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Entity integrity is a rule that applies to the primary keys of base relations and states that in a base relation no attribute of a primary key can be null. or hashing algorithms. Changes to the internal schema. alter or delete details. or relationships. (c) Database schema is the overall description of the database. should be possible without having to change existing external schemas or having to rewrite application programs. Changes to the conceptual schema. Physical data independence Physical data independence refers to the immunity of the conceptual schema to changes in the internal schema. the actual data in the database may change frequently for example it changes every time we insert. should be possible without having to change the conceptual or external schemas. The schema is specified during the database design process and is not expected to change frequently. the sex of a member of staff is either ‘M’ or ‘F’. so the domain of the sex attribute is a single character string consisting of ‘M’ or ‘F’. modifying indexes. (b) Domain constraints are restrictions on the set of values allowed for the attributes of relations.1(a) Logical data independence Logical data independence refers to the immunity of the external schemas to changes in the conceptual schema. For example. However. 2 Limitation of the traditional file-based system Data redundancy . using different storage devices. Database instance is the data in the database at any particular point in time. such as the addition or removal of new entities. attributes. such as using different file organizations or storage structures.
A change to the structure of the data or a change to the way the data is stored on disk. The provision of data independence simplifies database application maintenance. Data dependence In file-based systems.Owing to the decentralized approach taken by each department. By eliminating or controlling redundancy. programming languages. or any other physical considerations. making the programs dependent on the data. Inefficient backup and recovery services Many file-based systems place the responsibility on the user to provide measures to protect the data from failures to the computer system or application program. the file-based approach encouraged. the database approach attempts to eliminate the redundancy by integrating the files so that multiple copies of the same data are not stored. 3 Conceptual database design. the descriptions of the data and the logic for accessing the data are built into each application program. This may involve taking a nightly backup of the data. This is known as data independence. In contrast. can require substantial alterations to the programs that are affected by the change. we reduce the risk of inconsistencies occurring. In contrast. application programs. if not necessitated. modern DBMSs provide facilities to minimize the amount of processing that is lost following a failure. the backup is restored and the work that has taken place since this backup is lost and has to be re-entered. such as the target DBMS. thereby making applications immune to changes in the data descriptions. is the process of constructing a model of the information use in an enterprise that is independent of implementation details. the uncontrolled duplication of data. a DBMS separates the data descriptions from the applications. In the event of a failure during the next day. Traditional file-based systems waste space by storing the same information in more than one file. In contrast. It is the first phase of .
For example. and indexes used to achieve efficient access to the data. further. related records of the different relations are stored on the same block. so that one I/O operation fetches related records from all the relations. and any associated integrity constraints and security measures. it describes the base relations. Physical database design is the process of producing a description of the implementation of the database on secondary storage. It is an auxiliary structure associated with a file that can be referred to when searching for an item of information. An index obviates the need to scan sequentially through the file each time we want to find the item. In the case of database indexes. file organizations. An index in a database is similar to an index in a book. records of the two relations can be considered to be related if they would match in a join of the two relations. the required item will be one or more records in a file. (ii) Indexing is a data structure that allows the DBMS to locate particular records in a file more quickly and thereby speed response to user queries. 4 Characteristics of relational database model 5(i) Interfile clustering is a file organization that stores related records of two or more relations in each block. It is the third and final phase of the database design process during which the designer decides how the database is to be implemented. . in which we look up a keyword to get a list of one or more pages the keyword appears on. just like searching the index of a book.database design and involves the creation of a conceptual data model of the part of the enterprise that we are interested in modeling. Records of several different relations are stored in the same file.