Android Development Tutorial


Tutorials Trainings Books Social

Android Development Tutorial

Based on Android 4.0 Lars Vogel
Version 10.0 Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Lars Vogel 06.03.2012
Revision History Revision 0.1 Created Revision 0.2 - 10.0 bug fixing and enhancements 07.07.2009 - 06.03.2012 04.07.2009

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
Table of Contents 1. What is Android? 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Google Play 1.3. Security and permissions 2. Android components 2.1. Activity 2.2. Views and ViewGroups 2.3. Intents 2.4. Services 2.5. ContentProvider 2.6. BroadcastReceiver 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets 2.8. Other 3. Android Development Tools 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools? 3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine 3.3. How to develop Android Applications 4. Android Application Architecture 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml 4.2. and Resources 4.3. Assets 4.4. Activities and Layouts 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle 4.7. Configuration Change 4.8. Context 5. Installation 5.1. Eclipse 5.2. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK 5.4. Manually install Android SDK 5.5. Install a specific Android version 5.6. Android Source Code 6. Android virtual device - Emulator 6.1. What is the Android Emulator? 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts 6.4. Performance 6.5. Hardware button 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device 8. Error handling and typical problems 8.1. Clean Project 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)

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Android Development Tutorial


Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.5. Timeout during deployment 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage 8.7. Debug Certificate expired 8.8. Error message for @override 8.9. Missing Imports 8.10. Eclipse Tips 9. Conventions for the tutorials 9.1. API version, package and application name 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials 10. Your first Android project 10.1. Create Project 10.2. Two faces of things 10.3. Create attributes 10.4. Add UI Elements 10.5. Edit UI properties 10.6. Code your application 10.7. Start Project 11. Starting an deployed application 12. Menus and Action Bar 12.1. Definition of menu entries 12.2. Action bar tabs 12.3. Context menus 13. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.1. Project 13.2. Add a menu XML resource 14. Preferences 15. Tutorial: Preferences 15.1. Using preferences 15.2. Run 16. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16.1. Available Layout Manager 16.2. LinearLayout 16.3. RelativeLayout 16.4. Gridlayout 16.5. ScrollView 17. Tutorial: ScrollView 18. Styling 18.1. Overview 18.2. Example 19. Supporting different screen sizes 19.1. Using device independent pixel 19.2. Using resource qualifiers 20. Fragments 20.1. Overview 20.2. When to use Fragments 21. Fragments Tutorial 21.1. Overview 21.2. Create project 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode 21.4. Create Fragment classes 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode 21.6. Activities 21.7. Run 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 22.2. LogCat View 22.3. File explorer 23. Shell 23.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet 24. Deploy your application on a real device 25. Thank you 26. Questions and Discussion 27. Links and Literature 27.1. Source Code 27.2. Android Resources 27.3. vogella Resources

1. What is Android?
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) provides all necessary tools to develop Android

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Android Development Tutorial


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run Android programs. Android is currently primarily developed by Google. Android allows background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. Android applications consist of different components and can re-use components of other applications, if these applications declare their components as available. This leads to the concept of a task in Android; an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task. For example you can write an application which integrates a map component and a camera component to archive a certain task.

1.2. Google Play
Google offers the "Google Play" service. Google hosts Android applications and the Google Play application allows to install new Android application on an Android device. Google Play used to be called "Android Market".

1.3. Security and permissions
During deployment on an Android device, the Android system will create a unique user and group ID for every Android application. Each application file is private to this generated user, e.g. other applications cannot access these files. In addition each Android application will be started in its own process. Therefore by means of the underlying Linux operating system, every Android application is isolated from other running applications. A misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications. If data should be shared, the application must do this explicitly, e.g. via a Service or a ContentProvider. Android also contains a permission system. Android predefines permissions for certain tasks but every application can also define its own permissions. An application must declare in its configuration file (AndroidManifest.xml) that it requires certain permissions. Depending on the details of the required permission, the Android system will either automatically grant the permission, reject it or ask the user if he grants this permission to the application during installation. If for example the application declares that it requires Internet access, the user needs to confirm the usage of this permission during installation. This is called "user driven security". The user decides to grant a permission or to deny it. If the user denies a permission required by the application, this application cannot be installed. The check of the permission is only performed during installation, permissions cannot be denied or granted after the installation. Typically not all users check the permissions in detail but some users do. If there is seems to be something strange in connection with them, they will write bad reviews on Google Play.

2. Android components
The following gives a short overview of the most important Android components.

2.1. Activity
Activity represents the presentation layer of an Android application. A simplified (and slightly incorrect)

description is that an Activity is a screen. This is slightly incorrect as Activities can be displayed as Dialogs or can be transparent. An Android application can have several Activities.

2.2. Views and ViewGroups
Views are user interface widgets, e.g. buttons or text fields. The base class for all Views is android.view.View. Views often have attributes which can be used to change their appearance and

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A ViewGroup is responsible for arranging other Views e.g. a ViewGroup is a layout manager. The base class for a layout manager is android.view.ViewGroups. ViewGroup also extends View. ViewGroups can be nestled to create complex layouts. You should not nestle ViewGroups too deeply as this has a negative impact on the performance.

2.3. Intents
Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other

components of the Android system, e.g. from Services or Activities. An application can call a component directly (explicit Intent ) or ask the Android system to evaluate registered components for a certain Intent (implicit Intents ). For example the application could implement sharing of data via an Intent and all components which allow sharing of data would be available for the user to select. Applications register themselves to an Intent via an IntentFilter.
Intents allow to combine loosely coupled components to perform certain tasks.

2.4. Services
Services perform background tasks without providing a user interface. They can notify the user via the

notification framework in Android.

2.5. ContentProvider
ContentProvider provides a structured interface to application data. Via a ContentProvider your

application can share data with other applications. Android contains an SQLite database which is frequently used in conjunction with a ContentProvider to persist the data of the ContentProvider.

2.6. BroadcastReceiver
BroadcastReceiver can be registered to receive system messages and Intents. A BroadcastReceiver

will get notified by the Android system, if the specified situation happens. For example a BroadcastReceiver could get called once the Android system completed the boot process or if a phone call is received.

2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
Widgets are interactive components which are primarily used on the Android homescreen. They typically

display some kind of data and allow the user to perform actions via them. For example a Widget could display a short summary of new emails and if the user selects an email, it could start the email application with the selected email.

2.8. Other
Android provide many more components but the list above describes the most important ones. Other Android components are "Live Folders" and "Live Wallpapers". Live Folders display data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

3. Android Development Tools
3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) to develop Android applications with Eclipse. ADT is a set of components (plug-ins) which extend the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. ADT contains all required functionalities to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the Eclipse IDE and from the command line. Other IDE's, e.g. IntellJ, are also reusing components of ADT. ADT also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone.

3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine

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The resulting .g. <?xml version="1. versionCode must be an integer. It must also contain the required permissions for the application. either within Eclipse or via the command line. the images and XML files.dex file.dex file. e. 3.xml.category. If a Java object lies within a different package. Therefore it is a good habit to use your reverse domain name as package name. How to develop Android Applications Android applications are primarily written in the Java programming language.Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android.dex file and the resources of an Android project.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas. The . 4. Google Play requires that every Android application uses its own unique The components and settings of an Android application are described in the file AndroidManifest. android:versionName and android:versionCode specify the version of your application. These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the corresponding class files. During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the .vogella. are packed into an .action.apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the "adb" This will avoid collisions with other Android applications.intent. For example all Activities and Services of the application must be declared in this file. Android provides a tool called "dx"" which converts Java class files into a dex (Dalvik Executable) file.apk (Android Package) file. The Android Market determine based on the versionCode. it must be declared with the full qualified package name.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1. Android Application Architecture 4.intent. The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performs this Development Tutorial http://www. the . The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social applications.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=". they need to get converted in the Dalvik bytecode format. if it should 5 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .MAIN" /> <category android:name="android. AndroidManifest. versionName is what the user sees and can be any String.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" /> </manifest> The package attribute defines the base package for the Java objects referred to in this file.1. For example if the same String is found in different class files. Dalvik uses an own bytecode format which is different from Java bytecode.vogella.apk file) will be created and" package="de. The Android Development Tools (ADT) allows that all these steps are performed transparently to the user.dex file contains only once reference of this String. If you use the ADT tooling you press a button or run a script and the whole Android application (. All class files of one application are placed in one compressed . For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here. Therefore you cannot directly run Java class files on Android.3.

yourvalue). in this example pointing to the Convert class in the is a generated class which contains references to certain resources of the project. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML. The @string/app_name value refers to resource files which contain the actual value of the application name. For example to access a String with the R.string. You can for example define values. strings. the assets directory can be used to store any kind of is automatically created by the Eclipse development environment. 4. The usage of resource file makes it easy to provide different resources. the corresponding reference is automatically created in R. <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> By conversion this will create and assign a new yourvalue ID to the corresponding View. you would use the getString(R.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social value by one. R. The category definition category android:name="android.2. their relationship and their attributes for this specific layout. In most cases the layout is defined as an XML file.MAIN" ). This file specifies the ViewGroups. colors.intent. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions. An intent filter is registered for this class which defines that this Activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android. menus.LAUNCHER" defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device. Activities and Layouts The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts. The layout defines the included Views (widgets) and their properties.g.3.category. 6 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . These resources must be defined in the "res" directory and can be XML icons or pictures. layouts or animations via XML files. Views. manual changes are not necessary and will be overridden by the tooling. To assign a new ID to a View use @+id/yourvalue. If a View needs to be accessed via Java and Resources The " gen " directory in an Android project contains generated values.temperature package. Assets While the res directory contains structured values which are known to the Android platform. 4. If you create a new resource.xml" file defines the minimal SDK version for which your application is valid. you have to give the View a unique ID via the android:id attribute. R. The tag <activity> defines an Activity. These references are static int values and define ID's for the resources. In your Java code you can later access a View via the method findViewById(R. for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications. R.yourString ID.yourString)) via the Eclipse ADT tools. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the /res/layout folder. The Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource via these ID's. The "uses-sdk" part of the " if you roll-out a new version of your application.action.Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. e. icons. In Java you access this data via the AssetsManager and the getAssets() method . The following shows an example in which a Button gets the "button1" ID assigned.

can be used to initialize fields 4. you could access it via @string/hello. 4.content.6. In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11. which can be found here: Eclipse IDE Book for Kindle.g. You find the necessary steps described in the following section of the tutorial: Eclipse Update Manager.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social definition.1. It also allows the definition of different layouts for different devices. e.5. Context also provides access to Android Services. you can refer to it via @color/your_id.always called if the Activity ends. You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your Activity definition in your AndroidManifest. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application. This is required to install the Android Development Tools. For example if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertically or horizontally). 5. You can also mix both approaches. The Android system defines a lifecycle for Activities via predefined methods. Configuration Change An Activity will also be restarted.called if the Activity is It is the interface to global information about the application environment.called if the Activity is re-started. you can refer to other resources via the @ sign. Activities and Services extend the Context class and can therefore be used as Context. e.Context provides the connections to the Android system.7. if a so called "configuration change" happens. For example. The author of this text has also published a Kindle book on the usage of the Eclipse IDE. Installation 5. The following Activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible). the Location Service. For an introduction into Eclipse please see the following tutorial: Eclipse IDE Tutorial. Used to save data so that the Activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() . Context The class android. The most important methods are: onSaveInstanceState() . <activity android:name=". The tutorial above also describes how to install new components into Eclipse. Android assumes that an Activity might want to use different resources for these orientations and restarts the Activity. for example your layout files. Activities and Lifecycle The Android system controls the lifecycle of your application. 7 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . A configuration change happens if an event is triggered which may be relevant for the application.8. Reference to resources in XML files In your XML files.ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 4. because of an incoming call. can be used to release resource or save data onResume() .g. 4. Eclipse The following assume that you have already Java and Eclipse installed and know how to use Eclipse.vogella. Or if you defined a "hello" string in an XML resource.xml. if you want to refer to a color which is defined in a XML resource.Android Development Tutorial http://www.

therefore on an 64bit Linux system you need to have the package ia32-libs installed. For Ubuntu you can do this via the following 8 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . you will be prompted to install the Android SDK.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The Android SDK is 32bit. 5. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available components for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl. After the new Android development components are apt-get install ia32-libs Please check your distribution You can use the following wizard or go to the next section to learn how to do it manually.Android Development Tutorial http://www.3. if you are using a different flavor of Linux.

otherwise you may experience problems with the usage of the Android SDK. You also have to define the location of the Android SDK in the Eclipse Preferences. which you can extract to any place in your file system.4.g. In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via the menu Windows → Preferences. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK. Select Window → Android SDK Manager from the Eclipse menu. Install a specific Android version The Android SDK Manager allows you to install specific versions of Android. 5. e. Avoid using spaces in the path name.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Manually install Android SDK After the installation of the ADT the Eclipse tooling allows to download the Android SDK automatically. on my Linux system I placed it under "/home/vogella/android-sdks".5. 9 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella. Alternatively you can also manually download the Android SDK from the Android SDK download The download contains a zip file.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5.

The sources are downloaded to the source directory located in "path_to_android_sdk/sources/android-xx". Type in the source directory name and press OK.vogella.3) version of the SDK and press "Install".1.g. restart Eclipse.6. e. Android Source Code The following step is optional. 5. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons". 10 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .jar in the Eclipse Package Explorer and select Properties → Java Source Attachment. Select the Google API 15 (Android As of Android 4. 5.0 During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available.0. As of Android 4.0. right click on your android.6. After the installation completes. 15 for the Android 4. Press the "Install" button and confirm the license for all packages.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The dialog allows you to install new packages and also allows you to delete them.0 the Android development tools provides also the source code. xx is the API level of Android. You can download it via the Android SDK Manager by selecting the "Sources for Android SDK". To connect the sources with the android.jar file in your Android project.3 version. Emulator Shortcuts The following shortcuts are useful for working with the emulator. e. add at least 1 GB of memory to your emulator.4.0 For earlier versions Haris Peco maintains plugins. Starting a new emulator is very slow. Alt+Enter Maximizes the emulator. Google vrs.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. The ADT allow to deploy and run your Android program on the AVD. This will save the state of the emulator and let it start much faster.3. most notable the Google Maps application. An AVD created for the Google API's will also contain several Google applications. which is very slow. Performance The graphics of the emulator are rendered in software. the size of the SD card. Ctrl+F11 changes the orientation of the emulator. Cloud2DeviceMessaging or Google Maps you must run this application on an AVD with Google API's.5.6. Prior to Android 4.source. If you want to use functionality which is only provided via the Google API's.update". 6. 6.2. as for example HVGA. Nice for F8 Turns network on / off. which provide the Android Source code code. due to some initial setup. To have a responsive emulator use a small resolution for your emulator.Emulator 6. More details can be found on the project website. Android virtual device .Android Development Tutorial http://www. add the "Hardware Back/Home keys" property to the device configuration and set it to "false". The emulator behaves like a real Android device (in most cases) and allows you to test your application without having a real device. This is the value "Device ram size" during the creation of the AVD. Also set the flag "Enabled" for An AVD created for Android will contain the programs from the Android Open Source Project. What is the Android Emulator? The Android Development Tools (ADT) include an emulator to run an Android system. Also if you have sufficient memory on your computer.0 introduced that devices do not have to have hardware button anymore. Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adtaddons. These devices are called "Android Virtual Device" (AVD) and you can start several in parallel. Android AVD During the creation of an AVD you decide if you want an Android device or an Google device. 6. You can configure the version of the Android system you would like to run. the screen resolution and other relevant settings. If you want to create such an AVD. 6.g.ide.2. 11 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . 6. Hardware button Android 4. You can define several devices with different configurations.

de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 7. 12 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device To define an Android Virtual Device (ADV) open the "AVD Manager" via Windows → AVD Manager and press "New". Enter the following.vogella.

Clean Project Several users report that get the following errors: 1. This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster.1. 3.vogella. is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2. Error handling and typical problems Things are not always working as they should. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb) The communication with the emulator or your Android device might have problems. To solve any of these errors.Android Development Tutorial http://www. This section gives an overview over typical problems and how to solve them. select your device and press "Start". You are able to use it via the mouse and via the virtual keyboard of the emulator.. This communication is handled by the Android Debug Bridge (adb).2. Eclipse allows to reset the adb in case this causes problems. 8. go to the project menu and select Project → Clean. At the end press the button "Create AVD".java. This will create the AVD configuration and display it under the "Virtual devices". The project could not be built until build path errors are Unable to open class file R. Project ..html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social We can also select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots. 8. Select therefore the DDMS perspective via Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS 13 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . After (a long time) your AVD starts. 8. To test if your setup is correct.

Install failed due to insufficient storage Sometimes the emulator will refuse to install an application with the error message: INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE. select Window → Show View → Other → Android → LogCat. Timeout during deployment If you face timeout issues during deployment you can increase the default timeout in the Eclipse preferences. An Android virtual device provides per default only 64M for internal storage of application.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.4. 8. You can clean your installed application by re-starting the emulator and selecting the "Wipe user data" flag.5. if you press edit on the AVD you can set the "Ideal size of data partition" property via the "New" button. To open this view. 14 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . 8.vogella.3. LogCat The "LogCat" View shows you the log messages of your Android device and help you analyze problems. make sure that the android-sdk version is in a path without any spaces in the path Emulator does not start If your emulator does not start. For example Java exceptions in your program would be shown here. Select Window → Preferences → Android → DDMS and increase the "ADB connection timeout (in ms)" value. 8. Alternative you can set the the data partition size.

9.vogella. Eclipse Tips To work more efficiently with Eclipse. 8. select Window → Preferences → Java → Editor → Save Actions and select that the source code should be formatted and that the imports should be organized at every save. right-click in your Editor and select Source → Organize Imports to important required packages.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8. Lower version of the Android API might also work. e.7. Higher version usually should also work.8.3. change the Java compiler level to Java" under Linux and delete the "debug. This file is only valid for a year and if not present Eclipse will regenerate the password. Please use this version for all tutorials in this book.Android Development Tutorial http://www.9. API version. select Properties → Java Compiler → Compiler compliance level and select "1. To do this right-click on the project. package and application name The tutorials of this document have been developed and tested with Android 4. If you receive an error message for @override.g. e. The base package for the projects is always the same as the project name. Debug Certificate expired If you get the error message "Debug Certificate expired" switch to the folder which contains the Android AVD.6" in the drop-down box. if you are asked to create a 15 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . 8.1. Missing Imports Java requires that classes which are not part of the standard Java Language be either fully qualified or declared via imports.keystore" 8.6. ". API Level 15. If you see error message with "XX cannot be resolved to a variable".10. Error message for @override The @override annotation was introduced in Java 1.6. Conventions for the tutorials 9.g. try the recommended version. but if you face issues.0.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "de. Android Exercises and Tutorials You find different types of exercises. 16 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Create Project This app is also available on the Android Marketplace. Enter the following.example. for example in layout files.2. While for real application its best practice to use string resource files we use use Strings directly to simplify the creation of the examples.vogella.1. Choose a name you like. 9.vogella.3.temperature". others just give you the task to".vogella. The Application name.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Most exercises try to give you a base example and ask you to extend this example. which must be entered on the Android project generation wizard. Your first Android project 10. Warnings Messages for Strings The Android development tools are show warnings if you use hard-coded strings. Search for "vogella" for find this example. Select File → New → Other → Android → Android Project and create the Android project "de. will not be predefined. Some exercises explain every mouse click you have to do. 10.

vogella. This should create the following directory 17 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Press "Finish".

de/articles/Android/article. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main.Android Development Tutorial http://www. e.vogella.g.2. in two ways: via a rich editor. 18 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . and directly via XML. Two faces of things The Android SDK allows the developer to define certain artifacts. 10. e. The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation the resulting XML is also displayed. 10.g. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources.xml". In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets().3.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. for strings or colors. strings and UI's.

4. Add also the following "String" attributes.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World.vogella. String Attributes Name celsius fahrenheit calc Value to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate Switch to the XML representation and validate the values. String attributes allow the developer to translate the application at a later Table 1. 19 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . <?xml version="1. Add UI Elements Select "res/layout/main. The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "#3399CC" as the value.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code. For changing the position and grouping elements you can use the outline view. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 10.

The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field. from the “Palette” drag a Button object onto the layout. The result should look like the following.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.Android Development Tutorial http://www.xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Right-click on the text object “Hello World. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object. Then. Hello!” in the layout. Switch to "main. they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText".com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> 20 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella. Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout. <?xml version="1. From the Palette section Form Widgets. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group.

vogella.5. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property. Edit UI properties If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. You can also edit properties of fields directy in XML. Most of the properties can be changed via the right mouse menu. But the right mouse functionality is nice if you are searching for a certain Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> 10.xml" and delete the android:text="EditText" property from the EditText part. Open your file "main.xml" We will delete the initial text for the EditText field in XML. Switch to the XML tab called "main. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton. You can either edit the XML file or modify the properties via right mouse click. Assign the and "fahrenheit" string attribute to the second radio button. 21 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Switch back to the "Graphical Layout" tab and check that the text is removed. Use the right mouse click on the first radio button to assign the "celsius" string attribute to its "text" property. From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Typically you change properties directly in the XML file as this is much faster.

onCreate(savedInstanceState). package de.RadioButton.vogella. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { then select Other Properties → All by Name → Background.radio0).id. } // This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.getText().Android Development Tutorial http://www. android. to the following. Right-click on an empty space in Graphical Layout mode. import import import import import import android.Bundle. text = (EditText) findViewById(R.view.6. android. RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R. <?xml version="1.widget.editText1). The project wizard also created the corresponding Java classs. public class ConvertActivity extends Activity { private EditText text.View.EditText. Change your code in setContentView(R. android.layout. if ( == 0) { 22 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout> 10. Note that the myClickHandler will be called based on the OnClick property of your button.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained. Switch to the "main.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social LinearLayout.os.radio1).0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Code your application During the generation of your new Android project you specified that an Activity called ConvertActivity should get created. Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.main).app.widget.Activity. android.vogella.getId()) { case R.

} // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32. select your project.setChecked(false).setChecked(true).toString()). } break. Start Project To start the Android Application. Be patient. celsiusButton. If you press the Home button you can also select your application.setChecked(true).html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social return. } else { text. 11. right click on it. Starting an deployed application After you run your application on the virtual device you can start it again on the device. You should get the following result.isChecked()) { text. select your conversion and press the button.valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))).vogella.setText(String . and select Run-As → Android Application. celsiusButton.parseFloat(text. The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.Android Development Tutorial http://www.getText(). } float inputValue = Float. fahrenheitButton. } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit . the emulator starts up very slowly. Type in a number. } } 10. 23 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .32) * 5 / 9).setText(String . if (celsiusButton.

vogella. navigation modes.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 12. Typically you define your menu entries in a way that they are added to the action bar if sufficient space is available in the 24 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . The second option is that the app can open a menu which shows additional actions via a popup menu.1. and other interactive items. Definition of menu entries Android provides two possible ways to display global actions which the user can select. The first one is the usage of the Action Bar in the application. The Action Bar is a window feature at the top of the activity that may display the activity title.Android Development Tutorial Menus and Action Bar 12.

addFlags(Intent. EditText provides context options to select text. Each Activity has already an instance of the class available and this instance can get accessed via the getMenuInflator() method.socialapp" with the Activity called "OverviewActivity". The Android platform may also add options to your View. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the onPrepareOptionsMenu() method. The onCreateContextMenu() method is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage. Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu which is displayed in the action bar if sufficient space is available. OverviewActivity. Create a project called "de.vogella.FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP)" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences" > </Button> </LinearLayout> 25 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .R. etc. // If home icon is clicked return to main Activity case android. A context menu for a view is registered via the registerForContextMenu(view) method. This example will be extended in the chapter about preferences. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13. In this method you can create the menu programmatically or you can use a pre-defined XML resources which you inflate via the MenuInflator class.xml" layout file in the diretory "/res/layout/" to the following: <?xml version="1.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The option menu and the action bar of your activity is filled by the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your 12.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Change the "main. A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view. e. 12.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. You can also add an action to this The onCreateOptionsMenu() method is only called once. Context menus You can also assign a context menu to an UI widget (view).id. The recommendation is to return to the main Activity in your program. intent. startActivity(intent) 13. The ActionBar also shows an icon of your application. If you select this icon the onOptionsItemSelected() method will be called with the value android.class).vogella. break.home: Intent intent = new Intent(this.3. Action bar tabs It is also possible to add tabs to an action bar.

xml" and press the button "Finish". If that happens. you can open this editor manually.vogella. Switch if necessary to the "Layout" tab of the editor. Maintain the following value. Press Add and select "Item". Select the option "Menu". right click on it and select New → Other → Android → Android XML File to create a new XML resource. We will also define that the menu entry is displayed in the action bar if there is sufficient space available. Right-click on your menu file and select Open with → Android Menu Editor. 26 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Select your enter as File "mainmenu. This will create a new file "mainmenu.xml" in the folder "res/menu" of your project.Android Development Tutorial http://www. This defines the entries in your menu. unfortunately this editor is not always automatically used due to bugs in the ADT. Android provides a nice editor to edit this file.

import import import import import import android. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called.Activity. The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the If you select the menu item you should see a small info message. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { inflater. setContentView(R. android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Change your Activity class "OverviewActivity" to the following.inflate(R. android. } @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast. menu).widget. "Just a test".MenuItem.view. } } Run your application.layout.main). 27 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . As there is enough space in the action bar your item will be displayed there. android.vogella.Menu. Toast.onCreate(savedInstanceState).menu.Bundle. If there would be more items you could press "Menu" on the emulator to see them.socialapp. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings.Android Development Tutorial http://www. } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(). return true.makeText(this. package de.view.LENGTH_SHORT). return true. android. android.

We will use them in the next chapter. PreferenceActivity supports the simple handling of preferences. In your application you can access the preference manager via the following: SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager. Preferences Android supports the usage of Preferences to allow you to save data for your" of type "PreferenceScreen".putString("username". 14. Editor edit = preferences. edit. The definition of Preferences can also be done via an XML resource.getString("username". Values can get access via the key of the preference setting. To communicate between different components Android uses Intents. Android provides the class "PreferenceActivity" which extends the class Activity. Create an Android XML resource "preferences. Preferences are stored as key values.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).de/articles/Android/article.commit().1.vogella. 28 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de.Android Development Tutorial http://www.edit(). edit. To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() methods.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource(). Tutorial: Preferences 15. Once you have changed the value you have to call commit() to apply your". String username = preferences. "n/a"). "new_value_for_user").vogella. Typically the PreferenceActivity is started from another activity via an Intent. 15.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Open the file via right-mouse click and Open-with → Android XML Resource Editor. You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField. 29 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella.g. Development Tutorial http://www. add a "PreferenceCategory" and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password". Press Add. the inputMethod.

socialapp.MenuItem. "n/a"). showPrefs(username. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.PreferenceActivity. android. Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.getString("username".onCreate(savedInstanceState). To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity".app.preferences). android.xml" file and will allow the user to change the values. android.View.OnClickListener. setContentView(R. android. Scroll to the botton of the view and add your new activity via the "Add" button.preference. } } To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest. button.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences. import android. password). addPreferencesFromResource(R. This Activity will load the "preference.Activity. The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code. package android.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).view. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { SharedPreferences preferences.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www.content. android.Button01). android. import android.vogella.view. public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.os.widget.SharedPreferences. import import import import import import import import import import import import android.PreferenceManager. android. } })" and the tab "Application".View. String password = preferences.Button02).content.widget. Select "AndroidManifest. android.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { updatePreferenceValue().xml" file. package de. Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:inputType="textPassword" Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity.os.Editor.MenuInflater.vogella. android. Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R.onCreate(savedInstanceState). // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager.getString("password".Bundle. "n/a"). buttonChangePreferences. } 30 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Toast.SharedPreferences.

} 15. Run Run your application. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button. "Reverted string sequence of user } edit.append(username. You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity.class). We give a little feedback Toast. MyPreferencesActivity.Android Development Tutorial http://www.this. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries.LENGTH_LONG). edit. // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(). buffer. Toast. Toast. } // This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item.preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity. } To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().putString("username" // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user.getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R. "Input: " + username + " and password: " + password. String password){ Toast. If you press the second button the username should be reversed. "n/a").commit().this. } private void updatePreferenceValue(){ Editor edit = preferences. "Enter your user credentials.LENGTH_LONG). Toast. return true. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences.LENGTH_LONG).inflate(R.vogella. i--) { buffer. Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences".charAt(i)). menu).getString("username". startActivity(i).". // Some feedback to the user Toast.length() .makeText(OverviewActivity. String username = preferences.makeText(OverviewActivity. i >= 31 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } return true.edit().".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social private void showPrefs(String username. inflater.this. break.toString()). for (int i = username.

Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.1. As of Android 4. A simple usage for RelativeLayout is if you want to center a single component. RelativeLayout and" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <ProgressBar android:id="@+id/progressBar1" style="?android:attr/progressBarStyleLarge" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_centerInParent="true" /> 32 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This allows for complex layouts.0 the most relevant layout manager are LinearLayout. FrameLayout. RelativeLayout RelativeLayout allow to position the widget relative to each AbsoluteLayoutLayout is deprecated and TableLayout can be implemented more effectively via GridLayout 16. Children can also define attributes which may be evaluated by their parent layout.2.vogella. Just add one component to the RelativeLayout and set the android:layout_centerInParent attribute to true. Android supports different default layout managers.Android Development Tutorial http://www. All layouts allow the developer to define attributes. horizontal is the default value. Possible values for this attribute are horizontal and vertical. <?xml version="1.3. LinearLayout LinearLayout puts all its child elements into a single column or row depending on the android:orientation attribute. Available Layout Manager A layout manager is a subclass of ViewGroup and is responsible for the layout of itself and its child LinearLayout can be nested to achieve more complex layouts. 16.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.

columns.0" android:text="@+id/TextView02" > </TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. Gridlayout GridLayout was introduced with Android 4. Create the following layout and class. Development Tutorial http://www. You can specify how many columns you want for define for each View in which row and column it should be placed and how many columns and rows it should ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen. and cells.vogella. If not specified GridLayout uses defaults. e. one column. Tutorial: ScrollView Create an android project "de.0" android:text="Cancel" > 33 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This layout allows you to organize a view into a Grid.vogella. <?xml version=" one row and the position of a View depends on the order of the declaration of the Views. GridLayout separates its drawing area into: rows.0" android:text="Submit" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. 16.g. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView".com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true" android:orientation="vertical" > <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" > </TextView> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1.0.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas. Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements.

18. } } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended.xml" XML file would be created in the "/res/xml" folder. i < 100. Example The following " TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.main).de/articles/Android/article. i++) { s += "vogella.2. import import import import android. android. setContentView( Overview Styles in Android allow to define the look and feel of Android application in external files. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. 18.widget. for (int i=0. You can define styles in XML and assign them to these ".setText(s).1. This way you only have to set common attributes once and can later change the look in one central place.view.Activity. String s="". } view. public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created. Styling 18.scrollview. These styles can get assigned to the complete Applications.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> package de.onCreate(savedInstanceState).TextView02).Bundle.vogella. Activitities or Views. android.vogella.TextView. 34 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .layout.

1.g.2.5f). e.g. If a Fragment component is defined in an XML layout file.vogella. 240dpi) device. like ListFragment or DialogFragment. Overview Fragment components allow you to organize your application code so that it is easier to support different sized devices. Supporting different screen sizes 19. for example to the text elements via style=”@style/text”. 19. so that it always occupies the same physical space. Using device independent pixel Android devices are different in terms of resolution and in terms of density. The unit of measurement which should be used is "dp" (which is the same as "dip" but shorter). You can use "dp" in your resources. e. If an Activity is stopped its Fragments will also be stopped.density. Fragments are components with their own lifecycle and their own user interface. dp refers to the base line of an Android device. 35 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . The Android SDK expects that you specify everything in pixels. based on density scale return (int) (input * scale + 0. On a mdpi device "dp" will be equal to pixel but it will be smaller on a ldpi (approx. the android:name attribute points to the Fragments class. 20. 320x480 with 160dpi (dots per inch). which was the size of the first Android device (G1). depending on the device. If you specify the size in "dp". public int convertToDp(int input) { // Get the screen's density scale final float scale = getResources().html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social <resources> <style name="text"> <item name="android:padding">4dip</item> <item name="android:textAppearance">?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge</item> <item name="android:textColor">#000000</item> </style> <style name="layout"> <item name="android:background">#C0C0C0</item> </style> </resources> You assign the style attribute to your elements. The base class for Fragments is android. 120dip) and larger on a hdip(approx.getDisplayMetrics(). For special purposes you can also use more special classes. if an Activity is destroyed its Fragments will also get destroyed.Android Development Tutorial http://www. } Here you can inflate an layout. Using resource qualifiers Android also allows to use resource qualifiers to specify that certain resources should only be used for certain resolutions. layout files. The onStart() method is called once the Fragment gets visible. Fragments You can therefore use the following formulator to calculate the right amount of pixels for a dimension specified in dp. // Convert the dps to pixels. Android will automatically scale it. They can be defined via layout files or via coding. Therefore it is recommended never to use fixed sized dimensions. This size is also known as mdpi (medium dots per inch). The onCreateView() method is called by Android once the Fragment should create its user interface.1. Fragments always run in the context of an Activity.

but supply an alternative layout that includes just one fragment.g. Overview The following tutorial demonstrates how to use Fragments. a second Activity called DetailActivity will start and show the selected text. The second Fragment shows the text of the current selected item. but the whole information will be shown on one screen.update(.de/articles/Android/article. } To create different layouts with Fragments you can: Use one activity. This requires that the fragment is not declared in the layout file as such Fragments cannot be removed during runtime. the main activity tells the fragment that is should update itself. But as tablets offer significantly more space you typically include more views into the layout and Fragments makes that easier. It is good practice that Fragments do not manipulate each other. 21. this will allow to revert the Fragment changes in the Activity via the back button.. which displays two Fragments for tablets and only one on handsets devices. If the detail fragment is not available the main activity starts the detailed activity.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social add the action to the history stack of the Activity. This is similar to the portrait mode.1. 20. use the same activity for handsets. For this purpose a Fragment typically implements an interface to get new data from its host Activity. It also requires an update of the action bar if the action bar status depends on the fragment. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager(). Fragments Tutorial 21.vogella. for example you can use Fragments also to support different layout for landscape and portrait orientation. if (fragment==null || ! fragment. If the user touches an item in the list. In portrait mode MainActivity will show one Fragment with a list of names.isInLayout()) { // start new Activity } else { fragment. On a tablet you see the details immediately on the same screen on the right hand side if you click on item. start another activity that hosts the other fragment. On a handset you jump to a new detail screen. When to use Fragments Fragments make it easy to re-use components in different layouts. In this case the main activity checks if the detail fragment is available in the layout. The typical example is a list of items in an activity. i.. findFragmentById(R. On a tablet the main activity contains both Fragments in its layout.e. when the tablet UI uses two Fragments in an activity. e.). you can build single-pane layouts for handsets (phones) and multi-pane layouts for tablets. For example. In this case you would switch the Fragments in the activity whenever necessary. In landscape mode MainActivity will show two Fragments. When you need to switch This is not limited to tablets. The first is again the Fragments which shows the list of names.detail_frag). The entry Activity (called MainActivity of our application ) will use different layouts for portrait and for landscape mode. To check for an fragment you can use the FragmentManager.Android Development Tutorial http://www. on a handheld it only contains the main fragment. Use separate activities to host each fragment on a handset. The second approach is the most flexible and in general preferable way of using Fragments. The following discussion will assume that you have two Fragments (main and detail) but you can also have more. 36 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . We will also have one main activity and one detailed activity. If the detailed fragment is there.

vogella. Create layouts for portrait mode Create or change the following layout files in the "res/layout/" folder. Create the ListFragment class. "WindowsMobile".ListFragment" ></fragment> <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.DetailFragment" > <!-.view. <?xml version="1. "WebOS".ListView. First create the following file called "details. android.Intent.Preview: layout=@layout/details --> </fragment> </LinearLayout> 21. android. Create Fragment classes Create now the Fragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/detailsText" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal|center_vertical" android:layout_marginTop="20dip" android:text="Large Text" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:textSize="30dip" /> </LinearLayout> Change the existing " } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { <?xml version="1.View.fragments. "Ubuntu".widget. "Blackberry". package This layout will be used by the DetailFragment. "iPhone".vogella.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.onCreate(savedInstanceState). 37 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .fragments with an Activity called MainActivity.fragments. "Windows7". public class ListFragment extends" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="150dip" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.ArrayAdapter.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Create a new project". import import import import import android. android.Bundle.ListFragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { "Max OS X".Android Development Tutorial This layout will be used by MainActivity in landscape mode and shows two Fragments.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.vogella. "Linux".xml" 21. String[] values = new String[] { "Android". android. "OS/2" }.

Create layouts for landscape mode We want that Android uses a different main.view.ViewGroup. ViewGroup container. container.View. android.Bundle. android.Log. Therefore create the following "main.inflate(R.layout. view. <?xml version="1. } @Override public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater item). In portrait mode Android will check the "layout-port" folder for fitting layout files.vogella. } } } Create the DetailFragment class. import import import import import import import android.os. View { fragment.xml" layout file in "res/layout-port".Android Development Tutorial Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social setListAdapter(adapter).detailsText).getApplicationContext().xml" file in "layout-port" startActivity(intent).id. public class DetailFragment extends Fragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.util. For this reason create the "res/layout-port" folder.view. } @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l. "hello"). } } 21. android. int position. Bundle savedInstanceState) { View view = inflater.Fragment. Only if we would not have a "main.detailFragment). intent.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.class). DetailActivity. } public void setText(String item) { TextView view = (TextView) getView().view.TextView.putExtra("value". android.findFragmentById(R. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager() . } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. package de.setText(item). Log.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState). long id) { String item = (String) getListAdapter(). return view.LayoutInflater.details. false). Android would check the "layout" folder. if (fragment != null && fragment. android. } else { Intent intent = new Intent(getActivity().com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" 38 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .setText(item).e("Test".xml file in portrait model then in landscape mode.5.

android.res. public class DetailActivity extends Activity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. setContentView(R.Android Development Tutorial" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. package de.fragments.setText(s). Please note that we could have create this file also in the "layout" folder.Bundle.widget. import android.vogella. android.layout.xml" layout file.getConfiguration().vogella.main).TextView. but as it is only used in portrait mode it is best practise to place it into this" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class=" } } } MainActivity will remain unmodified.fragments.detailsText).os. import android.Activity. view.os.fragments.Configuration.content.details_activity_layout). TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class=""value"). public class MainActivity extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first if (extras != null) { String s = extras.fragments. package de. Run 39 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Bundle. This layout will be used in the DetailActivity which is only used in portrait mode. return. // Need to check if Activity has been switched to landscape mode // If yes.6.vogella. Bundle extras = getIntent().onCreate(savedInstanceState). Activities Create a new Activity called DetailActivity with the following class.ListFragment" /> </LinearLayout> Also create the " import import import import <?xml version="1. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. android.getExtras() { finish().orientation == Configuration. } setContentView(R.DetailFragment" /> </LinearLayout> 21.vogella. finished and go back to the start Activity if (getResources(). } } 21.

1.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your Android (virtual) device and your Android application program.2. DDMS perspective and important views It includes several Views which can also be used independently and allows for example the application to place calls and send SMS to the device. It also allows the application to set the current geo position and allows you to perform a performance trace of your application. If you select an item in portrait mode a new Activity should get started with the selected item. 22. 22.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social to switch the orientation. 22.print() statements) via the LogCat view. 23. Select Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS to open this perspective.3.vogella. Shell 40 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . LogCat View You can see the log (including System. In horizontal mode your second Fragment should display the select item.Android Development Tutorial http://www. In horizontal mode you should see two Fragments. DDMS . File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the Android simulator.

etc. // Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system. use the command "quit" or "exit". To exit the console session. rm. You can also uninstall an app via adb with the package name. adb uninstall <packagename> 23. incoming call.3. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell".2. switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". Open a shell. Switch the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application. Use "telnet localhost 5554" to connect to your simulated device. Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. This allows you to simulate certain things. You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone. mkdir. set your current geocodes. e.g.vogella. Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". etc. change the network "stability".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social You can access your Android emulator also via the console. For details please see 41 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . For example to change the power settings of your phone. then enable USB debugging. # Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 23. ls.g. Select in the settings Applications > Development. If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individual device.Android Development Tutorial http://www. adb shell You can also copy a file from and to your device via the following commands. Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell. to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following. # connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 24.

25. Source Code Source Code of Examples 27. Questions and Discussion Before posting Google Group. Thank you Please help me to support this article: 26. please see the vogella Development Tutorial http://www. select the "Run Configurations".vogella. 27.1. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www. Links and Literature 27.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social version on your phone. select "Manual" selection and select your device. To select your phone. Android Resources Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android SQlite Database Android Widgets Android Live Wallpaper Android Services Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking 42 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .2. I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you.

vogella Resources Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system 43 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Live Folder Development Tutorial http://www.

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