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# Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

## COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, BARAMATI

VIDYA PRATISHTHANS

## DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

LABORATORY MANUAL

## SUBJECT: ENGG. GRAPHICS-II

[SUBJECT CODE: 102012]

CLASS: FE

PRAPARED BY:

## VIDYA PRATISHTHANS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, BARAMATI

List of Practicals
FACULTY: PROF.Shirke M .S YEAR: 20011-12 SUBJECT: Engineering Graphics-II CLASS: FE

1. Projection of lines 2. Projection of planes 3. Projection of solids 4. Section of solids 5. Development of Lateral Surfaces

Prof. Shirke M S

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

SHEET NO:-1
TITLE: - Projection of line SOFTWARE USED: - Intelli-CAD, AUTO -CAD TOOLBARS USED: - Draw, Modify, Properties, Dimensioning, Text. COMMANDS USED: - Line, Circle, Trim, Dimension-Linear, align, angular, Text- Single line text. THEORY: Line: is the shortest distance between two points is called line. It has length but negligible thickness. Projection of Line: To draw the front view, top view and side view ism called Projection of straight line. Positions of straight lines: The position of straight line in a space can be fixed if their inclinations with reference planes and distance of its extremities from the two planes are known. The following are the important positions which a straight line can take with respect to two reference planes. Statement/position of line 1
Line parallel to HP & VP to XY

Front view
to XY

Top view

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

2 3 4 5
Line perpendicular to HP & True parallel to VP Line perpendicular to HP & parallel to VP Line in HP & VP length and point True length and

Perpendicular to XY point

Perpendicular to XY on XY

## True length and coincide True length and coincide on XY at to XY

Line in VP and inclined at to True length and inclined Shorter than true HP

## length and parallel lies in XY

True length and inclined

## length and parallel lies at to XY in xy

Neither true length nor Neither true length nor true inclination true inclination

## Line inclined to HP & VP

PROCEDURE:1. Draw rectangle of A2 (594 X 420) size sheet by using line command. 2. Draw reference line XY. 3. Draw locus lines which are parallel to Reference line at given distance by using line command. 4. Draw true length in particular plane with reference specific given data by using line command. 5. Draw projection lines with faint colors from end points of true length. 6. Draw apparent line in with the help of projections. 7. Give the name to line in both the views by using text command. Use Text with suffix for F.V and plain text for T.V 8. Show all necessary dimensions by using dimension toolbar. 9. Write the given problem on the sheet by using text command.

## GUIDELINES TO USE COMMANDS: -

1. Line
Toolbar: Draw 2D > Line ( Menu: Insert > Line Keyboard: LINE Draws straight lines of any length. You can specify the two-dimensional or three-dimensional coordinates for the start or endpoints by entering the x,y,z-coordinates of the point. )

1. Specify the start point of the line. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING- VPCOE

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

2. Specify the endpoint. A line consists of two points: a start point and an endpoint. You can connect a series of lines, but each line segment is considered a separate line entity.

2. Circle
Toolbar: Draw 2D > Circle Menu: Insert > Circle Keyboard: CIRCLE Draws a circle of any size. The default method of drawing a circle is by center point and radius, but there are other methods you can use. 2Point / 3Point / RadTanTan / Arc / Multiple / <Center of circle>: To draw a circle by specifying the center point and radius or diameter, specify the center point of the circle. To draw a circle using the two-point method, choose 2Point. To draw a circle using the three-point method, choose 3Point. To draw a circle by specifying the radius and two tangents, choose RadTanTan. To convert an arc to a circle, choose Arc. To draw multiple circles, choose Multiple and then select the type of circle you want to draw. a) To draw a circle by specifying the center point and radius

A. Specify the center point of the circle. B. Specify a second point indicating the radius of the circle (another point through which the circumference of the circle passes).

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

Specify the center point of the circle. Diameter <Radius>: To draw a circle based on the radius, enter the radius or specify a point. To draw a circle based on the diameter, choose Diameter and enter the diameter or specify a point. b) To draw a circle by specifying the center point and diameter

1. Specify the center point of the circle. 2. Specify a second point indicating the diameter of the circle. Specify the center point of the circle. Diameter <Radius>: To draw a circle based on the radius, enter the radius or specify a point. To draw a circle based on the diameter, choose Diameter and enter the diameter or specify a point.

3. Dimension
Toolbar: Dimensioning Keyboard: DIMENSION Explanation: Dimensions drawing entities in a variety of ways. Dimensioning command: Choose the dimensioning command you want from the prompt box, or type a dimensioning command. To exit dimensioning mode and return to the command bar, press the Esc key or type Exit. While you are using dimensioning commands, you can also use the dimension-related commands listed in the following table. You do not need to type the letters "dim" preceding each command, and you can type DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING- VPCOE

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

an abbreviation of the command as shown here. There are various types of dimensions as listed below. Process is similar to all Linear/aligned/angular/center point/diameter/radius Dimension Linear To create a horizontal or vertical dimension 1. Do one of the following: Choose Insert > Dimensions > Linear. On the Dimensioning toolbar. Type dim linear and then press Enter.

2. Press Enter, and then select the entity to dimension. Or, you can insert the dimension by specifying the first and second extension line origins. 3. Specify the dimension line location.

Result To insert a linear dimension by selecting the entity, select the entity (A) to dimension, and then specify the dimension line location (B).

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

To insert a linear dimension by selecting the extension line origins, select the first extension origin (A), select the second extension origin (B), and then specify the dimension line location (C).

4. Trim
Toolbar: Modify > Trim ( Menu: Modify > Trim Keyboard: TRIM Explanation: Erases the options of selected entities that cross a specified boundary. You can trim lines and open two- and three-dimensional polylines, rays, arcs, and circles. Entities that you can use as the cutting entities are arcs, circles, lines, polylines, rays, infinite lines, and viewports in paper space. )

Edge mode Fence <Select entity to trim>: Select the entity you want to trim. To trim the entity at its implied edge or to an entity that intersects

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

it in three-dimensional space, choose Edge. To trim the entity by selecting fence points, choose Fence. To trim the entity by selecting fence points You can trim multiple entities to a single entity by specifying fence points.

1. Select the cutting entity. 2. Specify the first fence point. 3. Specify the last fence point. Choose Fence. First point of fence: Specify the first fence point. A fence point is the beginning point along the cutting entity. Next point of fence: Specify the next fence point. You can continue to specify fence points until you have trimmed all entities

5. Text
Toolbar: Draw 2D > Text Menu: Insert > Text Keyboard: DTEXT Explanation: Creates text entities. Similar to the Text command except that you can enter multiple lines of text and separate them with a

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

paragraph return. Text is drawn dynamically as you enter it in the command bar. See Font Samples for a list of all the fonts available in IntelliCAD

A. Specify the text height. B. Specify the rotation angle of the text. Text: Style Align Fit Center Middle Right Justify <Start point>: To start typing left-justified text, specify the start point of the text. To specify the text style, choose Style. To change the alignment, choose Align, Fit, Center, Middle, Right, or Justify.

SAMPLE VIVA QUESTION: 1. What is mean by Orthographic Projection? 2. Define line. 3. What Is Mean By Horizontal Trace? 4. What Is Mean By Vertical Trace? 5. How to Draw F.V and T.V if line is inclined to both the Planes.

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

SHEET NO:-2
TITLE: - Projection of plane SOFTWARE USED: - Intelli-CAD, AUTO -CAD TOOLBARS USED: - Draw, Modify, Properties, Dimensioning, Text, and command bar, status bar. COMMANDS USED: - Line, copy, move, rotate, Trim, Dimension-Linear, aligned, angular, Text- Single line text. THEORY: Plane: A flat surface generated by moving a straight line in space is called plane. Type of a plane: Following are the two types of plane used in engineering drawing: Perpendicular plane Oblique plane

1) Perpendicular plane: The planes which are perpendicular to both the reference plane i.e., HP and VP are called perpendicular plane. These planes can be located in different manner: Plane perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP Plane perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP Plane perpendicular to both the reference planes VP and HP Plane perpendicular to HP and inclined to VP Plane perpendicular to VP and inclined to HP

2) Oblique plane:

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

The plane inclined to both the reference planes. Sr.No Statement/position of plane 1 2 3 4 5 6 Perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP Perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP Perpendicular to both HP and VP Front view True shape Line parallel to XY Line to XY VP HP Plane inclined to both HP and VP plane XY plane Top view Line parallel to XY True shape perpendicular to XY XY plane plane

perpendicular Line

Perpendicular to HP and inclined at to Reduce shape of the Line inclined at to Perpendicular to VP and inclined at to Line inclined at to Reduce shape of the Reduce shape of the Reduce shape of the

PROCEDURE:1. Draw rectangle of A2 (594 X 420) size sheet by using line command. 2. Draw reference line XY. 3. Draw the plane of required edges by polygon command. 5. Draw projection lines with faint colors from end points of the polygon. 6. Draw apparent shape with the help of projections. 7. Give the name to the corner points of the polygon in front view and top view using text command. Use Text with suffix for F.V and plain text for T.V 8. Show all necessary dimensions by using dimension toolbar. 9. Write the given problem on the sheet by using multiline text command.

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

GUIDELINES TO USE COMMANDS: -

1 .Polygon
Toolbar: Draw 2D > Polygon Menu: Insert > Polygon Keyboard: POLYGON Alias: POL Explanation: Draws polygons with a specified number of sides. A polygon is created from a polyline entity. The default width of the polygon is specified with the system variable, but you can change the width when you draw a polygon. Polygon: Multiple Width of line <Number of sides> <5>: To draw a polygon using the current setting for the number of sides, press Enter, or enter a new value. To draw multiple polygons, choose Multiple. To specify the width of the lines in the polygon, choose Width. Specify by: Edge <Center of polygon>: Select the center of the polygon. To specify the location of the first edge of the polygon, choose Edge. To draw a polygon by specifying the center

1. Select the center of the polygon. 2. Select the length between the center and a vertex point.

Result.

Choose Center.

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

Specify by: Side <Select vertex point>: To draw a polygon by specifying the length between the center point and a vertex, select the vertex point. Selecting a vertex point also defines the rotation of the polygon. To draw a polygon by specifying the length between the center point and the side, choose Side.

## To draw a polygon by specifying the length of the edge

1. Select the first point of an edge on the polygon. 2. Select the endpoint of an edge on the polygon.

Result.

Choose Edge. First endpoint of edge: Select the first point of the edge. Second endpoint of edge: Select the endpoint of the edge. To draw multiple polygons Choose Multiple. Polygon: Width of line <Number of sides> <5>: To draw a polygon using the current setting for the number of sides, press Enter, or enter a new value. To specify the width of lines in the polygon, choose Width. Specify by: Edge <Center of polygon>: To draw a polygon by specifying the length between the center point and a vertex, select the vertex point. To draw a polygon by specifying the length between two vertices, choose Edge.

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

Specify by: Side <Select vertex point>: To draw a polygon by specifying the length between the center point and a vertex, select the vertex point. Selecting a vertex point also defines the rotation of the polygon. To draw a polygon by specifying the length between the center point and the side, choose Side. Center of polygon: Select the center point of the next polygon. Continue to draw identical polygons by selecting the center point for each polygon. To end the command, press Enter. To specify the width of lines Choose Width. Default polyline width <0.5000>: To accept the current setting for the line width, press Enter, or enter a new value. Polygon: Multiple Width of line <Number of sides> <5>: To draw a polygon using the current setting for the number of sides, press Enter, or enter a new value. To draw multiple polygons, choose Multiple. To change the width of the lines in the polygon, choose Width 2.Move Toolbar: Modify > Move Menu: Modify > Move Keyboard: MOVE Alias: M Explanation: Moves selected entities to another location in the same drawing. Select entities to move: Select the entities you want to move, and then press Enter.

Result

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

2. Select the base point and displacement point.

Vector <Base point>: Specify the point from which you want to move the entities (the starting point of a vector). The distance and direction to move the entities is calculated relative to the starting point. To define the distance and direction for the move with x,y,z values, choose Vector. Displacement point: Specify the point to which you want to move the entities (the ending point of the vector). To move the entity from the selection point to the Base Point, press Enter.

1 .Copy Entity
Toolbar: Modify > Copy Menu: Modify > Copy Keyboard: COPY Aliases: CO, CP Explanation: Draws a duplicate of the selected entities. You can draw multiple copies from a single selection, and you can specify the base and displacement points. The entities you select to copy are not moved from their original location. The entities you copy maintain all the attributes (such as line type, color, and layer) of the original entities.

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

1. Select the entity you want to Result. copy. 2. Specify the base point. 3. Specify the displacement point for the copy.

Select entities to copy: Select the entities you want to copy. Choose Base point. The base point need not be anywhere near the entity being copied. Displacement point: Specify the point of displacement. 3 .Rotate Toolbar: Modify > Rotate Menu: Modify > Rotate Keyboard: ROTATE Alias: RO Explanation: Rotates existing entities around a specified point.

1. Select entities to rotate: Select the entity you want to rotate. 2. Rotation point: Select the point around which you want the entity rotated. 3. Base angle <Rotation angle>: Enter the angle of rotation, the default setting. To specify the base angle, choose Base angle. To specify the base angle Choose Base angle. Base angle <0>: Enter the base angle of the entity. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING- VPCOE

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

New angle: Enter the new angle of the entity.

SAMPLE VIVA QUESTION: 1. What is mean by Orthographic Projection? 2. Define plane. 3. What Is Mean By Horizontal Trace? 4. What Is Mean By Vertical Trace? 5. How to Draw F.V and T.V if plane is inclined to both the reference Planes.

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual SHEET NO:-3

TITLE: - Projection of solids SOFTWARE USED: - Intelli-CAD, AUTO -CAD TOOLBARS USED:-Draw, Modify, Properties, Dimensioning, Text,

command bar, status bar. COMMANDS USED: - Line, copy, move, rotate, Trim, Dimension-Linear, aligned, angular, Text- Single line text. THEORY: Solids: An object having three dimensions, i.e, length, breadth and height is called a solid. Projections of solid: the top view, front view and side view of a solid is known as projections of solids. Type of solids: Polyhedral Solids of revolution

1) Polyhedral: The solid which is bounded by plane surfaces is called a polyhedral. Tetrahedron Cube Prism: The polyhedral having two equal and similar end bases, parallel to each other and are joined by other faces which may be rectangle or parallelograms is called a prism. a) Square b) Pentagonal c) hexagonal

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

Pyramid: the polyhedral having a plane figure for its base and equal number of isosceles triangular faces meeting at a point is called as pyramid. a) Square b) Pentagonal c) hexagonal PROCEDURE:1. Draw rectangle of A2 (594 X 420) size sheet by using line command. 2. Draw reference line XY. 3. Draw FV or TV of true shape of a solid base as per given data. 4. Draw projection lines from true shape to complete another view. 5. Show all necessary dimensions by using dimension toolbar. 6. Write the given problem on the sheet by using multiline text command.

## GUIDELINES TO USE COMMANDS: -

1. Array
Toolbar: Modify > Array ( Menu: Modify > Array Keyboard: ARRAY Alias: AR Explanation: Creates multiple copies of entities in one of two symmetrical patterns: rectangular (rows and columns) or polar (circular). Similar to the 3D Array command, except that entities are arrayed in two-dimensional space. A polar array copies entities in a circumference around a center point that you specify; the entities can be rotated (all facing the center point) or not. Select entities to array: Select the entities you want to array, and then right-click the mouse or press Enter. Type of array: Polar <Rectangular>: To create a rectangular array, press Enter. To create a polar array, choose Polar. To create a linear array along a path, use the Divide or Measure commands, with the Block option. To make an irregular array, use the Copy command with the Multiple option. To create a rectangular array Entities are arrayed in a rectangular pattern in the positive direction of the x- and y-axis. To array entities in the negative direction, enter a negative value for the number of rows and columns. A rectangular array must have at least two rows or two columns. )

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

1. Select the entity you want to array. 2. Specify the number of rows in the rectangular array. 3. Specify the number of columns in the rectangular array. Choose Rectangular. Number of rows in the array <1>: Enter the number of rows you want in the array. Number of columns <1>: Enter the number of columns you want in the array.

NOTE You must have at least two rows or at least two columns. If you specify 1 as the number for both rows and columns, the program exits the Array command.

Vertical distance between rows, or spacing rectangle: Enter the amount of space you want between each row in the array. Or, pick two points on the screen that represents the vertical and horizontal distance between rows and columns. Horizontal distance between columns: Enter the amount of space you want between each column in the array.

NOTE If either the vertical or horizontal distance is zero, the program does not draw entities in that direction, even if you specify the number of entities to draw. If the vertical and horizontal distances are both zero, the program does not draw an array at all.

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

1. Select the entity you want to array. 2. Specify the center point of the array. The graphic on the left shows entities rotated around the array. Choose Polar. Center of polar array: Specify the point around which you want the entities arrayed. ENTER to specify angle between items <Number of items to array>: To specify the number of items you want to array, enter a number. To specify the angle, press Enter. Angle to array (+ for ccw, - for cw) <360>: To array entities in a full circle (360), the default setting, press Enter. To array entities in a counterclockwise direction, enter a positive value. To array entities in a clockwise direction, enter a negative value. The polar array begins at 0 degrees (default = east). Angle between items: Enter the degree of the angle between the items arrayed. Rotate entities around the array? No <Yes>: To accept Yes, the default selection, press Enter. To array entities without rotating them, choose No. SAMPLE VIVA QUESTION: 1. Define projection of solids?. 2. Define prism? 3. Define pyramid? 4. What is the difference between prism and pyramid?

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

SHEET NO:-4
TITLE: - Section of solids SOFTWARE USED: - Intelli-CAD, AUTO -CAD TOOLBARS USED:-Draw, Modify, Properties, Dimensioning, Text, and command bar, status bar. COMMANDS USED: - Line, copy, move, rotate, Trim, Boundary hatch, Dimension-Linear, aligned, angular, Text- Single line text. THEORY: Section of Solids: the solids which are cut by the section planes to visualize the internal constructional details of the invisible features are known as sections of solids. Terms used in sections of solids: Section plane or cutting plane: the imaginary plane by which the object is assumed to be cut is known as section plane. Sectional view: the projection obtained on a plane of projection of a cut object. PROCEDURE:1. Draw rectangle of A2 (594 X 420) size sheet by using line command. 2. Draw reference line XY. 3. Draw FV or TV of true shape of a solid base as per given data. 4. Draw projection lines from true shape to complete another view. 5. Draw the section plane (line) parallel to HP as per given data. 6. Draw projection line from the intersection point of the section line and object edges.

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

7. Draw projection line up to the true shape view. 8. Join the intersection point of projection line and the edges of the true shape view. 9. Mark the intersection points using text command. 10. Show all necessary dimensions by using dimension toolbar. 11. Write the given problem on the sheet by using multiline text command.

SAMPLE PROBLEMS:

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

GUIDELINES TO USE COMMANDS: -

1. Boundary Hatch
Toolbar: Insert > Hatch Menu: Draw 2D > Boundary Hatch Keyboard: BHATCH Explanation: Allows you to apply cross-hatching and pattern-filling to closed entities within specified boundaries. You can make the boundary hatch associative or non-associative, by choosing whether the hatch pattern will change when its boundary is changed. Associative hatches created in AutoCAD display in IntelliCAD and can be edited. SAMPLE VIVA QUESTION: 1. What is mean by Orthographic Projection? 2. Define section of solids?. 3. Define section plane? 4. What is section plane?

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

SHEET NO:-5
TITLE: - Development of lateral surfaces SOFTWARE USED: - Intelli-CAD, AUTO -CAD TOOLBARS USED:- Draw, Modify, Properties, Dimensioning, Text, and command bar, status bar. COMMANDS USED: - Line, copy, move, rotate, Trim, Boundary hatch, Dimension-Linear, aligned, angular, Text- Single line text. THEORY: Development of surfaces: The complete surface of an object when laid out on a plane is called the development of the surface or pattern of the object. Engineering applications of DLS: The engineering applications of development is generally employed in sheet metal works, in the construction of boilers, pattern making, stone cutting, tunnels, buckets, chimney, prisms, cylinder, pyramids, cones, spheres, etc. PROCEDURE:1. Draw rectangle of A2 (594 X 420) size sheet by using line command. 2. Draw reference line XY. 3. Draw FV and TV of a solid as per given data. 5. Draw the section plane (line) parallel to XY as per given data. 6. Draw projection line from the intersection point of the section line and object edge. 7. Draw the development of the solid.

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

8. Draw the projection line from the intersection point of the edges and section line to the corresponding edges of the developed surface. 9. Name to the corner points of the solid in front view and top view and the developed surface using text command. Use Text with suffix for F.V and plane text for T.V 10. Show all necessary dimensions by using dimension toolbar. 11. Write the given problem on the sheet by using multiline text command. SAMPLE PROBLEMS

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

GUIDELINES TO USE COMMANDS: 1. Parallel To make a parallel copy by specifying the distance 1. Do one of the following: o Choose Modify > Parallel. o On the Modify toolbar, click the Parallel tool ( ). o Type parallel and then press Enter. 2. Specify the distance by selecting two points or by entering a distance. 3. Select the entity to copy. 4. Specify on which side of the entity to place the parallel copy. 5. Select another entity to copy, or press Enter to complete the command.

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

To make a parallel copy, specify the distance between copies by entering a distance or selecting two points (A and B), select the entity to copy (C), and specify on which side to place the copy (D). To make a parallel copy passing through a point

Result.

1. Do one of the following: o Choose Modify > Parallel. o On the Modify toolbar, click the Parallel tool ( ). o Type parallel and then press Enter. 2. In the prompt box, choose Through Point. 3. Select the entity to copy. 4. Specify the point for the entity to pass through. 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4, or press Enter to complete the command.

To make a parallel copy passing through a point, select the entity to copy (A) and then specify the through point (B).

SAMPLE VIVA QUESTION: 1. What is mean by Orthographic Projection? 2. Define Development of lateral surface? 3. Give the engineering application of DLS ?

## Engineering Graphics-II Lab Manual

REFERENCE: 1) Engineering Drawing by N.D.Bhatt. 2) Engineering Graphics by P.S Gill. 3) Textbook on Engineering Drawing by K. L. Narayana & P. Kannaiah 4) A Textbook of Engineering Graphics by Dabhade.M.L 5) Engineering Drawing plan and solid geometry by N.D.Bhatt. 6) Engineering Drawing and Graphics + AutoCAD by Venugopal K. 7) Engineering Graphics by Mali R V 8) Engineering Graphics by Phakatkar H. G 9) Engineering Graphics by Shah M B 10) Engineering Graphics with AutoCAD 2002 by Bethune J D 11) Engineering Graphics with Introduction to CAD by Phakatkar H. G 12) Engineering Graphics by Kumar A 13) Fundamentals of Engineering Drawing by Luzadder Warren J 14) Engineering Graphics and Drafting by Gill P S