Android Development Tutorial


Tutorials Trainings Books Social

Android Development Tutorial

Based on Android 4.0 Lars Vogel
Version 10.0 Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Lars Vogel 06.03.2012
Revision History Revision 0.1 Created Revision 0.2 - 10.0 bug fixing and enhancements 07.07.2009 - 06.03.2012 04.07.2009

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
Table of Contents 1. What is Android? 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Google Play 1.3. Security and permissions 2. Android components 2.1. Activity 2.2. Views and ViewGroups 2.3. Intents 2.4. Services 2.5. ContentProvider 2.6. BroadcastReceiver 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets 2.8. Other 3. Android Development Tools 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools? 3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine 3.3. How to develop Android Applications 4. Android Application Architecture 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml 4.2. and Resources 4.3. Assets 4.4. Activities and Layouts 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle 4.7. Configuration Change 4.8. Context 5. Installation 5.1. Eclipse 5.2. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK 5.4. Manually install Android SDK 5.5. Install a specific Android version 5.6. Android Source Code 6. Android virtual device - Emulator 6.1. What is the Android Emulator? 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts 6.4. Performance 6.5. Hardware button 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device 8. Error handling and typical problems 8.1. Clean Project 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)

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Android Development Tutorial


Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.5. Timeout during deployment 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage 8.7. Debug Certificate expired 8.8. Error message for @override 8.9. Missing Imports 8.10. Eclipse Tips 9. Conventions for the tutorials 9.1. API version, package and application name 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials 10. Your first Android project 10.1. Create Project 10.2. Two faces of things 10.3. Create attributes 10.4. Add UI Elements 10.5. Edit UI properties 10.6. Code your application 10.7. Start Project 11. Starting an deployed application 12. Menus and Action Bar 12.1. Definition of menu entries 12.2. Action bar tabs 12.3. Context menus 13. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.1. Project 13.2. Add a menu XML resource 14. Preferences 15. Tutorial: Preferences 15.1. Using preferences 15.2. Run 16. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16.1. Available Layout Manager 16.2. LinearLayout 16.3. RelativeLayout 16.4. Gridlayout 16.5. ScrollView 17. Tutorial: ScrollView 18. Styling 18.1. Overview 18.2. Example 19. Supporting different screen sizes 19.1. Using device independent pixel 19.2. Using resource qualifiers 20. Fragments 20.1. Overview 20.2. When to use Fragments 21. Fragments Tutorial 21.1. Overview 21.2. Create project 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode 21.4. Create Fragment classes 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode 21.6. Activities 21.7. Run 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 22.2. LogCat View 22.3. File explorer 23. Shell 23.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet 24. Deploy your application on a real device 25. Thank you 26. Questions and Discussion 27. Links and Literature 27.1. Source Code 27.2. Android Resources 27.3. vogella Resources

1. What is Android?
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) provides all necessary tools to develop Android

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Android Development Tutorial


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run Android programs. Android is currently primarily developed by Google. Android allows background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. Android applications consist of different components and can re-use components of other applications, if these applications declare their components as available. This leads to the concept of a task in Android; an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task. For example you can write an application which integrates a map component and a camera component to archive a certain task.

1.2. Google Play
Google offers the "Google Play" service. Google hosts Android applications and the Google Play application allows to install new Android application on an Android device. Google Play used to be called "Android Market".

1.3. Security and permissions
During deployment on an Android device, the Android system will create a unique user and group ID for every Android application. Each application file is private to this generated user, e.g. other applications cannot access these files. In addition each Android application will be started in its own process. Therefore by means of the underlying Linux operating system, every Android application is isolated from other running applications. A misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications. If data should be shared, the application must do this explicitly, e.g. via a Service or a ContentProvider. Android also contains a permission system. Android predefines permissions for certain tasks but every application can also define its own permissions. An application must declare in its configuration file (AndroidManifest.xml) that it requires certain permissions. Depending on the details of the required permission, the Android system will either automatically grant the permission, reject it or ask the user if he grants this permission to the application during installation. If for example the application declares that it requires Internet access, the user needs to confirm the usage of this permission during installation. This is called "user driven security". The user decides to grant a permission or to deny it. If the user denies a permission required by the application, this application cannot be installed. The check of the permission is only performed during installation, permissions cannot be denied or granted after the installation. Typically not all users check the permissions in detail but some users do. If there is seems to be something strange in connection with them, they will write bad reviews on Google Play.

2. Android components
The following gives a short overview of the most important Android components.

2.1. Activity
Activity represents the presentation layer of an Android application. A simplified (and slightly incorrect)

description is that an Activity is a screen. This is slightly incorrect as Activities can be displayed as Dialogs or can be transparent. An Android application can have several Activities.

2.2. Views and ViewGroups
Views are user interface widgets, e.g. buttons or text fields. The base class for all Views is android.view.View. Views often have attributes which can be used to change their appearance and

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A ViewGroup is responsible for arranging other Views e.g. a ViewGroup is a layout manager. The base class for a layout manager is android.view.ViewGroups. ViewGroup also extends View. ViewGroups can be nestled to create complex layouts. You should not nestle ViewGroups too deeply as this has a negative impact on the performance.

2.3. Intents
Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other

components of the Android system, e.g. from Services or Activities. An application can call a component directly (explicit Intent ) or ask the Android system to evaluate registered components for a certain Intent (implicit Intents ). For example the application could implement sharing of data via an Intent and all components which allow sharing of data would be available for the user to select. Applications register themselves to an Intent via an IntentFilter.
Intents allow to combine loosely coupled components to perform certain tasks.

2.4. Services
Services perform background tasks without providing a user interface. They can notify the user via the

notification framework in Android.

2.5. ContentProvider
ContentProvider provides a structured interface to application data. Via a ContentProvider your

application can share data with other applications. Android contains an SQLite database which is frequently used in conjunction with a ContentProvider to persist the data of the ContentProvider.

2.6. BroadcastReceiver
BroadcastReceiver can be registered to receive system messages and Intents. A BroadcastReceiver

will get notified by the Android system, if the specified situation happens. For example a BroadcastReceiver could get called once the Android system completed the boot process or if a phone call is received.

2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
Widgets are interactive components which are primarily used on the Android homescreen. They typically

display some kind of data and allow the user to perform actions via them. For example a Widget could display a short summary of new emails and if the user selects an email, it could start the email application with the selected email.

2.8. Other
Android provide many more components but the list above describes the most important ones. Other Android components are "Live Folders" and "Live Wallpapers". Live Folders display data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

3. Android Development Tools
3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) to develop Android applications with Eclipse. ADT is a set of components (plug-ins) which extend the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. ADT contains all required functionalities to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the Eclipse IDE and from the command line. Other IDE's, e.g. IntellJ, are also reusing components of ADT. ADT also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone.

3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine

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e. The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler. For example all Activities and Services of the application must be declared in this file. Therefore you cannot directly run Java class files on Android. If a Java object lies within a different package.action. The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performs this packaging.category.Android Development Tutorial http://www.Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android.3.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" /> </manifest> The package attribute defines the base package for the Java objects referred to in this file.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.intent.vogella. The resulting .dex file contains only once reference of this String. the . If you use the ADT tooling you press a button or run a script and the whole Android application (. During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the .xml.1. All class files of one application are placed in one compressed . versionName is what the user sees and can be any String.apk (Android Package)" package="de. It must also contain the required permissions for the application. The .g. if it should 5 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social applications. either within Eclipse or via the command line. The Android Development Tools (ADT) allows that all these steps are performed transparently to the user.apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the "adb" tool. <?xml version="1.MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.dex file.apk file) will be created and deployed. Android provides a tool called "dx"" which converts Java class files into a dex (Dalvik Executable) file. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here.dex file and the resources of an Android android:versionName and android:versionCode specify the version of your application. Dalvik uses an own bytecode format which is different from Java bytecode. These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the corresponding class files. Therefore it is a good habit to use your reverse domain name as package name. are packed into an .0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=". Android Application Architecture 4.vogella.dex file. The Android Market determine based on the versionCode. For example if the same String is found in different class files. it must be declared with the full qualified package name.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1. How to develop Android Applications Android applications are primarily written in the Java programming versionCode must be an integer.intent. Google Play requires that every Android application uses its own unique package. 4. they need to get converted in the Dalvik bytecode format. the images and XML files.xml The components and settings of an Android application are described in the file AndroidManifest. This will avoid collisions with other Android applications. 3.

vogella. e. The @string/app_name value refers to resource files which contain the actual value of the application name.intent. layouts or animations via XML files. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions. The usage of resource file makes it easy to provide different resources. R. the corresponding reference is automatically created in R. 4. If you create a new resource.3. if you roll-out a new version of your application. The Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource via these ID'" file defines the minimal SDK version for which your application is valid.string.yourString ID. 4. manual changes are not necessary and will be overridden by the tooling. icons.Android Development Tutorial http://www. For example to access a String with the R.intent. If a View needs to be accessed via Java code.g.2.yourString)) method.MAIN" ). The tag <activity> defines an Activity.action.yourvalue). An intent filter is registered for this class which defines that this Activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android. This file specifies the is a generated class which contains references to certain resources of the project. icons or A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML. <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> By conversion this will create and assign a new yourvalue ID to the corresponding View. 4. you have to give the View a unique ID via the android:id attribute.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social value by one. The following shows an example in which a Button gets the "button1" ID assigned.vogella. in this example pointing to the Convert class in the de. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the /res/layout folder. The layout defines the included Views (widgets) and their properties. menus. colors. The category definition category android:name="android. R.LAUNCHER" defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device. the assets directory can be used to store any kind of data. strings. Activities and Layouts The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts. you would use the getString(R. These references are static int values and define ID's for the resources. Assets While the res directory contains structured values which are known to the Android platform. Views. their relationship and their attributes for this specific layout. In your Java code you can later access a View via the method findViewById(R.string. You can for example define values. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest. To assign a new ID to a View use @+id/yourvalue. for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications. These resources must be defined in the "res" directory and can be XML files. via the Eclipse ADT and Resources The " gen " directory in an Android project contains generated is automatically created by the Eclipse development environment.4. In Java you access this data via the AssetsManager and the getAssets() method .temperature package. In most cases the layout is defined as an XML file. 6 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

For example if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertically or horizontally).xml. You find the necessary steps described in the following section of the tutorial: Eclipse Update Manager. A configuration change happens if an event is triggered which may be relevant for the application. The author of this text has also published a Kindle book on the usage of the Eclipse IDE. 5. This is required to install the Android Development Tools. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application. Or if you defined a "hello" string in an XML resource. can be used to release resource or save data onResume() . Installation 5. Used to save data so that the Activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() . Reference to resources in XML files In your XML files. Configuration Change An Activity will also be restarted.Android Development Tutorial http://www.called if the Activity is stopped. because of an incoming e.1. <activity android:name=".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social definition. For example.vogella. you can refer to other resources via the @ sign. The following Activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible).8.called if the Activity is re-started. 4. The tutorial above also describes how to install new components into Eclipse.5. Context also provides access to Android Services.content. can be used to initialize fields 4. For an introduction into Eclipse please see the following tutorial: Eclipse IDE Tutorial. if a so called "configuration change" happens. In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11.6. The most important methods are: onSaveInstanceState() . You can also mix both approaches. Android assumes that an Activity might want to use different resources for these orientations and restarts the Activity. 4. The Android system defines a lifecycle for Activities via predefined methods. Activities and Lifecycle The Android system controls the lifecycle of your application. which can be found here: Eclipse IDE Book for Kindle. Activities and Services extend the Context class and can therefore be used as Context.Context provides the connections to the Android system.g. It is the interface to global information about the application environment. Context The class android. you can refer to it via @color/your_id. the Location Service.7. for example your layout files. e. 7 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .always called if the Activity ends.g. if you want to refer to a color which is defined in a XML resource. you could access it via @string/hello. You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your Activity definition in your AndroidManifest.ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 4. It also allows the definition of different layouts for different devices. Eclipse The following assume that you have already Java and Eclipse installed and know how to use Eclipse.

You can use the following wizard or go to the next section to learn how to do it manually. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available components for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl.Android Development Tutorial http://www. therefore on an 64bit Linux system you need to have the package ia32-libs apt-get install ia32-libs Please check your distribution documentation. After the new Android development components are installed.vogella.3. you will be prompted to install the Android SDK. 5. if you are using a different flavor of Linux. 8 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The Android SDK is 32bit. For Ubuntu you can do this via the following command.

5.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK.g. The download contains a zip file. Select Window → Android SDK Manager from the Eclipse menu. e. Alternatively you can also manually download the Android SDK from the Android SDK download page. In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via the menu Windows → Preferences. 5. on my Linux system I placed it under "/home/vogella/android-sdks". You also have to define the location of the Android SDK in the Eclipse otherwise you may experience problems with the usage of the Android SDK. Manually install Android SDK After the installation of the ADT the Eclipse tooling allows to download the Android SDK automatically. Avoid using spaces in the path name.4. 9 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5.vogella. Install a specific Android version The Android SDK Manager allows you to install specific versions of Android. which you can extract to any place in your file system.

de/articles/Android/article. The sources are downloaded to the source directory located in "path_to_android_sdk/sources/android-xx". Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons".3 version.1.6. Type in the source directory name and press OK. 15 for the Android 4. To connect the sources with the android. 5. As of Android 4.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The dialog allows you to install new packages and also allows you to delete them.jar file in your Android project.3) version of the SDK and press "Install". restart Eclipse.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 10 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .0 During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available.6. You can download it via the Android SDK Manager by selecting the "Sources for Android SDK". Android Source Code The following step is optional. Select the Google API 15 (Android 4. After the installation completes.0 the Android development tools provides also the source code. Press the "Install" button and confirm the license for all packages.g. right click on your android. e. 5.0.jar in the Eclipse Package Explorer and select Properties → Java Source Attachment. xx is the API level of Android.vogella.0. As of Android 4.

Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adtaddons. Android virtual device . which is very slow.Emulator 6. Android AVD During the creation of an AVD you decide if you want an Android device or an Google device.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. the size of the SD card. To have a responsive emulator use a small resolution for your emulator.ide.5.g. Alt+Enter Maximizes the emulator. 6.0 introduced that devices do not have to have hardware button anymore. An AVD created for the Google API's will also contain several Google applications. add at least 1 GB of memory to your emulator.update".com/svn/trunk/source/com. These devices are called "Android Virtual Device" (AVD) and you can start several in parallel.3. most notable the Google Maps application.2. If you want to create such an e. Hardware button Android 4.2. Starting a new emulator is very slow.googlecode. Cloud2DeviceMessaging or Google Maps you must run this application on an AVD with Google API's. You can define several devices with different configurations. Ctrl+F11 changes the orientation of the emulator. add the "Hardware Back/Home keys" property to the device configuration and set it to "false".source. This will save the state of the emulator and let it start much faster. Also if you have sufficient memory on your computer.0 For earlier versions Haris Peco maintains plugins. Google vrs. 6. 6.4. which provide the Android Source code code. Nice for demos. What is the Android Emulator? The Android Development Tools (ADT) include an emulator to run an Android 6. An AVD created for Android will contain the programs from the Android Open Source Project.vogella. If you want to use functionality which is only provided via the Google API's. F8 Turns network on / off. More details can be found on the project website. as for example HVGA. Performance The graphics of the emulator are rendered in software. This is the value "Device ram size" during the creation of the AVD. The ADT allow to deploy and run your Android program on the AVD.eclipse. Emulator Shortcuts The following shortcuts are useful for working with the emulator. You can configure the version of the Android system you would like to run.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 11 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .1. due to some initial setup.6. The emulator behaves like a real Android device (in most cases) and allows you to test your application without having a real device. Prior to Android 4. 6. Also set the flag "Enabled" for Snapshots. the screen resolution and other relevant settings.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 7.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 12 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Enter the Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device To define an Android Virtual Device (ADV) open the "AVD Manager" via Windows → AVD Manager and press "New".

is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2. At the end press the button "Create AVD". You are able to use it via the mouse and via the virtual keyboard of the emulator. This communication is handled by the Android Debug Bridge (adb). 8. Eclipse allows to reset the adb in case this causes problems. Project .2. 8.Android Development Tutorial http://www. After (a long time) your AVD starts.. Clean Project Several users report that get the following errors: 1.1. This will create the AVD configuration and display it under the "Virtual devices".vogella. Select therefore the DDMS perspective via Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS 13 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Error handling and typical problems Things are not always working as they should.. This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social We can also select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots. To solve any of these Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb) The communication with the emulator or your Android device might have problems. 8. This section gives an overview over typical problems and how to solve them. To test if your setup is correct. go to the project menu and select Project → Clean. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved. Unable to open class file R. select your device and press "Start".

3.vogella. Timeout during deployment If you face timeout issues during deployment you can increase the default timeout in the Eclipse preferences. select Window → Show View → Other → Android → To open this view. You can clean your installed application by re-starting the emulator and selecting the "Wipe user data" flag. if you press edit on the AVD you can set the "Ideal size of data partition" property via the "New" button.Android Development Tutorial http://www. An Android virtual device provides per default only 64M for internal storage of application. Alternative you can set the the data partition size.6. 14 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . 8. 8.5. Select Window → Preferences → Android → DDMS and increase the "ADB connection timeout (in ms)" value. LogCat The "LogCat" View shows you the log messages of your Android device and help you analyze problems. Emulator does not start If your emulator does not start. make sure that the android-sdk version is in a path without any spaces in the path name.4. Install failed due to insufficient storage Sometimes the emulator will refuse to install an application with the error message: INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE. 8. For example Java exceptions in your program would be shown here.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.

if you are asked to create a 15 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .6.g. Error message for @override The @override annotation was introduced in Java 1. This file is only valid for a year and if not present Eclipse will regenerate the password. change the Java compiler level to Java 1. Conventions for the tutorials 9.g. Higher version usually should also work. API Level 15.6. Eclipse Tips To work more efficiently with Eclipse.keystore" file. package and application name The tutorials of this document have been developed and tested with Android 4. e. 8. try the recommended version.10. Lower version of the Android API might also work. 8. right-click in your Editor and select Source → Organize Imports to important required packages.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.3. Debug Certificate expired If you get the error message "Debug Certificate expired" switch to the folder which contains the Android AVD. select Window → Preferences → Java → Editor → Save Actions and select that the source code should be formatted and that the imports should be organized at every save. e. If you see error message with "XX cannot be resolved to a variable". ". 9. but if you face issues.7. Missing Imports Java requires that classes which are not part of the standard Java Language be either fully qualified or declared via imports.9. The base package for the projects is always the same as the project 8. select Properties → Java Compiler → Compiler compliance level and select "1. To do this right-click on the project.0. API version.vogella.1.6" in the drop-down" under Linux and delete the "debug.Android Development Tutorial http://www.8. If you receive an error message for @override. Please use this version for all tutorials in this book.

Warnings Messages for Strings The Android development tools are show warnings if you use hard-coded Development Tutorial http://www. for example in layout files. The Application name. Your first Android project 10. will not be predefined.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "de. Some exercises explain every mouse click you have to do.1. Enter the following. Search for "vogella" for find this example.vogella.temperature". Android Exercises and Tutorials You find different types of exercises. While for real application its best practice to use string resource files we use use Strings directly to simplify the creation of the examples. 9.test". 9. 16 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .example. Create Project This app is also available on the Android Marketplace. Select File → New → Other → Android → Android Project and create the Android project "de. which must be entered on the Android project generation wizard. others just give you the task to do. Most exercises try to give you a base example and ask you to extend this Choose a name you like. 10.

de/articles/Android/article. 17 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Press "Finish". This should create the following directory structure.

3.xml". and directly via XML.g. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources.2. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen.Android Development Tutorial http://www. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets(). Two faces of things The Android SDK allows the developer to define certain artifacts.g. strings and UI's. 18 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . for strings or colors.vogella. 10. The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation the resulting XML is also displayed. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main. 10. in two ways: via a rich editor. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. e.

<?xml version="1.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Add UI Elements Select "res/layout/main.4. String attributes allow the developer to translate the application at a later point. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code. Table 1. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor. The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. String Attributes Name celsius fahrenheit calc Value to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate Switch to the XML representation and validate the values. 19 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World.vogella. Add also the following "String" attributes. For changing the position and grouping elements you can use the outline Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "#3399CC" as the value. Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 10.

xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following. From the Palette section Form Widgets. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse. <?xml version=" Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Right-click on the text object “Hello World.Android Development Tutorial http://www. they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. Switch to "main. Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”. Hello!” in the" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> 20 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . from the “Palette” view. All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText".android. Then. The result should look like the following.vogella. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field. drag a Button object onto the layout.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.

Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton.vogella. Typically you change properties directly in the XML file as this is much faster. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText. Assign the and "fahrenheit" string attribute to the second radio button. Use the right mouse click on the first radio button to assign the "celsius" string attribute to its "text" property.Android Development Tutorial http://www.xml" We will delete the initial text for the EditText field in XML. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> 10.5. Switch back to the "Graphical Layout" tab and check that the text is removed. From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements. Open your file "main. You can also edit properties of fields directy in XML. 21 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Switch to the XML tab called " But the right mouse functionality is nice if you are searching for a certain property. You can either edit the XML file or modify the properties via right mouse click.xml" and delete the android:text="EditText" property from the EditText part. Edit UI properties If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. Most of the properties can be changed via the right mouse menu.

package de.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained. then select Other Properties → All by Name → Background. Code your application During the generation of your new Android project you specified that an Activity called ConvertActivity should get created. Switch to the "main. RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R. Note that the myClickHandler will be called based on the OnClick property of your button.widget. android. RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R. The project wizard also created the corresponding Java classs. android. <?xml version="1. text = (EditText) findViewById(R.EditText.onCreate(savedInstanceState). Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android=" public class ConvertActivity extends Activity { private EditText text.RadioButton.view.Activity. android.widget.widget.length() == 0) { 22 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Bundle.radio1).html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Right-click on an empty space in Graphical Layout mode.radio0). setContentView(R.vogella." android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout> 10. Change your code in ConvertActivity.Android Development Tutorial to the following.main).vogella.layout. import import import import import import android.temperature.getText().getId()) { case R. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. } // This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view.Toast.6. if (text.editText1).android.

celsiusButton. 11. } else { text.setText(String . fahrenheitButton.parseFloat(text. right click on it. and select Run-As → Android Application.setChecked(false).de/articles/Android/article. Start Project To start the Android Application. } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit .7. select your conversion and press the button. 23 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .setText(String . } break. } float inputValue = Float.isChecked()) { text. celsiusButton.vogella.setChecked(true).Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social return.setChecked(false). Type in a number. } } 10. If you press the Home button you can also select your application.setChecked(true). select your project. the emulator starts up very slowly.valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))).valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue))). You should get the following result. The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.getText(). if (celsiusButton.32) * 5 / 9).toString()). fahrenheitButton. Be patient. Starting an deployed application After you run your application on the virtual device you can start it again on the device. } // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32.

Typically you define your menu entries in a way that they are added to the action bar if sufficient space is available in the 24 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella. The second option is that the app can open a menu which shows additional actions via a popup menu.1. The Action Bar is a window feature at the top of the activity that may display the activity title. The first one is the usage of the Action Bar in the application.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 12. Definition of menu entries Android provides two possible ways to display global actions which the user can select. navigation Menus and Action Bar 12. and other interactive items.

In this method you can create the menu programmatically or you can use a pre-defined XML resources which you inflate via the MenuInflator class.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.2. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13. A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view. This example will be extended in the chapter about preferences. 13. The ActionBar also shows an icon of your application.class).id. If you select this icon the onOptionsItemSelected() method will be called with the value android. etc.R.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The option menu and the action bar of your activity is filled by the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity. The onCreateContextMenu() method is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage. break. EditText provides context options to select text. Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu which is displayed in the action bar if sufficient space is available.xml" layout file in the diretory "/res/layout/" to the following: <?xml version="1. startActivity(intent). // If home icon is clicked return to main Activity case android.socialapp" with the Activity called "OverviewActivity". Context menus You can also assign a context menu to an UI widget (view). 12. You can also add an action to this icon.1. 12. The onCreateOptionsMenu() method is only called once.FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP). The Android platform may also add options to your View. Action bar tabs It is also possible to add tabs to an action bar.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Each Activity has already an instance of the class available and this instance can get accessed via the getMenuInflator()" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences" > </Button> </LinearLayout> 25 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .home. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the onPrepareOptionsMenu() Create a project called "de.home: Intent intent = new Intent( Change the "main. e. The recommendation is to return to the main Activity in your program.g.addFlags(Intent.R. OverviewActivity. A context menu for a view is registered via the registerForContextMenu(view) method.

This defines the entries in your menu. unfortunately this editor is not always automatically used due to bugs in the ADT. Maintain the following value. you can open this editor manually. We will also define that the menu entry is displayed in the action bar if there is sufficient space available.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Select your project. right click on it and select New → Other → Android → Android XML File to create a new XML resource. If that happens. 26 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Right-click on your menu file and select Open with → Android Menu Editor. This will create a new file "mainmenu. Android provides a nice editor to edit this Press Add and select "Item". enter as File "mainmenu.Android Development Tutorial http://www.xml" and press the button "Finish".xml" in the folder "res/menu" of your project. Select the option "Menu". Switch if necessary to the "Layout" tab of the editor.vogella.

27 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . setContentView(R. If there would be more items you could press "Menu" on the emulator to see them.onCreate(savedInstanceState).layout.Android Development Tutorial http://www. } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().vogella. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called. } @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast. android. If you select the menu item you should see a small info message.widget.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Change your Activity class "OverviewActivity" to the public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. import import import import import import android.main). The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu.os. menu). android. return true.LENGTH_SHORT). "Just a test".de/articles/Android/article. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings.view.inflate(R. return true. package inflater. android.Activity. android. } } Run your application. As there is enough space in the action bar your item will be displayed there.

edit. Tutorial: Preferences 15. To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() methods. To communicate between different components Android uses Intents. In your application you can access the preference manager via the following: SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager. Preferences Android supports the usage of Preferences to allow you to save data for your application.vogella. Values can get access via the key of the preference setting. Once you have changed the value you have to call commit() to apply your changes.vogella. 28 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . edit.edit(). Typically the PreferenceActivity is started from another activity via an Intent. The definition of Preferences can also be done via an XML resource.1.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this). PreferenceActivity supports the simple handling of preferences.getString("username". Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de.commit(). Preferences are stored as key values. "new_value_for_user").social".de/articles/Android/article. Android provides the class "PreferenceActivity" which extends the class" of type "PreferenceScreen". 14. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource(). We will use them in the next chapter.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active. Editor edit = preferences. String username = preferences. "n/a"). 15. Create an Android XML resource "preferences.putString("username".Android Development Tutorial http://www.

g. add a "PreferenceCategory" and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password".de/articles/Android/article. e. Press Add.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 29 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Open the file via right-mouse click and Open-with → Android XML Resource Editor. the inputMethod. You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField.vogella.

preference.getString("username".getString("password".view. android. android.vogella. To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity". Button button = (Button) findViewById(R. package de.PreferenceManager.Toast.View. import android. } 30 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . button.Editor. "n/a").MenuInflater. android.xml" file and will allow the user to change the values.PreferenceActivity.main). package de.Activity.SharedPreferences. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { SharedPreferences // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager.Bundle.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { updatePreferenceValue(). String password = preferences.socialapp.view.OnClickListener.view. This Activity will load the "preference. Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R. addPreferencesFromResource(R. import android. public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.preferences). android. } } To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest. The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).vogella.SharedPreferences.xml" and the tab "Application". android.socialapp.Button01). android.widget. android. android.os.preference.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:inputType="textPassword" Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity.MenuItem. Scroll to the botton of the view and add your new activity via the "Add" button. } }).xml" file. setContentView( android. import import import import import import import import import import import import android.os. showPrefs(username.widget.onCreate(savedInstanceState). Select "AndroidManifest.Android Development Tutorial "n/a"). android.onCreate(savedInstanceState). password).setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences.Bundle. android.

inflate(R.preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity.1.Android Development Tutorial http://www. } private void updatePreferenceValue(){ Editor edit = preferences.vogella. Toast.class). If you press the second button the username should be reversed. Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences".getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R. 31 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() method. // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user. // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(). } return true. i >= 0.LENGTH_LONG).edit(). Toast.LENGTH_LONG). startActivity(i).append(username. "Enter your user credentials. // Some feedback to the user Toast. @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().2. break. } 15.this. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries. "n/a"). Toast. You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity. } // This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item.this. String password){ Toast.makeText( OverviewActivity. We give a little feedback i--) { buffer.this. for (int i = username.putString("username". menu). String username = preferences. return true. } edit.length() .commit().".toString()). "Reverted string sequence of user name. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences. Run Run your". buffer.getString("username".html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social private void showPrefs(String username.makeText(OverviewActivity. MyPreferencesActivity.charAt(i)). "Input: " + username + " and password: " + password.this.

A simple usage for RelativeLayout is if you want to center a single component.3. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16. horizontal is the default value.0 the most relevant layout manager are LinearLayout.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16. <?xml version="1.Android Development Tutorial http://www.2. RelativeLayout and GridLayout. Children can also define attributes which may be evaluated by their parent layout. 16. As of Android 4.1. This allows for complex layouts. Available Layout Manager A layout manager is a subclass of ViewGroup and is responsible for the layout of itself and its child Views. Just add one component to the RelativeLayout and set the android:layout_centerInParent attribute to true. All layouts allow the developer to define attributes. RelativeLayout RelativeLayout allow to position the widget relative to each other. AbsoluteLayoutLayout is deprecated and TableLayout can be implemented more effectively via GridLayout 16. LinearLayout can be nested to achieve more complex LinearLayout LinearLayout puts all its child elements into a single column or row depending on the android:orientation attribute. Possible values for this attribute are horizontal and vertical. FrameLayout. Android supports different default layout managers.vogella.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <ProgressBar android:id="@+id/progressBar1" style="?android:attr/progressBarStyleLarge" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_centerInParent="true" /> 32 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .

Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements. Tutorial: ScrollView Create an android project "de.0" android:text="Cancel" > 33 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . You can specify how many columns you want for define for each View in which row and column it should be placed and how many columns and rows it should use. Create the following layout and If not specified GridLayout uses defaults.Android Development Tutorial http://www. e.5.0. GridLayout separates its drawing area into:" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true" android:orientation="vertical" > <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" > </TextView> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1. Gridlayout GridLayout was introduced with Android" android:text="@+id/TextView02" > </TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight=" <?xml version="1. 16. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView". This layout allows you to organize a view into a Grid.vogella.g.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas. ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen.4. columns. 17. and cells. one row and the position of a View depends on the order of the declaration of the Views.0" android:text="Submit" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. one column.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.

app.layout. Example The following "styles.Bundle.vogella. i++) { s += "vogella. i < 100.onCreate(savedInstanceState). Styling 18. 18. import import import import android.vogella.TextView. These styles can get assigned to the complete Applications. for (int i=0. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.Android Development Tutorial http://www.setText(s).scrollview. } } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended. Overview Styles in Android allow to define the look and feel of Android application in external files.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> package de. } view.xml" XML file would be created in the "/res/xml" folder.os. String s="". public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created. ". 34 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . setContentView(R. android. You can define styles in XML and assign them to these elements. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R. This way you only have to set common attributes once and can later change the look in one central Activitities or Views.

The Android SDK expects that you specify everything in pixels. Fragments 20.2. } 19. Android will automatically scale it.1.getDisplayMetrics().5f). so that it always occupies the same physical e.g. e. If you specify the size in "dp".1. 120dip) and larger on a hdip(approx. layout files. 19. If a Fragment component is defined in an XML layout file. 240dpi) device.Android Development Tutorial http://www. They can be defined via layout files or via coding. You can use "dp" in your resources. Using device independent pixel Android devices are different in terms of resolution and in terms of density. For special purposes you can also use more special classes. based on density scale return (int) (input * scale + 0. If an Activity is stopped its Fragments will also be stopped. The unit of measurement which should be used is "dp" (which is the same as "dip" but shorter). You can therefore use the following formulator to calculate the right amount of pixels for a dimension specified in dp.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social <resources> <style name="text"> <item name="android:padding">4dip</item> <item name="android:textAppearance">?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge</item> <item name="android:textColor">#000000</item> </style> <style name="layout"> <item name="android:background">#C0C0C0</item> </style> </resources> You assign the style attribute to your elements. 20. The onCreateView() method is called by Android once the Fragment should create its user interface. which was the size of the first Android device (G1). This size is also known as mdpi (medium dots per inch). Supporting different screen sizes 19. Overview Fragment components allow you to organize your application code so that it is easier to support different sized devices. public int convertToDp(int input) { // Get the screen's density scale final float scale = getResources().vogella. 320x480 with 160dpi (dots per inch). The onStart() method is called once the Fragment gets On a mdpi device "dp" will be equal to pixel but it will be smaller on a ldpi (approx. for example to the text elements via style=”@style/text”. the android:name attribute points to the Fragments class.g. dp refers to the base line of an Android device.Fragment. The base class for Fragments is android.density. Fragments are components with their own lifecycle and their own user interface. 35 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . // Convert the dps to pixels. Here you can inflate an layout. depending on the device. if an Activity is destroyed its Fragments will also get destroyed. Fragments always run in the context of an Activity. Using resource qualifiers Android also allows to use resource qualifiers to specify that certain resources should only be used for certain resolutions. Therefore it is recommended never to use fixed sized dimensions. like ListFragment or DialogFragment.

This is similar to the portrait mode. On a tablet the main activity contains both Fragments in its layout. On a tablet you see the details immediately on the same screen on the right hand side if you click on item. This requires that the fragment is not declared in the layout file as such Fragments cannot be removed during runtime. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager()..vogella. but the whole information will be shown on one screen. 36 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Use separate activities to host each fragment on a handset. We will also have one main activity and one detailed activity. but supply an alternative layout that includes just one fragment. In landscape mode MainActivity will show two Fragments. Fragments Tutorial 21. } To create different layouts with Fragments you can: Use one activity. The following discussion will assume that you have two Fragments (main and detail) but you can also have more. In portrait mode MainActivity will show one Fragment with a list of names. If the user touches an item in the list. It also requires an update of the action bar if the action bar status depends on the fragment. The second approach is the most flexible and in general preferable way of using Fragments. For this purpose a Fragment typically implements an interface to get new data from its host Activity.. which displays two Fragments for tablets and only one on handsets devices. But as tablets offer significantly more space you typically include more views into the layout and Fragments makes that easier. The first is again the Fragments which shows the list of names. the main activity tells the fragment that is should update itself.e. if (fragment==null || ! fragment. The entry Activity (called MainActivity of our application ) will use different layouts for portrait and for landscape mode. This is not limited to tablets. when the tablet UI uses two Fragments in an activity. a second Activity called DetailActivity will start and show the selected text. Overview The following tutorial demonstrates how to use Fragments. In this case you would switch the Fragments in the activity whenever necessary. 20. i. On a handset you jump to a new detail screen.detail_frag).update(. The typical example is a list of items in an When to use Fragments Fragments make it easy to re-use components in different layouts. If the detail fragment is not available the main activity starts the detailed activity. If the detailed fragment is there. For example.isInLayout()) { // start new Activity } else { fragment. findFragmentById(R.g. In this case the main activity checks if the detail fragment is available in the layout. for example you can use Fragments also to support different layout for landscape and portrait orientation.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social add the action to the history stack of the Activity. It is good practice that Fragments do not manipulate each other. When you need to switch Fragments. this will allow to revert the Fragment changes in the Activity via the back button. e. To check for an fragment you can use the FragmentManager. you can build single-pane layouts for handsets (phones) and multi-pane layouts for tablets. The second Fragment shows the text of the current selected item. 21.).1. on a handheld it only contains the main fragment. use the same activity for handsets.2. start another activity that hosts the other

Android Development Tutorial http://www.xml" file. 21.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.ArrayAdapter.xml".onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState). Create Fragment classes Create now the Fragment" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="150dip" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de. String[] values = new String[] { "Android". "Ubuntu".fragments.onCreate(savedInstanceState). First create the following file called " "iPhone".app. android. Create layouts for portrait mode Create or change the following layout files in the "res/layout/" folder.fragments. 37 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . android. Create the ListFragment class. public class ListFragment extends android.Intent.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Create a new project de. <?xml version="1.vogella.DetailFragment" > <!-.vogella.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. "WindowsMobile".widget.4.fragments with an Activity called MainActivity.ListFragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. "OS/2" }. "WebOS". "Windows7". } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.ListFragment" ></fragment> <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de. "Linux" This layout will be used by the import import import import import android. This layout will be used by MainActivity in landscape mode and shows two" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/detailsText" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal|center_vertical" android:layout_marginTop="20dip" android:text="Large Text" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:textSize="30dip" /> </LinearLayout> Change the existing " "Max OS X".3. "Blackberry".Preview: layout=@layout/details --> </fragment> </LinearLayout> 21. package de.View. android. <?xml version=" android.os.vogella.

com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" 38 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . package de.util.Android Development Tutorial http://www.os. android.getApplicationContext().android. long id) { String item = (String) getListAdapter(). android. } @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l.Bundle. } } 21.xml file in portrait model then in landscape mode.layout. intent.view. import import import import import import import android. DetailActivity.widget. item) public class DetailFragment extends Fragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. if (fragment != null && fragment. ViewGroup container.View.e("Test".class).getItem(position). android. In portrait mode Android will check the "layout-port" folder for fitting layout files. For this reason create the "res/layout-port" folder.putExtra("value".findViewById(R. Bundle savedInstanceState) { View view = inflater. "hello"). android. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager() . Create layouts for landscape mode We want that Android uses a different main. view.5.setText(item). container.TextView. startActivity(intent).vogella. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { Therefore create the following "main. android.Log.LayoutInflater. View v. } @Override public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater. android. <?xml version=" } else { Intent intent = new Intent(getActivity().detailFragment). int position.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social setListAdapter(adapter). } } } Create the DetailFragment class.isInLayout()) { fragment. Log.xml" file in "layout-port".view. Only if we would not have a "main.setText(item)" layout file in "res/layout-port". return view.details.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.findFragmentById(R. Android would check the "layout" folder. false). } public void setText(String item) { TextView view = (TextView) getView().fragments.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState).inflate(R.

layout. Activities Create a new Activity called DetailActivity with the following class.fragments. // Need to check if Activity has been switched to landscape mode // If" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.content. Please note that we could have create this file also in the "layout" folder.Activity.Configuration. Run 39 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . import import import import android. finished and go back to the start Activity if (getResources(). if (extras != null) { String s = extras. Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.6. public class MainActivity extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.fragments.DetailFragment" /> </LinearLayout> 21.vogella. android.setText(s).ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE) { finish(). android. setContentView(R.vogella. import android.fragments.os.layout.orientation == Configuration.vogella. import android.Android Development Tutorial http://www.getExtras().android.widget. <?xml version="1.vogella. This layout will be used in the DetailActivity which is only used in portrait mode.7. } setContentView(R. } } 21. view.os.main).detailsText).details_activity_layout)" layout file. package de.onCreate(savedInstanceState). but as it is only used in portrait mode it is best practise to place it into this folder. public class DetailActivity extends Activity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. return.getConfiguration().onCreate(savedInstanceState). package de. Bundle extras = getIntent().android. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById( */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.vogella.Bundle.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.getString("value") } } } MainActivity will remain unmodified.ListFragment" /> </LinearLayout> Also create the "

3. DDMS . In horizontal mode your second Fragment should display the select item. If you select an item in portrait mode a new Activity should get started with the selected item.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your Android (virtual) device and your Android application program.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social to switch the orientation. File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the Android simulator.vogella. In horizontal mode you should see two Fragments.2. 22. 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22. Shell 40 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www. Select Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS to open this perspective. 23. It also allows the application to set the current geo position and allows you to perform a performance trace of your application. It includes several Views which can also be used independently and allows for example the application to place calls and send SMS to the device. LogCat View You can see the log (including System.print() statements) via the LogCat view.

2.Android Development Tutorial http://www. e.3.vogella. adb uninstall <packagename> 23. change the network "stability". Open a shell. set your current geocodes. For details please see 41 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . mkdir. etc. You can also uninstall an app via adb with the package name. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell". switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". incoming call. # Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 23. use the command "quit" or "exit". Use "telnet localhost 5554" to connect to your simulated device. rm. then enable USB debugging. If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individual device. etc. This allows you to simulate certain things. Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. Select in the settings Applications > Development.g. // Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system. ls. to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following. The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". To exit the console session. For example to change the power settings of your phone. Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell. Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. # connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 24. adb shell You can also copy a file from and to your device via the following commands.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social You can access your Android emulator also via the console. You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone. Switch the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application.g.

Thank you Please help me to support this article: 26. please see the vogella FAQ. 27. 25.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social version on your phone. I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you. Source Code Source Code of Examples 27. select "Manual" selection and select your device.2. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the Android Resources Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android SQlite Database Android Widgets Android Live Wallpaper Android Services Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking 42 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Links and Literature 27.Android Development Tutorial http://www.1. select the "Run Configurations".vogella. Questions and Discussion Before posting questions. To select your Google Group.

de/articles/Android/article.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Live Folder 27. vogella Resources Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system 43 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .3.

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