Android Development Tutorial

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Android Development Tutorial
Tutorial
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Based on Android 4.0 Lars Vogel
Version 10.0 Copyright © 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Lars Vogel 06.03.2012
Revision History Revision 0.1 Created Revision 0.2 - 10.0 bug fixing and enhancements 07.07.2009 - 06.03.2012 04.07.2009

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).
Table of Contents 1. What is Android? 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Google Play 1.3. Security and permissions 2. Android components 2.1. Activity 2.2. Views and ViewGroups 2.3. Intents 2.4. Services 2.5. ContentProvider 2.6. BroadcastReceiver 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets 2.8. Other 3. Android Development Tools 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools? 3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine 3.3. How to develop Android Applications 4. Android Application Architecture 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml 4.2. R.java and Resources 4.3. Assets 4.4. Activities and Layouts 4.5. Reference to resources in XML files 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle 4.7. Configuration Change 4.8. Context 5. Installation 5.1. Eclipse 5.2. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux 5.3. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK 5.4. Manually install Android SDK 5.5. Install a specific Android version 5.6. Android Source Code 6. Android virtual device - Emulator 6.1. What is the Android Emulator? 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts 6.4. Performance 6.5. Hardware button 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device 8. Error handling and typical problems 8.1. Clean Project 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)

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Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.5. Timeout during deployment 8.6. Install failed due to insufficient storage 8.7. Debug Certificate expired 8.8. Error message for @override 8.9. Missing Imports 8.10. Eclipse Tips 9. Conventions for the tutorials 9.1. API version, package and application name 9.2. Warnings Messages for Strings 9.3. Android Exercises and Tutorials 10. Your first Android project 10.1. Create Project 10.2. Two faces of things 10.3. Create attributes 10.4. Add UI Elements 10.5. Edit UI properties 10.6. Code your application 10.7. Start Project 11. Starting an deployed application 12. Menus and Action Bar 12.1. Definition of menu entries 12.2. Action bar tabs 12.3. Context menus 13. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.1. Project 13.2. Add a menu XML resource 14. Preferences 15. Tutorial: Preferences 15.1. Using preferences 15.2. Run 16. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16.1. Available Layout Manager 16.2. LinearLayout 16.3. RelativeLayout 16.4. Gridlayout 16.5. ScrollView 17. Tutorial: ScrollView 18. Styling 18.1. Overview 18.2. Example 19. Supporting different screen sizes 19.1. Using device independent pixel 19.2. Using resource qualifiers 20. Fragments 20.1. Overview 20.2. When to use Fragments 21. Fragments Tutorial 21.1. Overview 21.2. Create project 21.3. Create layouts for portrait mode 21.4. Create Fragment classes 21.5. Create layouts for landscape mode 21.6. Activities 21.7. Run 22. DDMS perspective and important views 22.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 22.2. LogCat View 22.3. File explorer 23. Shell 23.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 23.2. Uninstall an application via adb 23.3. Emulator Console via telnet 24. Deploy your application on a real device 25. Thank you 26. Questions and Discussion 27. Links and Literature 27.1. Source Code 27.2. Android Resources 27.3. vogella Resources

1. What is Android?
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) provides all necessary tools to develop Android

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run Android programs. Android is currently primarily developed by Google. Android allows background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. Android applications consist of different components and can re-use components of other applications, if these applications declare their components as available. This leads to the concept of a task in Android; an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task. For example you can write an application which integrates a map component and a camera component to archive a certain task.

1.2. Google Play
Google offers the "Google Play" service. Google hosts Android applications and the Google Play application allows to install new Android application on an Android device. Google Play used to be called "Android Market".

1.3. Security and permissions
During deployment on an Android device, the Android system will create a unique user and group ID for every Android application. Each application file is private to this generated user, e.g. other applications cannot access these files. In addition each Android application will be started in its own process. Therefore by means of the underlying Linux operating system, every Android application is isolated from other running applications. A misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications. If data should be shared, the application must do this explicitly, e.g. via a Service or a ContentProvider. Android also contains a permission system. Android predefines permissions for certain tasks but every application can also define its own permissions. An application must declare in its configuration file (AndroidManifest.xml) that it requires certain permissions. Depending on the details of the required permission, the Android system will either automatically grant the permission, reject it or ask the user if he grants this permission to the application during installation. If for example the application declares that it requires Internet access, the user needs to confirm the usage of this permission during installation. This is called "user driven security". The user decides to grant a permission or to deny it. If the user denies a permission required by the application, this application cannot be installed. The check of the permission is only performed during installation, permissions cannot be denied or granted after the installation. Typically not all users check the permissions in detail but some users do. If there is seems to be something strange in connection with them, they will write bad reviews on Google Play.

2. Android components
The following gives a short overview of the most important Android components.

2.1. Activity
Activity represents the presentation layer of an Android application. A simplified (and slightly incorrect)

description is that an Activity is a screen. This is slightly incorrect as Activities can be displayed as Dialogs or can be transparent. An Android application can have several Activities.

2.2. Views and ViewGroups
Views are user interface widgets, e.g. buttons or text fields. The base class for all Views is android.view.View. Views often have attributes which can be used to change their appearance and

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A ViewGroup is responsible for arranging other Views e.g. a ViewGroup is a layout manager. The base class for a layout manager is android.view.ViewGroups. ViewGroup also extends View. ViewGroups can be nestled to create complex layouts. You should not nestle ViewGroups too deeply as this has a negative impact on the performance.

2.3. Intents
Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other

components of the Android system, e.g. from Services or Activities. An application can call a component directly (explicit Intent ) or ask the Android system to evaluate registered components for a certain Intent (implicit Intents ). For example the application could implement sharing of data via an Intent and all components which allow sharing of data would be available for the user to select. Applications register themselves to an Intent via an IntentFilter.
Intents allow to combine loosely coupled components to perform certain tasks.

2.4. Services
Services perform background tasks without providing a user interface. They can notify the user via the

notification framework in Android.

2.5. ContentProvider
ContentProvider provides a structured interface to application data. Via a ContentProvider your

application can share data with other applications. Android contains an SQLite database which is frequently used in conjunction with a ContentProvider to persist the data of the ContentProvider.

2.6. BroadcastReceiver
BroadcastReceiver can be registered to receive system messages and Intents. A BroadcastReceiver

will get notified by the Android system, if the specified situation happens. For example a BroadcastReceiver could get called once the Android system completed the boot process or if a phone call is received.

2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets
Widgets are interactive components which are primarily used on the Android homescreen. They typically

display some kind of data and allow the user to perform actions via them. For example a Widget could display a short summary of new emails and if the user selects an email, it could start the email application with the selected email.

2.8. Other
Android provide many more components but the list above describes the most important ones. Other Android components are "Live Folders" and "Live Wallpapers". Live Folders display data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

3. Android Development Tools
3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) to develop Android applications with Eclipse. ADT is a set of components (plug-ins) which extend the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. ADT contains all required functionalities to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the Eclipse IDE and from the command line. Other IDE's, e.g. IntellJ, are also reusing components of ADT. ADT also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone.

3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine

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intent.vogella. 4. How to develop Android Applications Android applications are primarily written in the Java programming language. <?xml version="1. Dalvik uses an own bytecode format which is different from Java bytecode. Android provides a tool called "dx"" which converts Java class files into a dex (Dalvik Executable) file.vogella. The Android Market determine based on the versionCode. This will avoid collisions with other Android applications.category. Therefore it is a good habit to use your reverse domain name as package name.apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the "adb" tool. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here. either within Eclipse or via the command line. e.g.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.action. The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) performs this packaging.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social applications. versionCode must be an integer.apk (Android Package) file.Android Development Tutorial http://www. AndroidManifest. it must be declared with the full qualified package name.3.com/apk/res/android" package="de.Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android.dex file. If you use the ADT tooling you press a button or run a script and the whole Android application (. they need to get converted in the Dalvik bytecode format.de/articles/Android/article. The . All class files of one application are placed in one compressed . Therefore you cannot directly run Java class files on Android. are packed into an .intent. If a Java object lies within a different package.1. Google Play requires that every Android application uses its own unique package. For example all Activities and Services of the application must be declared in this file. versionName is what the user sees and can be any String.android. android:versionName and android:versionCode specify the version of your application. the images and XML files.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=". Android Application Architecture 4.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" /> </manifest> The package attribute defines the base package for the Java objects referred to in this file. The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler.dex file.xml The components and settings of an Android application are described in the file AndroidManifest.dex file and the resources of an Android project. During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the . These dex files are therefore much smaller in size than the corresponding class files.apk file) will be created and deployed. It must also contain the required permissions for the application.xml. the .dex file contains only once reference of this String. 3. The resulting . The Android Development Tools (ADT) allows that all these steps are performed transparently to the user. For example if the same String is found in different class files. if it should 5 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.

temperature package.xml" file defines the minimal SDK version for which your application is valid.MAIN" ).java via the Eclipse ADT tools.2.category.java is automatically created by the Eclipse development environment. 4. In your Java code you can later access a View via the method findViewById(R. The category definition category android:name="android. R.g. If a View needs to be accessed via Java code. icons. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the /res/layout folder. 6 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .action. The tag <activity> defines an Activity. These resources must be defined in the "res" directory and can be XML files. These references are static int values and define ID's for the resources.4. menus.3. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML. The following shows an example in which a Button gets the "button1" ID assigned.de/articles/Android/article. the assets directory can be used to store any kind of data. in this example pointing to the Convert class in the de.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social value by one.vogella.intent. Views. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest.java is a generated class which contains references to certain resources of the project.intent. The usage of resource file makes it easy to provide different resources. <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> By conversion this will create and assign a new yourvalue ID to the corresponding View. e. This file specifies the ViewGroups. their relationship and their attributes for this specific layout. R. if you roll-out a new version of your application. The layout defines the included Views (widgets) and their properties. R.yourString)) method. for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications. In Java you access this data via the AssetsManager and the getAssets() method .LAUNCHER" defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device.id. The Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource via these ID's. strings.string. An intent filter is registered for this class which defines that this Activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android. If you create a new resource. icons or pictures.yourvalue). You can for example define values.android. 4.string. In most cases the layout is defined as an XML file.Android Development Tutorial http://www. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions. you have to give the View a unique ID via the android:id attribute.vogella.yourString ID. 4. To assign a new ID to a View use @+id/yourvalue. layouts or animations via XML files. colors. Activities and Layouts The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts. manual changes are not necessary and will be overridden by the tooling. The @string/app_name value refers to resource files which contain the actual value of the application name.java and Resources The " gen " directory in an Android project contains generated values. For example to access a String with the R. you would use the getString(R. the corresponding reference is automatically created in R. Assets While the res directory contains structured values which are known to the Android platform.

can be used to initialize fields 4. Context The class android. 4.6.called if the Activity is stopped. Android assumes that an Activity might want to use different resources for these orientations and restarts the Activity. Configuration Change An Activity will also be restarted. For example if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertically or horizontally). the Location Service.xml. The most important methods are: onSaveInstanceState() . which can be found here: Eclipse IDE Book for Kindle. you can refer to other resources via the @ sign.7. Installation 5.g. It is the interface to global information about the application environment. <activity android:name=". You can also mix both approaches. you could access it via @string/hello. Used to save data so that the Activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() . Context also provides access to Android Services.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Eclipse The following assume that you have already Java and Eclipse installed and know how to use Eclipse. you can refer to it via @color/your_id.ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 4. e. This is required to install the Android Development Tools.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social definition.5.8. The author of this text has also published a Kindle book on the usage of the Eclipse IDE. for example your layout files. A configuration change happens if an event is triggered which may be relevant for the application. The tutorial above also describes how to install new components into Eclipse. You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your Activity definition in your AndroidManifest. For example.1. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application.called if the Activity is re-started.content. Activities and Services extend the Context class and can therefore be used as Context. can be used to release resource or save data onResume() . In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11. You find the necessary steps described in the following section of the tutorial: Eclipse Update Manager. Reference to resources in XML files In your XML files. Or if you defined a "hello" string in an XML resource. Activities and Lifecycle The Android system controls the lifecycle of your application. For an introduction into Eclipse please see the following tutorial: Eclipse IDE Tutorial.always called if the Activity ends. It also allows the definition of different layouts for different devices.de/articles/Android/article. if you want to refer to a color which is defined in a XML resource. e. 5.Context provides the connections to the Android system. 4.vogella.g. 7 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . The Android system defines a lifecycle for Activities via predefined methods. The following Activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible). because of an incoming call. if a so called "configuration change" happens.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The Android SDK is 32bit. Install ADT Plug-ins and Android SDK Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available components for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl. 8 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella. apt-get install ia32-libs Please check your distribution documentation. you will be prompted to install the Android SDK. You can use the following wizard or go to the next section to learn how to do it manually.de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www. After the new Android development components are installed. 5.com/android/eclipse/.google. if you are using a different flavor of Linux. therefore on an 64bit Linux system you need to have the package ia32-libs installed. For Ubuntu you can do this via the following command.3.

Select Window → Android SDK Manager from the Eclipse menu. Install a specific Android version The Android SDK Manager allows you to install specific versions of Android. which you can extract to any place in your file system. Alternatively you can also manually download the Android SDK from the Android SDK download page. Avoid using spaces in the path name.Android Development Tutorial http://www.g.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. 5.vogella. on my Linux system I placed it under "/home/vogella/android-sdks".5. The download contains a zip file. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK. Manually install Android SDK After the installation of the ADT the Eclipse tooling allows to download the Android SDK automatically. 9 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . otherwise you may experience problems with the usage of the Android SDK. e.4.de/articles/Android/article. In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via the menu Windows → Preferences. You also have to define the location of the Android SDK in the Eclipse Preferences.

15 for the Android 4. Type in the source directory name and press OK.jar file in your Android project. 5.6. xx is the API level of Android.0. The sources are downloaded to the source directory located in "path_to_android_sdk/sources/android-xx". e. As of Android 4. Press the "Install" button and confirm the license for all packages.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The dialog allows you to install new packages and also allows you to delete them.jar in the Eclipse Package Explorer and select Properties → Java Source Attachment.0. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons". Android Source Code The following step is optional. As of Android 4. restart Eclipse. right click on your android. You can download it via the Android SDK Manager by selecting the "Sources for Android SDK".3 version.6. Select the Google API 15 (Android 4.vogella.0 the Android development tools provides also the source code. 10 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .1.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article. To connect the sources with the android.g.3) version of the SDK and press "Install". After the installation completes. 5.0 During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available.

android. add the "Hardware Back/Home keys" property to the device configuration and set it to "false". 11 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . the size of the SD card. Cloud2DeviceMessaging or Google Maps you must run this application on an AVD with Google API's. You can define several devices with different configurations.googlecode. the screen resolution and other relevant settings. Starting a new emulator is very slow.4.eclipse. Hardware button Android 4. If you want to use functionality which is only provided via the Google API's. You can configure the version of the Android system you would like to run. 6. Alt+Enter Maximizes the emulator. An AVD created for Android will contain the programs from the Android Open Source Project. The ADT allow to deploy and run your Android program on the AVD.Emulator 6. most notable the Google Maps application. Also if you have sufficient memory on your computer.Android Development Tutorial http://www. This is the value "Device ram size" during the creation of the AVD.source.com/svn/trunk/source/com. e. An AVD created for the Google API's will also contain several Google applications.update". This will save the state of the emulator and let it start much faster. If you want to create such an AVD.6. Performance The graphics of the emulator are rendered in software. 6.vogella.0 For earlier versions Haris Peco maintains plugins.de/articles/Android/article. Also set the flag "Enabled" for Snapshots. The emulator behaves like a real Android device (in most cases) and allows you to test your application without having a real device.2.1. Ctrl+F11 changes the orientation of the emulator.g. To have a responsive emulator use a small resolution for your emulator. 6. Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adtaddons.0 introduced that devices do not have to have hardware button anymore. Nice for demos. as for example HVGA. 6. Emulator Shortcuts The following shortcuts are useful for working with the emulator. More details can be found on the project website.3. 6.2.ide. What is the Android Emulator? The Android Development Tools (ADT) include an emulator to run an Android system. These devices are called "Android Virtual Device" (AVD) and you can start several in parallel. which provide the Android Source code code. Android AVD During the creation of an AVD you decide if you want an Android device or an Google device. F8 Turns network on / off. due to some initial setup.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 5. add at least 1 GB of memory to your emulator.5. which is very slow. Android virtual device . Google vrs. Prior to Android 4.

12 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Enter the following.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 7.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device To define an Android Virtual Device (ADV) open the "AVD Manager" via Windows → AVD Manager and press "New".de/articles/Android/article.

To test if your setup is correct. This communication is handled by the Android Debug Bridge (adb).. This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster. Clean Project Several users report that get the following errors: 1.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 8.de/articles/Android/article. Error handling and typical problems Things are not always working as they should.. 8. Unable to open class file R.1. This section gives an overview over typical problems and how to solve them. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved. 3. select your device and press "Start". To solve any of these errors. go to the project menu and select Project → Clean. Eclipse allows to reset the adb in case this causes problems.java. Select therefore the DDMS perspective via Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS 13 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2. After (a long time) your AVD starts. 8. This will create the AVD configuration and display it under the "Virtual devices". At the end press the button "Create AVD". You are able to use it via the mouse and via the virtual keyboard of the emulator. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb) The communication with the emulator or your Android device might have problems.2. Project .vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social We can also select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots.

For example Java exceptions in your program would be shown here.3.4. 8. 8. Install failed due to insufficient storage Sometimes the emulator will refuse to install an application with the error message: INSTALL_FAILED_INSUFFICIENT_STORAGE.de/articles/Android/article. Emulator does not start If your emulator does not start.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.6. 8. select Window → Show View → Other → Android → LogCat. if you press edit on the AVD you can set the "Ideal size of data partition" property via the "New" button. You can clean your installed application by re-starting the emulator and selecting the "Wipe user data" flag. LogCat The "LogCat" View shows you the log messages of your Android device and help you analyze problems. 14 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .vogella. Timeout during deployment If you face timeout issues during deployment you can increase the default timeout in the Eclipse preferences.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Alternative you can set the the data partition size. An Android virtual device provides per default only 64M for internal storage of application. To open this view. make sure that the android-sdk version is in a path without any spaces in the path name.5. Select Window → Preferences → Android → DDMS and increase the "ADB connection timeout (in ms)" value.

6" in the drop-down box. If you receive an error message for @override.7. e.3. 8.de/articles/Android/article.6. Eclipse Tips To work more efficiently with Eclipse.6. Debug Certificate expired If you get the error message "Debug Certificate expired" switch to the folder which contains the Android AVD.vogella. if you are asked to create a 15 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This file is only valid for a year and if not present Eclipse will regenerate the password. Missing Imports Java requires that classes which are not part of the standard Java Language be either fully qualified or declared via imports.g.10. change the Java compiler level to Java 1. The base package for the projects is always the same as the project name. Please use this version for all tutorials in this book. select Window → Preferences → Java → Editor → Save Actions and select that the source code should be formatted and that the imports should be organized at every save. e. API Level 15. 9. 8.8.0. ".1. API version. right-click in your Editor and select Source → Organize Imports to important required packages.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 8.keystore" file. Higher version usually should also work. Error message for @override The @override annotation was introduced in Java 1.android" under Linux and delete the "debug.g. 8. package and application name The tutorials of this document have been developed and tested with Android 4.9. Lower version of the Android API might also work. but if you face issues. select Properties → Java Compiler → Compiler compliance level and select "1. To do this right-click on the project.Android Development Tutorial http://www. If you see error message with "XX cannot be resolved to a variable". try the recommended version. Conventions for the tutorials 9.

3.vogella. Select File → New → Other → Android → Android Project and create the Android project "de. Most exercises try to give you a base example and ask you to extend this example. which must be entered on the Android project generation wizard. 9. Choose a name you like. Create Project This app is also available on the Android Marketplace. Enter the following. 10.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "de. Android Exercises and Tutorials You find different types of exercises. While for real application its best practice to use string resource files we use use Strings directly to simplify the creation of the examples. Some exercises explain every mouse click you have to do. Warnings Messages for Strings The Android development tools are show warnings if you use hard-coded strings. Your first Android project 10.de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www.test".android. 16 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .example.android.1.vogella. The Application name.temperature".vogella. others just give you the task to do. Search for "vogella" for find this example.2. will not be predefined. 9. for example in layout files.

de/articles/Android/article.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Press "Finish". This should create the following directory structure. 17 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.

strings and UI's.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data.Android Development Tutorial http://www.de/articles/Android/article. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code.vogella.2. and directly via XML. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources. Two faces of things The Android SDK allows the developer to define certain artifacts. 10. 18 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .xml". in two ways: via a rich editor.g. The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation the resulting XML is also displayed. for strings or colors. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main. e.g. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets(). 10. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen.3. e.

vogella. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code. 19 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different. Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 10. Table 1.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social "#3399CC" as the value. String attributes allow the developer to translate the application at a later point. Add UI Elements Select "res/layout/main. Add also the following "String" attributes.4. For changing the position and grouping elements you can use the outline view. <?xml version="1.de/articles/Android/article. The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World.Android Development Tutorial http://www. String Attributes Name celsius fahrenheit calc Value to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate Switch to the XML representation and validate the values.

from the “Palette” view. drag a Button object onto the layout. All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText". Switch to "main. The result should look like the following. they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. From the Palette section Form Widgets.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Right-click on the text object “Hello World.vogella. <?xml version="1.xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> 20 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .de/articles/Android/article. Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout. Hello!” in the layout.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Then.android. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> 10. You can either edit the XML file or modify the properties via right mouse click. Most of the properties can be changed via the right mouse menu. Assign the and "fahrenheit" string attribute to the second radio button. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton. Switch back to the "Graphical Layout" tab and check that the text is removed. Switch to the XML tab called "main. Edit UI properties If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view.de/articles/Android/article.5.Android Development Tutorial http://www. From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements. 21 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Typically you change properties directly in the XML file as this is much faster. But the right mouse functionality is nice if you are searching for a certain property. You can also edit properties of fields directy in XML.xml" We will delete the initial text for the EditText field in XML. Open your file "main.vogella.xml" and delete the android:text="EditText" property from the EditText part. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText. Use the right mouse click on the first radio button to assign the "celsius" string attribute to its "text" property. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property.

radio1).onCreate(savedInstanceState).xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained.main). <?xml version="1.widget.View. Right-click on an empty space in Graphical Layout mode. Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.EditText.vogella.id.id.temperature.java to the following.Toast.android.id. android.android. text = (EditText) findViewById(R.app.getText(). Change your code in ConvertActivity. android.view.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R. Code your application During the generation of your new Android project you specified that an Activity called ConvertActivity should get created. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.layout.6.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social LinearLayout.length() == 0) { 22 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . package de.Android Development Tutorial http://www. then select Other Properties → All by Name → Background. import import import import import import android.Activity.RadioButton.os.getId()) { case R. RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R. Note that the myClickHandler will be called based on the OnClick property of your button. } // This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view.id.vogella. The project wizard also created the corresponding Java classs.widget.de/articles/Android/article. setContentView(R. if (text. android.editText1).widget.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout> 10. android. Switch to the "main.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.Bundle.radio0). public class ConvertActivity extends Activity { private EditText text. android.

and select Run-As → Android Application. right click on it.setText(String . Type in a number.isChecked()) { text.vogella. The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.setText(String . Be patient. } } 10.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social return.valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))). Start Project To start the Android Application. celsiusButton.getText(). You should get the following result.setChecked(true).parseFloat(text.32) * 5 / 9). } float inputValue = Float. select your project. select your conversion and press the button. } // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32. the emulator starts up very slowly. } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit . If you press the Home button you can also select your application.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 11.setChecked(true).setChecked(false). celsiusButton. } break.7.toString()).setChecked(false).de/articles/Android/article. if (celsiusButton.valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue))). fahrenheitButton. 23 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . fahrenheitButton. } else { text. Starting an deployed application After you run your application on the virtual device you can start it again on the device.

Android Development Tutorial http://www.vogella. The second option is that the app can open a menu which shows additional actions via a popup menu. and other interactive items.de/articles/Android/article. Definition of menu entries Android provides two possible ways to display global actions which the user can select.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 12.1. The first one is the usage of the Action Bar in the application. Menus and Action Bar 12. navigation modes. Typically you define your menu entries in a way that they are added to the action bar if sufficient space is available in the 24 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . The Action Bar is a window feature at the top of the activity that may display the activity title.

If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the onPrepareOptionsMenu() method.de/articles/Android/article. // If home icon is clicked return to main Activity case android. etc.FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP). The onCreateContextMenu() method is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences" > </Button> </LinearLayout> 25 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .id. EditText provides context options to select text.2. 12.R. 12. In this method you can create the menu programmatically or you can use a pre-defined XML resources which you inflate via the MenuInflator class.xml" layout file in the diretory "/res/layout/" to the following: <?xml version="1. break. The ActionBar also shows an icon of your application.vogella. Action bar tabs It is also possible to add tabs to an action bar.Android Development Tutorial http://www. Create a project called "de.android. Each Activity has already an instance of the class available and this instance can get accessed via the getMenuInflator() method.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The option menu and the action bar of your activity is filled by the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity. You can also add an action to this icon. Change the "main. The Android platform may also add options to your View. startActivity(intent).home: Intent intent = new Intent(this. A context menu for a view is registered via the registerForContextMenu(view) method. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar 13.socialapp" with the Activity called "OverviewActivity".vogella.class).0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. OverviewActivity.home. The onCreateOptionsMenu() method is only called once.g.addFlags(Intent.3.android. This example will be extended in the chapter about preferences. If you select this icon the onOptionsItemSelected() method will be called with the value android.id. e. intent. Context menus You can also assign a context menu to an UI widget (view).R. Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu which is displayed in the action bar if sufficient space is available. The recommendation is to return to the main Activity in your program. A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view.1. 13.

26 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . This defines the entries in your menu.xml" and press the button "Finish". Switch if necessary to the "Layout" tab of the editor. If that happens. enter as File "mainmenu. Right-click on your menu file and select Open with → Android Menu Editor.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Select your project. This will create a new file "mainmenu. Maintain the following value. right click on it and select New → Other → Android → Android XML File to create a new XML resource. We will also define that the menu entry is displayed in the action bar if there is sufficient space available.xml" in the folder "res/menu" of your project.vogella. Press Add and select "Item". unfortunately this editor is not always automatically used due to bugs in the ADT. Select the option "Menu". Android provides a nice editor to edit this file.de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www. you can open this editor manually.

android. If you select the menu item you should see a small info message.view.socialapp.Menu. If there would be more items you could press "Menu" on the emulator to see them. } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(). android.android.LENGTH_SHORT).vogella.widget. } @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast.layout. package de. android. android.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Change your Activity class "OverviewActivity" to the following.vogella.show().de/articles/Android/article. 27 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www. android. inflater.app.MenuInflater. import import import import import import android. return true. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called. Toast. menu).makeText(this. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings.Activity.MenuItem. As there is enough space in the action bar your item will be displayed there. The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu. } } Run your application.Toast.inflate(R.main).os.mainmenu.menu.view. "Just a test".view. setContentView(R.onCreate(savedInstanceState). return true. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.Bundle.

To communicate between different components Android uses Intents.putString("username". edit. Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de. 15.android.commit(). Values can get access via the key of the preference setting. Typically the PreferenceActivity is started from another activity via an Intent.vogella. 14.edit(). "n/a").1. String username = preferences.vogella. Editor edit = preferences. Create an Android XML resource "preferences.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active. Preferences are stored as key values. To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() methods. "new_value_for_user"). 28 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Once you have changed the value you have to call commit() to apply your changes.xml" of type "PreferenceScreen".getString("username". edit.Android Development Tutorial http://www. In your application you can access the preference manager via the following: SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager. PreferenceActivity supports the simple handling of preferences. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource(). Preferences Android supports the usage of Preferences to allow you to save data for your application. Android provides the class "PreferenceActivity" which extends the class Activity. Tutorial: Preferences 15. We will use them in the next chapter. The definition of Preferences can also be done via an XML resource.de/articles/Android/article.social".getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).

Android Development Tutorial http://www. the inputMethod. e. Press Add. 29 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . add a "PreferenceCategory" and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password".g. You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField.vogella.de/articles/Android/article.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Open the file via right-mouse click and Open-with → Android XML Resource Editor.

import android.Bundle.preference. public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.Toast. Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R.view.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { updatePreferenceValue(). Select "AndroidManifest.android.SharedPreferences.PreferenceActivity.MenuInflater. android.view. android. android.Button01).SharedPreferences.Activity. android. android.vogella. package de. import android. addPreferencesFromResource(R.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).getString("username".socialapp.Menu.id. setContentView(R.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:inputType="textPassword" Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity.content. The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code.xml" file and will allow the user to change the values. button.Android Development Tutorial http://www. String password = preferences. password).os. "n/a"). android. package de. android.getString("password".widget. android.xml" and the tab "Application".view.xml. To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity". buttonChangePreferences. android. // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager.onCreate(savedInstanceState).view.app.preference.vogella.id.layout.xml" file.socialapp. Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.PreferenceManager.vogella.view. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.de/articles/Android/article.OnClickListener.preferences).View.View.os. public class OverviewActivity extends Activity { SharedPreferences preferences.Editor. } 30 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . "n/a"). showPrefs(username. This Activity will load the "preference.android.Bundle.onCreate(savedInstanceState).setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences.MenuItem. Scroll to the botton of the view and add your new activity via the "Add" button.content.Button02). import import import import import import import import import import import import android. android. android.Button. } }). } } To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest.widget.main).

} return true.mainmenu. i >= 0.getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R. "Input: " + username + " and password: " + password. i--) { buffer. Toast. We give a little feedback Toast.append(username. buffer.show().1.id. // Some feedback to the user Toast.putString("username". for (int i = username. } // This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item.this.preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity.show(). // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer().commit(). edit.LENGTH_LONG). MyPreferencesActivity. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries.LENGTH_LONG).toString()). // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user. String password){ Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show().this. "n/a"). "Enter your user credentials. String username = preferences. "Reverted string sequence of user name. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences. } private void updatePreferenceValue(){ Editor edit = preferences.length() .". return true.class). @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(). menu).Android Development Tutorial http://www.makeText( OverviewActivity.menu.vogella. } To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() method. } edit. 31 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } 15. inflater. Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences".". Toast.getString("username".this. startActivity(i).html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social private void showPrefs(String username.makeText(OverviewActivity.charAt(i)).edit(). If you press the second button the username should be reversed.de/articles/Android/article.inflate(R.2. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button. Run Run your application. Toast. break. You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity.this.makeText(OverviewActivity.

FrameLayout. Available Layout Manager A layout manager is a subclass of ViewGroup and is responsible for the layout of itself and its child Views. Possible values for this attribute are horizontal and vertical. LinearLayout can be nested to achieve more complex layouts.1. AbsoluteLayoutLayout is deprecated and TableLayout can be implemented more effectively via GridLayout 16.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16.android. 16. This allows for complex layouts. Android supports different default layout managers. <?xml version="1.Android Development Tutorial http://www.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <ProgressBar android:id="@+id/progressBar1" style="?android:attr/progressBarStyleLarge" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_centerInParent="true" /> 32 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.3.2. A simple usage for RelativeLayout is if you want to center a single component.0 the most relevant layout manager are LinearLayout. LinearLayout LinearLayout puts all its child elements into a single column or row depending on the android:orientation attribute. Just add one component to the RelativeLayout and set the android:layout_centerInParent attribute to true. Children can also define attributes which may be evaluated by their parent layout. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 16. All layouts allow the developer to define attributes.de/articles/Android/article. As of Android 4. horizontal is the default value. RelativeLayout RelativeLayout allow to position the widget relative to each other. RelativeLayout and GridLayout.vogella.

4.0" android:text="@+id/TextView02" > </TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" > <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. Create the following layout and class. e. Tutorial: ScrollView Create an android project "de. columns. 17.vogella.0" android:text="Cancel" > 33 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements. one column.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView". one row and the position of a View depends on the order of the declaration of the Views.android.0.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social 16. <?xml version="1.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www. GridLayout separates its drawing area into: rows. This layout allows you to organize a view into a Grid.0" android:text="Submit" > </Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1. and cells. ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen.android. You can specify how many columns you want for define for each View in which row and column it should be placed and how many columns and rows it should use.g.de/articles/Android/article. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas. If not specified GridLayout uses defaults. Gridlayout GridLayout was introduced with Android 4.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true" android:orientation="vertical" > <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" > </TextView> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1.5. 16.

html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> package de.layout.xml" XML file would be created in the "/res/xml" folder. Activitities or Views.app.Bundle.os.widget.Android Development Tutorial http://www. setContentView(R. public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.setText(s).id. 18. Overview Styles in Android allow to define the look and feel of Android application in external files. android.de ". Styling 18.onCreate(savedInstanceState). */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.Activity.vogella. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R. android. String s="". } } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended. i++) { s += "vogella. This way you only have to set common attributes once and can later change the look in one central place. } view. These styles can get assigned to the complete Applications.view.1.main).2.scrollview.View.vogella. import import import import android.android. Example The following "styles.de/articles/Android/article. You can define styles in XML and assign them to these elements. android. 18.TextView02). i < 100. 34 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .TextView. for (int i=0.

Using device independent pixel Android devices are different in terms of resolution and in terms of density. If you specify the size in "dp". They can be defined via layout files or via coding. If a Fragment component is defined in an XML layout file. } 19. like ListFragment or DialogFragment. e. Fragments are components with their own lifecycle and their own user interface. For special purposes you can also use more special classes. Overview Fragment components allow you to organize your application code so that it is easier to support different sized devices. 240dpi) device. Fragments 20.vogella.Android Development Tutorial http://www. 20. Using resource qualifiers Android also allows to use resource qualifiers to specify that certain resources should only be used for certain resolutions.g. // Convert the dps to pixels. You can use "dp" in your resources.density.de/articles/Android/article. dp refers to the base line of an Android device. which was the size of the first Android device (G1). Android will automatically scale it. if an Activity is destroyed its Fragments will also get destroyed. The Android SDK expects that you specify everything in pixels. If an Activity is stopped its Fragments will also be stopped. Supporting different screen sizes 19. The base class for Fragments is android. 19. Fragments always run in the context of an Activity. 320x480 with 160dpi (dots per inch).app. for example to the text elements via style=”@style/text”.g. layout files.Fragment. 120dip) and larger on a hdip(approx. Therefore it is recommended never to use fixed sized dimensions. so that it always occupies the same physical space.1.1.5f). The onCreateView() method is called by Android once the Fragment should create its user interface. e. public int convertToDp(int input) { // Get the screen's density scale final float scale = getResources(). The onStart() method is called once the Fragment gets visible. Here you can inflate an layout. The unit of measurement which should be used is "dp" (which is the same as "dip" but shorter). based on density scale return (int) (input * scale + 0.2. the android:name attribute points to the Fragments class. 35 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . You can therefore use the following formulator to calculate the right amount of pixels for a dimension specified in dp. depending on the device. This size is also known as mdpi (medium dots per inch). On a mdpi device "dp" will be equal to pixel but it will be smaller on a ldpi (approx.getDisplayMetrics().html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social <resources> <style name="text"> <item name="android:padding">4dip</item> <item name="android:textAppearance">?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge</item> <item name="android:textColor">#000000</item> </style> <style name="layout"> <item name="android:background">#C0C0C0</item> </style> </resources> You assign the style attribute to your elements.

On a tablet the main activity contains both Fragments in its layout. 21.). On a handset you jump to a new detail screen. when the tablet UI uses two Fragments in an activity. Overview The following tutorial demonstrates how to use Fragments.. } To create different layouts with Fragments you can: Use one activity. It also requires an update of the action bar if the action bar status depends on the fragment. but the whole information will be shown on one screen. On a tablet you see the details immediately on the same screen on the right hand side if you click on item.Android Development Tutorial http://www. This is similar to the portrait mode. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager().isInLayout()) { // start new Activity } else { fragment.1.vogella. But as tablets offer significantly more space you typically include more views into the layout and Fragments makes that easier. For example.g. e. When you need to switch Fragments. In this case the main activity checks if the detail fragment is available in the layout. The entry Activity (called MainActivity of our application ) will use different layouts for portrait and for landscape mode. i. you can build single-pane layouts for handsets (phones) and multi-pane layouts for tablets. For this purpose a Fragment typically implements an interface to get new data from its host Activity. The following discussion will assume that you have two Fragments (main and detail) but you can also have more. To check for an fragment you can use the FragmentManager. findFragmentById(R. but supply an alternative layout that includes just one fragment. the main activity tells the fragment that is should update itself.id.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social add the action to the history stack of the Activity. The first is again the Fragments which shows the list of names. Fragments Tutorial 21. In landscape mode MainActivity will show two Fragments. The second Fragment shows the text of the current selected item. 20.update(. Use separate activities to host each fragment on a handset. a second Activity called DetailActivity will start and show the selected text. The typical example is a list of items in an activity. if (fragment==null || ! fragment. The second approach is the most flexible and in general preferable way of using Fragments. In portrait mode MainActivity will show one Fragment with a list of names.detail_frag). If the user touches an item in the list..de/articles/Android/article. In this case you would switch the Fragments in the activity whenever necessary. This requires that the fragment is not declared in the layout file as such Fragments cannot be removed during runtime. It is good practice that Fragments do not manipulate each other. use the same activity for handsets. on a handheld it only contains the main fragment. start another activity that hosts the other fragment. which displays two Fragments for tablets and only one on handsets devices. 36 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . If the detail fragment is not available the main activity starts the detailed activity. We will also have one main activity and one detailed activity. This is not limited to tablets.2. for example you can use Fragments also to support different layout for landscape and portrait orientation. If the detailed fragment is there. When to use Fragments Fragments make it easy to re-use components in different layouts.e. this will allow to revert the Fragment changes in the Activity via the back button.

android.vogella. "Ubuntu". 21.android.vogella.android.android.Bundle.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.vogella. android. import import import import import android.ListFragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. android.fragments. "WebOS". "Max OS X".4. "Blackberry".os. This layout will be used by the DetailFragment. Create Fragment classes Create now the Fragment classes. 37 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . Create the ListFragment class.android.Android Development Tutorial http://www.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <TextView android:id="@+id/detailsText" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal|center_vertical" android:layout_marginTop="20dip" android:text="Large Text" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:textSize="30dip" /> </LinearLayout> Change the existing "main.Intent. android.vogella.xml" file.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="150dip" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.vogella.content. "OS/2" }.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Create a new project de.DetailFragment" > <!-.fragments.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.view. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. "WindowsMobile".onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState). "Windows7". "Linux".3. public class ListFragment extends android.Preview: layout=@layout/details --> </fragment> </LinearLayout> 21.fragments.fragments with an Activity called MainActivity. "iPhone". First create the following file called "details. <?xml version="1.xml".de/articles/Android/article. Create layouts for portrait mode Create or change the following layout files in the "res/layout/" folder. package de.ArrayAdapter.onCreate(savedInstanceState).app.android.widget.View. This layout will be used by MainActivity in landscape mode and shows two Fragments.ListFragment" ></fragment> <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de. <?xml version="1. android.widget.ListView. String[] values = new String[] { "Android".

android. public class DetailFragment extends Fragment { @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.widget. android. "hello"). View v.5.findFragmentById(R.isInLayout()) { fragment. false).xml file in portrait model then in landscape mode.de/articles/Android/article.Android Development Tutorial http://www. startActivity(intent).inflate(R.xml" layout file in "res/layout-port". Bundle savedInstanceState) { View view = inflater.id.app. android. container. return view. <?xml version="1. } else { Intent intent = new Intent(getActivity(). For this reason create the "res/layout-port" folder.vogella.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social setListAdapter(adapter).getApplicationContext().Fragment. view. } @Override public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.id.vogella. ViewGroup container. Create layouts for landscape mode We want that Android uses a different main. long id) { String item = (String) getListAdapter().xml" file in "layout-port".view. DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager() .details. DetailActivity. Android would check the "layout" folder.onCreate(savedInstanceState).view. Only if we would not have a "main. intent.detailsText).util. if (fragment != null && fragment.ViewGroup. android.LayoutInflater.View.e("Test". } public void setText(String item) { TextView view = (TextView) getView(). int position.os. } @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState). android. import import import import import import import android. android.setText(item). Log.Bundle. } @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l.Log. In portrait mode Android will check the "layout-port" folder for fitting layout files. Therefore create the following "main. item).com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" > <fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" 38 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . android.putExtra("value".view.findViewById(R. package de.getItem(position).fragments.android.class). } } } Create the DetailFragment class.detailFragment).TextView.setText(item). } } 21.layout.

6.getString("value").onCreate(savedInstanceState). but as it is only used in portrait mode it is best practise to place it into this folder.widget.vogella.TextView. import android.fragments.android. return. android.content.Configuration.android. view.de/articles/Android/article. setContentView(R. Activities Create a new Activity called DetailActivity with the following class. import import import import android.id.ORIENTATION_LANDSCAPE) { finish(). package de. // Need to check if Activity has been switched to landscape mode // If yes.onCreate(savedInstanceState). } setContentView(R.layout.details_activity_layout).os.vogella. package de.ListFragment" /> </LinearLayout> Also create the "details_activity_layout. public class DetailActivity extends Activity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.android.res.Bundle. This layout will be used in the DetailActivity which is only used in portrait mode.setText(s).orientation == Configuration. <?xml version="1.fragments.main).0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. import android. if (extras != null) { String s = extras.app.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de. finished and go back to the start Activity if (getResources().Bundle. android.7. Bundle extras = getIntent().getConfiguration(). Run 39 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . } } } MainActivity will remain unmodified.getExtras().vogella.vogella.android.detailsText). */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.fragments.Activity.app.android.xml" layout file. Please note that we could have create this file also in the "layout" folder.vogella. android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" > <fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de. } } 21. public class MainActivity extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.Android Development Tutorial http://www.layout.Activity.os.DetailFragment" /> </LinearLayout> 21.fragments.

If you select an item in portrait mode a new Activity should get started with the selected item.out.3. In horizontal mode your second Fragment should display the select item. It also allows the application to set the current geo position and allows you to perform a performance trace of your application. DDMS . It includes several Views which can also be used independently and allows for example the application to place calls and send SMS to the device. DDMS perspective and important views 22. 23. Shell 40 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social to switch the orientation.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your Android (virtual) device and your Android application program. Select Window → Open Perspective → Other → DDMS to open this perspective. 22. In horizontal mode you should see two Fragments.de/articles/Android/article.2. 22.Android Development Tutorial http://www. LogCat View You can see the log (including System.1.vogella. 22. File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the Android simulator.print() statements) via the LogCat view.

The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". adb shell You can also copy a file from and to your device via the following commands. For example to change the power settings of your phone. Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell. Open a shell. If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individual device. Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings.de/articles/Android/article. // Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system. etc. rm.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social You can access your Android emulator also via the console. ls. etc. You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone.2.3. For details please see 41 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . use the command "quit" or "exit". Select in the settings Applications > Development. to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following. Use "telnet localhost 5554" to connect to your simulated device. then enable USB debugging. mkdir. e. # Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 23. incoming call. change the network "stability". set your current geocodes. You can also uninstall an app via adb with the package name. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell". # connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 24. Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. This allows you to simulate certain things. switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools".g. To exit the console session.Android Development Tutorial http://www. e.vogella. Switch the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application.g. adb uninstall <packagename> 23.

To select your phone. I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you. Thank you Please help me to support this article: 26. Android Resources Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android SQlite Database Android Widgets Android Live Wallpaper Android Services Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking 42 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM . select the "Run Configurations". 25.vogella.2. select "Manual" selection and select your device. Source Code Source Code of Examples 27. Questions and Discussion Before posting questions.1. please see the vogella FAQ.vogella. 27. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www. Links and Literature 27.de Google Group.Android Development Tutorial http://www.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social version on your phone.de/articles/Android/article.

3.html Home Tutorials Trainings Books Social Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Live Folder 27.vogella.de/articles/Android/article. vogella Resources Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system 43 of 43 3/9/2012 10:02 AM .Android Development Tutorial http://www.

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