulator will refuse to install an application with the error message: INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE. An Android virtual device provides per default only 64M for internal storage of application. Alternative you can set the the data partition size.4.

6" in the drop-down box.6. ". This file is only valid for a year and if not present Eclipse will regenerate the password. 8. right-click in your Editor and select Source → Organize Imports to important required packages. 8. e. Eclipse Tips To work more efficiently with Eclipse. If you receive an error message for @override. The base package for the projects is always the same as the project name.0.g. select Window → Preferences → Java → Editor → Save Actions and select that the source code should be formatted and that the imports should be organized at every save.android" under Linux and delete the "debug. API Level 15. Error message for @override The @override annotation was introduced in Java 1.de/articles/Android/article. if you are asked to create a 15 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .1. Missing Imports Java requires that classes which are not part of the standard Java Language be either fully qualified or declared via imports. 8. but if you face issues. To do this right-click on the project.Android Development Tutorial http://www.3.10.6.vogella. change the Java compiler level to Java 1. select Properties → Java Compiler → Compiler compliance level and select "1.g. API version.8.7. Higher version usually should also work. Please use this version for all tutorials in this book. If you see error message with "XX cannot be resolved to a variable".9. Debug Certificate expired If you get the error message "Debug Certificate expired" switch to the folder which contains the Android AVD. Lower version of the Android API might also work. try the recommended version. 9.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8. e.keystore" file. package and application name The tutorials of this document have been developed and tested with Android 4. Conventions for the tutorials 9.

The Application name.android. which must be entered on the Android project generation wizard.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "de. Enter the following.android. Search for "vogella" for find this example. 9. others just give you the task to do.test".2. While for real application its best practice to use string resource files we use use Strings directly to simplify the creation of the examples.1.vogella. for example in layout files.de/articles/Android/article.temperature".example.vogella.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials You find different types of exercises. Most exercises try to give you a base example and ask you to extend this example. Select File → New → Other → Android → Android Project and create the Android project "de. Some exercises explain every mouse click you have to do. Choose a name you like. 16 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. 9. will not be predefined. 10. Your first Android project 10. Warnings Messages for Strings The Android development tools are show warnings if you use hard-coded strings. Create Project This app is also available on the Android Marketplace.

This should create the following directory structure. 17 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella.de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Press "Finish".Android Development Tutorial http://www.

18 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . in two ways: via a rich editor.Android Development Tutorial http://www.3.vogella. e. Two faces of things The Android SDK allows the developer to define certain artifacts. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen.g.de/articles/Android/article. 10. for strings or colors. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data.xml". In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets().g. and directly via XML. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main. The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation the resulting XML is also displayed. strings and UI's.2. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code. e. 10.

The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout. String attributes allow the developer to translate the application at a later point. Table 1. Add UI Elements Select "res/layout/main.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "#3399CC" as the value. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor. Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 10.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. Add also the following "String" attributes.vogella. For changing the position and grouping elements you can use the outline view.de/articles/Android/article.4. 19 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code. <?xml version="1. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different.Android Development Tutorial http://www. String Attributes Name celsius fahrenheit calc Value to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate Switch to the XML representation and validate the values.

Then. All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText".xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following. Hello!” in the layout. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www. drag a Button object onto the layout. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse. Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout. The result should look like the following.de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Right-click on the text object “Hello World.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field. Switch to "main. they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. <?xml version="1. from the “Palette” view. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”. From the Palette section Form Widgets.android.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> 20 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

xml" and delete the android:text="EditText" property from the EditText part. Use the right mouse click on the first radio button to assign the "celsius" string attribute to its "text" property. Edit UI properties If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. Switch back to the "Graphical Layout" tab and check that the text is removed. 21 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText.xml" We will delete the initial text for the EditText field in XML. Typically you change properties directly in the XML file as this is much faster. You can also edit properties of fields directy in XML. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> 10. You can either edit the XML file or modify the properties via right mouse click.de/articles/Android/article. Most of the properties can be changed via the right mouse menu. But the right mouse functionality is nice if you are searching for a certain property.Android Development Tutorial http://www. From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements.5. Open your file "main. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton. Switch to the XML tab called "main. Assign the and "fahrenheit" string attribute to the second radio button.

vogella.vogella.getId()) { case R. The project wizard also created the corresponding Java classs.View. android.de/articles/Android/article. Code your application During the generation of your new Android project you specified that an Activity called ConvertActivity should get created.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social LinearLayout. package de.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.id.id.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained.radio0).main). } // This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view.widget.Activity. if (text.android. import import import import import import android.widget.view. Change your code in ConvertActivity. public class ConvertActivity extends Activity { private EditText text.temperature.Toast.6.id.radio1). android.android. Right-click on an empty space in Graphical Layout mode. <?xml version="1.Android Development Tutorial http://www.app. android.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.onCreate(savedInstanceState). setContentView(R.EditText.java to the following. Switch to the "main. text = (EditText) findViewById(R.Bundle.id. RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R. Note that the myClickHandler will be called based on the OnClick property of your button. then select Other Properties → All by Name → Background. android.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout> 10.getText(). android. Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.widget.editText1).length() == 0) { 22 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .os.RadioButton. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.layout.

valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))). select your project.getText(). Starting an deployed application After you run your application on the virtual device you can start it again on the device.setChecked(false).setChecked(true). } else { text.setChecked(false).toString()). The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected. 11. You should get the following result. If you press the Home button you can also select your application.valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue))). and select Run-As → Android Application. Start Project To start the Android Application.Android Development Tutorial http://www. celsiusButton. 23 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32.32) * 5 / 9). } } 10.vogella.setText(String .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social return. Type in a number. } break. fahrenheitButton. the emulator starts up very slowly.7.de/articles/Android/article. select your conversion and press the button. fahrenheitButton.setChecked(true).parseFloat(text. right click on it.isChecked()) { text. } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit .setText(String . Be patient. if (celsiusButton. } float inputValue = Float. celsiusButton.

vogella. and other interactive items. The first one is the usage of the Action Bar in the application. The second option is that the app can open a menu which shows additional actions via a popup menu. Definition of menu entries Android provides two possible ways to display global actions which the user can select. Menus and Action Bar 12.Android Development Tutorial http://www. navigation modes. The Action Bar is a window feature at the top of the activity that may display the activity title.de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 12. Typically you define your menu entries in a way that they are added to the action bar if sufficient space is available in the 24 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .1.

If you select this icon the onOptionsItemSelected() method will be called with the value android. Action bar tabs It is also possible to add tabs to an action bar. The Android platform may also add options to your View. The recommendation is to return to the main Activity in your program.1.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences" > </Button> </LinearLayout> 25 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .xml" layout file in the diretory "/res/layout/" to the following: <?xml version="1. Create a project called "de.home: Intent intent = new Intent(this.android.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. EditText provides context options to select text. Context menus You can also assign a context menu to an UI widget (view). In this method you can create the menu programmatically or you can use a pre-defined XML resources which you inflate via the MenuInflator class.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 12. startActivity(intent).de/articles/Android/article.FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP). OverviewActivity.2.R. Change the "main.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The option menu and the action bar of your activity is filled by the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity.R. The onCreateOptionsMenu() method is only called once. 13. You can also add an action to this icon.id. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13. break. etc. // If home icon is clicked return to main Activity case android. Each Activity has already an instance of the class available and this instance can get accessed via the getMenuInflator() method. The onCreateContextMenu() method is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage.android.vogella. A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view. The ActionBar also shows an icon of your application. e.vogella.class).addFlags(Intent. intent.g. 12.home. A context menu for a view is registered via the registerForContextMenu(view) method. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the onPrepareOptionsMenu() method.3.id. Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu which is displayed in the action bar if sufficient space is available. This example will be extended in the chapter about preferences.socialapp" with the Activity called "OverviewActivity".

you can open this editor manually. Select the option "Menu". If that happens. This will create a new file "mainmenu. Right-click on your menu file and select Open with → Android Menu Editor. unfortunately this editor is not always automatically used due to bugs in the ADT. 26 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .xml" and press the button "Finish". Press Add and select "Item". This defines the entries in your menu.vogella. right click on it and select New → Other → Android → Android XML File to create a new XML resource. We will also define that the menu entry is displayed in the action bar if there is sufficient space available. Android provides a nice editor to edit this file.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Select your project. enter as File "mainmenu.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Maintain the following value.de/articles/Android/article.xml" in the folder "res/menu" of your project. Switch if necessary to the "Layout" tab of the editor.

MenuInflater.Toast. android. If you select the menu item you should see a small info message.socialapp.main). menu).show().makeText(this.view. Toast. setContentView(R. import import import import import import android.inflate(R. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.widget.Menu. package de. return true.app.Bundle.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Change your Activity class "OverviewActivity" to the following. inflater.os.Activity. android. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called.LENGTH_SHORT).vogella. } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().de/articles/Android/article.vogella. android.menu. android.Android Development Tutorial http://www. As there is enough space in the action bar your item will be displayed there. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings. 27 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . return true. If there would be more items you could press "Menu" on the emulator to see them. android.layout.MenuItem.view. } } Run your application.android. } @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast. The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu.view.mainmenu. "Just a test".onCreate(savedInstanceState).

15. String username = preferences. Editor edit = preferences.xml" of type "PreferenceScreen". 14. Android provides the class "PreferenceActivity" which extends the class Activity. Typically the PreferenceActivity is started from another activity via an Intent. Create an Android XML resource "preferences. To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() methods. Preferences Android supports the usage of Preferences to allow you to save data for your application.getString("username". Values can get access via the key of the preference setting. Once you have changed the value you have to call commit() to apply your changes. We will use them in the next chapter. To communicate between different components Android uses Intents.social".getDefaultSharedPreferences(this). Tutorial: Preferences 15. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource().putString("username".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active.de/articles/Android/article.vogella.1. 28 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . The definition of Preferences can also be done via an XML resource.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Preferences are stored as key values. "n/a").vogella. edit.edit().commit(). Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de. "new_value_for_user"). PreferenceActivity supports the simple handling of preferences. edit. In your application you can access the preference manager via the following: SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager.android.

Press Add.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Open the file via right-mouse click and Open-with → Android XML Resource Editor. 29 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . add a "PreferenceCategory" and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password". You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField. e.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article.vogella.g. the inputMethod.

Bundle. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.vogella.View. } }).android. android. button. android.view. android. import android.id.Editor.Menu.widget. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { SharedPreferences preferences. setContentView(R. android.id. This Activity will load the "preference.MenuInflater. android.preference.de/articles/Android/article. To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity".setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences.socialapp. android. buttonChangePreferences. android. } } To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest. String password = preferences.view.Button.xml" file.content.widget.xml" and the tab "Application". Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R. import import import import import import import import import import import import android. package de. // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager.preference. Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.Activity. android. import android.xml.PreferenceActivity. addPreferencesFromResource(R.OnClickListener.SharedPreferences.Bundle.getString("password".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:inputType="textPassword" Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity.SharedPreferences. android. The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code.View.preferences). Select "AndroidManifest. public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. "n/a").view.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).vogella. password).socialapp. package de.content. "n/a").setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { updatePreferenceValue().os.Button02).Button01). android.android. android.view. } 30 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .os. Scroll to the botton of the view and add your new activity via the "Add" button.view.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www.xml" file and will allow the user to change the values.layout.app.onCreate(savedInstanceState). showPrefs(username.Toast.main).getString("username".PreferenceManager.onCreate(savedInstanceState).MenuItem.

menu.vogella. We give a little feedback Toast. break.". startActivity(i).toString()). String username = preferences. } private void updatePreferenceValue(){ Editor edit = preferences.show().id.length() . @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().". "Reverted string sequence of user name.this.inflate(R. } To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() method.class). // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(). inflater. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button.mainmenu.LENGTH_LONG). } 15.putString("username". String password){ Toast. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries. i--) { buffer. Toast. 31 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .makeText(OverviewActivity.makeText( OverviewActivity. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences. Toast. "n/a"). MyPreferencesActivity. "Enter your user credentials.append(username. edit.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social private void showPrefs(String username.edit().commit().this. // Some feedback to the user Toast.Android Development Tutorial http://www. menu). Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences". } return true.1.this.charAt(i)).getString("username". buffer.preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity. } edit. Run Run your application. return true. // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user. } // This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item.this. i >= 0.LENGTH_LONG).LENGTH_LONG).de/articles/Android/article.getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R.show(). "Input: " + username + " and password: " + password. Toast. for (int i = username.makeText(OverviewActivity.2. You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity. If you press the second button the username should be reversed.show().

RelativeLayout and GridLayout. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.1.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <ProgressBar android:id="@+id/progressBar1" style="?android:attr/progressBarStyleLarge" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_centerInParent="true" /> 32 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . horizontal is the default value. FrameLayout.2. All layouts allow the developer to define attributes. As of Android 4. Android supports different default layout managers.de/articles/Android/article. LinearLayout can be nested to achieve more complex layouts. Children can also define attributes which may be evaluated by their parent layout. Available Layout Manager A layout manager is a subclass of ViewGroup and is responsible for the layout of itself and its child Views.0 the most relevant layout manager are LinearLayout. LinearLayout LinearLayout puts all its child elements into a single column or row depending on the android:orientation attribute. RelativeLayout RelativeLayout allow to position the widget relative to each other.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. Possible values for this attribute are horizontal and vertical.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16. This allows for complex layouts. A simple usage for RelativeLayout is if you want to center a single component. AbsoluteLayoutLayout is deprecated and TableLayout can be implemented more effectively via GridLayout 16.3. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16. Just add one component to the RelativeLayout and set the android:layout_centerInParent attribute to true. 16.android.

scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView".4.5. one column.0" android:text="Submit" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. <?xml version="1. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.de/articles/Android/article. You can specify how many columns you want for define for each View in which row and column it should be placed and how many columns and rows it should use.0" android:text="@+id/TextView02" > </TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen. columns. and cells. This layout allows you to organize a view into a Grid. 16. Create the following layout and class. Gridlayout GridLayout was introduced with Android 4.Android Development Tutorial http://www.android. Tutorial: ScrollView Create an android project "de. If not specified GridLayout uses defaults.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas. Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements.vogella.0" android:text="Cancel" > 33 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . e.vogella. one row and the position of a View depends on the order of the declaration of the Views.0.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true" android:orientation="vertical" > <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" > </TextView> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1. GridLayout separates its drawing area into: rows. 17.g.

onCreate(savedInstanceState).vogella.layout. String s="".TextView02).id.setText(s).2. Activitities or Views. public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.de/articles/Android/article. You can define styles in XML and assign them to these elements. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.os.Activity.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> package de. i++) { s += "vogella. Overview Styles in Android allow to define the look and feel of Android application in external files. } } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R. for (int i=0.view.vogella. These styles can get assigned to the complete Applications. This way you only have to set common attributes once and can later change the look in one central place. 18. 18. setContentView(R.widget. android. i < 100.TextView. 34 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Example The following "styles. android.de ".app.Bundle. import import import import android.android. } view.scrollview. android.View.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Styling 18.1.main).xml" XML file would be created in the "/res/xml" folder.

getDisplayMetrics(). Fragments 20. like ListFragment or DialogFragment. so that it always occupies the same physical space. Fragments are components with their own lifecycle and their own user interface. e.1.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social <resources> <style name="text"> <item name="android:padding">4dip</item> <item name="android:textAppearance">?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge</item> <item name="android:textColor">#000000</item> </style> <style name="layout"> <item name="android:background">#C0C0C0</item> </style> </resources> You assign the style attribute to your elements. if an Activity is destroyed its Fragments will also get destroyed. Overview Fragment components allow you to organize your application code so that it is easier to support different sized devices. The onStart() method is called once the Fragment gets visible. You can use "dp" in your resources. } 19. layout files. You can therefore use the following formulator to calculate the right amount of pixels for a dimension specified in dp. The base class for Fragments is android. If you specify the size in "dp". Fragments always run in the context of an Activity. This size is also known as mdpi (medium dots per inch). Android will automatically scale it. Therefore it is recommended never to use fixed sized dimensions. They can be defined via layout files or via coding. 320x480 with 160dpi (dots per inch).5f). The unit of measurement which should be used is "dp" (which is the same as "dip" but shorter). For special purposes you can also use more special classes.1.de/articles/Android/article. 20. Using resource qualifiers Android also allows to use resource qualifiers to specify that certain resources should only be used for certain resolutions. Here you can inflate an layout. e.Android Development Tutorial http://www.g.density.2. If a Fragment component is defined in an XML layout file. The onCreateView() method is called by Android once the Fragment should create its user interface.g. // Convert the dps to pixels. 19. the android:name attribute points to the Fragments class. Using device independent pixel Android devices are different in terms of resolution and in terms of density.app. which was the size of the first Android device (G1). for example to the text elements via style=”@style/text”. based on density scale return (int) (input * scale + 0. dp refers to the base line of an Android device. 240dpi) device. 35 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . If an Activity is stopped its Fragments will also be stopped.vogella. The Android SDK expects that you specify everything in pixels. depending on the device. Supporting different screen sizes 19.Fragment. 120dip) and larger on a hdip(approx. public int convertToDp(int input) { // Get the screen's density scale final float scale = getResources(). On a mdpi device "dp" will be equal to pixel but it will be smaller on a ldpi (approx.

In this case the main activity checks if the detail fragment is available in the layout. But as tablets offer significantly more space you typically include more views into the layout and Fragments makes that easier. The second approach is the most flexible and in general preferable way of using Fragments. It also requires an update of the action bar if the action bar status depends on the fragment. 36 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . The following discussion will assume that you have two Fragments (main and detail) but you can also have more. a second Activity called DetailActivity will start and show the selected text. This requires that the fragment is not declared in the layout file as such Fragments cannot be removed during runtime. We will also have one main activity and one detailed activity. findFragmentById(R. On a tablet the main activity contains both Fragments in its layout. In landscape mode MainActivity will show two Fragments. for example you can use Fragments also to support different layout for landscape and portrait orientation. On a handset you jump to a new detail screen. } To create different layouts with Fragments you can: Use one activity. Use separate activities to host each fragment on a handset.Android Development Tutorial http://www. The second Fragment shows the text of the current selected item. start another activity that hosts the other fragment.2.isInLayout()) { // start new Activity } else { fragment. The entry Activity (called MainActivity of our application ) will use different layouts for portrait and for landscape mode. For example. which displays two Fragments for tablets and only one on handsets devices. This is similar to the portrait mode. Fragments Tutorial 21. when the tablet UI uses two Fragments in an activity. For this purpose a Fragment typically implements an interface to get new data from its host Activity. When to use Fragments Fragments make it easy to re-use components in different layouts.id.vogella. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager(). but the whole information will be shown on one screen. When you need to switch Fragments. use the same activity for handsets. if (fragment==null || ! fragment. you can build single-pane layouts for handsets (phones) and multi-pane layouts for tablets. In portrait mode MainActivity will show one Fragment with a list of names.. The typical example is a list of items in an activity. on a handheld it only contains the main fragment. e. 20.update(. i. Overview The following tutorial demonstrates how to use Fragments.e.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social add the action to the history stack of the Activity. On a tablet you see the details immediately on the same screen on the right hand side if you click on item. the main activity tells the fragment that is should update itself. The first is again the Fragments which shows the list of names. but supply an alternative layout that includes just one fragment.g.detail_frag). In this case you would switch the Fragments in the activity whenever necessary. this will allow to revert the Fragment changes in the Activity via the back button.).de/articles/Android/article. It is good practice that Fragments do not manipulate each other. 21. If the detailed fragment is there.. This is not limited to tablets.1. To check for an fragment you can use the FragmentManager. If the user touches an item in the list. If the detail fragment is not available the main activity starts the detailed activity.

"Ubuntu". This layout will be used by the DetailFragment. "iPhone". <?xml version="1. String[] values = new String[] { "Android". import import import import import android.4.content.os. android. 21. android.widget.Preview: layout=@layout/details --> </fragment> </LinearLayout> 21. Create layouts for portrait mode Create or change the following layout files in the "res/layout/" folder. 37 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .3.onCreate(savedInstanceState).xml" file. "Linux".vogella.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/detailsText" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal|center_vertical" android:layout_marginTop="20dip" android:text="Large Text" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:textSize="30dip" /> </LinearLayout> Change the existing "main.xml".onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState).vogella.widget.ArrayAdapter.fragments.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="150dip" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de. Create the ListFragment class. public class ListFragment extends android.app.fragments. "OS/2" }.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Create a new project de. android. "Blackberry".android. First create the following file called "details.Bundle.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella.vogella. package de.fragments with an Activity called MainActivity.vogella.android. <?xml version="1.android. "Windows7". android. This layout will be used by MainActivity in landscape mode and shows two Fragments.ListFragment" ></fragment> <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.fragments. "Max OS X".DetailFragment" > <!-.ListView.android. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. "WebOS". Create Fragment classes Create now the Fragment classes.de/articles/Android/article.ListFragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android. "WindowsMobile".view.android.Intent.View.

import import import import import import import android. Therefore create the following "main. android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" 38 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . View v. ViewGroup container.inflate(R. intent. Only if we would not have a "main.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social setListAdapter(adapter).android. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.android. } @Override public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager() . For this reason create the "res/layout-port" folder.xml file in portrait model then in landscape mode.view. startActivity(intent).details.LayoutInflater. public class DetailFragment extends Fragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.view.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState).onCreate(savedInstanceState). long id) { String item = (String) getListAdapter().Fragment.widget. } } 21.e("Test".class).detailsText).vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www. item). package de.setText(item). false).layout. container.findViewById(R.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.app. view.xml" file in "layout-port". } @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l. android. android.os.getApplicationContext(). } } } Create the DetailFragment class. DetailActivity.vogella. <?xml version="1. return view. In portrait mode Android will check the "layout-port" folder for fitting layout files. Bundle savedInstanceState) { View view = inflater. } else { Intent intent = new Intent(getActivity(). android. android.isInLayout()) { fragment.putExtra("value".Log. if (fragment != null && fragment.detailFragment). Create layouts for landscape mode We want that Android uses a different main.de/articles/Android/article.id. Android would check the "layout" folder.util. "hello"). android. } public void setText(String item) { TextView view = (TextView) getView().5.View.ViewGroup.fragments.findFragmentById(R.Bundle.TextView.getItem(position).id.setText(item). Log. int position.xml" layout file in "res/layout-port".view.

fragments. android.onCreate(savedInstanceState). but as it is only used in portrait mode it is best practise to place it into this folder.setText(s).ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE) { finish(). } } } MainActivity will remain unmodified.android.app.widget.de/articles/Android/article.orientation == Configuration.getString("value"). Bundle extras = getIntent().ListFragment" /> </LinearLayout> Also create the "details_activity_layout.android.details_activity_layout).vogella.6.layout.app.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.Activity. Run 39 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .detailsText). if (extras != null) { String s = extras.vogella.DetailFragment" /> </LinearLayout> 21. // Need to check if Activity has been switched to landscape mode // If yes.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. public class DetailActivity extends Activity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.res. <?xml version="1.fragments. import android.Bundle.id.vogella.Configuration. This layout will be used in the DetailActivity which is only used in portrait mode.onCreate(savedInstanceState). android. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. setContentView(R.Activity. finished and go back to the start Activity if (getResources(). } } 21.vogella. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R. import import import import android. return. view.fragments. android.getExtras().os.android.vogella.content.fragments. Please note that we could have create this file also in the "layout" folder.xml" layout file.Bundle.Android Development Tutorial http://www.android. public class MainActivity extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.7. } setContentView(R.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.getConfiguration().os. package de.android.TextView. Activities Create a new Activity called DetailActivity with the following class.layout. import android. package de.main).

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social to switch the orientation.vogella. Select Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS to open this perspective. 22. Shell 40 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . 22. File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the Android simulator.de/articles/Android/article. If you select an item in portrait mode a new Activity should get started with the selected item. LogCat View You can see the log (including System. DDMS perspective and important views 22. 23.print() statements) via the LogCat view. DDMS .2. In horizontal mode your second Fragment should display the select item.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 22. It includes several Views which can also be used independently and allows for example the application to place calls and send SMS to the device.out.3. It also allows the application to set the current geo position and allows you to perform a performance trace of your application.1. In horizontal mode you should see two Fragments.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your Android (virtual) device and your Android application program.

Open a shell. etc. e. Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell.g. change the network "stability".de/articles/Android/article. // Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system.2. # connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 24. This allows you to simulate certain things. If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individual device. To exit the console session. You can also uninstall an app via adb with the package name. ls. then enable USB debugging.vogella. to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following. The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". adb shell You can also copy a file from and to your device via the following commands. etc. # Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 23. Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. incoming call.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social You can access your Android emulator also via the console. adb uninstall <packagename> 23. e. For details please see 41 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Switch the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application.g.3. Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. rm. use the command "quit" or "exit".Android Development Tutorial http://www. mkdir. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell". switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". Select in the settings Applications > Development. For example to change the power settings of your phone. set your current geocodes. You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone. Use "telnet localhost 5554" to connect to your simulated device.

Android Resources Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android SQlite Database Android Widgets Android Live Wallpaper Android Services Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking 42 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Questions and Discussion Before posting questions.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de Google Group. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www.2. Thank you Please help me to support this article: 26. select the "Run Configurations". I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social version on your phone.vogella. select "Manual" selection and select your device. Source Code Source Code of Examples 27. 27. 25. Links and Literature 27.1.de/articles/Android/article. please see the vogella FAQ.vogella. To select your phone.

vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Live Folder 27.de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www.3. vogella Resources Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system 43 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

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