Book - II Islam

The Position of Ahlebayts
In every age, among all human societies, in different parts of the earth, the representatives of Allah were sent to put in order the affairs of the people through laws applicable to the time and environment in which they lived. Ability of man to apply reason and understand things and events progressed and advanced with the passage of time, therefore, certain laws and commandments (pertaining to theoretical, practical, intellectual, religious and legal matters concerning day to day life) which bring harmony and peace in every aspect of existence upon the earth, as well as make man ready to explore the higher regions of spiritual satisfaction, in certain cases and circumstances had to be changed or substituted to pave way for further progress. We have reasons to conclude, from our study of Upanishads, that it were the Ahlebayts, created as Manifested forms prior to the creation of the cosmos, who had taken upon the responsibility of guiding and leading mankind towards worship of the Absolute God. We are not in position to say exactly what their role was prior to taking birth as Mohammad and his progeny in this world. However, some relationship with the preceding Messengers cannot be denied. At last, when they thought the time was right, they themselves took birth in this world, at a place they found most suitable. Mohammad took birth as the last messenger of Allah, the greatest and the most manifest sign of Allah (the term Ayat or sign taken in a broader and higher sense means the best human soul created). He was endowed with divine wisdom, power and authority, and came to give effect to the concluding part of the plan of educating and training for the final unification of mankind through the true

knowledge of the immediate as well as the ultimate. In the chain of the prophets of Allah, among whom some had been made to excel others (Baqarah: 253), the last prophet, Muhammad al Mustafa, truly the superiormost, the seal of prophethood, came with the final discipline and guidance. Once the development had reached its maximum height, there remained no need for any further change of any kind. Prophet Mohammad completed the teachings in his lifetime, and said that no prophet would come after his departure. However, the need to interpret the teachings and guide mankind on the right path in differing situations remained for all times. Therefore, he introduced his progeny, whose knowledge, truthfulness and purity from sin was of the same level as Prophet Mohammad, so that they give authentic, true, and proper explanation of the word of Allah, the Quran, and also serve as an ideal to guide and keep mankind on the right path. Ali was introduced as the Prophet’s successor, or first of the twelve Imams, who were to serve as leaders of mankind. Prophet left no stone unturned in introducing their true position and called each one of them as equal in knowledge, virtue and status.

The first of us is Mohammad, the middle of us is Mohammad, the last of us is Mohammad, everyone of us is Mohammad.
Writes a commentator of Quran: “Only men of understanding know that the same quality of divine energy which activated the prophethood was also manifested in imamat with equal force.” Innumerable words and deeds of Prophet and his Progeny can be cited to prove that they presented themselves as the highest creations of God. We will

mention a lot many of them in this book. However, it seems that the Muslims never took them seriously. This can be understood by the fact that Caliphate was denied to Ali after the death of Prophet and till today majority of Muslims continue to accept Ali as an ordinary man, like themselves. Even Quranic injunctions were taken in their superficial context. For instance, see the following verse from Quran.

We have revealed unto thee (Mohammad) that thereby thou mayst bring forth mankind from darkness unto light.
Muslims believe that Mohammad was bestowed with Prophethood when he was 40 years of age and consequent to that this verse was revealed which talked of Mohammad leading mankind from darkness unto light. Muslims are of the opinion that this role of Mohammad commenced when he was given that position at a certain time in his life. This is in spite of the fact that at no point it is said that this honour was bestowed on Mohammad at a certain place and time. On the contrary, Mohammad is reported to have said that he was the Prophet even when Adam was created. But such comments regarding Mohammad himself and his progeny are ignored. The aforementioned verse too is believed to be applicable only to the time of Prophet’s life on earth. Clearly, the aforementioned verse holds applicable right from the time when the first man took birth on earth and till the end of this cosmos. This confirms the Upanishadic view as per which Mohammad, as head of the devas, took upon himself the task of leading mankind to the worship of One God. This is just a stray example to prove that the present study of Upanishads and Vedas is sure to change the entire perspective of Muslims regarding Mohammad and the rest of Ahlebayts.

Quranic Verses and Traditions Regarding Ahlebayt and Their Position

We have already proved that the glory of the five lights (noors) was endowed in the seed of each of the Messenger of God. Mohammad took birth as the last of the Messengers and Vicegerent while Ali and his progeny became his successors. Also, it is the accepted view of all Shias that obedience entails that the Imams must be infallible. It is only natural and definite, considering the fact that Imam is to be obeyed blindly, that he be the best of all persons on earth after Prophet Mohammad and should be adorned with the beauty of pureness and knowledge. Only this would ensure that he performs no error of thought and speech. Further, he must be aware of the Divine Will. All these views of Shias are certified by various traditions. We will be mentioning the entire Hadees-eKisa elsewhere which confirms their purity. Most interestingly, the Paingala Upanishad too confirms that the devas were formed from the sattvik (pure) essence of God. As regards to the fact that there would be 12 Imams after Prophet Mohammad, we present some of the traditions. The first one is a general and widespread tradition, which says:

There are twelve of them, They are the offspring of the Prophet, Ali and Fatima, They come one after another and generation after generation and they are the offspring of Imam Husain.
Another well-known tradition that is not only quoted by the Imams but also by all the Sunni Sehahs goes like this:

The Imams, after me, will be twelve people.
Shias are of the opinion that when Ali and Fatima,

were joined in the holy matrimony. We present the entire list of 14 Masooms again for your perusal. both are examples for the house of Ishmael and the house of Israel respectively (Zukhruf: 59). constitute the fourteen Masooms or Manus. Eleven of Ali’s descendants are Imams. the line of Ibrahim (Abraham) continued in their progeny. prophet Isa will follow Imam Muhammad al Mahdi. When both of them will reappear at the end of the world. together with Mohammad and Fatima.The Mahdi The disappearance and the promised reappearance of the living Imam Mahdi . thereby making it a total of 12 Imams or Adityas.resembles the disappearance and the promised re-appearance of Isa. Mohammad al Mustafa Ali bin Abu Talib Fatima binte Mohammad Imam Hasan bin Ali Imam Husain bin Ali Imam Ali bin Husain Imam Mohammad bin Ali Imam Jafar bin Mohammad Imam Musa bin Jafar Imam Ali bin Musa Imam Mohammad bin Ali Imam Ali bin Mohammad Imam Hasan bin Ali Imam Mohammad bin Hasan . before the day of resurrection. Note that ‘bin’ in Arabic stands for ‘son of’ and ‘binte’ for ‘daughter of ’.the last of the fourteen Masooms .the daughter of the Holy Prophet. and the whole mankind will follow them. . These Imams.

We present here a brief study of Islam to give you an idea about the subjects of discord between two major sects of the Muslims and further elongating the subject to highlight those facets of the personality of Ahlebayts which reveal they are the only ones who are being discussed in the Vedas and the Upanishads. .These are the beliefs of the Shia sect of Muslims. Most of the inferences that we have drawn are from the existing narrations. We have refrained from relying on knowledge gained from study of Upanishads and Vedas so as to give you an open field to assess the information yourself and put it to the test of your reasoning.

The products of the vast desert area. the beginning of a new era. consisted of cattle which lived on pastures which were more like sand dunes or beaches than fertile plains. such a weak economy. Yet Arabia saw a cultural and intellectual revolution among the people with an extremely backward economy and made out of them pioneering leaders for peoples who are economically richer and more powerful as the history of Islam proves. Out of the self-same land. which would . who were mainly nomadic. It is believed that the economic situation is the basis for intellectual life and the basis of every higher development.A New Era for the Pagan Arabs In the foreword to the book ‘Imam Ali-A Beacon of Courage’ (by Sulayman Kattani. that Arabian peninsula is. raiding one another in order to provide what they needed to sustain life. such exposure to burning sun in this vast area could not provide the conditions of life. The birth of Mohammad was a beginning and an end. even beyond the Arabian Peninsula. an Arab Christian and translated in English by IKA Howard) Ustad Jafar al-Khalili says: “Life for the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula. the end of an old era. Such a nomadic life. There were also dates and some small plantations. Trading in spices took place which brought the area in closer contact with the neighbouring countries in the North and the East (including India). a religion and a constitution. the great Apostle brought his great Message to be. more populous societies. was primitive in accord with its meagre economy. They lived as separate tribes. which develop among richer. insofar as such a primitive life was reflected in the style of living and all their intellectual activities.

in the book ‘Martyr of Humanity ’ has mentioned the genealogy of Prophet Mohammad. For them it was appropriate for every circumstance.link it to the ideals of thinking man. they were in need of everything. the Christians as well as the Muslims. incidentally. constitute the heritage of the Muslims in common with the Jews and the Christians. was the first to name those who followed his faith as Muslims. Traditions concerning Abraham’s life. The Quran records his prayer to God. “Make both of us (Abraham and his son. and contribute significantly . in the following words: “Abraham occupies a largely international position. and their bodies from slavery whose dominion had been long and whose darkness had been intense. therefore.” Just as an arrow that glided from his bow no longer belongs to the quiver. And which would then raise its society from nomadic tribal decadence to the level of sophisticated unity insofar as it was to be established on the basis of a productive and well-developed economy. Indeed the Quran explicitly mentions that the Prophet of Islam claimed to be a leader belonging to the faith of Abraham who. no sooner did the message begin to circle in the minds of the people than they seized hold of it as one of their rights. Yesterday. They grasped it to the extent of their need for it. which would equally free their souls. Ishmael) Muslims (persons obedient to Thee). and call into being from our descendents a group of Muslims (persons obedient to Thee)”. The coming into existence of the Muslims as a nation and the advent of their prophet would. the Prophet Allama Ali Naqi Naqvi. which would create for it a civilization comparable with the civilization around it to the East and to the West…. Mohammad. being held in reverence by the Jews. appear to be the fruit of Abraham’s prayer. therefore.

From Isaac sprang the Israelites and from Ishmael. This pre-eminence. Ilyas. whose real name was Amr. Mudrika. The genealogy of the prophet from Adnan downwards. settled down in Hijaz (Arabia) and greatly multiplied. Qossai. both long. It would appear that twenty-one generations intervened between Adnan. Laway. Khazuma. long after their ancestors. till Qossai brought it back in this family. is as follows: . Malik. induced the growth. built the Kaaba which religion ordained to be the meeting place of all the peoples of the world. Nazr. was the most influential and distinguished among the sons of Abd-e-Manaf. Hashim was succeeded by his brother. It is not clear who. Nabit and Qidar.to the fashioning of the elements of the Muslim conduct and ethics. Muzar. Abraham and Ishmael.Adnan. Qossai’s son. The descendants of two of them. the prophet of Islam. Hashim. Muttalib. which was given to the Kaaba. Hashim. Isaac and Ishmael. as unanimously preserved in histories and the traditions. The trusteeship of the Kaaba passed among a few tribes. Ghalib. Abd-e-Manaf was the true representative of his ancestors in various qualities. father of (Prophet) Mohammad. Fihr. between themselves. Adnan rose to great fame. came first to be distinguished with the appellation of Quraish. all these generations were spread over about 630 years. Abd-e-Manaf. of the realization of the pivotal position occupied by the descendants of Abraham. Abraham had two sons. who was succeeded by his . from among the older of these 21 progenitors. Ma’ad. Kinana. Among Qidar’s descendants. Nizar. Ishmael had twelve sons. Abdul Muttalib and Abdullah. Ka’b. Kilab. and the prophet and. among the people. assuming the time separating one generation from its successor to be of an average duration of thirty years. Murra. The prophet of Islam was among his descendants.

The family played a leading role in providing redress to the persecuted. Abdul Muttalib’s implicit faith and complete trust in God revealed themselves when Abraha advanced upon Makkah from Yemen in order to raze the Kaaba to the ground. He Himself would save it. and in times of distress like scarcity. It was acknowledged as a family of Saiyids. This family occupied the focal point in Arabia as the custodians of the Kaaba. external and internal. They fell on the elephants with such force that the elephant’s trampled their own forces and Abraha was killed. which is still retained by his descendants who are called ‘Saiyids’ even to this day. It was also marked out as devoted to the help of the needy. The family led and represented the Arab nation in all matters of consequence. It so happened that Abraha marched towards Kaaba with a huge army and several elephants. And from . and led all tribes of the Quraish to this end. having been invested with the privilege of catering to the needs of the pilgrims in the hajj season. To the battlefield it sent dauntless warriors and for the discernment of spiritual secrets it contributed sages like Abdul Muttalib as shown by the manner in which he opposed the ‘men of the elephant’.nephew. and ultimately divine help it was which destroyed the “men of the Elephant””. (chiefs) not only by virtue of their title. The people of Makkah were not strong enough to oppose the invader with the force of arms. which agreed with the title. Sheba. He surpassed his predecessors in greatness and renown and won the appellation of ‘Saiyyid-ul-Batha’. it was known as principally concerned with the care of the weak and the impoverished. but Abdul Muttalib reposed his trust in divine help. who came to be called Abdul Muttalib. but also due to their deeds. Subsequent to Abdul Muttalib telling Abraha that since it is the House of God. small birds with tiny pebbles in their beaks flew high in the sky and dropped them from their beaks.

and my successor?” The question elicited no response from the audience. on the clear understanding that he alone would be my brother. after the death of Abdullah and Abdul Muttalib. Ali. Ali’s father. though still very young. At last a . and promised to give all assistance in the mission. when Prophet Mohammad announced his Prophethood. when still a child. “This is sufficient. however. Accordingly. Two of Abdul Muttalib’s sons were Abdullah and Abu Talib. Abu Talib. the prophet arranged a feast inviting to it all of the stock of Abdul Muttalib. the message of Islam was only privately propagated. and his enemies could not put their mischievous designs through.this family was to arise one whose radiant splendour would. He then asked. For some years. Thereafter the message was communicated to the Prophet’s near relatives. and it was Abu Talib who was entrusted with the care of Mohammad. Ali as a child was taken up by Mohammad and grew up in his house. Ali was born to Abu Talib. Before the assembled guests. for all time to come. He is my brother. It is incumbent upon you all to obey him. but while Mohammad had the privilege of being brought up under the guardianship of his uncle. Muhammad was the son of Abdullah. and my successor. stood up. The forceful personality of his uncle. illuminate the world of mankind. “Who among you would support me in spreading the message of Islam. The prophet put his hand on Ali’s shoulder and said. Mohammad and Ali were cousin brothers. Ali was 30 years younger to Mohammad. Ali was ten years’ of age. The two. This excited the hostility of the Quraish towards the prophet and fixed them in their resolve to harm him. he declared himself to be God’s prophet and preached the unity of God. kept him out of harm’s reach.” Idol worship now came to be openly reprobated.

Waleed b. resolved to leave his home. repeated its visit to Abu Talib shortly afterwards. held them up to ridicule and deemed their ancestors to have been led astray. Aas b. even if these people put the sun into one of my hands.deputation of the Quraish notables. (note: ‘b. They. Sheba. I would not be deterred from discharging my duty. the prophet said. Accordingly Abu Talib left nothing undone to protect the prophet and shielded him from all violence. the persecutions and hardships that Mohammad and the small group that had accepted his message had to encounter at the hands of the people of Makkah rose both in frequency and severity. or I will sacrifice my life to it. assuring him of his own assistance to his last breath. disparaged their faith. “By God. however. to bid his nephew desist from these activities.’ stands for ‘bin’ or ‘ibne’ meaning ‘son of’. Wael. He began . Abu Talib turned them away mildly. On hearing the whole story. Abu Sufiyan. therefore. Abu Jahl. failing which they defied him to an armed trial of strength. consisting of Otba. The prophet therefore. Mughira. therefore. telling him brusquely that the state of things brought about by his nephew could no longer be tolerated. Aas b.” Tears welled up in his eyes when he said so. and he told his nephew to persevere in the discharge of his duty. Therefore Ali b. After the deaths of Abu Talib and Khadija (Prophet’s wife). and this touched Abu Talib to the quick. thought it fit to acquaint the prophet with the shape things had assumed. demanded that Abu Talib should put curbs on his nephew’s offensive conduct. however. so that one of the two parties should be decisively crushed. Hisham. The deputation. therefore. God will bring my mission to a successful conclusion. Abu Talib would be Ali s/o Abu Talib). or else hand him over to them. and the moon into the other. Abu Talib. They requested him. and others met Abu Talib to complain about his nephew who denounced their gods.

The prophet had a daughter. When leaving for Medina the prophet asked his cousin. After the prophet had settled down at Medina. sleeping soundly under the shadow of unsheathed swords. not once but on several occasions. In all these engagements it was Ali’s sword that won victories for the followers of Islam. as a token of his respect for her. the Muslims could not recognize her true worth. Ali. till this date. she was surely the part of Mohammad. who were to enter his house at night and kill him. Ohad and Khandaq had to be fought. The Prophet also called her part of himself. When the people of Makkah got wind of the intention of the prophet to leave for Medina. Yet.to direct his followers to shift to Medina where people had accepted his teachings. No Muslim. That was too big a claim that any mortal human being could have made. and thus saved the life of the prophet. whenever she visited him. Why then Mohammad stressed on this time and again? This part of Mohammad was married to Ali after migration from Makkah to Medina. one being his remark that she was the leader of the women in paradise and of the wives of the believers. . Ali did as bidden. they resolved to do away with him. Fatima. From being the father. Men from each tribe were chosen. When she was married to Ali. the Prophet would go to her doorstep every morning to convey his greetings. Fatima’s house was the last that he visited and this was the first house where he went upon return from his trip. While going out of Medina. whom he held in such high esteem on account of her great qualities that he used to stand up. Many were the tributes of praise that he paid her. to sleep in his bed wrapped in his sheet in order to foil the scheme of his enemies. knows the real reason for Prophet’s unusual behaviour towards his daughter. his enemies persisted in their aggressions against the Muslims and battles like those of Badr.

Neshtra. Aditi.Only the Vedas and Upanishads can shed light on Prophet’s conduct. The devi took birth at various points of time to show the true path to women. according to Dr. Aditya. Yagyapati. Thus she was the leader of women in paradise and of the wives of the believers. also called Prajapati. It would. etc. In fact. to give birth to the two Aswins. Wahid Mirza. On the contrary. similar to the Original One Self. Vaishvadeva and various other names) and Brhaspati (Ali. for no mortal man could have dared to make claims of this nature. also called Rudra. produced out of division of the One Self. Vayu. however. They were the Selfs of Indra (Muhammad.). be incorrect to infer that in that period the Arabs were living in savagery and barbarism. “Centuries before the advent of Islam. Southern Arabia had been the cradle of a flourishing civilization . She sometimes lived as a pativrata (devoted to husband) and at other times had to even fight against evil. Parvati. From the Self of Indra was born the Self of Fatima (Saraswati. The mere audacity of the claim suggests that it is true. Marut. and the arts of civilized life. Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad states that the one Self (Brahma) got divided into two similar selfs. Upanishads never say that the two Selfs. thus making it five. Ira. procreated with the Self of Brhaspati to give birth to two Ashwins (Hasan and Husain – the sons of Ali and Fatima). and were unacquainted with the ways of leading a social existence. It was this knowledge that commanded respect and Mohammad used to stand up in respect for her. earth. showered many tributes of praise on her. Condition of Society The pre-Islamic period in Arabia is called the “age of ignorance” or the “era of darkness”.). Dakshina Lakshmi. etc. they always end on the number five. saying that part of the first Self procreated with the second Self. created the Aswins.

hospitality. they were not wholly unaware of some of the cardinal tenets of religion. faithfulness. of the lake embankment (Saddi-i-Marib). Yet. but they had lost their erstwhile ardour for industry. generosity. still retained by the Arabs. the pre-Islamic Arab community was treading the path of retrogression. and we may not be drawing too heavily on unsophistication to credit them with at least a nodding acquaintance with the teachings of their remote ancestors. normally the One God does not come into contention). the poetry of the times. with loads of merchandise. like bravery. Again. comprising some of the best specimens of literary expression. but they had no inkling of the significance of this sacred duty or the importance of Kaaba. A large proportion of the Arabs claimed descent from Ishmael. being polytheists and idolaters. trade and commerce. Excessive poverty had whetted their rapacity. it may even be held that speaking in relation to the levels of civilization alone. The accounts of the archaeological memorials of the Himyar Kings. and of the throne of Bilqis.and the centre of a prosperous trade. They did annually assemble at Makkah for the performance of hajj. fraternal affection and conjugal love. testify to the advanced stage to which civilization had attained in this part of the peninsula. They still held some vague and nebulous notions . shows the Arabs as possessed of some of the noblest human attributes. Iraq and Syria. To be sure. were being swamped by a plethora of vices. of Shaddad’s garden. They tried to put a gloss on their idol-worship by claiming for the idols no greater merit than that of bringing them into closer proximity to the one God (something that the Hindus of today too believe. It also shows that notwithstanding the fact that they did not subscribe to contemporary revealed religions. Queen of Sheba. their caravans still journeyed to the Hijaz. The vestiges of their pristine virtues. yet when those idols are worshipped.

They. like clean slates. the former’s blood was not supposed to be entitled to be paid for by blood . Dominance. These failings. When individuals get obsessed with notions of their superiority. but self-seeking indigence abetted them in misappropriating what belonged to their neighbours. and these vices sprang up among the Arabs in great profusion and with marked intensity. and indulgence in the lust for power. easily and distinctly receive the imprint of whatever may be urged upon their attention. and shunned war. They loved their children. personal rivalries. power and authority were all that counted. They grieved sorely over the dead. hundreds of his tribesmen had also to be slain in retaliation. The weaknesses of Arab society arose from the acceptance of a purely material dispensation of life. their hearts. In the absence of any earlier impressions. therefore. Another development was the annulment of the sense of human equality and brotherhood. They realized the advantages of a life of peace and contentment. In the murder of an ordinary person by one who counted. group jealousies and tribal animosities are the product. but their images commanded greater adoration.about God. considered the slaughter of their daughters as the best way of maintaining their selfrespect. but not endure the prospect of their daughters working as drudges fro some callous uncle or indifferent brother like unbidden guests. in association with the natural disposition of the Arabs. Social attitudes like these are generally intractably resistant to reform. A nation still in the stage of primitive savagery and primeval barbarism consists usually of simple-minded individuals. The murder of an important person was not deemed to have been fully avenged with the perpetrator of the crime alone suffering death. tended to be thrown into bolder relief. but were unequal to resisting the temptation of wreaking vengeance. often leading to bloody warfare lasting for generations.

All privileges and exemptions were determined by the possession of material resource. . People of many faiths lived in the peninsula. prior to the mission of the Prophet. Religiously the Arabs were in an advanced stage of decadence. This had come to pass as materialism. This invidious distinction made between the important and the not so important men was productive of countless social iniquities destructive of human dignity. Essentially. Human nature seemed to be waiting for the emergence of a chosen being to deliver the Arab world from its afflictions. During the Age of Ignorance. daughters of the great god. al-lah). and general blood-shed and like evils notoriously rampant amongst the people. They adhered to whatever beliefs and practices their fathers had had. The tribes were governed by ‘white beards’ and the grandfathers ruled the family.in requital. Their gods had become masculine whereas their idols and their angels were feminine (that is. Judaism. fire-worship and Christianity – all were degenerate. and this was not so in Arabia alone. Hard Times For Women Ali Shariati in “Fatima is Fatima” says: “The social order of the Arabs had passed beyond the Age of the Matriarch centuries before Islam. their practices unworthy. the Arabs had established the Age of the Patriarch. The religions in vogue. A large segment of the population was idolatrous or worshipped stars. one day in the Arabic year of 360 days being sacred to the worship of one of the idols. was allowed the greatest say in human affairs and all other considerations had been bereft of weight. mutual respect and tolerance amongst their followers non-existent. They had no common religion.” The Prophets had brought a revolutionary message. N less than 360 idols had been installed in the Kaaba itself. their religion was a kind of ancestor worship.

which sought out their forefathers. imitative worship based upon the principle of father worship. meaningful social and ethical values and human nobility. the disgrace of her father. the tribes opposed his teachings. being a girl or having a daughter was humbling. She was the highest form of shame and disgrace. Several such incidents are mentioned in the Quran. For the betterment of society and the relief of one’s mind. which was filled with hostility between one tribe and another. brothers and ancestors. the toy of a man’s sexual urges and the ‘goal’ or slave of the home of her husband. In this society. it was much better to kill her while still a baby so that the honour of her fathers.He was trying to awaken a thought based on the principle of worshipping One Absolute God. in their attempt to preserve their “masculine traditions”. This situation was further affected by the difficult life of the tribes of the dry desert. was not stained. For this very reason. the son played a special role which was based upon the ‘uses and needs’ of the society’s social and military principles. all men for that matter. Her ‘being weak’ pushed her towards slavery and slavery caused her human values to lessen. being a son was by and of itself of the highest essence. She became a creature who was the slave of a man. As Firdowsi tells us in the Shahnamah: . When confronted with the revolt against ancestor worship and myths. All the great prophets of God had time and again led revolution against the ancestral religion of the fathers. Mohammad opposed this kind of inherited. It meant embodying virtues. According to a universal principle of sociology. Her frailness was substituted by ‘being weak’. where profit was substituted for value. for the basic principles of life are ‘defend and attack’ and ‘keep your promises’.

disgrace. perhaps she was not being killed in infancy during those times. In India. Africa and India. During those times. Q URAN . who write the history of religion. when her husband died – all in the name of honour. This is why the Quran. The world will be better off if cleansed of their existence. warned of the dangers of this frightening ‘highest honour’ when it said: He hides himself from the people of the evil for the tidings given him. prejudice and fear of marriage with an unsuitable . the grave. she was made to live in the temples for the ‘service’ of all. two. This is that very same poem that says women and dragons are both better to be covered by the earth because is a means of exchange. An Arab poet tells us: If a father has a daughter he wants to remain. and also forced to enter fire (sati). he should think about three different son-in-laws: one. but also among all the great civilizations of the time. 16:59 Ancient historians and modern scholars. including Europe. in the strongest terms.’ Not only in Arabia. evil is what they decide. have given different explanations for the burying alive of female children in the Age of Ignorance. scorn. the grave which will cover her! And the last one. is the best. the husband who will keep her and three. whenever he thinks of her future. when she is killed even in her fetal stage. Should he keep her with disgrace or bury her alive in the dust? Behold. the house which will hide her.It is better to bury women and dragons in the earth. woman was bearing the same ignominy and hardship. ‘Covering the girls with earth is a way of preserving honour. Beginning with the fear of shame. but this kind of treatment is common nowadays.

the world was without a prophet. those who deemed forgiveness . Wahid Mirza puts it. which had become integral parts of their lives. arduous since it was not his mission to convert savages living in a state of nature to civilized life. the entire world was waiting for this last Prophet. superstitious. But the Quran most strictly and clearly says that the fear was the fear of poverty. Just prior to the time of Isa. The other explanations are just words. appeared with the message of Islam. but to reform a diseased social order. “The task before the prophet was. various prophets were sent in various civilizations all over the world. it was an economic factor. scorn.person. each giving signs of the last prophet before departing. He brought the glad tidings of a renaissance to moribund humanity. traditions and usages. 6:151 Deliverance Arrived from God Not only the Arab. or. indeed. forbearance. As Dr. With no prophet in the world for such a long period. His job was to make a clean sweep from the hearts of the Arabs of all those beliefs. which shook the world to its foundations. It was at this crucial moment that God’s chosen. in primitive religions. son of Abdullah. humility and forgiveness. as some of the scholars say. In other words. Quran says that the last Prophet before Mohammad was Isa (Jesus) and during the 500odd years after Isa. Q URAN . He had to instruct. in the ways of tolerance. The Quran emphasized: Do not kill them from fear of poverty for We will provide for you and your children. the entire world had digressed from the original teachings of their respective prophets and there were only few who still held to the path shown by these prophets. girls were sacrificed for the gods. Mohammad.

caring nothing for any divine law. He had to give lessons in equality and fraternity to those who prided themselves upon their high births and took pains to commit to their memories their genealogical tables up to remote ancestors. . or that. . and forbearance a symbol of mean spiritedness and cowardice. “Islam brought to a world groaning under the power and authority of priests a message of freedom. It prohibited the use of liquor to which the Arabs had got used and upon which they looked as symbolic of generosity.freedom for the slaves and the suppressed classes from the oppression. It also forbade many other practices corrosive of morals. inhumanity and torture of their masters and social superiors. and divided people into rival. colour and race which blighted collective human life. after subscribing to Islam.freedom from women from what was. and less than nothing for any human regulation.freedom for the ordinary man from the constraints imposed upon him by narrow inhibitions of castes. Mankind was fettered by . .as evidence of weakness. the lowest of men could claim equality with any member of the noblest families in Arabia”. slavery which divested them of even their elementary human rights. warring camps. brazenly enjoyed the fruits of the toil and labour of others. It placed gambling under an interdict although the Arabs esteemed it as an unmistakable concomitant of open-handed liberality. to all intents and purposes. Khwaja Ghulam-us-Saiyidain has put the message of Islam very aptly in another form. . The Arabs could not even dream of the purest man achieving the highest merit in the eyes of God. . Islam had also to struggle against many other evil customs and practices.freedom from the shackles of a priestly order which claimed to be an intermediary between the worshippers and the worshipped.freedom from the tyranny of an oligarchy of the affluent who.

but that had been forgotten with time. Iqbal has described the plight in which men found themselves in the following telling couplets: 1. resourcelessness and destitution. sex. Mohammad’s message of equality between all humans. popes and prominent leaders a hundred hunters for one prey. There was no way in which an outward equality could be created. because of differences in . equality and human fraternity. and worship of One Universal God worked wonders far and near. and. The glad tidings kindled new hopes and awakened a new awareness of their being useful members of society among the impoverished and the persecuted that had been so far only heartlessly downtrodden by the powers that be. The power of Chosroes and Caesars had robbed him. 4. Islam imparted to humanity the message of freedom. 3. This was the message that all earlier Apostles and Prophets had given. He was bereft of dignity reduced almost to non-existence. His nature was debased by slavery. conferred plenary civic and human rights upon all men. colour.trammels designed by itself. and fetters were put on his hands and feet and round his neck. for the first time in human history. irrespective of disunity on grounds of wealth. 2. At this time. and sweet lays turned into blood in his flute. kings. The message was reinforced with such strength that it shook the citadels of all those who worshipped forces other than God or had compromised with the unity of God. Soothsayers. The enjoyment of these rights by them had been withheld on considerations of race. taught liberty. in some way or the other. Man worshipped man in the world. and relegated to the position of an underdog. caste or creed.

as a corollary. ordinarily contrived. the peoples of skins of different pigments got so exclusive of one another that the white races barred the black ones from resorting to the same hotels as they did. When sons of the same parents get united in equality. united those on one side of it and separated them from those on the other side.regions. followed by an unending series of successes or defeats. Whenever plurality gets related to a unity. sex. Where colour united people. When members of one family get united in fraternity and equality. they get separated form the sons of other parents. break away from the peoples of other quarters of the earth. had of necessity to be based upon the raising of corresponding barriers between human beings. countries and colours. serve only as preludes to large divisions and fragmentations. physical strength. Islam struck at the root of the impasse and holding that equality among . a disjunction between them and the residents of other countries follows. be noted that all unifications of pluralities. they are parted from the members of other families. and closed the doors of their churches upon their own coreligionists among the latter. Wars between one country and other countries. It. These separatist tendencies resulted from the fact that attempts at coalescing individuals. so that they might be enabled to shake off their mental lethargy and realize that they were all equal. A dividing wall. Europeans form a separate race. feelings of equality and fraternity spring up among the component units of the plurality. colour. etc. positions. they. however. between one nation and other nations break out. wealth. thus raised. and Asians follow suit in form a different race. therefore decided to create a revolution in men’s ways of thought. races. When residents of one country conjoin. It must. When people of one quarter of the earth band together in fraternity and equality. groups.

Impediments Put in The Spread of Islamic Teachings Says the book ‘Martyr of Humanity ’. Once it came to be realized that all men were God’s creatures the development of a sense of equality and fraternity between individuals became inevitable. countries. The prophet of Islam had to undergo untold hardships and contend against all manner of stiff opposition and overwhelming forces of obstruction in bringing about . This power is the one God whom Islam has presented as the object of universal worship. the creator of all beings and the end of everybody ’s pursuit. therefore. the setting up of Islamic practices and institutions and. colours. unhampered by the confining attributes of space. of nearness and distance of space. races and nations. For everything material would perforce be subject to limitations e. of meagerness and abundance in measure. the establishment of an Islamic social order were achieved during the lifetime of the prophet of Islam. therefore. decided upon the demolition of all partitions separating humanity and the inauguration of a common meeting ground for all races. It was. “The framing of Islamic laws and regulations.g. so vastly extensive. Since there would be nothing without the compass of that resort. It was no mean achievement for the revolution ushered in by Islam. would bear relationship to everybody and to which everybody belonged. no question of division of humanity and parting of their ways could possibly arise.individuals could flow only form the unity of the point of their convergence. of such illimitable dimensions as to accommodate within it the entire mankind. transcendental power which. of the highest import that human vision be averted from all that was materialistic and be fixed at that immaterial. The focal point toward which all men were to converge had. measure and degrees. of necessity to be other than material. in general.

Islam placed an embargo on the charging of interest on loans. as they battened on the amount of interest exacted from the impoverished and the needy? And then. and it was the poorer classes who were being irresistibly attracted towards Islam. stopped payment of interest to them. Again. wealth. Some others have vested interests in the old dispensation and apprehend impairment of their selfish advantages from any move to overthrow the status quo. depended their livelihood. they stood to gain little.the revolution. and on no other grounds whatever. Obviously it is the needy many who pay interest to the opulent few. The clean sweep that Islam had made of the old order and the far-reaching alterations that it had introduced in all departments of live were productive of personal loss to persons in many walks of life. property or the numerical preponderance of their tribes or races. Accordingly. the Islamic instruction that precedence among individuals was to be determined solely on the basis of excellence of conduct and conscientious discharge of human responsibilities. but also in many other ways. Did this not forebode the reduction of the moneylenders of Arabia to bankruptcy. For example. not only in a pecuniary sense. the ban applied not only to the charging but also to the payment of interest. so that those in power before the advent . for those who paid interest and upon whom therefore. even if the capitalists could parry the blow aimed at them by not joining the ranks of the faithful. shattered the prospects of those who had wrested positions of authority and power simply on the strength of social superiority. Some men are so sentimentally devoted to all that is ancient that they harbour a motiveless malignity against any body who changes the existing order. The changes made by Islam in the standards of determining pre-eminence and merit amongst individuals abolished the rights enjoyed on the basis of previous norms. concerning their rank and power.

they would neither sell anything to them nor buy anything from them. offensive things were cast at him. his uncle. The prophets’ family. to reach the isolated Hashimides. were set on the road to the acquisition of dignity and respect. When danger to the prophet’s life became imminent. should they fulfill what was demanded of men in performance and piety and fear of God. To the contrary. These reasons for the opposition to the prophet of Islam were underlined for the Umayyads by the memories of outstanding animosities. and all transactions with them would stop. People had to live without food and water for days. He was pelted with stones. like water and food. nor give their own women to the Hashimides in marriage. they had made their own slaves. all the Hashimides (Prophets own tribe) except Abu Lahab. therefore. the destitutes or the members of the oppressed and despised classes. rubbish was heaped on his head. and envy. All kinds of torments were inflicted on God’s messenger. removed him to the safety of his mountain fastness: Sheb of Abu Talib. Abu Talib. It was made almost impossible for even the necessities of life. Their leader. instead of making the bondsmen of God. and he was threatened with assassination. raised the whole of Arabia against the prophet. it is reported that Khadija (Prophet’s wife) used to put a piece . The Quraish (the larger clan to which Hashimides belonged) formed a confederacy against the Hashimides: they would not marry their women.of Islam were reduced to impotence. being devoid of merit as conceived by Islam. Abu Sufiyan. those who had been earlier deemed to be unworthy even of a passing notice such as the strangers from foreign lands. How could then the monopolists of rank and distinction reconcile themselves to their unhappy lot under Islam? They had lorded it over their fellow men whom. joined Abu Talib in his retirement with the prophet. both ancient and of recent origin.

Within a year. who were completely unprepared for the engagement. Abu Talib. preparations for launching an attack on Medina itself were set afoot. Abdul Muttalib. compelled to come out in the open to give battle to their enemies and save himself. and. Hamza b. and lasted for close to three years. therefore. After the termination of the blockade. But the Hashimides made things exceedingly unpleasant for the adversary. to keep from harm the hearths and homes of those who had afforded shelter. Khadija and Abu Talib passed away. suffered a grievous loss in the assassination of Obaida in the war. numbered only 313 men who had between them only three horses and a few swords. The manner in which the first battle of Badr was fought is an indicator that Prophet could have never contemplated attack. including the bark of trees.of leather in her mouth and chew it when in excessive hunger. specially the Umayyads. Obaida b. what was still more important. in particular. Haris and Ali b. On the one hand those of his followers who could not leave Makkah after his departure were put to a variety of hardships and on the other. however. the Hashimides emerged form their seclusion. there are some who are reported to have tied up stone on their stomachs. the Hashimides. This was in the seventh year of the prophetic life of Mohammad. but the Makkans. opposition to the prophet did not allow him much repose. The Muslims. The Muslims and. the chosen. Even after he had reached Medina. suffered much heavier losses. The prophet was. performed such outstanding feats of bravery that the enemy lost heart. Opposition to the prophet assumed such intensity in the bitterness that his assassination was planned and he had to leave for Medina. and ate whatever they could find in that barren place. Abu Sufiyan had not only to mourn .

The engagement is therefore. like Abu Sufiyan. Ikrima b. Otba. The prophet this army with a force consisting of only 700 men of whom only 100 were mail clad combatants. Walid and others who were to later embrace Islam. their wallets containing parched and powdered cereals. When the prophet emerged with his followers to give him battle. her uncle Sheba. Amr. at the same hands. therefore. at the hands of Ali. of whom 700 were clad in armour. Ikrima and Khalid b. were in command of the troops of the Quraish. Abu Sufiyan collected two hundred horses from amongst the Quraish and made for Medina. Walid. and her brother. at the conquest of Makkah. the Bani Kinana and the Tahamites also joined the fray. We have to remember it were many of these who formed the greatest obstacle to progress of Islam. destroyed some date=trees and beat a hasty retreat. Abu Jahl. called the war of sawique. Their army consisted of 3000 armed soldiers.H. Abu Sufiyan had already fled. he killed two Muslims. In order. Khalid b. and in the hurried disorder of his flight his band shed all along the way.the death of his son. but also to grieve over the capture of his other son. Abu Sufiyan and Hind could not rest contented for a moment till they had settled old scores with the Medinites. Hanzala. Two horses completed the strength of the army. But the infidels could not muster courage enough to face the Muslims in battle. and contributed their worth to . Walid. Reaching the confines of Medina. Besides the Quraish. The Makkans prepared for war on an ambitious scale. to keep up the appearance of having honoured his oath. which their pursuers recovered. Abu Sufiyan was so overwhelmed with sorrow that he took a vow not to bathe till he had led on attack against the prophet. called ‘sawique’ in Arabic. Abu Sufiyan’s wife Hind had to mourn the death of her father. The important battle of Ohad took place in 3 A.

in the name of Jehad. The spirit of confronting the prophet in a war or launching an attack upon him had been crushed although the wounds inflicted up by these reverses did not lend themselves to healing. and led to the emergence of view that Islam spread with sword. Poised against this numerous army. and even maneuvered to win over the Jews to their cause. for a war. Ali continued to fight with vigour till he had dispersed all those who had surrounded the Prophet and raised him so that people knew that he was still alive. There was a stage when nearly all Muslims had fled. discomfited. Another of the brave Hashimides. and their hero. This was consequent to the Prophet being attacked and somebody raising the slogan that he had been killed.H. As a last attempt. Hamza was martyred in the battle. but their enemies again met with defeat. Walid is the same man whose marauding armies attacked all frontiers. and the enemy had to retire. therefore. Khalid b. Abi Qais Aamiri fell a victim of Ali’s sword. with the exception of few Hashimides including Ali. which.degrading the principles of Islam after the death of Prophet. They were self-seekers materialists who opposed Islam when they thought they could subdue it and joined its fold to reap the rewards from within. Amr b. the Muslims numbered only 3000. Abu Sufiyan had to retire to Makkah crestfallen and in a very sorry plight. Abd Wud b. . is called the “War of parties”. What did happen however was that the Prophet lost two of his teeth in the attack. Abu Sufiyan and the rest of his aides aligned as many parties in Arabia with themselves as possibly could. This war wrought great havoc among the Muslims but the Hashimides’ and Ali’s swordsmanship ultimately retrieved the day. on account of the multi-party composition of its army. Then they emerged with 10000 men in year 5 A.

passing behind Humz and through SaniatUl-Marrar. Masud Saqafi. through Urwa. had to prove his pacific intentions and as soon as he noticed the dust raised by he opposing forces marching to check his advance he abandoned the road he was following and turned to the right and adopted the route which led to Hadaibia. The prophet. they reached Kra-il-ghamim with Khalid b. accepted all the terms proposed for the treaty. especially when they noticed confronting them the same defeated troops that had not sufficient time to put themselves in trim for a battle. which was then ratified. This gesture of conciliation so impressed the unfriendly Makkans that they likewise fell back and opened negotiations with the prophet. At this juncture the courage of the Muslims had naturally been heightened by the successive triumphs that had attended their arms. was dispatched to the prophet as a representative of the Quraish to finalize the peace parleys.. But when the Quraish heard of the approach of the prophet. have been easy enough for the prophet to offer a battle to his adversaries so as to enter Makkah in triumph as a victor.H.When the prophet of Islam found that the infidel Quraish had desisted from showing aggression in any manner for some time. however. however. therefore. The . a sure symbol of the absence on his part. of any warlike disposition. b. The prophet’s conciliatory behaviour created such a cordial atmosphere that Sohail b. He presented such conditions for the treaty as favoured the infidels and were seemingly designed to put undue pressure on the prophet and to extort unfair advantages for his own men. It would. The prophet. Amr. he made up his mind for the Omra or lesser pilgrimage to the Holy House (Kaaba) in 6 A. and led a part of the Muslims with sacrificial camels. at their head to offer resistance to his entry into Makkah. Walid.

The Muslims shall. shall have liberty to do so. the . were thrown into great agitation and anxiety. not carry any weapons. and whosoever wished to join the Quraish and enter into a treaty with them shall likewise be free to do so. from amongst Mohammad’s followers returned to the Quraish. These terms were so iniquitous and markedly disadvantageous to the Muslims that many of the prophets’ companions. every one carrying only a sheathed sword. Mohammad and his followers should go back that year without entering Makkah and performing the pilgrimage. Accordingly. he shall not be sent back to Mohammad. he shall be sent back to his guardian. the prophet told his followers to offer their sacrifices and get their heads shaved and return to Medina. 4. If any one. who were unable to perceive the underlying purposes of their leader. however. when after putting his signatures to the treaty.settlement required that: 1. and the Quraish would retire from the city for the duration. Mohammad may visit Makkah with his followers for three days. however. the matter assumed dimension of great magnitude and acquired the attributes of uncommon delicacy in the hearts of men. save those usually kept by the travelers. War should be suspended for 10 years. Every one of the Muslims shall leave Mecca within not more than the three days allowed for their stay in that city. Their faith was shaken and they were driven to all but apostasy. 5. Whoever wished to join Mohammad and enter into a treaty with him. If any one went over to Mohammad without the permission of his guardian. In the following year. 2. As recorded by some historians. 3. and their renegation seemed imminent.

however. when they were powerful while the enemy was nervously trying to make a peaceful settlement. still carrying materialistic tendencies. the ‘sword of Allah’ went on to conquer territories in the name of Jehad. The prophet. The difference in prophet’s action and that of the Muslims are evident. Nobody seemed interested in complying the prophet’s directions. The mindset that we have talked about showed its colours when after the Prophet. history has recorded several of those considered eminent Muslims were unable to digest Prophet’s action. the poor died in poverty while the rich lived in luxury. as was the case when Prophet was alive. They were aided fully by the likes of Abu Sufiyan and Khalid b. That shows that even when the Prophet was powerful. rose with conspicuous nonchalance. Had he taken Makkah by storm. wanted to take advantage of the situation. he would have exposed himself to the charge of committing an act of aggression . was used to conquer territories. Prophet was all for peace while many. Others also then rose with ill-concealed reluctance and got their heads shaved or their haircropped (as is the custom during hajj). As war-booty filled the coffers of the influential. who were still in the opposite camp till the Peace Treaty of Hodaibia. he only fought when he was compelled. Khalid b. writing down the points of the treaty. At the same time. Waled was given the title ‘Sword of Allah’. to offer the customary sacrifice and got his head shaved. Impervious to the sentiments of his followers. Ali accepted the Prophet’s decision and history has recorded that it was Ali who was alongside him. these people gained power.majority of the assemblage maintained a glum silence. the prophet accepted the oppressive conditions of the treaty. and this sword instead of fighting only when compelled. but looks of murderous sullenness were writ large on their brows. Waled. The difference in the mindset is evident.

The ink had not dried on the treaty when a son of Sohail.” The prophet then went back. The Makkans. Be patient. some way of deliverance. “This hardship will not last long.against the Makkans. and the prophet raised no objection. God will assuredly word for you and others like you. the tribe of Bani Khazae attached itself to the prophet and the tribe of Bani Bakr allied itself to the infidels. leaving the prophet and his followers undisturbed in the performance of the pilgrimage. and will not do anything against it. shedding their apprehensions. Accordingly. We have concluded a treaty with these people. This young man had embraced Islam and was unwilling to accompany his father back to Makkah. These two tribes were on terms of long-standing enmity and missed no opportunity of harming each other whenever opportunity offered. however claimed him. As war between the prophet and the infidels had been banned by the treaty for 10 years and. Amr himself who had acted as a representative of the infidels approached the prophet crying and seeking his intercession and shelter. however. the embargo applied also to the allies of both. had kept it open for all persons or groups to join the prophet or the infidels as allies of either. b. He observed the terms of the treaty strictly in letter and spirit. by implication. where after the Muslims left Makkah within the specified time. the Bani Khazaa. According to the terms of the agreement. The treat. They were surprised by the Bani Bakr when camping near a stream and lost many of their . did not thereafter adhere to terms of the treaty regarding non-aggression. To the young man’s piteous prayers he made only this reply. The following year he returned to Mecca as provide din the treaty. disarmed themselves and neglected to remain on the alert against any possible hostile move by the Bani Bakr. Sohail. The infidels withdrew form the city for three days. it will be recalled.

the Quraish have broken their pledge to you. the prophet set out with his followers to the aid of the tribe allied to him. A very tragic and moving account of exceedingly heartless cruelties which had been perpetrated against his tribe was given by him in verse ending with the words. Saying this. We were massacred while we were engaged in our nightly prayers and bowing and prostrating ourselves before God. It is a measure of his large heartedness that the prophet of Islam granted amnesty not only to Abu Sufiyan. Had we been prepared for the war. “Amr b. Some of the Quraish secretly helped the Bani Bakr. Abu Sufiyan found himself compelled to the subscribe to Islam. They are not superior to us in numbers and have always been proved inferiors in war. belonging to the unfortunate tribe repaired to Medina lamenting what had befallen his kinsmen.number as killed. outwardly. but extended it to those who took shelter in Abu Sufiyan’s house or in the mosque or retired into their houses and shut their doors. Salim. you have been helped”. and had a hand in the slaughter of the Bani Khazaa. He saw the prophet when the latter was sitting in his mosque with his companions. He was heading towards Makkah. According to another version laying down of arms was the sole condition for the grant of . Salim. laid down their arms and in the extremity of distress. Amr b. “Prophet of God. but in a different attitude of mind this time. lacking the spirit to try their luck against him in the field of battle. The Bani Bakr ambushed my tribe on the bank of a stream. they would not have dared attack us. contenting himself with the very eloquently brief remark.” The prophet was so deeply moved by the verses recited that he did not tax the supplicant with a longwinded reply. The infidels. knowing that nobody would come to our rescue and lend a willing ear to our laments.

consequent to which his beloved wife and uncle. Such a change of heart is well nigh impossible.amnesty. he asked those who had gathered in front of him. the prophet declared a general amnesty. that assayer of Islam. consequent to which several of prophet’s friends and relatives had died. They had thrown stones at him and planned to kill him on several occasions. “You may go. Nor could such defeat move hatred to love and loyalty – a consuming hatred nurtured over generation as evidenced by the preceding events. to surrender arms and drive him to sullen silence it can never assuage feelings or melt an obdurate and cantankerous heart to faith. It was because of them that the prophet and his family had to live in scarcity of food and water for three years. In view of the foregoing events it is only natural to presume that while the stunning blow of irretrieved disaster may force an enemy to capitulate. Human psychology makes it easy to realize that the dread dragon hissing death and defiance would not lie low and under the cloak of conformity feel free for underhand and clandestine intrigues and conspiracies.” The prophet replied. “How do you thing I would treat you?” They answered. You are our generous brother and the son of a generous brother. human nature being as it is. and even two of the teeth broken. However upon actually entering Makkah. I have set you all free. When he entered the city. Such precisely was the assessment of Imam Ali. both died of weakness. “We hope only to receive good treatment. Such a foe can be truly dangerous.” Remember many of these people were those who had tortured the prophet while he was in Makkah. when he observed: . It were they who had spearheaded the battles against Muslim when they were in Medina.

created by the lofty ideals of Islam. This sanctity gave them the opportunity of monopolizing the trade from the Indian Sea to the Mediterranean. so as to rule over vast lands and countless people and appropriate the wealth of the nations. nor could they resist the unlimited produce the abundant rain. coming along with it. which would spread like a wild fire all over the world. as custodians of the Kaaba. they had to renounce class distinction and agree to the equality of human beings. a promising event every one welcomes. Neither did they want to detach themselves from the old order. yet they were reluctant to give up the privileges enjoyed by them under the old system. In the days of early Islam some people anticipated reaping a good harvest if they joined the ranks of the believers. is like a heavy shower coming down from heaven.” Enemy of Islam Within the Fold of Islam The Prophet had repeatedly said that the way forward was through Quran in its capacity as the highest . Aga Mahdi Puya has summed up the situation in the following words: The new mission. were respected by the people of Arabia. lightning and darkness. On the other hand. Islam. would yield. which appeared to them as a frightful darkness. but the thunder. the Quraish. Islam. create fright and make people take precaution against the impending threat. The result was a continuous wavering. For example. By giving up idolatry.They did not accept Islam: they only accepted before the might of Islam. and from the Persian Gulf to the Arabian Sea and Red Sea up to the African coast. they could not close their eyes to the grand possibility of taking control of the ever progressing active energy of a highly advanced society. preached by Islam. which would have certainly affected their economic interests.

they could not have been killed or punished. it was against the teachings of Islam not to believe in their words when they were saying that they were coming to its fold. Men had not practiced it sufficiently and it was still threatened by many apostasies like the withdrawal at Ohad and then the return. beyond a certain time. Of those men. so that the Message that went across. The man who brought the Message was himself removed from the scene to offer to his Lord the balance of his account on earth. There had been innumerable occasions when the prophet had explicitly told the collected audience that Ali was to be his successor. they were not taken seriously. softened and later distorted the nucleus. Deviation from this and the subsequent reaching of power in the hands of those who were no less than the worldly rulers. sincerely and with a proper awareness. In addition to that the Message was still only freshly in its covers. he had linked it to the apostolic leaders who were at the level of taking on the huge responsibilities of leading the experiments infallibly. Imam Ali was the person who was equipped to do this through the stipulation of the Apostle. It was Prophet’s large-heartedness that he accepted even those into the folds of Islam who had plotted and conspired against it till sometime before. This deviation occurred because of the people who had joined the folds of Islam when left with no choices. Though he had given several warnings in this regard. And unless they came up in defiance. On the other hand. It is fascinating to note how fast the affairs of the Muslim government went outside the text of the Message and turned into an aristocracy. those men who had only . It was still seeking help from the leaders of Quraish.theoretical reference for the Message. appeared to be tied closely to sword. Also. which had created a new class.

They kept waiting for their opportunity. al-Uzza and Hubal mumbling in the dust of their broken fragment under the veils of the Kaaba. while the world considered them as Caliphs of the new religion.e. though only in face.sought to slip away from their thrones under challenge. succession to the prophet has become such a vexed . which had not been properly collected and arranged. it was exposed to attempts to soften it under the numerous currents of reasoning and interpretation based on interests and whim. There were still sayings of the Prophet scattered among the Companions. The Message itself had not yet been established in its polished form. which is still evident in the manner and belief of the Muslims. their conduct is viewed as Islam. It is they who hijacked the Islamic teachings right at its infancy and were responsible for portraying the religion in bad light. The Death of the Prophet It is a pity that the subject of Khilafat (Caliphate). killing and imprisoning the true champions of the faith. the reigns of the entire Muslim ‘empire’ (empire it was for them) had fallen in the hands of those who were its greatest enemies. A stage came when the Umayyads were taking their animosity against Islam to its extreme. their actions. which they got when the towering personality of Prophet Mohammad was no longer among them. i. When they realized that this tactic was sure to fail. In addition to all that. It was these wavering hypocrites who were to do the biggest disservice to the Message of Islam. They opposed Islamic teachings tooth and nail and even waged war against the young religion in their attempt to throttle the teachings in their infancy. their beliefs. Within a short while itself. It is sad that even today. they embraced Islam. There were still the false gods Mana.

from the seat of political power. from affectionate conduct towards his grandsons. The historical fact. in the eyes of the world. the members of the prophet’s household. before going for prayers. perhaps. God wishes. suffered outwardly. remains that upon the prophets’ death. They had also seen visible signs of annoyance on the prophet’s face whenever any lapse. such incidents left little room to spare any effort and care in according due consideration to these grandsons (Hasan and Husain) of the prophet. As a result. It would therefore. it is time for prayers. occurred in the prophet’s presence. however. Adoration was shown to him from all directions of the world. be no exaggeration to say that Husain was then a lamp around which circled moths. lightly addressed Hasan thus. therefore. Writes Allama Ali Naqi Naqawi: “To those who had the slightest insight into the prophet’s nature. All Muslims believe that Ahlebayt were the most righteous of men of all times. “How fine is your mount. child” on seeing him propped on the Prophet’s shoulder. “And how good is the rider as well”. They were also witness to the extraordinary love that Prophet showed towards them even at public places. however small.question that even now the contention about it between the Shias and Sunnis defies resolution. or a sun around which revolved the planets. Every morning. The Prophet at once rejoined. Muslims had repeatedly heard the Prophet declare that whosoever bore affection towards him should be bound by affection to them as well. the Prophet used to call out. O members of the household to remove from you all . as would appear from the sharp retort given by the prophet to one who. from an eclipse. some of his followers joined hands to eliminate the members of prophet’s household. Get up.

As regards to Ali. People were also witness to Prophet’s extraordinary behaviour towards his daughter. while returning from the last hajj. used to retire to the graveyard of Jannatul Baqi where she raised her continuous laments and cries. This was even validated by God. At one point he said: Ali is never separated from the truth and the truth is never separated from Imam Ali. in whose respect he used to stand up. Every morning. Some of these we will be giving at a later stage in this book. Fatima too died as a consequence of that injury sometime later. there are innumerable instances when the Prophet had proclaimed him as his successor in the company of his companions. therefore. when the Quran’s verse saying that with this announcement the . he unfailingly went to the Fatima’s door to convey his greetings. people assembled at the door of Fatima’s house and set fire to it. History has also recorded that after the death of Prophet. who was Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law. Ali had also been the bravest of fighters during the various wars with enemies. Traditions abound of Prophet calling her the head of the women in heavens. Prophet identified Ali as his successor in front of a large crowd. There are innumerable traditions of Prophet citing Ali’s lofty position. She. The burning door fell on Fatima’s abdomen and the child in the womb died because of this. At Ghadeer.trace of defilement and to purify you as purity itself may require. grieves the Prophet. or that anybody who grieved Fatima. He was the most righteous of men. Fatima used to cry so often at the behaviour of the people towards the Members of the Household that a complaint was then made by the people that her unremitting wailing had made it impossible for them either to take their meals or to snatch some rest.

attributes and achievements. or it was because of the extraordinary position that Mohammad had given to him. his position. so He shall render their deeds null and void (Quran.” Ibn-e-Abbas said: “There is nothing unusual so far as the hatred of the Quraish for the family of Hashim is concerned. lest their vanity increases. Whether it was because of the fact that it was Ali who had killed the near and dear ones of a lot many who had come to fight against Mohammad in earlier days. So they chose some one else. ‘That is because they were averse to what Allah has sent down. An interesting conversation between the second caliph and Ibn-e-Abbas. which throws light on the influence of the Jewish mentality on the behaviour and mental attitude of the non-Hashimide Muslims. It would have been most appropriate if the Quraish had chosen he whom Allah had chosen. The second caliph said: “O son of Abbas! Do you know why your family has been deprived of Khilafat? The Quraish did not like that prophethood (nubuwwat) and vicegerency (khilafat) be combined in the family of Hashim.” At this stage the caliph interrupted and said: . Another reason that contributed to this was his affiliation to the Hashimide tribe of Quraish. because right from the beginning they did not like the message. or Ali’s superiority in terms of piety or his mention in Quran on many occasions – people were jealous of Ali. is quoted below. by Allah himself. recorded by Tabari and other historians. from every type of uncleanness is an (unfounded) accusation... and.teachings have been completed. nor the messenger. And the apprehension about the vanity of the people who have been (thoroughly) purified. really their choice was good. Mohammad: 9)’.

The Medina that was once pure and good was now filled with hatred and fear. This incident. Politics had pushed faith and piety from the city of Mohammad. Therefore. life suddenly changed for the beloved members of his household. People were now waiting for a chance to take their plan to implementation.” Ibn-e-Abbas said: “Yes. on one side the Prophet was making announcements citing Ali as successor and Caliph. but also in the schemes of God for the future. The army that was ready to do anything at the wish of the Prophet’s command stood unmoved.“Behold! O son of Abbas! I have already been informed about your utterances. against the words and even insults of the Prophet. The day it was known that the Prophet was dying. if Ali was to remain at the helm of affairs. despite objections from all quarters. This was despite the fact that Prophet spared no opportunity to introduce them and remind of their importance. Prophet had given the banner of leadership to Ali but Osamah was chosen as the leader of army. If my opinions are true. It is evident from the events that happened on the day of Prophet’s death that the plan to change the course of Prophet’s will had already been made.” The caliph got angry and left the place. certain influential people were hatching plans to usurp that position for themselves. . not only in his life. Beware! You may fall in my estimation. sharply defines the most vital issue that divided the Muslims into various schools of thought. This was confounded by the feeling in heart that they would never be able to take benefit out of being in the fold of Islam. they should not cause my downfall. you should remind me to put them in order. and if they be untrue.

Truth is that the Shias hold on to the Ahlebayt in order to continue holding on to the Prophet and the Quran. as they used to do in the past. they caused uproar and did not allow this small wish of the Prophet. Answer itself shows what was going in their mind! Shias are blamed for holding on to the Ahlebayt and leaving the Prophet. and there was no need of writing anything. in response to the Prophet’s desire for a pen. so much so that the history has recorded them clearly. you will not be led astray. Perhaps they knew what Mohammad would have written and they also knew that the same in writing would create more hurdles in their path of attaining their age-old objectives. Isn’t it clear that the Prophet was going to identify his successor once again? Otherwise. the Prophet had asked for something that had been denied to him. The prophecy of the Quran . They said he was just mumbling. If the Prophet was mumbling under the influence of illness. only to be followed by Umar) knew that the Prophet was not just mumbling and whatever he was saying was in full senses.’ Instead of obeying to his command. It was for this day that they had entered into the fold of Islam and they never wanted to waste this opportunity. and there was no need for writing anything. What was the harm in giving him the pen and the tablet? But Umar and Abu Bakr (Abu Bakr was later appointed as the first Caliph.Even at the time of dying. he would have written a set of jumbled words that would have made no sense. when the Prophet was gone. He had said: ‘Bring a tablet and pen so that I can write something so that when I am gone. They said the book of God existed. what was the reason to say that the book of God existed. He wanted to write something that would prevent the people from getting astray. The words of the Prophet were profound and sensible.

called Saqifah. It had replaced truth. you will go backwards and you will return to the reactionary. If he dies or is killed. right there: Mohammad is no more than a Prophet. Moreover. Isn’t it amazing that the Prophet of the Muslims. cried and left. plots and conflicts. the Prophet was lying with his head on Ali’s lap. the God’s and the Prophet’s wish. Ali was all this while in the room. who had controlled nearly the entire Arabian Peninsula up to the limits of the diminishing Roman Empire on one side and the Persian Empire on the other. They had felt that the Quraish of Mecca had their own plans. Abu Bakr was chosen at Saqifah. Prophet had already ordered a battalion to . It is recorded in history that only Ali and few of his trusted companions were there at the time of Prophet’s ablution as well as burial. Other prophets have been sent before him. ‘Leaders are from among the Quraish’. to elect the Caliph. was buried with only a few family members and loyal friends at his side? Where were the rest? It is stated that the Ansars (Medinites) of the Prophet had gathered at a place outside the city. Abu Bakr. Why was the hurry? Were there threats from outside the Muslim world of attack? Even if there were. They reasoned that the replacement for the Prophet must be from among his family. As a result. upon hearing the death of the Prophet. Umar and Abu Bakr entered the room again.was getting true. despotism of ancient time. The city was full of plans. in fact. Umar and Abu Ubaidah arrived and then convinced them that the Prophet had said. the Muslim dominion had stretched at least so much so that it would have taken a few days for the message to reach the enemies and then for them to attack or plan sabotage. it was politics that governed the affairs. From that time onwards.

prior to his appearance outside the city at Saqifah were that the Prophet never dies and would soon reappear. Then why didn’t they wait till the burial? Those who defend this behaviour say that the Muslims should not remain without a leader even for a moment. It so happened that when the news of Prophet’s death was spreading. once the previous leader died. He said. ‘The Prophet has not died. lest the message spread among the common people. That is why for centuries after this incident. when the only time they were made the commanders of the army. He rose to heaven like Jesus. then who gave the authority to that select group of people to choose the successor. Then upon hearing that a meeting was already in place at Saqifah.march towards one of the frontiers. when even the Prophet had not chosen them. What a logical argument indeed? But can they explain that the last words that were heard of Umar in Medina. Umar unsheathed his sword in public and said that he would kill anybody who would say that the Prophet had died. Nobody says that when God had not chosen them.’ Isn’t it clear that the fear that Umar and Abu Bakr had was not from outside Muslim world but from inside? People were threatened with death if they talked of Prophet’s death. Though they didn’t listen to orders and waited. the three rushed there. Whosoever says the Prophet has died is a hypocrite. Why not Ali? Everything becomes clear. He will return. truth is that an entire contingent was battle-ready. that too at a time when the Prophet had still not been buried. I will cut-off his head. the Muslims were not allowed to study . they fled. many of whom could have put other candidates in front. and got one from among them elected.

a group of 12 people circled the mountainous road so that he – and perhaps Ali – would be killed? And this plot that came about after pronouncement of Ali as successor-designate at Ghadir relates to it because the elections were no action. it was courtesy those attached with the Ahlebayts.numerals. the Battle of Tabuk. he did not reveal their names? It was not a small accident especially considering the particular interest of the Companions of the Prophet who have recorded with care even the least important events of his life. who were not men of the sword but more political elements – that they go to this battle to . It is recorded that even several of those who were present at the Saqifah to elect the Caliph had congratulated Ali at Ghadir Khum. accepted – considering his age and the age of his great and elder Companions and those who were not military men. There are several other questions that are yet to be answered by the Muslims in general? See Ali Shariati’s view: “Why was it that when the Prophet had not yet entered the city. as the Prophet’s successor-designate. Why did the Prophet in his last battle. And why is that. lest their reasoning faculties would arise. In spite of this. Prophet too knew that the plans were being hatched to usurp the caliphate. although the Prophet was informed about the plot before hand and ordered them to be taken away after the event. he had introduced Ali in front of all of the groups of Muslims who had accompanied him to the gathering and had them admit that the leadership of Ali was the same as his leadership. That is why upon his return from his last pilgrimage and prayer at Ghadir Khum. if the Muslim world progressed so much that it is called the originator of Arabic numerals.

They bothered him. pray and insult so that the army would move quickly. kept Ali in Medina even though Ali was known as a man of the sword. Omar and the other great men and politicians who had influence. not allow him to write anything down? They even argued in front of him and created uproar. the reproach of the Jewish people and the hypocrites. ‘I want to write down something so that you will never go astray. at the time of his death. when there was objection to Osamah’s leadership because of his youth. and.’ Why do those who later got elected as caliphs. the hero of many battles.) Why did he. and along with it the elders too would move out of Medina while he kept Ali in Medina? Why. to go along with the army? Why.fight the powerful foreign Romans in the north of the country where the danger of death was very great? Why did he single out Ali. did he insist and persist. with such an army did he choose the 18-year-old Osamah to lead the army while these great men were among the common soldiers? Why. against the will of Ali. at the last moment of his life did he ask for a tablet and pen and said. They even insulted and protested to his wives who were crying behind the curtain saying. the bearer of the flag and the conqueror of the famous and great battles of the Prophet? He said to him. ‘I leave you for that which I left behind in Medina. ‘The Prophet wants to leave his last will and . Are you not satisfied that your relationship to mine is the same as the relationship of Moses’ with that of his brother Aaron?’ (The world knows that Aaron succeeded Moses after his death. sent an army to attack the Romans when there was no emergency neither need to send the army to defend the border? Why did he ordered Abu Bakr. did the Prophet get angry and in strong terms criticized those who thought age was more important than worthiness? And why when he was feverish and at the door of death.

‘All of those women are better than you. ‘May God bless you all.’ Why is it that as he got closer to death he repeated more and more often that plots and conspiracies like parts of the black night are now continuously appearing? Yes. They called themselves friends of Joseph until the Prophet. who at the most difficult times of battle. . with the greatest of pain.’ he mentioned only two of them and the third one.testament. A part of that black night had passed by.’ And then he asked to be left alone. in anger said. remained unanswered? Why when Bilal said. saying. without saying anything. in the middle of the night.’ They delayed. he went to the graveyard and spent a long time whispering to the silent corpses. ‘I have three pieces of advice for you. which was about Ali. Why? Why? Why? Why is it that the Prophet. buried Ali’s rights.’ and the Prophet was not able to rise from his bed. face to face with the power of the enemy. when the Prophet said. he said. Now all of these whys were answered. How lucky you are to be dead and therefore not facing this present situation. filled with loneliness. certain of the future? Why during the last days of his life when he was on the edge of his victory.’ Suddenly both of them appeared in answer to the message of Abu Bakr’s daughter and the Prophet saw all three of them at one time and then. always spook full of hope and strength. asked all three to leave. alone with his main helper (Ali). ‘It is the time of ritual prayer. Bring him a tablet and a pen. at the same moment. Why at the end of his life. Ali had finished burying the Prophet and the great Companions of the Prophet. was he so afraid and worried? Why the last night of his sickness before his death. ‘Tell Ali to come. and he lacking power.

They were not from among the aristocrats of Aus and Khazraj tribes of Medina.They came from Saqifah to the mosque so that the Caliph could announce his leadership in a message to the people. in the eyes of the Prophet were dear and beloved but now that he had gone. Abuzar. Those faithful to Ali included people like Salman who was an Iranian and who had been praised by the Prophet for his faith and even included in his Ahlebayt. Abuzar (who was so trusted that he is reported to have been sent to India by the Prophet to teach and the Prophet had recounted few traditions in regard to his future) was from the desert. Values had changed again. He also suffered . they had been obliged to return to a permanent state of humility. The few of the elders presented there had no time to listen to the likes of Salman. but they had suddenly come to the fore again. They were simple deprived people like Meesam. who sold dates. Miqdad and others. Ali himself had the same position as them in Medina. These people. loneliness and blackness. Likewise. full of pain.” For Some Ali Was Still the Only Refuge The fate of Islam was decided in Saqifah without the presence of Ali. Ali returned from the empty house of the Prophet to Fatima’s home to begin 25 years of silence. Says Shariati: “Their only refuge was Ali. Ammar. Neither were they from the original Quraish family whose luxury of blood. the rightful inheritor. family and class had given them station and position? These were the things that seemed to have ended during the Prophet’s time when Muslims had become but one Ummah irrespective of class or tribal distinctions. while Ammar whose mother was a black African slave and his father had come from Yemen or other unknown people without any prestige or any claim to being high class.

bravery. The profundity. show contempt. trivial ugliness of others. high thinking and awareness. companions and those who have the same thoughts. They slandered him. Whenever one humbles oneself. He had the power of speech and the sword. His entire fortune was amassed from and consisted of the dangers he met remaining loyal to the Prophet as well as his sword which was raised in jihad and the great amount of blood which had drawn from the hatred of yesterday ’s enemies – who had ‘surrendered’ to the ‘decree’ of the Prophet. beauty and richness of his ‘being’ of and by itself. without class. thirty some years old (in comparison to the elders of the community). They create a vacuum in their personalities. to feign closeness in order to reduce the space which is causing them to suffer.from the renewed regime of old values. When a spirit rises above the level of his time and grows beyond the container of the patience of the people of its time. . consciously and unconsciously. Those values. Both friends and enemies alike joined hands and stories in attacking and condemning Ali. Since they can never reach the level of spirit directly. Then. He held only the pious virtues of knowledge. created a hatred in his enemies which could never be made up for. His story was like this: He was a young man. He was a man empty-handed. join together to negate or destroy the spirit of the great personality or else they try to destroy its distinct rights. sacrifices and courage. humbles the empty. They suffer. it is left alone. without the shackles of politics or tribal bonds. because of the greatness of ‘being’. friend and foe alike. They try by negating or denying his virtues to contaminate the personality. humiliated him and finally they ostracized him and left him alone. friends. consciousness of self and the unawareness of provoking the jealousy of friends. They mutually benefit each other. and persistence upon the way.

you have always been an enemy of Islam and of the Muslims.” This not only demonstrated how firmly Ali was resolved to place the collective interests of the community and the solidarity of Islam foremost even before himself.they try to pull it back so that they can reach it in this way. They unknowingly become the toys of the enemy. “By God. if you so desire I would fill the streets and lanes of Medina with mounted soldiers to aid you. sine those who openly declared their opposition to the faith were incapable of causing such great harm to it as false friends and insidious enemies. ‘Ali is the son of the earth’ and so on. They become amateur servants of oppressors. It was also meant to be a warning against such duplicity as might ever pose a danger to Islam. When this happens. one of the lowliest families of Arabia should have gained the upper hand. This is why they all united in humiliating Ali.” This is why that the Umayyads. By God. therefore. but Ali’s refusal to accept Abu Sufiyan’s help also served to expose the insincerity of the acceptance of Islam of Abu Sufiyan and members of his family. he gave Abu Sufiyan short shrift. This was in spite of the fact that it was Abu Sivan who had endeavoured to instigate Ali with the words. necessary that such persons should be closely watched and no opportunity given to them to execute their nefarious designs. It is in this effort that they join with the enemies and find mutual interests. led by Abu Sufiyan and later his son Muawiya started advertising that ‘Ali does not perform his ritual prayers’.” But since Ali was above sentimentalism and selfishness. The propaganda against Ali was so intense that . saying. They become the representative of murder. friends also find a need to destroy that spirit. even though it might entail the sacrifice of his personal interests. It was. “What? It is the limit that in your presence.

The seed grew into branches bearing leaves. nevertheless. then Omar said: battle of Khaybar where Abu Bakr carried the Prophet and went forward to conquer and after great effort. Khandaq and other such battles.later. he returned broken. which eventually covered their whole spirit and thoughts. Its roots entrenched in the depths of their bones. ‘does not perform his prayers. At the the flag of the citadel. I will give the flag into the hands of . performing his prayer? How could that be? Others Were Busy Destroying Ali Everyone knew that this hatred of Ali resulted from his heroic deeds at Badr. ‘the man who supposedly. But a friend? Those who had participated in the battles of Badr and Khandaq against the Umayyads now joined them and were singing the same tune. when he was killed while offering prayers in the mosque.’ doing at the mihrab? Ali. people would ask questions. went and returned defeated. was a jealousy which planted itself in their unconscious conscience. twenty-even years old. a young man. the Prophet Tomorrow. It grew later on without they themselves being aware of it. hidden. The blows of his sword made them happy but. How is it that Ali is killed in the mihrab (the place which gives the direction of prayer) of a mosque? What sort of news is this? What was Ali – the ‘father of dust’. Why? The well-known of the great Companions were obliged to lower their heads at the Battle of Khandaq where Ali. struck such fear into the enemy through his sword and the cries of Allah-o-akbar which issued forth from him that the Prophet praised him: The blows of Ali in the battle of Khandaq are more than the worship of all the men and jinn.

the mantle of caliphate was handed to those about whom no such praise was ever made. He opened a citadel up and people entered in to plunder and he moved on to attack another citadel.) The next day he gave the flag to Ali.someone who loves both God and His Prophet and both God and His Prophet love him. afraid and hopeless. If that is the case then they must believe that Ali was truly someone whom God loved as well. This sword not only created hatred in the enemies but also in the friends.either ran away or else went and sat in a corner. Ali amazingly conquered one citadel after another. the great ones the Companions who considered themselves from the point of view of age and position in society. while the great influential and respected Companions ran away from the narrow strait and Abu Sufiyan cried out. In place of such clear proofs of Ali’s closeness to God. closed the mouth of the strait. Even though they were fighting for the same thing. In the battles of Badr and Ohud. jealousy and contempt arose. When he carried the flag towards victory at battle of Honein. virtues or strength of Ali were spoken about. when the God had no such intentions. (We are sure that no Muslim would ever say that the Prophet made the comment on behalf of God. like a rock. they will not stop until they reach the Red Sea!’ Ali. ‘The way they are running away. This is how friends and enemies joined into one front whenever the character. to be at the highest level . nor any verse from God came to acknowledge their presence. It was Ali who like lightening and wind passed through the scenes and created a new front amidst the fear and defeat. This is when a friend needed an enemy and an enemy needed a friend and they both work .

Let some years pass for him.’ ‘Ali? Yes. they just kept quiet as regard to his values. They acted from a motive.’ ‘Ali? Yes. who . he killed many of the great and influential Arabs. but at the same time did every bit to destroy his rights. If they did not reach this low level. knowledgeable. If they mentioned his weak points whenever they get the chance. They oppressed his rights and destroyed the Truth. But he is a man of the sword. Even though it is unmanly. It is not advisable. but he does not know the science of war. But he is still young. The hatred is still warm. Ali? Yes. by not emphasizing them. The result? The result was that Ali was destroyed both at the hands of the Bani Umayyads as well as at those of Umar. But he jokes too much. This is why the reaction to the greatness of Ali was compensated for by showing contempt for Ali. But at the present time it is not advisable for Islam that he be elected. But he is too sure of himself. If the Caliphate were to be given to him.together. they exaggerated them and made mountains out of molehills. he would run this camel firmly in the right direction. At the time of the Prophet. they described him in terms that were contrary to what he really was.’ ‘Ali? Yes. But is he really serious about that?’ Such were the arguments given. He has many enemies. They expressed words or spread stories in a way that was slander. How? By not taking his Islamic virtues into account. during the wars.’ ‘Ali? Yes. devoted. They admitted the rights of Ali to the extent of Abu Bakr or Omar.’ (Their inferiority complex becomes obvious). The Result: His Chances Were Destroyed ‘Ali? Yes.

would ordinarily shun taking upon themselves these gratuitous burdens. . People. This was Ali’s greatness that in spite of all that he had to undergo. he was always ready to give such assistance as might be desired concerning any matter requiring knowledge. and advice about any important project or expedition. All forsook their enmity to oppose Ali. he was sorely disappointed and bitterly disheartened. swayed by their emotions.was the enemy of Bani Umayyad and of the same rank as Ali. Usman was victorious with the help of Umar and also the Bani Umayyad who were the enemies of Umar and the family of Usman. they had been unjustly eliminated. and they should consider serving the interests of Islam as their sole object. they should watch out for opportunities to lend their support whenever the affairs of the Muslims came up against obstacles and dangers. as much as they could. apathy and forgetfulness shown to his rightful claims by the world. and that howsoever invidiously they might be eliminated from the position of having a say in them. despite their undisputed eligibility for them. especially if they related to offices from which. The lesson which Ali’s behaviour conveyed to the members of the prophet’s house was that they should not treat with unconcern any matter regarding Muslims. or in the decision of legal difficulties in spite of the fact that on account of the indifference.

fought one another. It is not the plan of the Almighty that guidance should be imposed upon any individual or community. this straying could be stopped. had left them. and some of them He exalted in rank. He brings about what He wills. He made some of these messengers to excel others. In the end He sent the best of them all. their avowed enemy. went astray and followed the path of the devil as soon as the divinely commissioned guides. does not make willing efforts to walk on the right path. that mankind may observe right measure (establish themselves in justice). If Allah had willed. There is no compulsion in religion. including the followers of the Holy Prophet. He could guide the people without the agency of the prophets. and revealed with them the book and the scale. Likewise. There is complete freedom to any person who wants to go astray. Aga Mahdi Puya says in his commentary of Quran: “This verse implies that a large number of messengers were sent by Allah. Allah does not keep any one on the right path under duress if he himself. Explaining this verse. to guide mankind on the right path and prevent the people of the world. through reason and intelligence. from going astray in the direction of Shaytan.God and His Prophets Verse 25 of Chapter Hadid in the Quran says: Verily. We sent Our messengers with clear proofs. but He has given freedom to man to use . in all times. the Holy Prophet. The followers of the prophets. with clear signs and arguments. verse 51 of chapter al-Shura says: It is not to any mortal (man) that Allah should speak to him except by inspiration or through (from behind) a veil.

while some were made superior to others. We certainly show them our paths. 165. it is only for the good of his own soul that he goes right. Now whosoever goes right. but they disagreed. 7 and 15. some were given books. And if Allah had pleased. so there were some of them who believed .reason and intelligence to distinguish between good and evil and make efforts to do good and earn reward. See verse 2: 253 from Quran: We have made some of these messengers to excel the others among them are they to whom Allah spoke. and strengthened him with the holy spirit. 6. Each soul earns only on its own account. AnAm. Muslims are of belief that 1. those after them would not have fought one with another after clear arguments had come to them. and Dahr. 7. 46. 2). Fatir. errs only to hurt himself. They were of different order. or make mischief and collect punishment. 48.” As for those who strive in Us. Bani Israel. Several verse in Quran tell clearly that there is no compulsion in religion and man has been given an independent free will to act: (See Baqarah. 17. Ankabut. to show them what was right and what was wrong.24. ANKABUT : 69 The guidance has been made known. Q URAN. and whosoever errs.000 Messengers were sent among various peoples all across the world. Hijr. and We gave clear miracles to Isa son of Maryam. Zumar. Ha-Mim. 42. The individual differences in the prophets of Allah are on account of the level of intelligence and the needs of the people amongst whom they were sent. The door of guidance is kept open for those who sincerely seek the true direction. and some of them He exalted by (many degrees of) rank.

the path of those whom Thou hast blessed.and others who denied. That is why it has been made obligatory on all Muslims to seek Allah’s help by reciting Surah Fatihah of Quran twice in each prayer (namaz). therefore. the All-compassionate. This is a prayer to God to keep himself on the right path. such differences between the people of the scriptures are due to their rebellious attitude against the clearly manifested will and command of Allah. the apologetic attempt of some of the theologians to justify the dissension and conflict between the various religions or the sects of each religion as the outcome of Ijtihad or discretion is based upon conjecture. the Master of the Day of Judgment. not of those against whom Thou art wrathful. The All-merciful Praise belongs to Allah. and if Allah had pleased they would not have fought one with another. and to Thee alone we pray for succour. Here is the translation of Surah Fatiha from Quran: In the Name of Allah. The All-compassionate. and therefore. nor of those who are astray. Aga Ali Puya comments: “This verse clearly states that the discord and strife among the followers of the prophets is due to belief (iman) and disbelief (kufr). the All-merciful. but Allah brings about what He intends. Thee only we serve. According to Quran. and whatever good he does is from Allah. untenable. See verse 19 of Ali Imran and verses 13 of 14 of al Shura. the Lord of all being. Guide us in the straight path. . The responsibility for wrongdoing rests with the man.

Puya/Ali commentary says: “All the heavenly scriptures are from the creator Lord.Now see this verse (2:285) from Quran: The messenger believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord. the Everliving. and (so do) the believers. and to Thee is the eventual course. To function in a harmonious whole the components must be interdependent. without being disunited. His messengers. Please refer to verse 177 of this surah. (there is) no god but He. His angels and His books. Allah. the ever-living. We make no difference between any of His messengers. and they say: We hear and obey. The true faithful believe in Allah. The primal cause is God. Says a commentator of Quran: “All organisms are finite. the Self-subsisting by Whom all things subsist. they all believe in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers. and trust in His all encompassing mercy. . 3:2 Or see the verse 255 of al Baqarah: Allah! There is no god save He. There are differences between the prophets but no differentiation. There must be an omnipotent will or a primal cause to keep the diverse components together. our Lord! Thy forgiveness (do we crave). The message is the same: worship Allah. the self-subsisting. as transmitted through His messengers. in order to let them work in harmony. Q URAN . None of the components or their whole can be God because they obey and follow the will of the primal cause. Islam is a universal religion. (286) Allah alone is the creator and sustainer of all worlds. It is to him only that we offer worship and supplicate.

the ever-living. while according to Hindus.” Another commentator says: “Hayy. and qayyum. based on conjecture and speculation. because. is governed by the law of cause and effect. Moreover. Any organism whose components are finite and dependent cannot be an everliving infinite. the ever-living. Anything. yet they themselves do not understand the doctrine of divinity of Jesus. the self-subsisting. and also he cannot be qayyum. Jesus was crucified. the everliving. He. therefore. from Jesus to Krishna and Ram. according to the Christians. and that which needs reason or cause to be effective or sufficient cannot be self-subsisting. Now it becomes clear that the hypothesis of the scholars and the theologians of the Christian church not only fail to convince the seekers of truth but also create chaos and confusion. the self-subsisting. Krishna and Rama both died eventually. Qayyum. composed of components with separate functions. “Allah is the selfsubsisting.” means that to be effective or sufficient He does not need a reason or cause because He Himself is the prime cause. was brought into being by Allah. The most . (a magnified form of the adjective qayam-standing and enduring) is He who stands (subsists) by Himself and all other stand (are subsisted) by His eternal endurance. is put forward by the Christians in support of their claim.” A great deal of metaphysical nonsense. are the two attributes of Allah which break up and blot out the absurd doctrine of the divinity that has been put on several of his Messengers. cannot be hayy. there is no consensus among their theologians. who did not have an existence before his creation. like any other mortal. which they take as true without examination or proof. is He who knows and acts freely without any limitations.Hayy. the self-subsisting.

We are sure you will realize that for the parent. it is He who is the creator even when He. In Part-I. However. a child’s birth itself is not the end objective. Jesus has a mysterious double nature which makes him a member of the trinity. having living components which can be called organs only so long as they remain united and interrelated to each other in the whole. At times. He has to be taught and molded for a better life. some time the same parent would take the child for an operation or even amputation. through His maya. We are sure that Muslim scholars will have to accept the triune nature of creation. which could be a bit painful. We invite you to go back and read what is said in the Upanishad. three in one. God is one but has components which perform separate functions. if he feels a bit of pain when given injections or more when he goes through a corrective surgery or amputation. There is one difference though. we have shown the true meaning of this term from a couple of verses in an Upanishad.popular belief is triune. therefore. Work continues even after the birth. at times injected with antibodies. Child has to be fed. He even created provisions for the sustenance and growth. If He created. people understood it differently. You have no right to say that the parent do not care for the child. he is given medicines. We are of the opinion that the idea existed right from the time of Adam and continued to be put forward by the various prophets. decided that all creations would emanate from the 14 devas. The job of the parent didn’t end with giving birth. It is sorry that we do not believe the same in the case of God. Just as a child takes birth from his father and mother but we all believe that it is God who gives birth.” See how the Muslim commentators have criticized the idea of trinity. If a disease strike. He even connected the power- . or a trinity in unity-God is a spiritual organism.

barring Prophet Mohammad himself. even corrective surgery was performed or amputations performed. then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with Allah’s permission and I heal the blind and the leprous. and bring the dead to life with Allah’s permission and I inform you of what you should eat and what you should store in your houses. so that when the last of them departs. In fact we owe our creation to them. they even caused pain to the body when the child was too disobedient. all creations fall into oblivion. we are none to seek justification. At times. The devas were created as central to all creation. Prophets were sent sometimes to supply the nutrients and vitamins that were most needed. that is why the doses were given as per the requirement of the body. That was sent as “a messenger to the children of Bani Israel”. most surely there is a sign in this for you. Our job is to recognize them and accept them.supply to the presence of devas on earth. Sometimes. The institutions of God have been working since even prior to our creation. Their message was for their people alone. is not said in Quran itself but he himself . if you are believers. They were the heart that not only controlled the supply of blood but also was responsible for internal purification. in case we wish to be treated as obedient subordinates of the Creator’s empire. The virus of Satan inflicted love for the world was leading the child astray. that I determine for you out of dust like the form of a bird. All the Messengers. As Quran says in 3:49 Jesus was the Messenger for the Israelites alone: And (make him) a messenger to the children of Israel: That I have come to you with a sign from your Lord. When God has created them. were sent to particular tribes or regions. like in the case of the Great Flood or the great calamity inflicted on the people of Loot.

Prophet Isa has made it clear in his following statement that he was only a mortal. M ARK 13: 32 Isn’t it ironical that those who believed that Jesus was part of the trinity crucified him on the cross. but go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel (to proclaim the message). and do not enter a Samaritan town. (E NCYCLOPEDIA B RITANNICA 29 VOLUMES 11 TH EDITION -L ONDON ) Also. he continues to live even today and would surely make an appearance in the near future. and to them alone”. not even the angels in heaven. did not appreciate the universality of the teaching of Jesus. Jesus was a Divine Messenger and enjoyed very high position. and his earliest disciples. not to treat his message as universal. Please refer to Matthew 15: 22 to 26 wherein it is also stated that Isa had declared: “I was sent to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. Isa commanded his twelve disciples: Do not take the road to gentile lands. As per Matthew 10: 5 and 6. “The earlier group of disciples. while the Muslims who revere him as a Messenger of God. only the Father. and not god as the Christian church wrongly claims: But about the day or that hour no one knows. Verse 3:50 of Quran states: And a verifier of that which is before me of the . nor did Jesus seek converts outside Israel”. Modern Christian scholars have to acknowledge the advice of Isa. not even the son. Truly. Yet to claim his divinity when his message was only for the members of a particular tribe would be erroneous.maintained this view and said so on various occasions. it is true. created by Allah.

for his birth. Aga Mahdi Puya says: “According to verse 50.Taurait and that I may allow you part of that which has been forbidden to you.Timothy (1) 2: 5. which implies that adherence is not following a particular legislation but strict compliance with all the laws issued by Allah. See James 2:19. Isa had the authority to repeal or amend the laws of Musa. after Prophet Mohammad. and I have come to you with a sign from your Lord therefore be careful of (your duty to) Allah and obey me. He also asks them to adhere to the right path. but. Jude 25. It is evident from this that Isa had no new message. He asks people to obey him and follow his orders in addition to the testament that they already had. We are not writing this to denigrate Isa. The Quran presents Isa as a law-giver prophet. If this is true. If Isa confirmed part of the teachings conveyed by Musa. in the New Testament. wrong conceptions. therefore. who enjoys of the highest position among the Messengers of God. if they have developed need to be quashed. a saying of Isa is reported that: mountains may move but not a word from the Taurait will be removed. why is Adam not included in the list? If Adam can be born without father and mother. he cancelled some of the laws of Taurait. John 20: 17. if not of a father. He confirmed that which Musa had conveyed. Whoever obeys the laws laid down by the succeeding . then would that mean that Musa (Moses) too had a part to play in that divinity? It is evident from the aforementioned discussion that only reason why Isa was included in the concept of trinity was because of him taking birth without a father. why can’t a person who at least took the help of his mother’s womb. be accepted as God’s His creature. Yet. and he is still being accepted as a creature of God.

On the other hand. because Isa himself. gave the news of the advent of the Holy Prophet in John 14: 16. 17. he will guide you into all the truth. 19. but the burden would be too great for you now. Musa was directly addressed by Allah. his past sins may be forgiven. carries out the orders of the preceding prophets. are quoted as an example: There is still much that I could say to you. in reality. as Iblis (Shaytan or Satan) was condemned forever. in fact. when he comes who is the spirit of truth.” Muslims are of the opinion that all the prophets of Allah are equally truthful and holy. but if one only gives allegiance to the previous prophets and rejects the orders of those prophets who came after. renounces all the prophets. 18. but will tell only what he . It would be a false and contradictory statement if it was said that the above-noted verses of the Old and the New Testaments refer to Jesus. If one obeys Him throughout his life but revolts in the last moments of his life.prophets. The following words. John 14: 16. 17 and John 16: 7 to 14. he will be cursed. and Isa was assisted by the ruhul qudus (the holy spirit). This applies also to the commandments of Allah. The particular mention of Musa and Isa is to point out their distinguished positions as the reformers. so Allah’s messengers are of different ranks. John 16: 7 to 14) that we have given elsewhere in this book. for he will not speak on his own authority. like Musa. Refer to the text of the Bible (Deut 18: 5. Acts 3: 22 to 25. if one surrenders to Him in obedience and sincerely in the dying hours of his life. spoken by Isa. Both these prophets of Allah glorified the Holy Prophet and gave to the people the glad tidings of his arrival. However. but in the same way that some signs are clearer and contain deeper messages than others.

according to which the Holy Prophet occupies the highest place in the company of all the prophets of Allah. reflects and radiates in him to maximum perfection. Saba: 28). Aga Mahdi Puya says: “In addition to the guiding statements of the two distinguished prophets of Allah . and He did so because he wanted more people to pay obeisance and worship his Creator – the Almighty God.Musa to whom Allah spoke. As the Holy Prophet is the best of all the prophets of Allah. therefore. he was sent as a “mercy unto the worlds” (Quran. and he will make known to you the things that are coming.hears. by the order or consent of God. That is why the Prophet said: I was a prophet when Adam was yet amidst water and clay. in view of their limited mission. Ambia: 107). there are several verses in the Quran. The other prophets were sent to guide a particular people in a particular place (Matthew 10: 5 and 6). a distinguished group among his followers has been raised up by Allah as khayra ummatin. He is the superior-most messenger of Allah. the best of all the people.” Contrary to the general belief of the Muslims. Endowed with perfection. The glory of the divinity of the Lord manifests. . they are not on the level of the Holy Prophet who was sent to guide and discipline the whole mankind for all times (Quran. J OHN 16: 12 AND 13 That Prophet Mohammad enjoyed the highest rank among all the Messengers of God is something that is also ascertained by the Quran. and Isa to whom He gave clear miracles and strengthened with the holy spirit. He it is who is the creator of the world. we are now in a position to say that Prophet Mohammad enjoyed far higher position in the God’s schemes. than what the Muslims believe.

this is the right path. or saying that Fatima is the leader of women in heavens. We are grateful to Upanishads and the Vedas for making us understand the true nature of Prophet Mohammad and rest of the Ahlebayt. . Buddha or Mohammad. or Hasan and Husain are leader of all the youths there. and all the Messengers who came had some relationship with this light or Self.to lead us on the right path that leads to God. They all came with only one express purpose . Krishna.There were various other indications like this given. Moses. Quran aptly sums up the teachings of all the Messengers of God. they have enabled us to unearth the great mystery of why we were actually created. therefore serve Him. Verse 3:51 of Quran states: Surely Allah is my Lord and your Lord. Not only this. it seems that the Muslims in general never believed in these statements. Yet. be it Jesus. like saying that ‘Ali and myself (Mohammad) are the two halves of the same noor (light)’. we will prove further from Muslim traditions that these fourteen Ahlebayt (People of the House) were created as Manifested Self (noor) right at the beginning of the cosmos. as per the Upanishads. As we proceed. though they could not have denied them. Rama.

and if Jehad is understood only as a mortal combat. the clan to which he belonged. by the time of the third caliph. They are of the opinion that Khalifa is no divine post and it is perfectly legitimate to choose their own Khalifa. to be fought under the leadership of even a local mullah. And that fateful moment on the outskirts of Medina. Was it the sole right of certain people of Medina to select the Caliph for the entire Muslim world. Would Mohammad himself have become a Prophet by popular choice if the Quraish. Whatever few the number of people at Bani Saqifah was. That position was a rank granted by God to one of His creation. From that time onward. some people laud that event as an election to choose their Khalifa (Caliph). was to change the entire course of Muslim and perhaps world history. if they are accused of propagating Islam by sword. and it was made compulsory on all to obey him.Subject of Khalifa (Caliph) It was on the very day that the Prophet Mohammad died that the seeds of dispute over Caliphate were sown in the Muslim fraternity. and till today. to replace somebody in whose Prophethood they had no choice. in comparison to the number of Muslims who had embraced Islam till then. while the Prophet’s dead body lay waiting for burial. whose domains. this subject is the most hotly debated subject in the Muslim circles. all has its roots in the choice of that small gathering at Bani Saqifah. If Muslims are living in ignominy. included the . then there are some questions that remain unsolved. were to choose the Prophet? Even if we take the claim that the election was legitimate which led to the selection of four Caliphs in succession. if they lack knowledge and morals. These people forget that they were choosing the Khalifa.

which kept in mind the choice of all the subjects of the Muslim world. History has even recorded ‘an election’ in which six people were identified by the dying Caliph to choose the Caliph from amongst them. Syria. Do you call it election? Secondly. or at the most Muawiya. who elected Muawiya. even when Ali was the Caliph? In fact. Free will was not allowed even in that small ‘election’ as the conditions that were laid were such that they even allowed the people to kill the minority group within those six people. Does the succeeding generations of Muslims don’t need guidance or an administrator of their affairs? Does that mean that God has left this present world bereft of a Caliph? Is this not against the God’s word in Quran . he came to fight against Ali. Iraq. Even if we take this view to be correct. who differed with the majority view. Umar b. to the exception of only one righteous ruler. Who elected Yazid. parts of Pakistan. And the institute of Caliphate not only made the Caliph administrator (read monarch) over the subjects but also made him responsible to take decisions on matters related to religion and its belief. which could not even last for fifty years. and even killed the governor appointed by Ali to Egypt to gain control over the region. considering the fact that he was already putting forth his claim for the position. while their actions had no semblance to Islamic teachings. Iran. Egypt and all those small countries that comprise the present Middle East? Never ever was a large-scale election conducted. were unrighteous rulers. who went on to kill the grandson of Prophet himself? Even after Yazid.present Saudi Arabia. Afghanistan. Abdul Aziz. that would mean the process of election was flawed right from the beginning. viz. some of the cruelest dictators of the time called themselves as Caliphs. It is unanimous belief of all sections of Muslims that those who called themselves as Caliphs after Ali.

Says Allah in the Quran: Allah knows best where He places His messages. If Muslim society deteriorated to the extent that it started producing jehadis like Saddam and Osama. has no effect. the roots of this evil can be traced back to that day when the Prophet died. opposed him and drove him from themselves. divine and supernatural rank which is granted by God. For example. concerning the rank granted by the Creator to one of His servants. word of God or Quran. Shias are of the belief that all positions. God gave the last Prophet this status. and we celebrate Thy praise . even though all of the unbelievers of Makkah. In that manner. must be confirmed by means of verse and signs from the Creator or with the emphasis of the Prophet or previous Imam so that there remains no doubt about that person and his position.in which God says that He was appointing a Khalifa on earth? The consequence of that act was that the Muslims were left with nobody who would guide and lead them in matters of religion and administration. the first Caliph could not have been appointed without a Divine Proof. Isn’t it clear from this verse that people’s selection has no role to play in matters of Divine choice? The people’s election or no election. He is the Prophet and leader and obeying him is compulsory. Khalifa has to be chosen by God Verse 2:30 of Quran states: And when your Lord said to the angels. and the world. they said: What! wilt Thou place in it such as shall make mischief in it and shed blood. for those who are righteous and those who believe. I am going to place in the earth a khalif.

and extol Thy holiness? He said: Surely I know what you do not know. we wish to acknowledge that to come to certain conclusions that are presented here. to exercise His authority in terms of “reacting” to His will. These are they whom We gave the book and the authority and the prophethood. follow. in order to study the verse better. Q URAN . That Allah Himself delegates authority mean that they are given authority over certain actions that are otherwise related only to God. Khalifa The literal meaning of khalaf is to come after. Before we start writing further. For instance. Khalifatullah. in fact. SURAH A N -A M 89-90 It is evident that Vicegerent is a position higher than that of prophethood. follow their guidance. In this verse however the necessity of a vicegerent of Allah on the earth has been conclusively proved. Some schools of thought hold the view that reason and intellect. These are they whom Allah has guided. some of which might be reproduced here to entirety. representing Allah on the earth. so. and there is no need of the delegation of authority. are enough to represent Allah. In this verse it has been used in the sense of succeeding. appointment of whom cannot and shall not be made by any one save Allah. one authority could be that they can kill a living . Let’s study certain terms mentioned in the aforementioned verse. succeed etcetera. we have taken help of the views presented in Pooya/Ali commentary. at the disposal of man. as His vicegerent. is he whom Allah Himself delegates His authority. the representative of Allah. This is the basis of prophethood.

Surely. if not greater. nor a group. in preference to those who claimed to be more worthy than him on account of their worldly position. which we know with certainty. neither the consensus of public opinion. which he fulfilled. In verse 947 of Chapter Baqarah. There can be no doubt therefore that all prophet of Allah too bore at least this relationship with the devas. One thing. is that Vicegerency is an even higher designation than prophethood. and continued to pass from prophet to prophet till it came to reunite with Prophet Mohammad. suggests that the prophets enjoyed a higher position than common man in their relationship to the devas. Upanishads have even said that it is these Manifested Selfs or devas or Manus who are joined to our souls and control our heart and consciousness. with the clear provision that although there would be Imams in his progeny. Allah does not allow any one to interfere with the execution of His will. after they have been tested. but those who were unjust would not receive this authority. Though the general belief of the Muslims that the noor of Mohammad (Indra or Mahadeva) was put inside Adam. We know from our study of the Upanishads that Allah created His Manifested Self. nor an individual has the right to represent the will of Allah.person or restore a dead to life. In verses 17 to 25 of al Sad. nor can any one question Him. which divided to produce 14 Selfs and it is through them that He created all things including man. Verse 124 of Chapter Baqarah says that Allah appointed prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) as the Imam after He had tried Ibrahim with a number of things. Saul is appointed as an authority over the people because of his wisdom and strength. Whether this noor (light) formed part of their personality from birth or whether it gets placed inside them at a later stage. cannot be said with certainty. Allah appointed Dawud as His .

Untiring and continuous remembrance of Allah. Allah. No type of adversity. Keeping in view the above-noted qualities. These verses make us believe that vicegerency may not. and for this awareness received no guidance or education from any one save Allah. mentioned in the Quran. in receiving the rewards. in verses 33 and 34 of Surah Ali Imran. ii. and in their nearness to Allah (Waqi-ah: 10. viii. the descendants of Ibrahim and Imran and the . power of judgment and obedience to Allah’s will. iv. Following only the divine revelations. but even comes at later stage. says that He had. be given at birth. Being the first and the foremost in establishing and carrying out every virtue to the point of perfection. Awareness and wisdom of all laws (physical and moral) made by Allah. Ruling over the people with justice as pointed out in verse 26 of Surah al Sad. vi. Nuh. vii.11). and their operation. v. on account of certain basic qualities.vicegerent on the merit of wisdom. iii. Never giving in to the demands motivated by selforiented interests. described as sakinah in the Quran. in all cases. are given below: i. chosen Adam. What is certain though is that this guaranteed merit higher than the rest of creation. character and conduct because of which they are the most honoured with Allah (Hujurat: 13). the foremost in faith and virtue. The purity of birth. crisis or temptation should affect the tranquility of the mind and the heart. so as not to make any mistakes. The most important qualifications. with no drift or diversion under any type of circumstance.

unjust. had neither worshipped a ghayr-allah (other than Allah). They belong to the children of Ibrahim excluding those who were zalimin. was given in inheritance to those servants of Allah whom He had selected. The reason for bestowing this privilege on the descendants of Ibrahim is known to Allah only. So it is confirmed that there is no change or modification in the principle and the method of appointing His vicegerent. It continued. N ISA : 54 The above-noted verse refers to the Holy Prophet as the last prophet in the lineage of prophet Ibrahim. He knows that which His creatures do not know. The vicegerency of Allah did not come to an end after the Holy Prophet. According to verses 31 and 32 of Fatir the holy book. In verse 77 of Surah Bani Israel the almighty Allah says: This was Our way with Our messengers whom We had sent before you. Q URAN . in completed form. at any time in their lives. the descendant of Ibrahim through Ishmael. meaning those who. because as said by Allah in the event of appointing Adam as khalifa. nor committed an act that was contrary to the laws of God. and you shall not find any change in our way. The Quran does not advocate hereditary rights of succession but asserts that this lineage had a distinctive divine peculiarity for which they had been chosen as vicegerents of Allah. We must accept the limitations of our knowledge and glorify the grace and justice of Allah.Holy Prophet. In verse 55 of Surah al Noor it is further made clear that the vicegerency continues after the Holy Prophet in the same way and manner as was in vogue before him. . We have given to Ibrahim’s children the book and the wisdom and We gave them a great kingdom.

S URAH DAHR : 3 There are countless merits and qualifications of Ali b. Verily. and proved his qualities for the entitlement to the divine office of vicegerency. appointed Ali b. Likewise the successor of the Holy Prophet could neither be chosen by the companions nor by the Holy Prophet himself.The Holy Prophet was the perfector of Adam’s mission of khalifatullah on the earth and the executor of the final will of the Lord of the worlds. it was the will and command of Allah that the Holy Prophet had carried out. Now the people have the freedom of choice either to follow the divinely chosen Imams or run after the self-appointed false leaders. although all the companions had equal opportunities to rise to the occasion. From the “feast of the near relations” to the event of “Ghadir Khum”. QURAN . We have shown him (man) the (right) way. misled by false leaders who usurped temporal authority. mentioned and discussed on the authority . Abu Talib. After the conclusion and the termination of the office of prophethood. Abu Talib as his and Allah’s khalifa on the earth. The Holy Prophet. or be ungrateful (reject it). the infinite mercy of the merciful Lord did not leave mankind to go astray. it was Ali who came forward to meet the challenge. Therefore his khalifa was also chosen and appointed by Allah to carry out the responsibilities of the divine office. but commanded the Holy Prophet to declare the vicegerency of Ali and his progeny (the twelve Imams). be he thankful (and follow it). Inni ja-ilun fil ardi khalifah is an open declaration of His will and decision. nor was any consultation needed. therefore. The choice was not left to the fancy of the people. History also testifies to the fact that on all occasions.

a product of matter. as explained above and at many suitable occasions in this book. animals and human beings. the authority for the application of divine legislation has been delegated by Allah to the faithful followers of Islam in general. Matter. ADAM While talking about the creation of Adam the appearance of visible form (matter) in the “arc of ascent” must be reviewed. Shaytan or Satan is continuously at work and it is very much possible that the person who appears to be faithful today would succumb to Shaytan’s tricks the next day. every Muslim is the vicegerent of Allah. The capability of matter to give form to different species is determined by the “unlike in nature” potency of its elements or components. in several publications like “The Right Path”. when these two agencies (they purport to follow). which only the followers of Muhammad and Ali faithfully accept and follow. Those who discount Ali’s claim and accept Abu Bakr as the rightful caliph say that after the Holy Prophet. vegetables. for the sake of justifying their conduct after the Holy Prophet.of well-known Muslim scholars. They do not say who would decide whether the person is faithful or not. appears self-defeating and contradictory. “Peshawar Nights” and other books that can be studied to know the truth. It is not possible to refer to all these here. have irrefutably established the vicegerency of Ali and his progeny. in its primitive mode of being. The reference to the book of Allah and the sunnah (doings and sayings) of the Holy Prophet. carries the potentiality to develop into various forms minerals. Earth. to exercise His authority according to the book and the sunnah of the Holy Prophet. It is not written on the face whether the person is faithful or not? Moreover. therefore. carried the capacity to bring some of its elements to a .

Q URAN. It does not mean separation because the absolute is indivisible. Motion is the transfer of potentiality into actuality. He created you through regular stages. Q URAN . M UMINUN: 1 2 Says Pooya/Ali commentary: “The distinctive aspects of each of the beings in the “arc of ascent” are reflections of the corresponding beings in the “arc of descent”. The other beings in the “arc of ascent” are also the reflections of His attention or command but through . H IJR : 26 And indeed We created man from an extract of clay.more advanced and highly organized body of a human being. indeed. Q URAN . In form and substance each individual human being differs from the other. It refers to His direct attention or command. We created man of wet clay of black mud moulded into shape. And Allah has caused you to grow as a growth from the earth. N UH : 14 AND 17 According to the following verses of the Quran man is made of the finest essence of the matter. While. It is on account of the diversity in the potentiality of the components of the matter. Those angels who administer the development of the animal life belong to a higher order compared to those angels who control the development of the plant life. The human spirit (ruh) is the reflection emanated directly from the absolute (min ruhi). Verily. according to verse 29 of al Hijr. The development in the “arc of ascent” was gradual. Likewise its other components could develop other animate or inanimate objects. The graduality (in time) is motion.

is different to the view presented in the Quran. also referred to as “I”. as the Quran says. ego or self) is the corresponding reflection or the reaction in the “arc of ascent”. Ruh may be one but the reflections may be many and may differ in reflecting that which they have received. according to the Quran and the Holy Prophet’s sayings refers to that which proceeds from the absolute through the “arc of descent”. The spirit. we will find. the ruh or the corresponding action in the arc of descent has its existence prior to the reflection in the arc of ascent. which divided into 14 Selfs (or ruhs or spirits) that were responsible for creation of human spirit (ruh). As this reflection is conditioned by the tinat. it attains union with God or salvation. but conditioned by its tinat. is the reflection of the divine command or attention referred to as min ruhi. after which its developed state reflects the divine spirit. On the contrary. The nafs (soul.angelic medium.” This concept too is exactly similar to the one presented in Upanishads and Gita where the Absolute created a Manifested Self (spirit of God or min ruhi). Ruh. man in particular and all other species in general. The same view is presented in Pooya/Ali commentary. These two factors ruh and tinat constitute the creation of man. have been developed from their respective origins which carry their respective potentialities. The total energy in the “arc of descent” conditions the tinat in its primitive stage. When the spirit inside us unites with the Manifested Self of God. Through this evolutionary movement. If the reference is to the radiation or the acting source in . from the potential state to the actual form. “Tinat (nature or disposition) is the extract of the total skill or worth in the matter under Allah’s direct attention. by Allah.My spirit. it cannot have any existence prior to the development of the tinat. which we represent here. Not even a line of Gita and Upanishads.

the ruh. forever. It depends on the matter for its development but becomes independent in the process of growth. acts through the body. with no prior existence as it is only a reaction of the ruh. It is not true that the body is blind and the soul is light. it exists before the body.” . as the theory of transmigration tries to make man believe. they help each other temporarily. environment. Therefore. but after separation each remains as before. If the reference is made to the reflection (human ego. It acts on the matter. It. The variation is in the protoplasm itself and not due to the external factors in its development. survival of the fittest. Through progress and development into a higher state of spirituality. passive matter reaches the condition of a conscious active form. never joins the matter and never becomes dependent on it. Its detailed analysis is not possible here but it is enough to state that the protoplasm of each species is of a peculiar and different design. Thereafter it neither deteriorates nor becomes dependent again. devoid of any progress and development. The nafs. struggle for existence. joined together. natural selection. the nafs of each individual is developed after the preparation of the body. The ruh exists independently before the matter and remains so.heredity. and is eternal with the eternity of the source. the ruh operates and makes it independent. and the affinity between the protoplasm of all the species. and when it develops into a state.the “arc of descent”. describing the variation as a secondary stage caused by the external factors . It negates the theory of the evolution of all species from one origin. free from the influence of matter. That which the Quran says about the creation of man and other species is true beyond any doubt. and. or self) it comes into being after the formation of the tinat.

reasoning and contemplation. According to some traditions they were living beings of furious nature and fiery temperament. a new phase. Many a religious school confirms that there were semi-men. ALLAH’S ANNOUNCEMENT The angels as conscious beings are the intermediary agents in the process of development and administration of the physical world. devoid of intellect. then He said: Tell me the names of those if you are right. man and God. therefore. nafs (soul). then presented them to the angels. The angels who always worship Allah and carry out His orders presumed that Adam would also be like the above noted creatures. operating under the laws of cause and effect. We invite you to see how close they are. And He taught Adam all the names. See verse 2:31 from Quran that refers to the names that were taught to Adam. and says: I am appointing a vicegerent in the earth.We have given you here Pooya/Ali understood the relationship between ruh (spirit). Allah has created Adam with His two hands. Allah informed them about the creation of Adam. fighting each other for survival. NAMES According to verse 75 of Sad. Allah rightly points out their ignorance about the excellence of the vicegerency He has bestowed upon Adam. It was in the knowledge of the angels that struggle and conflict among the living beings in the pre-Adam period brought about bloodshed and destruction. jinn and demons (afrit) before the advent of Adam. on the earth. we will present you the view as given in the Upanishads. Later in this book. matter and spirit. which gives .

which will be in the hand of Ali. Since Mohammad and Ali are part of that group of spirits. though they no limit. Fatima. Hasan and Husain. that gives the man the power progress and become one like them. which consisted of Mohammad. when they came to live on earth. on the day of resurrection. Ali.man the distinctive power of expression. but all of us possess the capability to acquire Absolutist powers that may be called supernatural or spiritual powers by you. termed as biyan by the Quran. extraordinary strength or any similar superhuman power. it was said that all the messengers and prophets of Allah would be standing under the standard of the Holy Prophet. This is the reason why we should not cast doubt over statements in the Upanishads that describe ordinary men gaining the power of flight. whose knowledge was essential for his vicegerancy. and it was dependent on a special link between vicegerant and the Divine Spirit. The Absolute Man of Gita is not reference to these devas and Prophets of God alone. People who were superior to all other vicegerents appointed by God and upon whose knowledge depended their vicegerency. Can there be a greater irony than this? Pooya/Ali commentary states: “ The hum of aradahum does not refer to the “names” but to the . As man progresses on his path to spirituality. he continues to acquire these powers. It is this reason why Adam was taught the names. This endows man with vast potentialities and scope for progress and development. The spirit mentioned here is nothing but the Manifested Self created by God. It is this relationship of man with God through the devas or Prophet Mohammad and rest of Ahlebayts. were denied vicegerency themselves. This position was even superior to that of prophethood as we have shown earlier. Vicegerents of God are appointed by Him on the basis of these merits alone which they came to possess through knowledge of the Divine Spirits.

surely Thou art the Knowing. is the highest in excellence. the Wise. therefore. referred to in this verse.” Is there any greater proof required that Vedas. Then when he had informed them of their names. a singular feminine pronoun is used. Upanishads. and as a plural term cannot be used for Allah. their latent qualities and inherent endowments were unknown to the angels. They said: Glory be to Thee! we have no knowledge but that which Thou hast taught us. the highest beings. he was capable to function as the medium of their manifestation. If the object referred to is inanimate. but when the objects are conscious beings.” Now see verses 2:32 and 33 from Quran. the most perfect and the most blessed beings. tilka or hadhihi should have been used. The alin. When reference is made in Arabic to several objects of inanimate nature. Here the personal demonstrative pronoun refers to the conscious beings of a superior-most status. in the order of creation. . Adam was chosen. See what the commentary says: “Due to the affinity between Adam and these highest beings (alin). a plural masculine pronoun is used. Gita and Quran are all the same? Pooya/ Ali further writes that these beings are the highest beings. for whose manifestation in the arc of ascent. Thus the existence of the beings of the highest status has been established.“named”. are the most perfect and the most blessed human beings. Till then the names of the highest beings along with the insight and vision of their realities. as done here through aradahum. it cancels the possibility of interpreting these names as the names of Allah. the singular feminine pronoun. to point out the “named ones”. knowledge of whose names entitled Adam to the vicegerency of Allah. He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names. Verse 4 of al Tin says that the status of man.

However. like of whom they did not know till then. . at the command of Allah. the high. (iii) This is Fatima. We are not mentioning the same subject as carried in the Upanishads at this juncture because we intend to deal with it in greater deal when we talk about creation at a later stage. derived from My name. (v) This is Husain. O angels! It is in love of these five that I have created the universe. the originator of the heavens and the earth. the original. in substance as well as in style. the benefactor. Jalaluddin Sayuti says that the Holy Prophet had said: “The objects shown to the angels were five lights. derived from My name. the most praised. Allah informed the angels pointing to each of the lights respectively: (i) This is Muhammad. the praised one.He said: Did I not say to you that I surely know what is ghaib in the heavens and the earth and (that) I know what you manifest and what you hide? Through Adam the angels became acquainted with the glory of the glorious beings. the angels witnessed the glory of the infinite power and wisdom of the Lord that could create such perfect beings of the highest calibre. In Durr Manthur. (ii) This is Ali. the good.” This is exactly similar to the process of creation described in the Upanishads. qualities and symbols of those highest beings whose collective and comprehensive status can be termed as wisdom personified. derived from My name. stated the names. (iv) This is Hasan. the highest. derived from my name. the good in origin. the bountiful. When Adam. derived from My name.

including Krishna.we are sure that from what all you have read till now about devas. That is why all the Messengers of God. Moreover. Moses and Jesus. As Allah is aware of all the “unseen” in the universe. as they had the honour of being created prior to the creation of Adam. It was these names through which mankind could reach and understand God. It becomes a logical conclusion from Quran and the tradition of Holy Prophet that Allah had created these five lights even prior to the creation of Adam. Moreover. the angels bowed down from their demand and recognized the superiority of man. The saddest chapter of history is that while the true knowledge of these names was necessary for vicegerency and claiming superiority over angels. this aforementioned tradition is perfectly in sync with that. those persons themselves were denied the vicegerency after the death of the Prophet and even to this day Muslims in general keep portraying usurpers of their position as the rightfully elected caliphs. and recognition of them meant that he had been appointed as the khalifa of Allah. confirmed their stature. but on this knowledge alone depended his vicegerency. and through these lights Allah’s light had been destined to be manifested. It shows that it was not only essential for the vicegerent of Allah to know these persons. it is evident that Allah told the names to Adam and then showed the noors (lights) so that he could recognize them. they being Allah’s vicegerent on earth. Only when he was able to recognize them truly. it is evident that Allah had showed these five lights of glory to Adam. which categorically states at one place that five selfs were created and at other place refers to certain . We request you to read the Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad. He knew that the angels secretly thought themselves more deserving than Adam to be chosen as Allah’s khalifa.

through which the demons were defeated. Verse 2:36 is as follows But the Shaytan made them both fall from it. Imam Ali bin Husain (the fourth Imam) says: It stimulates desires for the worldly possessions as the ultimate object of life. envy and greed. covetousness. and caused them to depart from that (state) in which they were. and We said: Get forth. some of you being the enemies of others. and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time. Eating the fruit of the tree was not definitely forbidden. With his opposite and complementary companion. Only a tree was out of bounds. Now see what Quran says further of Adam’s creation: And We said: O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plenteous (food) wherever you wish and do not approach this tree. the woman. Imam Ali bin Musa Raza (the Eight Imam) says: It stimulates desire for things which are not necessary for life. for then you will be of the unjust. .names being taken. Scholars say that this out of bound tree is the symbol of temptation. Adam. We will present that text of Brhad-aranyaka shortly afterwards which mentions that Udgitha (or letter Aum) was chanted to defeat the demons. The command of Allah was not to go near the tree. unrestrained. whose light or self was created prior to the creation of mankind. You have already seen earlier from another Upanishad that syllable ‘Aum’ signifies the fourteen devas. Hawwa. the man was given the garden to dwell in.

suffering and misery. in a way. love and hate. So the oft-forgiving merciful Lord took Adam and his wife under His mercy when they invoked Him through these names. and after him any one in his progeny (mankind). Adam and Hawwa slipped out of the condition of peace and contentment into the realm of struggle where peace and conflict. and such opposites are at full play. 2:38 We said: Go forth from this (state) all. obstinate and perverse. It was a conflict between good and evil. Now see the next verse (Q. then . the Merciful.Adam was endowed with infinite potentiality to reach the ultimate through rational thinking and be able to discriminate and choose. Ihbitu. They turned repentant unto Allah. They were at the mercy of the Lord. devoid of iman (faith). Shaytan. became an enemy of Adam. also used in verse 61 of al Baqarah. surely He is Oft-returning (to mercy). There was no chance of going back to the dwelling of joy and happiness. These were the holy names of those highest beings that Allah had already introduced to Adam. the furious and the fiery. right and wrong. apparently gave Shaytan the opportunity to use his guile and rebellious energy in order to take advantage of the situation and get even with his adversary who caused his downfall. 2:37): Then Adam received (some) words from his Lord. so surely there will come to you a guidance from Me. so He turned to him mercifully. could invoke the mercy of the Lord. The stimulating warning of the divine command “not to go near the tree”. Thereafter the two opposite groups faced each other. The merciful and oft-forgiving Lord blessed Adam with the most extraordinary words of prayer through which Adam. means a change from the easy life of joy and happiness to the life of toil.

under the influence of the eternal enemy of man. going back to the land of eternal bliss. Pooya/Ali commentary states: “Now to enter the paradise. Those who follow these divinely chosen guides or Ahlebayts shall walk on the right path. Every verse of the Quran is a sign (ayat) because it draws the attention of the reader to its meaning. He is here. will be safe from fear and grief. and make a choice of the right path shown by Allah through the guidance He has made available to man in this world of opposite forces. was a sign of Allah. 2:39 The literal meaning of ayat is sign. no fear shall come upon them. Every prophet of Allah. go astray from the right path. which when he disclosed to the angels. nor shall they grieve.” And (as to) those who disbelieve in and reject My communications. prostrated themselves immediately. . Shaytan. are those beings whose holy personalities draw the attention of the human beings to the glory of Allah. and the Holy Prophet. till the human beings dwell in this world. But Allah’s signs. the Twelve Imams and Bibi Fatima are the conclusive signs of Allah. during his time. This guidance was already shown to Adam in the form of names that had been taught to him. Q URAN . to lead man astray from the true guidance Allah has made available through His last prophet Muhammad and the divinely commissioned Imams. Allah gives a fair warning to those who.whoever follows My guidance. in it they shall abide. they are the inmates of the fire. in the perfect sense. but Shaytan refused to follow it. and earn the right to enter the heavenly garden. the path of “Muhammad and Ali”. man must use his intelligence. that their abode will be the fire.

he is sent there on posting. Let us study about Adam’s story in detail and try to assess what we make out of it. ‘OK. thereby implying that He forgave Adam. If somebody says sorry to us and we say. There is another point that is beyond comprehension. That there was some other reason for God’s action is apparent from this narration. Yet. God is saying that Adam sought forgiveness through the aid of names and He had mercy on him. If that tree was so bad. All those who say that Adam was sent to earth as punishment for his crime should take note.Lessons from Adam’s Descent on Earth There is no doubt that Adam was created for this earth. There are people who use this to prove that since the beginning has been made with a sin. . why was it there in the heavens. Nobody would still go ahead and give the punishment after accepting the repentance. in the first place? Further. We request you to keep in mind the aforementioned verses from Quran while proceeding ahead. why is it that he was first asked to live in the Heavens? Also. it means that we have forgiven him. Adam was not restated to the former position. Moreover. that’s fine’. If that was so. It never happens that you appoint a person to handle the office of Kolkata yet keep him in Lucknow and when he commits a mistake you tell him to proceed to Kolkata – the place for which he was originally appointed. he asked for forgiveness and God did forgive him. it is human nature to sin and we can do nothing about it. Yet. it is a norm that when a person is appointed for a certain cause. it is apparent that it bore fruits and that is why Satan was able to convince Adam and Eve to eat from it. there seems no logic why God would ask him not to go near a tree. The Quran clearly says that when Adam was sent on earth.

and when pleased with the answer. His training had been completed but there was one more thing that Adam had to learn before he was fit to come to earth. who ate the fruit. Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad too gives this hint that it was the devas who were being cognized at the time of Adam’s creation. He made Adam to stay in the heavens. which was granted. Those noors or lights that were shown to Adam were already in existence at that point of time. Therefore. Now Adam also knew that while on earth. That is why God had forbid him from going near the tree. He was repentant for this act and sought forgiveness. You may call it a training period as regard to the mode of worship of the Absolute God. i.e. when in heaven. Eve. there remains no doubt that upon creation. and even Gita gives reference to the Indra’s heaven. The Vedas and the Upanishads too confirm that these Masooms – the Manus or the devas – were created prior to Adam’s creation and they had a direct role in creation of Adam. there is no harm in eating the fruit. And that Satan would try his entire bit to make us eat the sinful fruits. God asked him to tell a few names. The good things he learnt in the company of the devas but had no idea that he would be tempted and lured by Shaytan (Satan) at all times. we find several instances in the Upanishads that tell that the devas lived in the heavens. The tree signified desires for the worldly possessions and things that are not necessary for life. In fact. in turn convinced Adam. This apart. Satan came to Eve (Hawwa) and convinced her that since it is forbidden to go near the tree.We have already seen that after giving life to Adam. Adam was put in the company of the devas or Masooms. he would have to safeguard the teachings from being corrupted or distorted by Satan’s efforts. to draw us to this . But this completed the second part of his training as well.

Thereafter. Even Purana states that two persons continue to live since those times. Also. we have no right to do so. We will talk of the importance of Kaaba later. and we will have to be on guard that we do not succumb to his attempts. then it means that it has to be adhered to without getting into finding the reasons why it has been said. there’s one more observation that we would like to make. First. and remain immersed in God through the path that is most desired by Him. All injunctions are to be strictly adhered to even if they are given just to test to what extent we followed. are living in the heaven. We also know from Quran that certain prophets like Isa. Fresh out of the heavens. Even if a mundane injunction like going near a tree is given. (We have shown in this book how taking alcohol was also considered as one of the biggest five sins. must have ascended to this heaven. the first thing that Adam did on this earth was to build the remembrance of his God. Surely. completely prohibiting the intake of alcohol. While a lot many stopped taking alcohol from then on. a fresh verse came. all the messengers and prophets. there are more lessons to be learnt. who still continue to live. which was later known as the House of God – the Kaaba. in the Vedic and post-Vedic period).world. The . We know that all those who achieve salvation go to heavens. If God says that drinking alcohol is prohibited or eating the flesh of certain animals is not allowed. the highest level of the heaven is known as Indra’s heaven. there were a few who used to take it a few hours prior to offering prayers so that its effect had weaned away by then. when dead. There is another interesting incident in the Quran as per which the Muslims were asked not to go to Namaz in the state of drunkenness.

nor shall they grieve. it is essential to attain salvation i. Musa (Moses). then whoever follows My guidance. God says: We said: Go forth from this (state) all. freedom from the cycle of rebirth. salvation is obtained. God gave to Adam the names that were created from His Manifested forms and through following their path. From Adam onwards. Shaytan has been granted an extension of life till the Day of Judgment and he is going to continue leading us towards the charms of this world. The question is this: Are all the messengers and prophets who come to earth first take training with these devas before taking birth as humans? We may not be able to confirm this view at this stage but there is one thing that is certain: To attain paradise or Indra’s heaven.Vishnu Purana states that the Kalki avatar. no fear shall come upon them. before taking birth as human form of Mohammad. it was because it was already presenting the personalities following whose path salvation was obtained. who is supposed to take birth in the future. so surely there will come to you a guidance from Me. is also living in the heaven. Adam was there in the heavens before coming on earth and the devas like Indra. in whose name this heaven is created. If Islam did not present the view of rebirth. . and who is surely the highest of all the prophets. and until that does not come. too was in heaven (as per Upanishads). all the messengers of God only confirmed this fact and restated their importance. while it is a promise of God that guidance would come to each one of you at least once. the person would continue to take rebirth in this life itself. Isa (Jesus) and others too confirmed this view. We will show at a later stage how Krishna too confirmed that salvation could be attained only through identifying this Manifested Self of God.e.

divine guidance. has. Therefore. Prior to the advent of Adam. in the Quran. it is the “parents” (the environment) which turns the child into a Jew. to fight and overcome the obstacles and evil of satanic forces. blessed with the divine guidance. it would be up to you whether you accept or reject it. Man was given the knowledge to learn how to choose between good and evil.When this guidance comes. As Adam came out of the earthly paradise. The evil takes roots in him through external factors. the Christian theory of “original sin” has no place in the interpretation of the history of Adam by the Quran. On this would depend your salvation and a permanent stay in Indra’s heaven or God’s wrath and a confirmed seat in what is called hell! Khalifa from Adam Onwards Appointed by God We again resort to Pooya/Ali commentary here. “The term “Adam”. The Holy Prophet says: Every human child is born with the Adam’s nature. life on earth for the living beings had no other meaning except to struggle for survival. anger etcetera and walk on the right path. a Christian or a Magian. lust. refers to the first man who came out of a state of ease and comfort to make effort and reach the ultimate excellence. he. as the most well equipped creature among all the created beings. Through this knowledge his conscience directed him what to do and what not to do. at his disposal. by using all his faculties to curb the drift unto greed. The approaching . aspired for the ultimate good. right and wrong. In this journey. within the sphere of time and space. Man is originally sinless. Adam gave a new significance to life on earth. to adopt harmony and to avoid discord. he. hatred. due to the potentiality he carried in himself.

and does not let him fall from the state of humanity to the state of animal nature. saves him from fear and grief.to the out-of-bounds tree. In these holy persons the divine vicegerency reached its destination. According to the traditions of Muhammad and Ali there were several Adams. his responsibilities to the creator and to the institution of divine vicegerency and its continuity on earth till the day of resurrection. as the law governing all aspects of his life. he is clean and sinless. he has to make use of his faculties to get what he used to have without effort. and the consciousness of good and evil prepare him to fight against satanic forces working against him. It gives him peace and tranquility. and as a child is pure and free from the responsibility of making efforts to fulfill his wants. was prior to his coming into this world. therefore. and the submission to the universal will of the absolute. when he was in the earthly paradise. on account of his record. The symbolic value of the advent of Adam is applicable to human life because man is born in the paradise of ease and comfort. In view of the creation of man. which indicate that there may be several worlds like ours. after shouldering the responsibility of the vicegerency of Allah on the earth. as a covenant between “man and God”. it is necessary to point out a few guiding factors to have a clear understanding about the beginning and development . and his Ahlebayt (Imamat). The sense of duty and responsibility. As he grows to maturity. They are Mohammad (Nabuwwat). It is not possible for him to get out of the trouble caused by the conflicting desires and satanic temptations unless he turns towards the ultimate reality as the sole object of his life. To reach the ultimate reality it is essential to know the holy names because of whom Adam was blessed and forgiven.

have no right or say in the appointment of the vicegerent. The essential imperative is the knowledge of the holy names which alone help the candidate for the vicegerency to cross terrestrial barriers and reach the glorious heavenly heights in order to establish communion with the universal grace and will of the almighty Lord. instigated by the Jews. Ishaq. but a large number of his sons opposed this declaration. executed Yahya and tried to put Isa on the cross. and other prophets after him. Ishmael. as the vicegerent of Allah to his other children. Sam. Ibrahim. And when the promised “Paraclete” would come. as mentioned in the Quran. throughout the history of the appointments of the prophets of Allah . be they angels or prophets. he will complete the mission by delivering the whole truth and shall never speak but whatsoever he shall .of the prophetic mission. Allah. The tendency of the majority to revolt against the declared will of Allah is on record. Adam conveyed the appointment of Shith. llyas and the “promised prophet” in the progeny of Ishmael and the “twelve princes” succeeding him. Yusuf. Dawud. Musa. The appointment is not an arbitrary act of choosing but the vicegerent is selected on merit after the test of inherent excellence. as has been observed in the case of Adam. The declarations of Musa.Nuh. Talut. The created beings. who alone knows everything. were opposed tooth and nail by the Jews. about the advent of Isa. but Allah raised him to heaven. Yaqub. and Isa. his son. has reserved the right of the appointment of the vicegerent with Himself. Isa announced the coming of the “Paraclete” (Muhammad or Ahmed) before he left this world. The pagan Romans.

traditions and commentaries (mentioned in the commentary of relevant verses in this book) which can be referred to for arriving at the conclusion that in his own right and on the basis of his matchless merits. he alone was the divinely chosen vicegerent to succeed the Holy Prophet. Karrar Ghayra Farrar . Abu Talib as his successor and vicegerent. To make people discard Simon. Kullu Iman . T HE B OOK OF JOHN Isa had appointed Simon as his successor and as the rock of divinity on whom the edifice of the faith will be based. 4. Abu Talib will be mentioned in the next chapter. but Paul opposed him. which are exclusively his. From his birth in the holy Kaaba to the “tradition of qartas”. is there any other logic to call one person the ‘self ’ of another. there are several events and occasions.Born in the house of Allah. Abu Talib. [This goes in conformity with the Upanishads who said that One self became two.” The Holy Prophet. Mawlud Kaaba .The unconquerable attacker who never runs away from the battlefield. La Fata .The “self ” of the messenger.The hero who has no equal. Some of the titles of Ali b. are given below: 1. appointed Ali b. . 5. in compliance with the commands of Allah. 2. and by accommodating the pagan cult of the Romans he corrupted the true faith and established the orthodox Christian Church.The total faith. Paul claimed the appearance of Isa in his vision.hear from the Lord that he shall speak. Nafs al Rasool . recorded by wellknown Muslim scholars in many books of history. Some of the important traditions and the verses of the Quran that make clear and confirm the vicegerency of Ali b. on several occasions. 3.

The gateway to wisdom. The Bani Israel are reminded to be faithful to their covenant with Allah. It was a parable narrated to the Jews. 8. His commandments. Amir al Muminin . Isa had said: He will bring those bad men to a bad end. Me alone. and of Me. Bab al Ilm . 11. you are to conform to His ways. Imam al Muttaqin . who will let him have his share of the crop when the season comes. and His laws. You have recognized the Lord this day as your God. Al Murtaza . and to obey Him. 12.The leader of the pious. Mazhar al Aja-ib The manifestor of wonders. your God. It happened . Sayyid al Awsiya . and hand the vineyard over to other tenants.The chosen (by Allah). 9. This day the Lord. should you be afraid. D EUT 26: 16 AND 17 As regards to the coming of Mohammad. O children of Israel! Call to mind My favor which I bestowed on you and be faithful to (your) covenant with Me.6. 10. Imam al Awliya . 7. Verse 2:40 of Quran talks of a covenant with which all of us are tied.The commander of the faithful. I will fulfill (My) covenant with you.The original source of the friends of Allah who seek His closest nearness.The chief (or the first) of the successors of the Holy Prophet. to keep His statutes. commands you to keep these statutes and laws: be careful to observe them with all your heart and soul.

and given to a nation that yields the proper fruit. P SALMS: 118: 22 AND M ATTHEW 2 1: 42 And Allah would fulfill His covenant with the Bani Israel. I will require satisfaction from him. and if any one does not listen to the words which he will speak. M ATHEW 21: 42 TO 45 This shows that the Jews knew that the Holy Prophet was the final messenger of Allah. The stone which the builders rejected has become the chief corner-stone. They also knew that the holy Kaaba.exactly as the Jews were warned. both he and his sons for all time. Jesus said to them: Have you never read in the scriptures: The stone which the builders rejected has become the main corner-stone.” When the chief priests and Pharisees heard his parables. with the “black stone” set in one of its corners. Musa said: For it was he whom the Lord your God chose from all your tribes to attend on the Lord and to minister in the name of the Lord. D EUT . was destined to be the qiblah of the true believers. they saw that he was referring to them. He shall convey all my commands to them. 18-19 . This is the Lord’s doing. D EUT 18. When the Jews failed to fulfill the covenant. the covenant of Allah was transferred to the descendants of Ishmael. and I will put my words into his mouth. the kingdom of God will be taken away from you. and it is wonderful in our eyes? Therefore. 18: 5 I will raise up for them a prophet like you (Musa). I tell you.

he will confute the world. When he comes. Isa’s prophecy is proved true in the Holy Prophet and his descendants. and anyone who refuses to listen to that prophet must be extirpated from Israel. And see this: It is for your good that I am leaving you. for he will not speak on his own authority. from Samuel onwards. and will call to mind all that I have told you. when he comes who is the spirit of truth. and show where wrong and right and judgment lie. There is still much that I could say to you. who will be with forever the spirit of truth. To say that Isa was the promised Prophet is a false claim by the Christian Church because Isa himself said: I will ask the Father. you shall listen to everything he says to you. Your advocate will teach you everything. 7-14 The Lord God will raise up a prophet for you from among yourselves as he raised me. with one voice they all predicted . the last of whom is our living Imam. and he will make known to you the things that are coming. but the burden would be too great for you now. your advocate will not come.The Holy Prophet was the promised prophet. he will guide you into all the truth. J OHN 16. However. and he will give you another to be your advocate. If I do not go.” And so said all the prophets. but will tell only what he hears. J OHN 14: 16 AND 26 Isa referred to the Holy Prophet as the advocate or the comforter who would succeed him and be with the people forever.

Verse 2:41 talks of those who disbelieved and the severe punishment in store for them. T HE B OOK OF JOHN Isa himself never claimed to have come in the fulfillment of the prophecy about the advent of the promised prophet. resembled each other more than these two. after him did so. he will complete the mission by delivering the whole truth and shall never speak but whatsoever he shall hear from the Lord that he shall speak. verifying that which is with you. And believe in what I have revealed. “And in your offspring all the families on earth shall find blessings. not to Isa. Therefore. nor any other prophet. except the Holy Prophet Mohammad. 22-25 And when the promised “Paraclete” would come. you are within the covenant which God made with your fathers. A CTS 3. Similarities between Mohammad and Musa are many. and be not the first to deny it. You are the heirs of the prophets. . the phrase “like you” applies to Mohammad. whereas Isa was the follower of the laws preached by Musa. when he said to Abraham. In view of these undeniable facts the Christian Church had no alternative but to give currency to the belief in the Second Advent of Isa. Reference has been made here to the covenant taken from the Bani Israel to believe in the Holy Prophet and walk in the way of the Lord. The Holy Prophet rightly claimed to be the promised prophet. Musa and Mohammad were the lawgivers. It must also be noted that Allah helped and protected Musa through his brother Harun and Mohammad through his brother Ali. No two prophets. in historical background.these days.

restyled and disguised by the Christians. It refers to the scriptures. Many rabbis knew the true text of the scriptures in the time of the Holy Prophet but concealed the truth. The Bani Israel are exhorted. which had been profusely tampered with. Me alone should you fear. Muhammad al Mustafa. quoted them as mentioned in verse 76 of Baqarah of this surah they were rebuked for giving secret information to the Muslims. which verifies Tawrait and Injeel. and when a few less careful. as explained above. in this verse. particularly about the fulfillment of the prophecy about the advent of the promised prophet. revealed prior to the Quran. to believe in the Quran. . And see 2:42: And do not mix up the truth with the falsehood.neither take a mean price in exchange for My communications. now and then. nor hide the truth while you know (it). and Me.

the wive’s children and other relatives too could have come forward to claim themselves as Ahlebayt of Prophet Mohammad. Hasan and Husain were under the blanket when this verse was revealed. Mohammad. Shias and Sunnis) of Muslims throughout the ages is that none other than the Holy Prophet. None can deny its documentary importance. Fatima.e. the Prophet’s wives. This Quranic verse serves as the background of this Hadees. it narrates a particular event that confirms the purity of Ahlebayts and their lofty position in the scheme of God’s things. came with the verse. Therefore. it is evident that Hadees-e-Kisa serves as an explanation of the one verse of Quran. It is revered by Shiites and read in all their congregations. Ali. Told by none else but Fatima. Ali. The fame and popularity of this Hadees is apparent. who used to bring God’s speech to Prophet Mohammad. the Hadees narrates the happenings that preceded and succeeded the time when this verse was revealed and identifies those who are intended as part of Ahlebayt (People of the House). In fact. O Ahlebayt (People of the Household) and keep you pure with perfect purification. Hasan and Husain came under a vestment (blanket) under peculiar circumstances and then Gabriel.Ahlebayt – The Men of the House Hadees-e-Kisa is one of the most revered narrations of the Shia Muslims. The other authentic traditions and the unanimous verdict of both the sects (i. Had this verse not come. Fatima. the angel. . See this verse: Innama Yoridullaho Leuzheba Ankumrrijsa Ahlalbaite wa Yotahhirakum Tathira Verily Allah desires to keep away all blemishes from you.

We have already shown to you earlier that Paingala Upanishad has explicitly said that the devas were created from the sattvik or pure essence of God. Several other Upanishads too confirm to the purity of the devas. Now there is another surprise in store for you. We present here a passage from Radhakrishnan’s translation of Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, which, in our view, is narrating the same incident, described in Hadees-e-Kisa. We have already said to you that Brhad-aranyaka is regarded as one of the most important of all Upanishads. The only difference is that while Fatima is narrating the incidents as she saw them happen in the house, Brhad-aranyaka is narrating them, as somebody would have seen them happen from a great distance, as if from the heavens. From a great height, surely the scene would appear as if several people have converged inside an inverted bowl, when they were underneath a vestment, covered from all sides, like an inverted bowl. That person listens to the conversation between God and his angel and narrates that. We invite you to compare the conversation given in Brhad-aranyaka with that described in Fatima’s hadees. Another subtle difference between Fatima’s description and that of Brhad-aranyaka is that while there were five persons inside the vestment, Brhadaranyaka describes them to be seven. We will show later that even Hadees-e-Kisa has included all the devas as Ahlebayts but since there were only five of them who had taken birth till then, we could see only five underneath the vestment. However, seeing from a frame that transcends the boundaries of time, the one in heaven sees even those people who are yet to be born but who, through their parent, are very much inside that inverted bowl. He knows what their names are going to be, and there will be seven names in all. Now see the text from this Upanishad:

II.5.3. On this, there is the following verse: ‘There

is a bowl with its mouth below and bottom up. In it is placed the glory of manifold forms. On its rim sits seven seers, and speech (Gabriel) as the eighth communicates with Brahman.’ What is called ‘the bowl with its mouth below and bottom up’ is the head, for it is the bowl with its mouth below and bottom up. ‘In it is placed the glory of manifold forms’; pranas (breaths), verily, are where the glory of manifold forms is placed, thus he says pranas (breaths). ‘On its rim sit seven seers’, verily, the breaths are the seers; thus he says breaths. ‘Speech as the eighth communicates with Brahman,’ for speech as an eighth communicates with Brahman. II.5.4. These two here are Gotama and Bharadwaja. This is Gotama, and this is Bharadwaja. These two here are Visvamitra and Jamadagni. This is Visvamitra, this is Jamadagni. These two here are Vasistha and Kasyapa. This is Vasistha, this is Kasyapa. The tongue is Atri, for by the tongue food is eaten. Verily, eating is the same as the name Atri. He who knows this becomes the eater of every thing: everything becomes his food.
We have shown later in this book that Atri has been used for Fatima, Vasistha and Kasyapa are Ali and Mohammad. Therefore, we have reasons to believe that Gotama and Bharadwaja are none but Hasan and Husain and Viswamitra and Jamadagni are none but Jafar and Musa. These are the seven names inside the inverted bowl; in essence, these are the fourteen who are called Ahlebayts. That the fourteen are ever united in approach and deeds is said in II.5.15 says:

This Self, verily, is the lord of all beings, the king of all beings. As all the spokes are held together

in the hub and felly of a wheel, just so, in thyself, all beings, all devas, all worlds, all breathing creatures, all these Selves are held together.
Now we invite you to read the translation of Hadeese-Kisa and compare it with the aforementioned description. See its translation: In the Name of God, the All-merciful, the Allcompassionate. Fatima Zahra, the daughter of the Prophet is to have thus related (an event): My father, the Prophet of Allah, came to my house one day and said to me: “Peace be on you O Fatima,” to which I replied: “And upon you be peace.” He said “I feel weakness in my body” I said “May Allah protect you from weakness, O my father”. He said “O Fatima, please bring the vestment of Yemen and cover me with it”. So I brought the vestment of Yemen and covered him with it. Then I looked at him and saw that his face was shining like a full moon with its full glory and splendour. After a while, my son Hasan came in and said: “Peace be on you, my mother”. I replied: “And upon you be peace, O Light of my eyes and the happiness of my heart”. He then said: “Mother! I smell a fragrance so sweet and pure, as that of my Grandfather, the prophet of Allah”. I replied, “Yes Indeed your Grandfather is lying underneath the vestment.” Hasan went near the vestment and said: “Peace be on you my Grandfather, the Prophet of Allah; do you permit me to enter the vestment with you?” He replied. “And upon you be peace, my son and the master of my fountain. I do give you permission to enter ”.

So Hasan entered the vestment with him. After a while my son Husain came in and said: “Peace be on you, my mother”. I replied. “And upon you be peace, O light of my eyes and happiness of my heart”. He then said: “Mother I smell a fragrance so sweet and pure as that of my Grandfather, the Prophet of Allah”. I replied, “Yes. Indeed your Grandfather and your brother are lying underneath the vestment”. Husain advanced towards the vestment and said: “Peace be on you, O my Grandfather, the chosen of Allah, do you allow me to enter the vestment with both of you? He replied: “And upon be peace, my son and intercessor of my followers, I give you the permission”. So Husain entered the vestment with them. After a while, Abul Hasan Ali son of Abu Talib came in and said: “Peace be on you, O daughter of the Prophet of Allah”. I replied, “And upon you be peace, O Father of Hasan, and the Commander of the Faithful”. He then said, “O Fatima I smell a sweet fragrance which is like of my brother, my cousin, the Prophet of Allah”. I replied, “Yes, He is underneath the vestment with your both sons”. Ali then went near the vestment and said: “Peace be on you, O Prophet of Allah; May I enter the vestment with you?” He replied, “And upon you be peace, my brother,

my legatee, my successor and my standard bearer; I give you permission to enter”. So Ali, entered the vestment with them. Then I said, “Peace be on you, my father, O Prophet of Allah; do you permit me also to enter the vestment with all of you?” He replied, “And upon you be peace, my daughter, O part of myself; I give you permission to enter”. So I entered the vestment. When all of us had gathered together underneath the vestment, my father, the Prophet, held the two ends of the vestment and raised his right hand towards the Heavens and prayed, “O Allah, these are the people of my Household (Ahlebayt) and very specially my own and my protectors. They are of my own flesh and of my own blood. Whoever gives them trouble gives me trouble too; whoever makes them unhappy, makes me unhappy too, I am at war with those who are at war with them, I am at peace with those who are at peace with them. I am the enemy of those who are at enmity with them; I am the friend of those who befriend them. Indeed they are from me I am from them. Therefore, send Thy Blessings, Mercy, Forgiveness and Pleasure upon me and upon them. Also remove all blemish from them and keep away impurity from them. Then Allah, the Majestic, the Glorified, spoke (to the Angels), “O My Angels and the Residents of Heavens, verily, I have not created the erected Sky, the spread Earth, the illuminated Moon, the bright Sun, the rotating Universe, the flowing Seas, and the sailing Ships, but for the love of the Five Souls lying underneath the vestment. The Gabriel, the trusted on, asked Allah, “O Lord,

Fatima. the flowing Seas and the sailing Ships but for your sake and your love. “Yes. O thou who art trusted with the Revelations of Allah. “I swear by Allah the Lord of the Kaaba. his father. Gabriel then said. and has sworn by His Honour and Glory that he has not created the erected Sky. the spread Earth. God has given me permission to enter (the vestment) with you. I have given you permission to do so. “ And upon you be peace. that no assembly. “They are the Household of the prophet and the mine of prophethood viz. we have . O Ahlebayt (People of the Household) and keep you pure with perfect purification. ‘O Prophet of Allah. “I swear by Him who appointed me a Prophet and chose me a confident Messenger. the illuminated Moon. “O Lord. yes. and encircling Angels asking Allah for the remission of their sins till the assembly has dispersed. wherever this Event is narrated by my followers and devotees. “Peace be on you. the trusted came to the Earth and said. I grant you permission to enter.who are under the vestment?” Allah. the rotating Universe. the Glorified. her husband and her sons. “O Prophet of Allah what significance does Allah attach to this Event of our gathering underneath the vestment?” The Prophet replied. the Majestic.” Gabriel. shall remain without the Mercy of Allah descending on them.” Allah replied. The All Highest conveys His peace on you and His salutation. answered. the bright Sun.” All exclaimed. Do you also give me permission. Then Ali asked my father.” So Gabriel entered the vestment with us and said to my father that indeed Allah has sent this Revelation to you: Verily Allah desires to keep away all blemishes from you. “O Prophet of Allah?” The Prophet replied. may I go to the Earth to be sixth of them.

but to a select group of people as Ahlebayt. the identity of the Ahlebayts is being recognized. we wish to show you that God is addressing not just the Prophet. Before we write what Allama Ali Naqi Naqawi said on this verse. “Verily.” Ali then said.’ O Allah.” Again the Prophet said. we fail to understand why Muslims excluded Mohammad from the list of Ahlebayts. wherever this Event is narrated there shall remain none grieved but Allah will remove his grief. those who call Ahlebayt as People of the House of Prophet are wrong. And with bayt (house) of Allah in the near vicinity. “I swear by Him who appointed me a Prophet and chose me a confident Messenger that in any of the assemblies on the Earth. send Thy Blessings on Mohammad and the Descendants of Mohammad.” Isn’t it clear that God is explicitly saying that it is His wish that all good comes to the doorsteps of Ahlebayt (the people of the House) and all impurity remains away from them? Also. by Allah. It is well known fact that Quran has addressed Ibrahim and Ishmael too as Ahlebayts. we have succeeded and become happy so also our followers have succeeded and become happy in this world as well as in the next world by the Lord of Kaaba. They are fourteen and Mohammad is . just as the verse from Brhad-aranyaka had done so. Also it is wrong to call Ahlebayts as Men of the House of Mohammad. in which our followers and friends have gathered. there shall be none distressed but Allah will dispel his distress.succeeded and our followers have succeeded too. Therefore. when he was the first to enter the vestment. and Mohammad is surely included in among those who are being addressed as Ahlebayts. Ahlebayt are the people of the House of Allah. and there shall be none who seeks a wish but Allah will grant his wish.

The fact that for Ali’s birth. What none knew till we read the scriptures assigned otherwise only to Hindus was the fact that their status is actually far loftier than what Shias believed till now. and in that manner if they become the members of the house of Mohammad. he perhaps decided not to talk about it because others already blame Shias for wrongfully enhancing the status of these Ahlebayt. Only distinction is that he is the head of the house. and distributing it to campaign against those who are the rightful members of this house of Kaaba. How wrong it is that the presentday custodians of Kaaba are using the immense wealth gotten from being the kings of place that houses the House of Allah. the wall of the House of God – Kaaba – split into two and then got united shows that God wanted at least one member of His house to be born in the house assigned to him. Their true status was known only to the socalled Hindus of a particular period. just as Isa is wrongly referred to as the son of God). Kaaba is the house of God and these 14 are the members of the house of God. Rama and Isa. Even if he had noticed it. then that is acceptable. Hasan and Husain (even though the two were young children) knew in advance that this verse was about to be revealed from God and all. despite all the blames put on Shias for enhancing their status. We wish to tell another point. Only Upanishads. including . to Apostles like Krishna. Svetasvatara and even Hanuman (wrongly referred to as the son of Marut or Vayu– Ali. Therefore. Vedas and Gita can tell us how it is possible. Fatima. and also sages like Yajnavalkya. Huge amounts are spent to propagate wahabi’ism whose very foundations are based on denigrating the position of the progeny of Prophet Mohammad.part of Ahlebayts. From the narration of this verse it is clear that not only the Prophet but also Ali. This is something that something that even Allama failed to notice.

So wherever the Ayah . This shows ‘Al’ points at the present persons. Therefore.” Allama says: “Ahlebayt is actually combination of three words: (Al. If I say ‘This’ and points upwards. He says: “People forego the literal meaning of this verse of Tatheer (Purity). The Angel came inside the quilt to recite this verse lest the residents of the entire house are taken as meaning. Ahlebayt points to ‘People of this house. At all times. similar to the word ‘This’. it means ‘Day like this’. and recited the verse only upon getting inside. Ahl meaning ‘people of’ and bayt meaning ‘house’. This also is a clear proof of the lofty status of these five who were all fully aware of the Quran in advance and even knew when a particular verse was to be revealed. When one points ‘This’ that would indicate the thing that stops the vision. and if there were no roof. lest the entire house. Why is it then that God would not call them His Ahlebayt? Now see how Allama views this verse.’ The word ‘This’ cannot be understood unless you see who is being pointed at. it could be any day. All of these Persons referred to by this verse knew that the Ayat was going to come.the two children. If we say ‘Day ’. ‘The’ indicates a particular group. is considered as Ahlebayt. this would mean the roof. ‘The Day ’.meaning ‘the’. even so it was the House of God. They seemed to be the knower of the will of God. as these meanings do not fit with their interests. Gabriel did not come to the door of the house to seek permission to enter. but when we say. Even the Angel was looking forward to come. which even had a wife of Prophet. ‘Innama’ meaning ‘only or alone’ at the beginning of the ayah points at a particular point. which already had the five. Prophet was in one house or other. Rather he came to edge of the vestment. made preparations to come under the quilt. it would mean the sky.

would have come.” Some would say how could a vestment become a house. It could have been an enclosure made by tents. However. while the Ahlebayt are still trying to lead the entire mankind towards God. despite all the sacrifices that they have given. If Ahlebayt took upon themselves the task of leading mankind to God. the God is addressing the Ahlebayts to confirm that He would keep them pure. Husain and the 9 Imams after him. was called bayt by a poet. This shows that all the components of the House know what Ayah is going to come. Ali.’ It is clear from this that while God assigned the purification of the House (Kaaba) to Prophets. God addressed Ibrahim and Ishmael in Quran and says: ‘Keep my house free from blemish. hidden or enclosed by her hair. and the previous Prophets. who are we to doubt? The difference is this that God’s promise was fulfilled in such a manner that all attempts to malign the identity of the Ahlebayt remained fruitless. That is the reason the Prophet created a house within the house. And then all the constituents of the House came to gather inside the chadar. were to keep the house clean. who is . Even the face of a woman. In clear terms. but they are creating the background for it beforehand. and becoming the root cause or chief pillar of the house. in spite of their high positions. even if it would be at the hands of the last of the 14 Masooms. whose rightful occupants are Mohammad. it is the promise of God in Quran that they would eventually be successful. One is the Ayah-e-Tatheer for the Bayt and the other for the Ahlebayt. The Ayat would come later. Fatima. Allama has given several examples through the help of prevalent Arabic literature. the last Manu or the fourteenth deva. went under the ‘chadar’ (vestment). where the term ‘Bayt’ was used for enclosure. he kept the purification of the Ahlebayt in His hands. Hasan. people of that house would be the ones being pointed at.

Husain has been identified as the intercessor of the followers of the Prophet. 2. 6. who believed this narration to be true.also the Kalki avatar. the sky. 3. if not in all of them. that was recognizable only to those who came under the vestment and not to the common men. which is . all the Prophets that came to the earth. It is evident that motive behind all actions in this hadees is to identify the true position of the people who had accumulated under the vestment. And the purpose is to tell that the position of those under the vestment is far higher than what we perceive them to be. his successor and standard-bearer by none other than Prophet. 4. the moon. It shows that there was some special fragrance in the Prophet at least. did not try to make Ali the successor after the death of the Prophet. Fatima is described as part of the Prophet. about to come any moment now. This is exactly similar to the description of the Upanishads about the devas (Divine Lords). Ali has been identified as Prophet’s legatee. and everything else has been created for them. It is evident that not just the Prophet but all those who came under the vestment knew previously that it is time for the verse to reveal and they collected under the vestment to prepare the ground for the verse. Hasan has been identified as the master of the fountain (in the heavens) by the Prophet. 7. were inferior to those under the vestment. We give here few more hidden aspects of this hadees that are mostly not given attention. When the earth. It is sad that the Muslims. 5. We recount our opinion on them here: 1.

owing to him being under the vestment. 9. after your demise the troubles that befell me are such that had they befallen the sun. This is enough to indicate that just as the Kaaba is a physical manifestation of God on earth. But when the verse was revealed. I am at war with those who are at war with them. And she is recorded as saying: “Oh father. which is called the House of God. the door fell on . Prayer of Mohammad says ‘whoever gives them trouble.’ People accumulated and set the house of Fatima on fire. Prophet had prayed to God that those under the vestment were his Ahlebayt. Prophet Mohammad is also included in the Ahlebayts. In fact. whoever makes them (Ahlebayt) unhappy. Twice Ali has referred to God as the Lord of the Kaaba. Prophet has also said that Ali and himself were part of the same noor (light). This has to be believed by Muslims unless they wish to believe that the Prophet prayed and the prayer remained unfulfilled. I am at peace with those who are at peace with them.exactly similar to the Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad’s description of the creation of devas. Fatima died within six months of the Prophet’s death. but even those who troubled Fatima and Ali were actually at war with the Prophet. then it would have turned black. they too are the physical manifestations of God on earth – the proofs of God to humanity and the ones whose path is to be followed in order to attain salvation. 8.’ clearly shows that not only those who killed Hasan or Husain. makes me unhappy too. This shows that those under the vestment were treated by God as His Ahlebayt (People of the House of God). gives me trouble. it is not said that they were Prophet’s Ahlebayt. It says that the one self divided into two selfs and then a part of one was married to the second self.

Even those who deny the entire hadees cannot deny the God’s words in Quran and the fact that it is Mohammad. Ali. 11. Hasan and Husain who are the subject of discussion. The fact that God has taken a guarantee that the Ahlebayt are free from blemish and pure in Quran itself. He has even criticized the previous Prophets and at one point of time refused Caliphate on grounds . Fatima. it has to be seen with an absolutist meaning. And you will then realize that Satan is continuously at work and it can corrupt the minds of even the seemingly most pious men and women. If this is not trouble. If talking insane is a blemish. were righteous and true. But be prepared. If labeling false accusations is a blemish then you will have to agree that when Fatima called certain men usurpers in the mosque of the Prophet. even so against the seemingly most pious of people. If waging the war against a person is trouble or unhappiness. the book attributed to Ali and various other narrations are full of Ali describing those who usurped what was rightfully his. then we also invite all to find in history the names of all who came in opposition to Ali. Nahjul Balaghah. then she was perfectly right in wordings. then what is trouble? We invite the Muslims to go through the pages of history and see who were all the people who gave these troubles. then we invite you to find the names of those who said that the Prophet is talking insane because of his illness and denied him the paper and pen that he was seeking. Likewise.Fatima’s abdomen and the child in her womb died because of this. you will have to agree that all the wars that the Ali waged. for it cannot be possible that a little blemish or a little impurity would remain after the God’s guarantee. some of the most respected names too can be found. 10.

her husband and her sons. the earth. and another signifying more than two. This was despite the fact that there were only Hasan and Husain under the vestments.that he would not follow the path of the preceding Caliphs. 13. in the words of God. was absolutely true. Keep the words of Quran in mind and you will have to agree that whatever Ali said at all points in time. who was the main battle winner during the days of struggle. What is more interesting is that even the . singular. one signifying two. Those learned in Arabic language say that as per Arabic grammar. We know that the fourteen had seven names. the moon. from heaven. but one of them. What is most interesting is that when an Upanishad described this event. Rather. the acknowledged most learned among men. He said that it included the Prophet. one husband and more than two (and not two) sons. and the first to accept Islam in the eyes of the world. If you believe that God is knower of all. the seas. When Allah replies to Gabriel’s question regarding the people under the vestment. Fatima. This suggests that those sons of Husain who were to be the future Imams too are part of Ahlebayts. his daughter. Therefore. The language of Arabic does not have just singular and plural words. the sun. The sky. the ships could be created for the five. there are fourteen Ahlebayts of God. the wordings refer to only one daughter. the universe. not fit to be the successor of the Prophet. it said of an inverted cup with seven underneath it. 12. the vestment with people inside would have appeared as an inverted cup with all the components of Ahlebayt inside it. Clearly. there are three. then you will have to accept that he also knows your languages perfectly and not even a comma or sign in his book can be without significance or meaning.

conversation of God has been described in this Upanishad. 17. 15. It has been clearly described in the Upanishads that the fourteen devatas comprise the God’s Self and we have proven that these fourteen are the ones who together comprise God’s Self and therefore. You will have to either discard this narrative as a pack of lies or believe that Fatima was actually aware of all that was happening in the heavens and was even listening to the conversation between God and the denizens of heaven. The fact that the Prophet has sworn by the name of Allah that no place where this event would be recited would remain free from God’s blessings and mercy is evident proof why the Prophet did not mention about rebirth. 16. However. Another interesting thing that has been left unnoticed by people is that Fatima is the narrator who not only narrates the incidents taking place in her house but also goes on to narrate the conversation between God and his Angel Gabriel high up in the heavens. The knowledge that he was leaving was such that those who would follow it would again access to God’s mercy and won’t be sent again in this world. punishment for the unrighteous acts would be given and nowhere has this been denied. there are so many advantages of reciting this hadees only because of the implicit meanings. which say that salvation is achieved when a person recognizes the Self. This also is an evident proof of the words of Gita. That Ayesha too has narrated this event is proof that knowledge alone is not sufficient to keep a person . 14. As we have said. knowing whom one attains salvation. some of which have not been unearthed till today.

and ceaseless endeavour to remain as close to the true path as possible. . He or she has to continuously strive for perfection and strictly forbid Satan from affecting his/her words and deeds.on the true path. 18. It also tells that the proximity of the pious is not a proof that the person too is pious.

Almighty God be a friend to his friends and a foe to his foes. Thus. by ‘divine order’. in a long narration wherein he praised the virtues of Ali and Ahlebayt. As Islam enjoins adherence to the dictates of the Prophet and Shias hold that they do abide by it. help those who help him. as his Wasi or executive. according to the Shias. Quran says in 2:27: . Ali is his mawla) ‘Mawla’ means ‘Lord Master’. He said: Ali is to me what Aaron was to Moses. For the Shias this served as proof that Ali was to be the Prophet’s successor. on the 18 th of Zilhij (a month in Islamic Calendar) Prophet Mohammad. he said: man kuntu Mawla fa hadha Aliyyun Mawla (Of whosoever am I mawla. the first Imam. and frustrate the hopes of those who betray him A MIR A LI . they claim that they are the ‘true’ followers of Islam. Therefore. 1922 Further. immediate successor of Mohammad were politically motivated and acted against the directions given by the Prophet. it would amount to say that of whosoever is Mohammad the Lord. designated Ali as his successor and ordered a general oath of fidelity on his (Ali’s) hand. Ali too is his Lord Master. those who denied Ali of his ‘rightful’ claim to be the divinely appointed. The words used by him could leave little doubt as to his intention regarding a successor.Ahlebayt – The True Leaders of Our Soul On the occasion of his return journey from the performance of the Farewell Pilgrimage during a halt at a place called Khum.

The second or the manifest covenant is that which an individual agrees to be bound by when he or she embraces Islam.Who break the covenant of Allah after its confirmation and cut asunder what Allah has ordered to be joined. then He saved you from it. in fact. these it is that are the losers. your religion. Ali son of Abu Talib was also his lord-master. . and have completed My favour on you. before coming into this world. the commentator says: “Every soul. After the unanimous undertaking of the believers. The covenant referred to here is that by which the believers bound themselves before Allah through the Holy Prophet at Ghadir Khum when the verse 67 of Chapter al Ma-idah was revealed. Describing this covenant. This day I have perfected for you. is a surrender of the self to the will of Allah. and remember the favor of Allah on you when you were enemies. Every believer accepted the declaration of the messenger of Allah that of whomsoever the Holy Prophet was the lord-master. known as the original or the latent covenant. makes a promise with the Lord that it will exist only to fulfill the will of the Lord. which. and you were on the brink of a pit of fire. the following verse was revealed. thus does Allah make clear to you His communications that you may follow the right way. and never shall rebel against His authority. Verse 3:30 further refers to the covenant when it is said: And hold fast by the covenant of Allah all together and be not disunited. and chosen for you Islam (to be) the religion. and make mischief in the land. then He united your hearts so by His favor you became brethren.

21 and 25 of al Rad. To avoid the overwhelming delusions of falsehood it is essential to accept the authority of the Holy Prophet. This verse applies to everyone who opposes the divinely established authority of imamat (the guidance through the holy Imams) immediately succeeding the risalat (the prophethood of the Holy Prophet) which is the covenant every faithful adherent of Islam has to make good. Islam has prescribed a well-knit structure of human relationship to maintain peace and harmony in the society. in his progeny. but in compliance with Allah’s command to save the followers of Islam from yielding to those who make mischief in the earth and spread corruption in the garb of religious leaders. made it obligatory for the believers to know and adhere to the relationship prescribed between them and the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt. the believers might not follow any other person save Ali ibn Abu Talib. mischief is more grievous than carnage. Islam stands for peace and harmony. According to verse 217 of al Baqarah. fulfillment of the covenant made with Allah is demanded in verses 20. And when is peace disturbed? Only when anyone wants to have (usurp) something that rightfully is not his. Ali ibn Abu Talib. so that after the departure of the Holy Prophet. In addition to various aspects of human relations. with a purpose in view.” To reinforce their contention the Shias quote the universally acknowledged exhortation of Mohammad: I leave behind amidst you the two great things. in the absence of the Holy Prophet. who alone was declared worthy and able to carry out the mission of Islam. Allah has. . The declaration was not a mere fancy of the Holy Prophet to honour Ali. as the lawful authority (lord-master).Therefore. and the divinely commissioned rightly guided guides.

and tears flow. plundered. the grandson of the Holy Prophet They spared no one. looted and set the tents of the Ahlebayt on fire. ruthless and satanic dance of death. they could not have been able to do worse than what they did to us. not even the six month infant son of the Holy Imam. along with the severed heads of the martyrs. enjoins on every true Muslim to abide by the holy book Quran and Ahlebayt and to no one else. my Ahlebayt (progeny). Cries of lamentation reach the heavens. and at last surrounded them from all sides in the desert of Karbala. daughter of Ali and Husain’s sister. all the male friends. They persecuted the Ahlebayt in whichever town they took shelter. relatives and companions of Imam Husain. definite . It was a premeditated. but. revere and follow the Ahlebayt. in devilish frenzy. even if the prophet had commanded the ummah to hate and abuse his children. It makes hearts bleed. compassionate and God-fearing soul. Thus the above-mentioned apostolic instruction. stood up and said in a clear. In the court of Yazid. The ladies and children of the holy house in chains. trampled the bodies of the devoted martyrs under the hooves of their horses. Zaynab. The persecutors. and then murdered in cold blood. walked through the streets of Kufa and Damascus (to the court of Yazid).the Book of God (Quran) and my Itrat.had said: In view of the clear instructions of the Holy Prophet and the decisive injunctions of the Quran it is obligatory to love. forced them to drift from place to place. according to the Shias. The tragedy of Karbala casts a gloom upon every refined. Imam Ali bin Husain Zainul Abidin – the fourth Imam .

Therefore. His messengers and His angels is an unbeliever.and strong voice: O Yazid! What would the Holy Prophet say if he sees us in this condition today? Think you O Yazid. It appears that sins have encompassed your heart and severed all the links of faith and made you bold to utter the proud words against the truth. dug up the earth and built far more than what did they build. Then evil was the end of those who did evil. you have won and we have lost? Then verily you are mistaken. All that you possess is nothing but a passing show and there is nothing divine in it. that by killing our men and capturing us and reducing us to this state. for they belied the signs of Allah and made fun of them. the beloved darlings . tortured and killed the Ahlebayt. Have they not traveled on the earth and seen how the others before them had met their end? They were far more powerful than them. those who troubled. It was not for Allah to wrong them. Verily. The divine kingdom is with us and shall remain with us forever. and their messengers came to them with clear proofs. Allah is the enemy of the unbelievers who are described as infidels. The temporal power which you assume is to be counted but only for a very few days and then you shall feel sorry for your tyranny but it shall be in vain. Writes Pooya/Ali commentary: “Whosoever is the enemy of Allah. they wronged themselves. Satan holds power on the earth more than all the tyrants together but in the eyes of Allah he is the cursed and the derided one. Our cause has been established by Allah and no power on earth can ever do it any harm.

at Ghadir Khum. arrested him and dragged him to the court of the ruler. An aggressor kicked the door of her house which fell on her and killed the child she was carrying in her womb. the other grandson of the Holy Prophet. the grandson of the Holy Prophet was killed by poison. but that which the Holy Prophet had given her by the command of Allah was taken away from her. the sons and daughters of the family of Ahlebayt. to show their power in this world. which they had promised to uphold. were slain in Karbala. Allah has cursed those who annoy or displease Allah and His messenger in this world and has prepared a painful punishment for them in the hereafter. the so-called followers of the true religion of Allah deserted him and held a conference in Saqifah to choose a ruler in complete disregard to their oath of allegiance. Bibi Fatima Zahra. One after the other. When the Holy Prophet was leaving this world to meet his creator. for such heinous crimes are certainly the enemies of the Holy Prophet. but soon after the departure of the Holy Prophet. tortured and held captive for a long time. because no reasonable person can say that these were the acts of friends. and. They had accepted Ali as their Mawla. captured and were either murdered or tortured. In verse 57 of al Ahzab. are the enemies of the Holy Prophet and Allah. and Allah is the enemy of the unbelievers. Sayyids. Hasan. and the ladies of the holy family were chained. and her house was also set on fire. they deprived Ali of his right to succeed the Holy Prophet. Those who were responsible. The daughter of the Holy Prophet. the Holy Imams were killed. Ali was killed in the mosque. The Holy Prophet said: . and which finally proved to be the cause of her death. just a few months before. Husain. directly or indirectly.of the Holy Prophet and Allah. were hunted. and his friends and relatives. Such people are unbelievers. was not only publicly insulted during the trial of Fadak.

The mention of Ibrahim and Imran. commonly used to address the members of a family. were chosen as messengers of Allah. Ale or Ahlebayt. which says: Surely Allah chose Adam and Nuh and the descendants of Ibrahim and the descendants of Imran above the nations. has been made in this verse with reference to their posterity. holy men of God. in which Fatima stated that everything in this world had been created because of them. is exclusively reserved. in fact has declared war against me. higher than all creation and next only to God. Al (the posterity) of Adam and Nuh have not been included in the category of the chosen ones.O Ali! Your flesh is my flesh. undisputedly amongst the holiest prophets of Allah. your blood is my blood. The Origin and Lofty Position of the Ahlebayt You have already gone through Hadees-e-Kisa. in the word ‘ale’ the spiritual quality of a posterity automatically includes the immediate ancestor or the founder of a family. and to fight against me is to fight Allah. because there were several ungodly and wicked persons in their lineage. He who fights you. but in the ale (immediate issues) of Ibrahim (Ishmael and Ishaq) and Imran (Musa and Harun). in the religious and . because according to the religious annotation. whereas Ibrahim and Imran are mentioned with reference to their posterity. In this verse Adam and Nuh are mentioned by their names. There are countless places where the Ahlebayt have been presented as enjoying the highest position. We invite you to read verse 3:33 of Quran. That was not just an isolated incident where this has been mentioned.

therefore. but the line of ale Ibrahim. Aga Mahdi Pooya states: “The Holy Quran refers here to this process of selection and choice of a particular lineage for risalat and imamat. disappearance (Allah raised him alive to the heaven) and promised reappearance (at the end of this world before the day of resurrection) are the signs (miracles) of Allah. and then again bifurcated through Abdullah and Abu Talib. It starts from Adam and passes through Nuh to Ibrahim. The Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt are in the posterity of Ibrahim. they are chosen in preference to all the created beings. The descendants of Ishmael are known as ale Ibrahim. the daughter of the Holy Prophet. After Ibrahim it was bifurcated in his two sons. They are superior to every human being. Ishmael and Ishaq. through Ishmael. and the descendants of Ishaq are called ale Imran.spiritual act of referring. The selection of the line of ale Imran for prophethood was terminated after Isa whose birth. were joined in the holy matrimony. Muhammad al Mustafa was the son of Abdullah and Ali al Murtaza was the son of Abu Talib. remained chosen till Abd al Muttalib. for the holiest members of the family of the Holy Prophet who are identical with each other in their personal purity and spiritual sanctity (Ahzab: 33). the line of Ibrahim continued in their progeny: Imam Hasan bin Ali al Mujtaba Imam Husain bin Ali al Shahid al Shuhada Imam Ali bin Husain al Zainul Abidin Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Baqar Imam Jafar bin Muhammad al Sadiq Imam Musa bin Jafar al Kazim . (Tafsir Durr al Manthur. When Ali and Bibi Fatima. in the light of this verse. and Mawahib al Ladunniya).

prophet Isa will follow Imam Muhammad al Mahdi. both are examples for the house of Ishmael and the house of Israel respectively (Zukhruf: 59). from among the descendants of Adam. .Imam Ali bin Musa al Raza Imam Muhammad bin Ali al Taqi Imam Ali bin Muhammad al Naqi Imam Hasan bin Ali al Askari Imam Muhammad bin Hasan al Mahdi The disappearance and the promised reappearance of the living Imam al Mahdi resembles the disappearance and the promised re-appearance of Isa. He selected Ishmael. He selected Nuh. It is a selection from the descendants of Adam. Allah chose Adam. Nuh. Ibrahim and Imran. from among the descendants of Nuh. from among the Quraish. The Holy Prophet has said: Allah selected Adam in preference to all other creatures. because all their children did not have the superior quality to represent Allah. Ali and I are one and the same noor. ale Ibrahim and ale Imran in preference to others for appointing His messengers and guides. Nuh. He selected Hashim. from among the descendants of Ibrahim. When both of them will re-appear at the end of the world. I am from Abdullah and Ali is from Abu Talib. before the day of resurrection. It passed through Abd al Muttalib to Abdullah and Abu Talib. and the whole mankind will follow them. He selected Ibrahim. All of them carried my noor (the first light which came forth from the absolute and goes on till the day of resurrection to manifest ultimately in the arc of ascent).

Kitabul Amana. Earth and sky (zameen-o-aasman) from the noor of Fatima Moon and Sun (chand-o-sooraj) from the noor of Hasan Heaven and the apsaras of heaven (jannat and hoorane-jannat) from the noor of Husain. as said in Paingala Upanishad. 703: It terminates in us with what is halal (lawful) and what is haram (unlawful). A quote from Imam Jafar Sadiq – the sixth Imam – given in Chapter 53 of Al-Kafi even goes on to say that they too frame the rules and religious obligations. no. (we have no part). from whom the entire cosmos was created and who took upon themselves the task of leading mankind to God. Bihar al-Anwar too states that the world was created from the noor (lightheat) of the Panjetan (the Five Persons). That reason and intelligence in each one of us formed part of the Masooms or devas is evident in these words of Imam Jafar Sadiq to Hasham: God-Almighty has blessed the human beings with two proofs: . it can be expected of the rulers of spheres created by God and the rulers of our organs of senses and action. but (as for) the prophethood. See what it says: The highest seat and the throne (arsh and kursi) from the noor of Prophet Mohammad Angels and the book and pen (malaika and loh-oqalam) from the noor of Ali.See how Prophet Mohammad has stated the Prophets carried his noor (light). See what Imam Jafar Sadiq says in hadees no. Surely.

all of you together. every one of us is Muhammad. . and the hidden proof is the reason and intelligence within our existence. The whole Muslim world. They are those who have been chosen by Allah to guide mankind towards the path of Allah through the Quran. when he said: I and Ali are from “one and same” divine light. Prophet Mohammad referred to the same on another occasion. P-16 This verse confirms the Upanishadic view that the fourteen formed an important part of our body and henceforth we all are governed by the devas. after the Holy Prophet. Pooya/Ali Commentary states: “The Holy Prophet and the twelve holy Imams (are those) in whom each quality is manifest in its highest perfection and completeness. The first of us is Muhammad. The apparent proofs are Prophets and Imams. Therefore. 1. to the cord of Allah. the middle of us is Muhammad. Hold fast. Shias. At another instance. knows and accepts the fact that it was Ali alone who earned the unique title of mazhar ul aja-ib the manifestation of (divine) wonders. A L-K AFI. the last of us is Muhammad. acknowledged even by their enemies. VOL . because Ali and the Holy Prophet are the manifestations of one and the same divine light.” It is interesting to note that both the Upanishads and the traditions of the Prophet have equated the Ahlebayt to the rope from Allah. follow only Ali and the holy Imams as their guides because of their unique merits.One is apparent and the other is hidden. without exception.

they shall meet me at the spring of Kausar. among you. The Holy Prophet has said: Verily the Quran has been revealed in seven letters. and verily Ali knows the evident as well as the latent. If my people hold fast to these two ropes. Be it known that these two shall never be separated from each other. One of them is greater than the other. The life of the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt is the best example of the teachings of the Quran.It gives a mental impression that a rope is hanging from the heaven so that those who are lying down on the ground (earth) may climb up. and joined together. among you. but he who holds back shall perish. in the presence of the Lord to seek His nearness. They are the book of Allah. known as hadeese-Saqalain. after me. and my Ahlebayt. . ITIQAN-SAHIH BUKHARI The commentator says: “The holding fast to the book of Allah and “Muhammad and ale Muhammad” means total attachment with and devotion to them because all good generates from this act which enables man to rise upward and reach nearness to Allah. two ropes. are like the ark of Nuh. they shall not go astray. Abu Sa-id Khudri reports that he heard the Holy Prophet saying: I leave behind me. T AFSIR K ABIR AND D URR AL M ANTHUR In another similar declaration. the Prophet stated: My Ahlebayt. hung from the heaven unto the earth. by holding it. He who sails on it will be safe. There is no letter which has not an evident and a latent meaning.

else they will be divided into several sects. Jalut. In Minhaj al Sadiqin it is written that once. Also the followers of Isa were divided into 71 sects. Jalut referred to his book and said that there were 45 sects. he replied. yet do not know what is written in your book. the chief rabbi. by avoiding or neglecting the commandments of Allah and the teachings of the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt. because these two are the inseparably interwoven cord of Allah.Do not become disunited Those who rely on and make use of theories and methods formulated and put in practice by mortal men. “You are a rabbi. out of which only one is on the right path. are bound to go astray and create discord and disagreement among the united community of the believers. came to Ali ibn Abu Talib to prove that Islam was not a true religion of God. The first question Ali asked was: “Do you know the number of sects the followers of Musa were divided into after his departure?” “I will have to refer to the book”. So to remain on the right path shown by the Holy Prophet follow him and his Ahlebayt in letter and spirit. “You are wrong. I know the Tawrait and the Injeel. along with some of his very learned disciples. The followers of Musa were divided into 71 sects. The followers of our prophet will . out of which only one is on the right path. What will you do if your book is lost?” Ali asked. This sentence warns the Muslims not to misinterpret the verses of the Quran or have doubts about the authority of the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt to explain the true meanings of the word of Allah.

be divided into 73 sects.” Earlier the Holy Prophet had also said the same about his and Musa’s followers.” Then he recited this verse: “You became brothers by His grace”- . he put his hand on the shoulder of Ali and said: “This man and his descendants and their followers. out of which only one will be on the right path and the rest will be among the losers. When asked as-to which sect of his followers is on the right path.

in spite of all this disparity in thoughts. some go to the extent of secluding themselves from him. We present the article exactly as it was written about 10 years back.e.) No matter if a section consider him as Khalifatohu Bila Fasl. Ali was just the same as you have said. until Vedas and Upanishads changed the course of his thinking. says: “No doubt Abul Hasan i. This is the height of character where friends and foes. Ali was born on the 13 th Rajab 30 (Aam-ul-Feel) . Momins (Faithfuls) and Kafirs – all stand on equal footing in praising his personality in spite of all the differences in beliefs and thoughts. Miqdad and Ammar Yasser vociferously applauds his greatness. while few worship him as their God – yet. Muawiya when he hears Ali’s praise from one of his friend. but even the first Caliph can be seen repeating Prophet’s hadees that Annazaro ala wajhe Aliyin ebadah (Looking at the face of Ali is worship) Also. most brave person to be born on earth and the zenith of all humanity after the Prophet. Not only Salman. another thinks of him as Syedul Aulia. the pious among the pious.Ali Ibn Abu Talib (It is to be noted that this essay was written when this writer still considered Ali as a mortal man with exceptional qualities and even debated this stand. somebody puts him above all other Companions of the Prophet. Abuzar. all the sections consider Ali as the most knowledgeable of all men. others believe that he was the fourth Caliph. the most obvious enemy of Ali.

Then after leading a life which was full of turbulence and its ups and downs. However. The only thought that comes to our mind upon hearing the name of Ali is .e. Kaaba 23 years before Hijrat (Emigration from Makkah). way to lead life and true character. strictly adhering to Ali’s teachings and following his way of life will show us the way to face life in the most turbulent times. Soon after his birth the Holy Prophet took him under his holy care. as it should have been understood. Ali was not only a hero who fought gallantly in the battlefields. and when the enemies of Islam have come openly to destroy and annihilate the believers of Allah. the irony is that we have not really tried to comprehend the life of Ali. in spite of this. If his life is truly understood by us and followed then. we will surpass everybody else in all traits of life. tribes. clans or beliefs. undoubtedly.about 610 A. A detailed study of Ali’s life will show that each and every aspect of his life is full of teachings for the later generations to follow. bravery. regions. from which anybody can benefit irrespective of race and religion. when there are no moral and ethical values left among the people. During this period from Kaaba to the mosque of Kufa. which can prove beneficial for us if we try to relate our lives according to those principles. it is a sad story that today not many of us are aware of the true life of Ali. Ali acquired wisdom. when Islam has witnessed innumerable divisions on the basis of sects.D. generosity. Most of us have forgotten those aspects and those phases of Ali’s life. he was an epitome of the height of character that can be achieved by a true follower of Islam. Yet. In these times. his life was put to an end in the mosque of Kufa at the behest of Muawiya. His whole life is a book on morals. piety and letters under the guardianship of the Prophet. ethics. in the house of Allah i. Instead.

we consider heroism and chivalry as the basic features of Ali’s character You talk of Ali and the only thought that flashes our mind is that of Ali moving with his sword and killing everybody who comes to oppose him in the battlefield. after cutting the enemy into two.his bravery. The main reason behind this is that lately most of our zakirs have stopped talking about the sublime parts of Ali’s character due to certain unknown reasons. especially that of a character whom he considers his ideal. Instead it was an inherent quality which depended upon some other traits of his personality. today. Some of the blame for this is ours because zakirs know our likings and following a true marketing strategy. on an occasion. Today. there is no likelihood of him every being able to follow his path. Instead. Whatever the true reason behind this fallout. kept penetrating the earth until an angel had to come and stop the sword on his wings. And when a person do not know the true personality of a character. they describe in glorified words the chivalrous deeds of Ali in the battlefield. we will come o the conclusion that Ali’s physical strength was not an independent characteristic. However. there is also no limit to Ali’s strength. said that a Momin among you (Muslims) will overpower ten of his opponents. Keeping this hadees in mind. and his sword. they only give to the public what they desire the most to hear. And a Muslim will be more than an equal match to nonMuslims. we have come to a stage where our younger generations do not know the true height of Ali’s character and are ignorant about the other facets of his powerful character besides his strength and courage. When a . He being so strong that he picked up the gate of the fort of Khaibar (dar-e-Khaibar) on his little finger. we can safely conclude that since there is no known limit to Ali’s Iman (faith). if we look into this aspect keeping in mind two hadeeses of the Holy Prophet. The Prophet.

Here are presented the opinions of some eminent people regarding the character of Ali: (i) Jurjy Zaigan (George Gordon. on his little finger. His words and deeds bore stamps of nobility. Keeping in mind the above mentioned hadees I believe that all the strength that he showed on different occasions was nothing as compared to vastness of his faith in God. and he was certainly capable of more. which required forty men to open and close it. a famous Christian historian. the limit of which is unknown. misled. In various phases and periods of his life he exhibited marvelous strength of body and mind which were due to his true faith in religion and in his sincere belief in truth and justice. according to Rasool’s hadees. or betrayed anybody. This essay is an attempt to portray some other facets of Ali’s personality other than his strength. So many instances of his piety and fear of God are cited that one starts loving and venerating him.” . so that our younger brothers and sisters get to know the different features of the personality of their guide and Imam. sagacity and courage of conviction. why do we doubt when the Amir-ul-Muminin or a Kull-eIman (epitome of faith) like a Ali kill a few hundred opponents or when he lifts the dar-e-Khaibar. Since the limit of Ali’s faith in God cannot be guessed by ordinary human beings like us. is unknown. which was directly proportional to his faith. of which we have heard a lot from the zakirs. He was a great man having his own independent views about life and its problems. linguist. similarly his strength too. He was a true. strict. He never deceived. philosopher and poet of recent time says: “None can praise to the extent that he (Ali) deserves. scrupulous follower of Islam.Mumin can be victorious over ten of his opponents.

He was the greatest politician because he hated diplomacy and loved truth and justice.(ii)The famous Egyptian philosopher and Professor of Islamic Studies of Al-Azhar University. bloody encounters and sad episodes. Several men amongst Jews and Christians love him and such philosophers who came to know of his teachings bow down before his incomparable vast knowledge. his was the policy as taught by God. and had he no fear of God he would have been the greatest diplomat amongst the Arabs. his sincerity and fortitude in following religion were of such high order that none could aspire to reach him. Allama Mohammad Mustafa Beck Najeeb in his equally famous book ‘Hima’etul Islam’ says: “What can be said about this Imam? It is very difficult to fully explain his attributes and qualities. He was the most learned person. and everyone has a place for him in his heart.’ (iii) Another philosopher and historian of Egypt Ustad (Professor) Mohammad Kamil Hatha. He was a man of such surpassing and pre-eminent attributes and such transcending and peerless qualities that many learned men got perplexed about him and imagine him to be an incarnation of God. On account of his sagacity and thorough knowledge of human mind he always arrived at correct conclusion and never changed his opinions. his love of God. His piety. His was the best judgment. the bravest man and the most eloquent speaker and orator. Each aspect of his life is so lofty and glorious that a study of one phase would .S.) had named him the gateway of knowledge and wisdom. Roman kings would have his pictures in their palaces and great warriors would engrave his name on their swords. He is loved by all. His personality is very prominent on account of his transcending and high qualities. It is enough to realize that the Holy Prophet (A. pays his tributes in the following words: ‘His life is agglomeration of pleasing incidents.

in learning and wisdom.” (iv) The famous historian and author of life of Queen Victoria in his book ‘Studies of Mohammedanism’ says: (a) This prince was a man of mild and forbearing character.” (v)Ibne-abil-Hadeed. This prince was a scholar himself and many of his wise sayings and proverbs are published in a book. says that: Hazrat Ali had a personality in which opposite characteristics had so gathered that it was difficult to believe a human mind could manifest . As Mathew Arnold (Essays in Criticism) says “the sufferers of Karbala had held aloft to the eyes of millions the lesson so loved by the sufferer of Cavalry (Representation of Crucification): . in philosophy. of a brave. It is not difficult for God to create such a person. Mohammad had given him the surname of “Lion of God”.” He further says that Ali was the first Caliph to protect and encourage national literature. in literature. while contemplation of any other phase will enchant you more and you will come to the conclusion that no human being can attain that height. which were not spent selfishly or in vain. wise in counsel and bold in war. and also an Imam in ethics. Their lives deserve to be commemorated. humble and a forgiving spirit. the Mothazali commentator of Nahjul Balaghah. It was a remarkable work and deserves to be more widely read in the West. (b) Ali and his sons Hasan and Husain were truly noblemen – men of righteousness.“Learn of Me for I am meek and lowly in heart. and a third aspect will fascinate you equally and you will realize that before you is a personality of such great eminence that you cannot fully appreciate its greatness and you will feel that Ali was an Imam (Leader) in religion.make you feel that it was the best phase of his character and the most beautiful picture of his personality. for there was a peculiar pathos about them (their lives). and Ye shall find rest unto your souls.

sympathetic. He was the bravest man that history could cite and such brave persons are always hard hearted. cruel. To him wealth was for the use of other needy persons. kings and dictators are usually arrogant and haughty. He was always kind but strict with wayward persons. similarly warriors. it was difficult to overcome him in debates or repartees. He was friend to all. not for himself and his family.such a combination. his rejoinders and retorts always bore high mark of culture. so many of whom he had killed in hand to hand combats. Change of times and change of circumstances did not bring any change in his bearing. education and knowledge. as well as son-in-law and great favourite of the Holy Prophet (A. rich and noble clan. and for orphans and cripples. qualities quite contradictory to the other phase of his character and more suited to pious and God fearing persons. at the same time he was the greatest warrior and marshal of his time. sympathetically teaching them the ways to reach God. they consider it below themselves to mix with poor. Even when he ascended throne of Arabia and was acclaimed as the Caliph. and eager for bloodshed. But Ali was different. dressed and lived like a poor person. a sympathetic guide and a fellow sufferer. To them he always was a kind friend. He was a scion of a very illustrious.S. he was meek unto them but haughty and arrogant against famous warriors and generals. yet in spite of his riches he ate. life or character. lowly and humble persons. he was the . He always smiled and passed happy and witty rejoinders.). responsive and warm-hearted person. On the contrary Ali was kind. As a matter of fact he had a tender spot in his heart for poor and humble. He was very pious and God fearing person and often pious and religious persons avoid society and do not care to mix with men of sins and men of wrath.

from the age of 10 till the age of 23 or in other words. son of Imam Malik-ibne-Humbel. Firm resolve and a stable character were chief characteristics of Ali. Ali was always with the Prophet. He boldly stood up. a beacon of light for the whole world to fight the forces of tyranny even if the odds are insurmountable. Only a handful accepted his teachings but the majority was opposed to them in the beginning. Thus. Ali was only 10 years old when the Prophet announced his Prophethood. but it was itself honoured and glorified by Ali and it received the status actually due to it. with an unshakeable determination. from the phase of childhood to the next phase of youth . From the time of this announcement till the time the Prophet left Makkah and migrated to Medina. But the Prophet ignored this torture. The monsters of inequity goaded by an insatiable desire of political ascendancy were bent upon rooting out of existence Ali and his followers. He refused to sell his conscience and to help perpetuate evil.same Ali as they had found him to be during the previous regimes. he had to undergo torture of various sorts. Once in the society of Abdullah. oppression and gagging are ineffective to enthrall the spirit of man. and continued preaching peacefully. But Ali stood firm like a rock and not once did he move back.” Ali had a keen desire to serve humanity and. therefore. Abdullah brought the discussion to an end saying that the Caliphate did not bring any honour or glory to Ali. His great sacrifice proved to the world that truth always triumphed and that death in the cause of God was an eternal life. During these 13 years in Makkah after the baisat (announcement of Prophethood). which was both physical and mental. His life is. that too. He proved that terrorism. a discussion took place about Ali and his Caliphate. championed the cause of the oppressed and gave his life for the liberation of the spirit of man.

Everybody in the opposite camp was afraid of one name viz. Ali got down from the chest of Amr Ibn Abd-e-Wud. leave the side of the Prophet. Consequently. Moreover. His chivalrous deeds in Badr. . But even in these adverse moments Ali never allowed his emotions to guide him. But this did not happen. at the time of Sulah-e-Hudaybiyah. Khandaq and many other battles that followed made everybody think of the reason why Ali. when the battle was at its height. Ali silently bore the tortures alongside the Prophet. Ali kept on silently bearing all the tortures and never complained. In the battle of Khandaq. Ali’s pen was silently writing down the points of the treaty. Zulfiqaar. Ali and dreaded one sword viz. Ali had become synonymous with death for the enemies. In Medina. He never refrained from fighting and was always seen guiding his army to victory. He was fighting according to God’s will and he never wanted his emotions to come in between. Instead. as we latter came to know of Ali’s courage and strength. But even during this period. for once. when the followers of the Prophet were dissatisfied with the peace treaty. the whole of Yemen had accepted Islam. he did not use his sword. but as he explained afterwards that when Amr spat upon him. he had become angry. On another occasion. he got injured later. Neither did he. despite his bravery. Hijrat (Emigration from Makkah) to Medina showed to the world a different facet of Ali’s personality.and adulthood. By this time. was altogether silent while in Makkah. Ali fought a series of battles in which he never failed getting victorious. Ohud. it was but natural that he should have dealt with the Makkans firmly. The result was that when he returned. he preached through words and his character. This period in a person’s life is one in which emotions rule wisdom. when the Prophet sent Ali to Yemen for preaching.

simple living. brotherhood to the Prophet. Ali. his sublime personality. steadfastness. unsheathes his sword to fight the battles of Jamal. he had to fight wars where his opponents were immeasurably superior to him both in numbers and equipment. Ali went to life a peaceful life after the death of the Prophet. He never allowed personal desires or emotions to guide him. to some extent. But this never affected Ali’s determination and courage. again.This was the period when Ali’s participation in a battle meant victory for his side. knowledge. for 25 long years. Thus. All this shows that Ali never fought for personal gains and benefits. Siffin and Nehrwan. He was determined to risk his all to uphold the right and virtue. when the bones become week and body looses its power. from the age of 33 to the age of 58. At this time. This period of adulthood is one in which a person is supposed to have maximum vigour and vitality. Innumerable times. He carried on until his death at the age of 63. justice and peace are many other subjects in which Ali was the supreme master. bravery. the character of Ali before our eyes. Later. But Ali spends this period in the confines of his house in spite of all the offers from people like Abu Sufiyan to support him. his every move was according to the wish of the Prophet and Islam. However. The above-mentioned facts have brought forth. Instead. The resolution of Ali is a shining example for all of us to follow. In the world such persons are rarely found in whom besides one or two virtuous qualities other qualities might . Ali lived a secluded life in which all his time was spent either in prayers or working to earn bread for his family. when the enemies had started fearing Ali and his sword. at the age of 58. Neither did he ever fight for self-aggrandizement but for protection of the tenets of Islam.

were equally active in the battlefield. which were bound in devotion. because every temperament is not suited for the development of every quality. and he would never allow a beggar to return disappointed from his door. each quality has a particular tempo and each virtue needs a particular climate. so much so that even when in the battle field the enemy asked him his sword he threw it before him being confident of the prowess of his naked arm. And his bravery and courage was such that the onslaught of armies could not shake the firmness of his foot with the result that he achieved success in every encounter and even the bravest fighter could not save his life in an encounter with him. There is nothing in common between combat and encounter and reclusion and God-fearing because one shows valour and courage while the other supplication and submission. But Ali was a unique combination of both these qualities as his hands. But the personality of Ali showed full accord with every greatness and complete harmony with every accomplishment. Thus the contradictory qualities of generosities and bravery were found in him side by side. much less the convergence of all contradictory qualities. but where there is contradiction instead of harmony the natural tendencies act as obstacles and do not allow any other quality to grow. The scene of the Night of Hareer puts human wit in astonishment . nor any robe of greatness or beauty.also attain prominence. its major part was distributed among the poor and the starving. and there was no good attribute or accomplishment that he lacked. which did not fit his body. His generosity and liberality of nature was of a degree that even during days of want and starvation whatever he earned as the wage of his day’s toil. and they are appropriate only for such qualities or virtues with which they accord.

piety and spirituality even today in spite of the venomous propaganda campaign that was carried on ceaselessly from all the mosques of the Muslim world continuously for 90 years during the Umayyad rule. and every such call meant death of a foe. and he watered the field of Islam with springs of learning and truth. but Ali treaded the field of knowledge and action equally. then even if there is not complete absence of action. But despite extreme piety and self-denial. Besides. after every moment or so Ali’s call of Allah-o-Akbar (Takbeer) rose in the atmosphere and resounded in the ears. But he remained engaged in Allah’s remembrance without any fear or apprehension. Ali always had such appearance that his light temper and brightness of face . He showed that the character of a true Muslim always emerges out unscathed in spite of all the efforts of those opposed to him and Islam. there must no doubt exist shortness of action. When there is perfection of learning. Moreover. Those who counted these calls of Takbeer recorded their number as five hundred and twenty three. He is known for his knowledge. the taste of learning and God-knowing also do not combine with martial activity but Ali adorned the meetings of learning and scholarship along with warlike pursuits. During the battle.and wonder when closing his eyes to the bloody action around he spread his prayer cloth and engaged himself in prayer with full peace of mind and heart while arrows were darting off sometimes over his head and sometimes from his right or left. After finishing he again cast his hand on the sword’s handle and the fierce battle that then followed is unparalleled in history. as soon as we think of a recluse and pious man we visualize a face full of frowns because for piety severity of temper and hardness of face are inseparable so much so that the thought of a smile on the lips of a pious man is regarded as a sin.

was apparent from his looks and his lips always bore playful smile. He never showed frowns on his forehead like the dry recluse. He never liked grandeur and pageantry nor allowed show of external grandiosity. but Ali’s cheerful face was so full of awe and dignity that no eye could face it. Once Muawiya tauntingly said. His entire life may safely be taken as a pattern of simplicity . while hard temper and bitter face was held to be a virtue. “By Allah despite cheerful disposition and entertaining countenance he was more awe-inspiring than a hungry lion and this awe was due to his piety not like your awe over the non-descripts of Syria. If a man possesses cheerful heart and joyous temper he cannot command authority over others. “Allah bless Ali. He was a man of cheerful taste”. As a ruler. In him people saw only a tattered turban in place of a Royal Crown. patched apparel in place of the regal robes and the floor of earth in place of the ruler’s throne.” Where there is rule or authority there is crowd of servants and workers. so much so that when the people could not find any defect in him. checks of grandeur and eminence with equipment of pageantry but Ali’s period of rule was example of highest simplicity. when Qais bin Sa’d retorted. Ali was always anxious to relieve the distress of the poor and disdaining personal pomp. and on whose accomplishment eyes just stayed on in astonishment. this very lightness of temper was taken to be his fault. In short Ali was such a versatile personality in whom numerous contradictory qualities had joined together and all the good attributes were centred in their full brightness as though his oneself was a collection of several slaves and each self was an astounding portrait of achievement which showed forth the delineation of distinction in its untainted form.

during the time of his Caliphate. a dealer in Khadder. are noted here: (1) Abu Saleh. (Manaqib Ahmad) (3) Once Umar ibn Aas presented himself before Ali at night.” While repeating this verse. states that his grand-father related that once Ali purchased some dates of one dirham and keeping them in a cloth he put them on his shoulders to carry them home. He was working in the Baytul Mal (the treasury). The Caliph adoring the throne of Arabia lived in a simple hut. He treated the treasures of the Commonwealth as if it were scorpions or poisonous snakes and looked down upon the whole paraphernalia of pomp and show.and piety.” (Mujam Baghvi) (2) Zazan states that he saw Ali in the market. A few incidents which illustrates these above mentioned characteristics of Ali. as he did not like to discuss private matters in the light provided from . directing those who had missed their paths. helping the weak and the old in lifting up the loads and repeating that verse from the Quran in which God says: “I have made Heaven in the next world for those who do not take to vanity and do not create disturbances. The next world is for God-fearing people. When he acknowledged the acknowledged secular head of all the Muslims. “I offered my services to take those dates to his home but he refused to accept my help saying that it is the duty of the father to carry loads for his children. he illustrated the principles of benevolent rule and ideal administration by his actions and deeds. He strove side-by-side with the Prophet in propagating Islam. The Amir put out the light he was working with and began to work in the moonlight. he also explained that by such people are meant those who are in power.

a share has been allotted to you as well as to your children in the Commonwealth. It was the winter season and Ali was shivering on account of cold. One measure is intended for his own self and his dependents and the other for his guests. Ibn Abbas enquired. ‘Is it forbidden to partake it?’ He said. He was putting on an old dress. Had you feasted me by offering flesh of ducks. “Oh Ibn Zubaer! I have heard the Prophet say that for a Caliph it is not permissible to take more than two measures from public fund.” (Manaqib Ahmad) (8) Umar bin Qais relates: Once it was enquired . “Oh ruler of the Faithful. I said. Once a sweet drink (Faloodah) was presented to him. Ali remarked. (5) Ibn Abbas states that Ali do not take anything other than what was sent to him from Medina. (Manaqib ibn Shaher Ashob).] (4) Abdullah ibn Zuraer states that he paid a visit to Hazrat Ali on the Id-ul-Azha day. ‘It is not forbidden.Baytul Mal. This is the same dress that I brought with me from Medina. but I do not desire to accustom myself to any such thing which has not been taken by the Prophet (Reazul Shaher) (6) Harun bin Hamza relates: “Once I went to Ali in the palace of Khurnaq. On perceiving this Ibne Nurja Kharji was displeased. “What have you to do with my dress? The dress of mine is far from being a means of display of pride and it is such as can be worn by all Muslims. “I do not like to utilize any of your goods. He refused to take it. “Oh defender of the Faithful! God has given you plenty of wealth and riches. (Mutalebul Sual). The Amir offered him some Harira.” (Tarikha ibn-e-Aseer) (7) Zaid Ibn-e-Wahab relates: Once Ali came out of his house in the assembly of the people in such a state that his long shirt was full of patches. why are you then undergoing such misery?” “By God”. Abdullah said. replied Ali.” The Amir replied. it would have been welcome.

“Because this produces the feelings of modesty and love of God in man and the Faithful can easily copy it. and the sense of social equality. Ali loved humanity so much so that he sacrificed his all for its betterment and that he deliberately and intentionally shunned the life of luxury and comfort.of this ruler of Islam as to why he used to get his old garments patched. for us. which are the hallmark of Islam. Ali replied. Allama Abu Hamid Abdul Hameed Bin Hilbatullah known as Ibne Hadeed Madaeni Baghdadi writes: “His eloquence is such that he is the leader of the eloquent and the Chief of the rhetoricians. Ali’s contribution to literature is highly incredible He was no doubt a great philosopher of the world. (Arhajul Mutalib) The above facts are enough to show that Ali lived a life unsurpassed and unequalled in its simplicity and uprighteousness. men made of an ordinary stuff. Through him the hidden fountains of eloquence and rhetoric came to light and from him were learnt its principles and rules.” . Of course. It is about his utterances that it is below the word of the Creator but above the word of all creatures. it is not easy to follow his footsteps. though he was in a position to indulge in all sorts of physical enjoyment. to have a correct ideology. nevertheless. it is imperatively necessary for us to keep his way of life before our eyes. The discipline and self-denial. Every speaker and orator had to tread on his footprints and every eloquent preacher availed of his utterances. he being so sublimely high. Besides this. the strong faith and earnest endeavour. even at the expense of our bodily comforts. and from him world has learnt the art of speech and rhetoric. His sayings are the fountainheads of wisdom and sagacity wherefrom the seekers of knowledge may quench their thirst. were clearly visible during his entire life. It will certainly inspire us with a keen desire to be of service to humanity.

This view can be ascertained from the difference in policies of the first three Caliphs and those of Ali. Husain. Besides. and above all with the Creator. he always laid stress upon spirituality of soul and said this world is a preparatory stage for people in order to attain the spiritual level that permits . Furthermore. the wars were instrumental in keeping all the able-bodied young men busy and away from the seat of power and thus minimizing the chances of revolt or an uprising. Ali propagated Islam as a philosophy of life and said that it gives reason and a set purpose of living. no one other than he has shown Quraish the way to eloquence’. Ali succeeded in laying the foundations of pure hearts – 72 of them defended Islam along with his son. stopped all campaigns on the fronts. by Allah. always preferred quality in lieu of quantity. on the other hand. Instead. with other beings. Ali. a few years later in the desert of Karbala. While the three Caliphs carried on a vicious expansion program in which new territories were captured and large booties were brought to the Muslim capital.Then he says: “And when Mohqin bin Mohqin said to Muawiya ‘I have come to you from the dumbest man’ Muawiya said “Woe to thee. contrary to other rulers. Ali believed that these concepts and laws are essentially concerned with harmonizing people’s relationships among themselves. Thus. he opened a new front in the heart of the Muslim state – that of purifying the minds and souls of those people who had already embraced Islam. how can he be called dumb when. He considered man as a viceroy of God on earth and emphasized that the Islamic concepts and laws are inseparable parts of Islamic theology.” The chief difference between the rule of Ali and other materialistic rulers of the world is that Ali. it defines the best ways to secure progress and happiness. Moreover.

show the spirituality and expansiveness of his philosophy of religion. Nobody can be free from vices and sins unless he develops the capacity to . and his looking upwards for above the literalness of common interpretation of the law. his sincere faith in God. Piety means actions that might be sour. and a mind without religion is worst than the instinct of a beast.them to enter Paradise. Next to sincere faith in the unity of God and the apostlehood of the Holy Prophet. This freedom cannot be obtained but by constant efforts and endeavours. Such efforts are a continuous struggle and long drawn war against vicious cravings of mind. Love and Kindness. more harmful. His ardent love of knowledge. Elaborately speaking. is the sublime aim that surpasses all other inclinations and wishes. His philosophy never sinks to that war of words without life and without earnestness which is main feature of the schools under Ptolemies or the vicious circles created by the philosophers of the West and the East. According to him. Piety means to free oneself from vicious desires and wicked deeds. Ali taught us that a man without mind is not a man. and in His mercy. To him evolution of mind was the essence of life and religion was the essence of the evolution of mind. Ali considered religion as a vital and positive force of life. He wants us to realize that piety is not a juicy morsel to be swallowed easily nor it is a dip in river to clean all dirt and filth from the body. more dangerous and more carnivorous. The satisfaction of God. success and failure are not measured with this worldly or materialistic supremacy. The Islamic measure differs from materialistic standard by accounting for the life hereafter. and painful to perform in the beginning. his devotion in evolution of human mind. harsh. Ali lays stress on piety. Ali believed. Devotion without understanding will never bring Blessing of God.

health and opportunities. and he who believes an attribute to God. sincerely and diligently. Mortality of life is another point that Ali wanted men to realize fully. believes the attributes to be God. sincerely and rationally. No attribute can be ascribed to Him that bore the least resemblance to any quality of which human being have perceptions from their knowledge of material objects. Make use of each one of them when it presents itself. Worst form of folly is waste of opportunities. He wants man to work. He wants us to understand that death is a biological incident of all forms of life and it is unavoidable. Ali’s teachings are gospel of work. and the perfection of verity is the acknowledgement of His Unity in all sincerity. and to work honestly. To work for the reward reserved in the Heaven. He. and the perfection of sincerity is to deny all attributes to the Deity. Opportunities do not repeat themselves. but let piety guide you in all of your actions. He wants us to be thankful for the time and opportunities allotted to us and work for the good of mankind and for our own good. is a form of prayer. The perfection of piety consists in knowing God. inevitable and sudden. regards God as .’ Another aspect of Ali’s teaching is that he has clearly and emphatically condemned all anthromorphic (to attribute human forms to God) conceptions of deity. According to him a mind without sober thoughts and a life without program of honest work is the most fertile soil for the seeds of wickedness and vice. Work with nobility of purpose. he believes. He stresses on doing work and that too good work while a person has life. the perfection of knowledge is the affirmation of His Verity. “God is not like any object that the human mind can conceive. who refers an attribute to God. His advice to his son was ‘exert yourself to earn an honest living. He says.abhor and hate them.

and the believers who pray and give alms while they prostrate to God. His Prophet and the believers. the party of God are the victors. Some of the Prophet’s Hadeeses in this regard are being written here: Your guardians are God.A. victor who supports him. He sees and hears but not with help of bodily organs or outside agencies. He was seeing when there was nothing created to see. Forgiveness is His Essence. were presented in distorted ways and with changed versions. Mighty because Power is His Essence. He quoted Abuzar Al-Ghaffari stating. Even those Hadeeses of the Prophet which encourage Muslims to follow Ali and proclaimed the leadership of Ali. Regarding those who disobey God.tow or part of one. God is Existent not because he was non-existent. not from resemblance or nearness. time and space. and weak who doesn’t. He is with every object. He is outside everything not from separation or indifference towards His creatures. a beggar had entered the mosque. not because He Himself is created. God is the Creator. “I heard the Prophet (S.” However. ‘Ali is the leader of the best believers. Loving because love is His Essence. He works and creates not in the meaning of motions or actions. it is a sad chapter of Islamic history that all possible efforts were undertaken to belittle Ali’s personality.’” Abuzar added. “One day we were praying with the Prophet. He has no relation to matter.) with these ears or would be deaf. and not because these are attributes from His Essence. His Prophet. The beggar was requesting people for help .W. God is Omniscient because knowledge is His Essence. the Prophet once said. He who asks where God is assimilates him with some object. and saw him with these eyes or would be blind. after the death of the Prophet. and the killer of unbelievers.

’ O God.” Abuzar concluded: “By God. A noteworthy point is the number and variety of people who confirmed the authenticity of these narrations. the Prophet told Ali: You are to me as Aaron was to Moses. I am your servant and Prophet. but there is no Prophet after me. he donated his silver ring by pointing his finger to the poor man and the latter took it with filled joy. Ali is his master too. as soon as the Prophet completed the prayer the trustworthy Gabriel came with the following verses: “Your guardians are God. and give me a Minister from my family. ‘O God. my brother Moses asked you. . ease my task for me. When Imam Ali was offering his prayer. so that they may understand what I say. “O God. is the Prophet’s speech during his last pilgrimage to Makkah. ease my task. and make him share my task. and remove the impediment from my speech. and give me a Minister from my family. Ali. The consistency of narrations leave no room for doubt that Ali was chosen by God and his Prophet to be the ideological leader after the Prophet’s departure. Perhaps the most outstanding occasion.’ And you answered: ‘Granted is thy prayer. After this incident the Prophet prayed humbly to God and said. Ibn Abbas in Asbab Al-Nizol by Imam Wahidi. that we celebrate thy praise without stint and remember thee without stint. Expand my breast. His Prophet and the believers who pray and give alms while they prostrate to God…!” Ibn Sinan narrated this incident in Sahih Al Bukhari. and make him share my task. Aaron.but none helped him except Imam Ali. On different occasions. In a large congregation of Muslims he declared: He whoever I am his master. my brother. add to my strength through him. which sank into people’s memories. my brother. expand my breast. add to my strength through him. O Moses.

it won’t be possible to write all the characteristics of Ali’s personality. From these few quotations. who was openly declared by the Prophet as the Commander of the Faithful was a very powerful and strong character. it can be safely concluded that Ali’s exclusion from the assigned duty marked the first major mistake on the part of Muslims. As the Prophet himself said that if all the water of the oceans is converted to ink and the trunks of all the trees on earth is converted into pen then.O God assist whoever supports him and disgrace those who have enmity towards him. Nevertheless. too. . The inevitable consequences were a slow deviation that ended up in a turbulent stream of events. In the end we can say that Ali. the heroic deeds of Ali have left an ever-lingering mark behind to serve as inspiration for posterity. His multifaceted personality can never by described in a few pages or in a limited number of words. which no one was able to exercise control over.

straightforward. 4. He who has pained me in fact has pained Allah. page 206 published in 1355 Hijra from Egypt. Sahih Muslim: Vol. (because) Bibi Fatima was the daughter of the superior most prophet of Allah. he is a disbeliever. page 125 published in 1349 Hijra from Egypt). . an ideal or absolute woman. ethical and never willing to compromise. she is full of love and care for her husband and children and also for father. This description is particularly important because it gives a glimpse of the woman that Islam wanted to create? Fatima is the bold. the seal of prophethood. Writes a commentator: “At another occasion. 2. and the wife of an Imam who alone has the unique distinction of. and indeed. (This is a widely accepted narration that has found space in the pages of Sahih Bukhari: Vol. is firm. courageous lady. who goes on to respect her for immense values. an exact feminine copy of the Absolute Person described by Krishna in Gita) The Holy Prophet had said: Fatima is my flesh and blood. This is particularly relevant from the point of view of Book-III on the subject of Vedas. She is knowledgeable and possesses all the virtues that an ideal woman ought to have.Fatima (We present here a brief chapter from Fatima’s life consequent to Mohammad’s death. Whosoever causes suffering to her in fact causes suffering to me. she is unafraid. “Ali’s flesh is my flesh. who fights for the injustices meted out on her and her husband. the Holy Prophet declared that Fatima is the chief of the women in the universe.

After the departure of the Holy Prophet. thoroughly purified. shall follow him. and I and he are from the same divine light” (saying of the Holy Prophet). the best of all the women in the universe from beginning to the end. 1. injustice and ignorance of the pagan days. which fell on her. Through verse 33 of Al Ahzab. his vicegerent and his successor. A wellknown companion kicked the door of her house. 2. . among whom are included Asiyah. Maryam. many books of history and traditions clearly mention the disgraceful attitude of the companions towards the dearest daughter of the Holy Prophet. page 206) of the Holy Prophet that we have described above. The injury caused by the falling door finally killed her. after the Holy Prophet. Ali and their sons have been thoroughly purified.Ali’s blood in my blood. so as to enable some to distort and corrupt the true religion of Allah and utilize its name to enforce tyranny. the nafs of the Holy Prophet. In Vol. and Khadija al Kubrah. in all ages. his brother. Fatima is the most blessed. and the choicest woman. her killer stands condemned forever: It happened when a large crowd under the leadership of the above said companion came to arrest Ali ibn Abu Talib. it is written that the two caliphs were among those who went to the house of Fatima for setting it on fire. In spite of these narrations in praise of Fatima. The house of Fatima was set on fire. and the mother of eleven holy Imams and through her last son the divine will and justice shall prevail on the earth. In view of the saying (Sahih Bukhari-Vol. who was deprived of his rightful mission to administer the affairs. Isa. within a year. and the son of Maryam. his followers ignored the symbolic events of mubahilah and Khum. published from Egypt. page 64 of Tarikh Abul Fida. after his death. she.

Saied ibn Obaidah. it became a centre. the decree of the Caliph was read at the mosque. There was a possibility that they would not accept Abu Bakr as Caliph. He headed towards Damascus. the home of Fatima. a political agent. dangerous to governments. which has . from this day on. history shows us three important centers of great patience: the mosque. Those loyal to Ali and those who regarded him as the rightful inheritor did not go to the mosque to pledge allegiance. Even though none of the members of this house ever revolted or worked to create disharmony. News came back that halfway there he had been attacked and killed by a jinn! Who had assassinated him? People even knew the jinn who had killed him because a poem circulated in praise of that jinn. But soon murmurs were heard that he had been murdered by command of Umar by Khalid ibn Valid. he left Medina. “Now in Medina. We invite you to go through them. the leader of the Khazraj.Ali Shariati has described the description of the events that happened consequent to Mohammad’s death in detail. People pledged allegiance to him. did not accept the Caliphate of Abu Bakr. the Prophet’s home. But the most dangerous focal point was at Fatima’s house. and next to it. Immediately after Saqifa. Out of protest. which was the rightful claimant to the Caliphate. tried unrelentlessly to gather the remaining votes so as to pave the way. a man of influence who was the candidate for Caliphate of the Helpers at Saqifa. Umar. The fate of the tribes of Arabia was still unknown. Three Centres of Patience We again take recourse to Ali Shariati who has very dramatically described the events that unfolded outside the house of Ali and Fatima.

cannot now bear the fact that there is a group in this house which has been established to resist. They are visible between the cracks in the door. The fire is now at her door. Fatima. She is standing behind the door. cries and confusion. Umar is very angry about this single point of strength in opposition to the new leaders. wall to wall.’ It is true that Umar’s servant brought fire to the mosque. Her cry holds . In the midst of the confusion. Yes. who gather together to put aside that allegiance. (Fatima has just been able to) find peace for a few moments from the anger of the tragedy which has most recently fallen upon her and destroyed her home. The door of Fatima’s house opens to the mosque. The mosque is the Parliament of the Caliphate. ‘Even if Fatima is in there?’ And Umar answers. Only the distance of a wall separates them. And still more important is the fact that house is next to the mosque. They have come closer now. Suddenly the cry of Fatima is heard. ‘I will burn this house to the ground with all its inhabitants.now been silenced. Fatima’s house is in the corner and the faces of those who ere until yesterday the dearest and most beloved of the Prophet can be seen there. the house of government. ‘Even if she is in there.’ She hears these words of attack loud and clear. She hears the words of someone in amazement. Umar shouts out. It is strange that these three are all located in one place. asking. The flames of fire are close. a loud uproar comes from the mosque. ‘Ali come out!’ Inside the house there is great commotion. He who has struggled a great deal to establish Abu Bakr’s leadership and who has removed hundreds of obstacles. The cries of Umar grow louder and more violent by the moment. hears the voice of Umar ibn Khattab saying. in the midst of the uproar. Suddenly.

He does not know what to do. She has grown up in the cradle of resistance and struggle. Fatima. Umar. They do so. what have I not seen from Umar and Abu Bakr!’ The followers of Umar take several steps backwards. Abu Bakr returns to Fatima’s house followed by Umar and others. These are the cries and anger of the beloved daughter of the Prophet! A group cannot contain themselves. Ali. ‘Father.within it all of the sorrow of the world. They begin to cry and wail out loud. Everyone gathers around Abu Bakr.’ Fatima is used to difficulties. She now finds herself facing the most difficult of her tragedies when she senses herself to have the least strength. in . They greet Fatima. They relate the story of Fatima to him. ‘Abu Bakr cuts with cotton (i. gathering together all of her strength before she falls to her knees under the pressure and weight weighing down upon her. but this time they go softly and quietly. Ali asks them to enter. She is trying to protect Ali who is now alone. She stands alone behind the door of this home like its guard. (Even this is described by the Vedas). But she remains silent. his policy is softness) whereas Umar cuts with the sword (his policy is rough). They ask permission to enter. She does not give permission. whose patience is hard to conceive of. One says. He asks Fatima to give them permission to enter. Some of them tell it as if they are speaking of a tragedy. a silence which is overflowing with anger. She does not resist Ali.e. comes out. Then he returns to Abu Bakr. Prophet of God! After you. who had remained alone. Another group remains looking fixedly upon the home of Fatima and the Prophet. stands confused for a moment. They say they were all fixed with shame.

It is a wall. Ali is sitting beside them. Because of her anger. Abu Bakr tries to have a positive encounter. I had wished that I had died so that I would not remain after him. peace be upon him. She creates a distance between herself and them. without hesitating for a moment.’ (This was how traditions were created in the name of the Prophet). she places herself beyond a wall. They say there is only one host. next to the wall. That which remains from us is charity. Abu Bakr. turns away from them and does not answer. Ayesha. silence. Umar is also silent. full of anger. The day your father died. begins with a quiet introduction full of reason. Abu Bakr grows quiet. She has hidden herself from them so she will not see them. Shame and silence create a shadow upon the heads of the two leaders. with a face full of deep and apparent sorrow and in a tone trembling with sympathy. Abu Bakr senses that Fatima’s anger and disgust is beyond limit. You see that I know you and I admit your virtue and nobility and if I were to take the rights and heritage of the Prophets of God from you. He tries to find the strength so that he can speak at this difficult moment. It is difficult for them at this moment to be present between Fatima and Ali. in answer. Fatima. is pouting. Moments pass and the silence which is full of words remains fixed in this house. begins in a friendly voice. the distance between which is never removed from that time forward.anger. He does not know what to say or how to begin. ‘If I were to . without any anger or cries. They wait to see the effects of these soft and praiseworthy words upon Fatima’s spirit. I swear that the family of the Prophet is dearer to me than my own daughter. say. it is only because I had heard him. And Fatima. ‘We Prophets do not leave a legacy. ‘Beloved daughter of the Prophet.

’ They both answer. he is convinced. ‘Yes. When I see the Prophet of God. He accepts their advice and is tamed. He senses that neither does he have the strength to speak nor does Fatima have the strength to listen. His income now depends completely upon what he received from the public purse.’ She immediately continues. . That which my daughter Fatima likes.’ Abu Bakr begins to cry. We heard these words from the Prophet of God. They leave Ali alone. He enters the mosque. ‘Then I have authority from God and the angels to tell you that you both brought me to anger and you have not given me contentment.quote the words of the Prophet of God to both of you. He arises and Umar behind him. Full of confusion and tears. He imagines that by accepting the Caliphate. he cries out with anger and pain to those gathered there that … Fadak is Confiscated But the power structure and the policy making agents convince Abu Bakr that it is in the best interests of the community for him to move aside. ‘Fatima’s contentment is my contentment and Fatima’s anger is my anger. he will be able to continue the victory of Islam and implement the Traditions of the Prophet. With deep sorrow and after much disagreement. The first decision he makes is to confiscate Fadak. Ali is personally and economically paralyzed by this act. the grazing area which belonged to Fatima. I will complain to him about you. ‘I hold you both to your oath to God. I will tell him about you. would you admit them to be his words and follow them?’ They both answer in one voice … ‘Yes…’ She says. Did either of your not hear the Prophet say. That which brings about Fatima’s anger brings about my anger. I like.

Ali remains at home. She holds her strict position until her death. Usman. The feeling of anger does not leave her. the aristocrat. ‘You did what you shouldn’t have done and you didn’t do what you should have done. Ali cannot give his allegiance because Fatima opposes a power or force which does not know the meaning of right. Khalid ibn Valid and Saied ibn Vaqas.Those who had gathered around him are dispersed either through force or by their own decision.’ Then. bearing her bereaving spirit. having lost hope. Abuzar. She does not let go for a moment. He tells those who are hurriedly and victoriously returning from Saqifa. Power falls into the hands of Abu Bakr and Umar. full of sorrow. they cannot get Ali’s allegiance. Fatima Does Not Give Up But Fatima does not sit down. She has not the least bit of softness for them. He goes to Damascus and remains silent forever. The fate and future of Islam is given into the political hands of men such as Abdul Rahman ibn Ouf. is confiscated. the careless. the close Companion of the Prophet and Ammar remain idle. They know that as long as Fatima is alive. He spends his time gathering together the Quran because he fears for the future. In this way. Ali remains at home. he returns to Iran. The Prophet dies. Fatima’s legacy. Salman retreats to a corner. Under a mountain. They become the principal agents of the Caliphate of the Prophet. He dies at Madayen. full of sorrow. Bilal has to leave Medina. a man without piety. She attacks what she has in relation to them. a worshipper of money. there is no danger of revolt from his non-allegiance and disobedience. she continues her resistance and her struggle against the oppressive . her husband and her children. which is the only means of income for herself.

It can be kept alive. who have pre-designed and pre-planned the whole thing. so that people come to know that the ruling forces do not . If the truth cannot be implemented. Fadak is a small grazing area and even if it had been larger. it would have still been too small for Fatima to get involved with. The chosen power. She must rebel against the ruler. She tries to prove to everyone that the Caliph was taking out political revenge upon her and striking an economic blow to Ali with this act of taking Fadak. Fatima has no real hope to be able to get back any power.) Fatima does not give up. She knows that Ali has lost his rights. have become fixed. why was it returned to the Ahlebayt about a century later by Umar bin Abdul Aziz. She wants the thoughts of people to know to what extent these people who call themselves ‘followers of the custom of the Prophet’ and who actually establish their own Caliphate on this basis. she will at least have condemned him. The majority of the great Companions and Emigrants of the Prophets who have reached a number which can be counted on one hand. (Our question is that if Fadak was rightly taken by the Caliph. Even though the death of the Prophet has burned her spirit and strongly hurt her. regarded as the most pious of the Umayyad rulers. She must fight and struggle with the little hope that she has. Each blow follows upon the other. oppress the family of the Prophet. it can. But Fadak has taken on the importance of showing the usurpation and force of the new regime. be disgraced. If it does not fall. In order to get back Fadak. at least. She believes the Caliphate to be unworthy. Even if she cannot defeat him. she does not stand still.Caliphate. it can be proven and designed so that time will come to know it. who tried to do away with the sins of his ancestors. all have given their vote to the Caliph or they have accepted the election and coup d’etat of Saqifa.

An aged political structure brings them together. from among them. They are more sincere and impartial than the Emigrants who are mainly from the Quraish tribe. This is why Medina now witnesses one of the most wonderful views of history. He received the majority vote. Their candidate has been Saied ibn Obaidah who left Medina and was assassinated on his way to Damascus. They give in although they disagree with Abu Bakr’s reasoning. She speaks of each and every one of the desires . Now the Caliph. They surrendered when he said that the Prophet wished for the Caliph to be from his Quraish family. Abu Bakr had been an emigrant. Every night she accompanies Ali to their sessions. being led by a man. is their influential master. sitting upon a horse. a woman in mourning. They are oppressive. It is truth. justice and freedom which have been defeated and imprisoned. Fatima.represent the truth. They support each other. form among the relatives and family of the Prophet. they submitted and overlooked their differences. Next to the mosque of the Prophet. Ali walks. the beloved and rebellious daughter of the Prophet rides. She speaks with them. All of them share in his leadership. Every night they leave their home with the same purpose. in the heart of the dark night. But the Helpers play no role in the present leadership. Out of respect for the saying of the Prophet and his family. Now Fatima goes to them personally. He had shown himself to be among the loyal followers and family of the Prophet. Ali goes with her to seek out the Helpers. They gave leadership to Abu Bakr who was from the Prophet’s tribe and the father-in-law of the Prophet. These are the present people of Medina. passes through the dark empty streets of the town. a relative of God’s Prophet and the elder of the Quraish.

She counts the results and makes them apparent. Ali. its spirit and goals and finally with the power of logic and reasoning. All admit their great error. surprised and in a tone of protest. She frightens them with the ark and unstable future which awaits Islam with their leadership of the community. she proves the righteousness of Ali and the wrongfulness of the election. virtues and superiorities. ‘Ali has done nothing other than what he should have done. But their answers? ‘You should see the Prophet’s daughter now that we have given our allegiance to Abu Bakr. If your husband. We prefer him to anyone else. with her great human personality. Fatima is asking them to support Ali and help him get his rights. seeing that once again Ali is sacrificed because of his loyalty to the Prophet. asks them. Not even one historian has mentioned the fact that anyone opposes the logic of Fatima to argue with her interpretation and reception of the event. neglected his funeral ceremonies.’ ‘The affair is finished. come out of the house and fought for a legacy? Fatima. had taken the lead and mentioned all of this sooner. with the accurate knowledge she had of Islam. says.’ Ali.of the Prophet. we would certainly have elected him. They stand by her. but what did they do? God will punish . She shows how they will suffer from this superficial and hurriedly determined decision of political negligence. He did the noble thing. All accept the virtues of Ali and the superiority of his leadership. Through her influential spirit. She shows the deception. All give her the right. She accounts one by one for Ali’s worthiness. ‘Do you really believe that I should have left the dead body of the Prophet in his home. her political awareness.

destroying the fortifications. Mohammad. Those who act oppressively are far from the blessings and mercy of God. the wives of the Emigrants and Companions of the Prophet went to visit her to ask how she was feeling. When Fatima was ill with the final sickness. she said: “By God I am alive while I have nothing but contempt for this world. it shows how suddenly the message was thwarted from progress at a time when it was making its progress.” Fatima’s last sermon. within six months of the passing of Mohammad. after asking for the blessings of God for her father. They deserve to be slaughtered. Woe be to those people. which caused her death. Mountains form upon the unconquerable pillars of prophecy.’ (All this must have happened within six months of the Prophet’s death. In reply to them.them and will take care of them. shows exactly what she really believed and practiced. making devious decisions and standing on the precipice of material and personal self-desires. to be wounded by swords. breaking spears. because it was the sixth month when she died). After I tried to show them who their real enemy was and they did not listen. Abu Bakr had been elected Caliph and Ali was put aside. I detest your men. They brought down a leader (Ali) who was at the peak of the mission. How ugly are the sharp edges of swords when they are broken and then play with people’s efforts and struggles which so many have undertaken. the place of inspiration. Moreover. the wise and expert dominated by both routine and spiritual affairs. What a terrible future they are preparing for by causing the wrath of God and thereby bringing about permanent torment for themselves. I put them aside. I tried to awaken them to their acts and show them the burden they had placed upon their own shoulders. Beware .

They cannot change the traditions of history.! This is an obvious loss. wounded. he would guide them to a clear. but more wonderful than these is speech. worshippers of this world (materialists) would be distinguished form the ascetics and the right ones from the antagonists. He would advise them in things both manifest and hidden without any benefit to himself from their needs and without taking more than a small share for himself – just enough so that he would not go thirsty or hungry. In such a case. But they deny the truths so we captivated them for their deeds. If Ali had been leader. The watering spring would be full. his killing of oppressors. From those who oppressed. his effective blows in words and his anger for the sake of God? By God. if they had followed the selection of the Prophet. By God. We will give blessings from heaven and earth to them. Hazrat Ali. its shores clean and sound and he would return them safely to the edge after they had drank from the water.’ Arise! Arise! If you stay a while you will see the wonder of nature. God says. he would have guided anyone who had gone astray and if one rejected the right reasoning Ali would have shown the error in a way that neither would the rider be hurt nor the horse he is riding upon. What is their argument? What pillars do they support? What rope do they hold onto? What family do they admire and dominate over? . his braveness in fighting and martyrdom. sweet spring of water. ‘If citizens are faithful and avoid wrong deeds. why did they dislike Ali? Were they afraid of the sharpness of his sword in supporting right and truth. the results of their actions will be returned to themselves.

Woe be to them! Is it not more worthy to follow the one who guides rather than the one who cannot find his way if he is not guided? What has happened to you? What kind of a judgment is this? You have impregnated the earth with your act. Just wait until the time when it gives birth. the sharp swords of the dominations of the oppressors. No public assets except a small quantity will remain. What a wrong and oppressive exchange they have made! By God. they gave superiority to those who deferred their decision to become Muslims rather than to those who were the pioneers. anarchy and the rule of tyrants will overcome you. instead of milk. you will have buckets full of blood and poison will flow from the breasts of the newborn. What a terrible helper they have appointed (Omar).” . They are corrupters who do not understand. So you should be satisfied with your daily affairs and live in peace prior to the storm and terrible revolts. For them. It is then that the destroyers of rights will lose and those who will come in the future will find and realize the terrible results of what the ancestors have done. They destroyed those who believe they are performing good affairs. They will oblige you because you have turned your faces from the right way and you did not accept it. They elected weak ones instead of strong ones. They will cultivate with force what you have planted with love. The oppressors will enslave you.What a terrible leader they have elected (Abu Bakr). I swear to you. At that time you will only sigh for there will be nothing that you can do because you were blind and could not see the truth.

in consequence.The Martyr of Humanity (In narrating the history of the events that led to Karbala. against the worship of everything other than God. honour and merit. The Umayyads took a leading part in the resistance to the Prophet’s teaching which. in fine. in the seventh century of the Christian era. we are doing away with the usual custom of quoting and unquoting. From this land originated a great revolutionary wave. However. made the excellence of performance and thoroughness in carrying out one’s duties as a human being. son .Husain . and the Prophet had to suffer greatly at their hands. However. we agree that there are also views inferred from other books and therefore. Abu Sufiyan.) Arabia mostly a desert is a vast country along the western marches of Asia. This earned him the opposition of those to whose power this teaching posed a threat. Most of the Umayyads did not measure up to these standards and. without directly upholding the superiority or affirming the humbleness of any family. called Islam. They endeavoured to stem the tide of this revolution. who declared himself a Prophet. son of Abdullah. and imparted to the World a message of the absolute unity of God and took his stand against the worship of idols and of pelf and power. It was generated by Mohammad. its shores washed by the breakers of the Red Sea. we have taken Allama Ali Naqi Naqvi’s (Naqqan Saheb’s) book Shaheed-e-Insaniyat translated in English as Martyr of Humanity by S. the sole criteria for the achievement of superiority. it is not possible to replicate the 400-paged book and we have only used selected text. Ali Athar as the base for building our narration.

of Harb son of Umayya. and Hasan – his elder brother. Abu Sufiyan’s son Muawiya followed his father in opposing the teachings of Islam. And those loyal to him were tortured. He was the real defender of the principles of Islam. wedded only to the fear of God. in inheritance from his father. were not spared. and began harassing the Prophet and placing all manner of obstruction in his spreading the message of Islam. Even so the dread inspired by the long-established Umayyad authority prevented even one voice from being raised against the goings on of the ruling clique. unfurled the flag of revolt against Islam. This was particularly because of the oppressive rule of Muawiya during which several of Prophet’s companions were butchered to death. Yazid’s anxiety. Yazid was a great drunkard and was so exceedingly depraved that he was ‘guilty’ of moral transgressions of which the barest mention is taboo in decent society. mounted. a grandson of the Prophet. Husain was martyred at Karbala at the hands of Yazid’s forces. he directed Walid s/o Utba s/o Abu Sufiyan. and he longed to obtain the oath of allegiance to himself from Husain without loss of any time. but there was no knowing when the scales may fall off the eyes of the people. therefore. He might be silent for the time being. Despite this. and even Ali – Husain’s father. there lived a man who was unafraid of him. Governor of . somehow or other. The perverse and benighted iconolaters of Arabia rallied round his flag. Yazid was the son of Muawiya and had acquired the rule of entire Muslim world. A propaganda drive was commenced at the instigation of Muawiya all over the Islamic world against Ali and his character. Yazid knew to a certainty that in that quarter of Medina where resided the Hashimides in the Hijaz. imprisoned or killed. Accordingly. and they may be attracted to the truth.

conditions at Kufa had completely altered for the worse. After this melancholy development it was. he had to abide by the basic duty enjoined by Islam to make every legitimate effort for self-defense. and sought refuge at Mecca. he had already dispatched his cousin. to all appearances. but the grandson of the Prophet noticed here also that preparations were on foot to put him to death. but return to Mecca or Medina was also not feasible. According to international usage as. Towards the last days of the approach of the time for the hajj pilgrimage. Husain resolved upon leaving his hearth and home at Medina. On principle it was impossible for Husain to pledge his fealty to Yazid. when people from all quarters of the Islamic world were converging upon Mecca. Muslim met the fate of a martyr. to obtain the oath from Husain. He took with himself all his dependents. to observe how things stood there. it was much easier for him to offer his head than his hand to Yazid but before doing so. including ladies and children. Husain had to bid goodbye to that city.Medina. indeed. Muslim s/o Aqeel. He took the road to Kufa of which the residents had persistently invited him to guide them in religious duties. In the interval. Accordingly. and not to show any lenience in the matter. if he was not compelled to pledge his loyalty to Yazid. Makkah was such an abode of peace that nobody need have entertained any manner of fright there. Husain instantly divined the import of Yazid’s message. after the heartless Obaidullah s/o Ziyad had established his authority there. Moreover. however. This was an irrefutable proof of his entertaining no wish to fight with anybody and imperil his own life and the lives of those who had kept him company. highly inexpedient for Husain to persevere in his resolve to go to Kufa. since from Kufa had been . according to Islam as well. Indeed.

and he wrote to the governor of Kufa. Husain was peace-loving by nature. It is said that he even said that he be allowed to go to India. He thought that Husain had been reduced to seek a peaceful settlement of the outstanding issues between the parties on account of weakness and lack of resources. Husain’s object in seeking . overwhelmingly superior in numbers. a few slaves and about a hundred or a hundred and fifty close friends who had managed to join him despite the strict watch that had been kept on all the headways. who was as self-respecting as he was aware of his religious responsibilities.dispatched a heavy contingent to take him captive. On the evening of the 9 th of Muharram. launched the offensive against Husain’s small band. Husain was accompanied by only 17 of his relatives. Husain applied for a night’s truce. constrained to alight at Karbala where. drunk with power and could form no idea of the lengths to which Husain could go in braving hardships. and placed before the Commander of Yazid’s army terms calculated to reduce tension and obviate the chances of a resort to violence. came pouring in Yazid’s multitudinous armies. found it impossible to abandon his stand. Ziyad’s son was. and it was only with much reluctance and difficulty that it was granted. had to concede that Husain’s approach was one of peace. All roads were sealed and Husain was surrounded. From the 7th of Muharram water was totally banned for Husain and his companions. not excepting even children. Husain. however. Yazid’s army. He was there. Pressure was inexorably exerted to coerce Husain into swearing allegiance to Yazid. and wrote back to Oman bin Saad that Husain could purchase safety only by making an unconditional offer to swear allegiance to Yazid. This barred Husain’s onward progress no less than it prevented his retreat. Obaidullah bin Ziyad as much. His approach was so reasonable and pacific that Son of Saad (Ibne Saad). from the very next day.

Innocent children were greatly agitated and in deep distress on account of thirst. and leave him to his fate. Husain and his companions were denied even a drop of water. sons and other relatives and friends. He collected his companions and told them plainly that the following day would see the end of his existence. indeed. and make good use of the cover of darkness afforded by the night. with one voice. A restless sea of a multitudinous army spread before him. He had with him ladies as well. And since it had been finally decided to entrust the event of the quarrel to the arbitrament of war. and deliberate upon the course to be finally adopted by every one of them.this brief truce was simply to spend the last night of his existence in offering prayers to God. to quietly think over the whole matter once again. and selfless companions. who lived in seclusion as they observed purdah. As to his enemies. he encouraged them to leave for any destination they chose. The enemy completely and closely guarded all approaches to the Euphrates. All manifestations of might and exhibitions of authority and all modes of persecution. Indeed. however. failed to coerce Husain or his companions into the recognition of a sinful and depraved man as a ruler of Islam. His brave. told him that they would never forsake him. no further argument had been left to be urged upon them to dissuade them from indulgence in the unholy war. sheer desolation and utter ruin surrounded him but Husain had in his immediate proximity the dear handsome faces of his brothers. which was. he may be free to do so. . exactly what they did. There were small children also with him. individually. Husain might well have considered it eminently desirable to afford an opportunity to friend and foe alike. and he gave them complete exemption from adhering to the oath of loyalty to him. nephews. so that should any of his companions elect to withdraw his support.

started leaving for the field of battle. could have been held to have committed any wrong. His relatives. They. Husain offered for sacrifice one who. to offer the sacrifice of their lives.’ Husain did the same. one by one. Husain’s grown-up son. did not lose control over themselves. the turn arrived for the relatives of Husain to sacrifice themselves. Husain’s brave companions. was then sent to die fighting. and remained patient and composed. When all of them had attained martyrdom. Ali Akbar. sacrificed their lives for him and his doctrines. aimed . and his mother heard that Ali Akbar had been cut to pieces in the field of battle. brother and the standard-bearer of his army. The shocking plight of his infant son. He said to them. among his relatives. a soldier fixed an arrow to his bow. Husain lifted the child back in his hand. It would have been far easier for Husain to have sacrificed himself first of all. was noticed by Husain. restlessly gasping in his mother’s lap. When left with none else to be offered in sacrifice. who resembled the Prophet himself in appearance. therefore. She saw their handsome and valiant son getting lost in the innumerable shifting of crowd of hostile forces. His mother was in her tent at whose door stood his father. lest you fear that I am asking for water under his pretext. ‘if you feel I have done some wrong.From morning till about midday on the 10 th of Muharram. outside his family. however. who raised him on his hands before the hostile army. His father saw. At that moment. then what wrong has this six-month old child committed. Then Husain’s other relatives sacrificed their lives one after the other. but none came forward. He is dying of thirst. to be sent to fight and to sacrifice himself. Ali Asghar. was the first. under no law whatever. but he had to undergo the most thoroughgoing and harrowing test of his powers of endurance. Abbas. Thereafter. I lay him down on the ground and get back so that you can give him water with your own hands.

Heart-broken and helpless. The manner in which he confronted the enemy is normally far beyond human strength. that protected the weakened bones inside. Husain unsheathed his sword and defended himself according to the injunctions of Islam as best he could. The arrow pierced the infant’s neck. a weak patient. shriveled and burnt by the blazing sun. fat in the body was all gone and there was just sin.it at the infant’s neck and released it. was the only one to survive the holocaust. From among the men of Husain’s party. Husain had now to offer his own sacrifice after offering resistance in self-defense. but how can a man single-handedly withstand an inundation of steel swords? Numberless wounds and injuries were inflicted on Husain’s body. from 2 nd of Muharram when water and food supplies were blocked. Husain’s head was severed from his body. This outraged the conscience of humanity and symbolized the utter collapse of all feelings of mercy and kindliness. Their tents were committed to flames. Ali or Imam Zainul Abidin. This stage had indeed been imminent since the very beginning but now it had actually arrived. he was put under irons. namely. All that had happened within a matter of 9 days. The dead bodies of the martyrs were trampled by horses. whose marrow from bones had melted. whose limbs were not moving. as enjoined upon him by the Islamic code. The modest ladies of the noblest family in Arabia were publicly paraded from city to city. All because of heat and no water and food. Last Chapter of Yajur Veda has clearly told the conditions of the martyrs of Karbala. and held aloft on a spearhead. In Karbala death was easy and living was more difficult. the effects and belongings of Husain and his companions were given over to plunder and the sheets that covered the heads of the respectable ladies of the Prophet’s family were snatched away. though evidence of little water that was . his son. and he fell off from his horse.

when they were killed. Accordingly. This makes the persecution of Husain unique for all time. many more have been deprived of their all. Accordingly. the events of Karbala are also connected with the region of Iraq. been the victims of a variety of ruthless brutalities. on account of its place of occurrence is related to some particular locality. This terrible calamity is often known as the “happenings of Karbala”. Ordinarily every incident. which have relevance for the entire community of man. irrespective of whether or not we personally know those involved in such an unhappy relationship or their creed or religious persuasion.left can be seen till the 7 th are available and till 10 th of Muharram. and simultaneously with one another. without any distinction of caste and creed. the stock of Hashim and the community of the Muslims. and many more have been thrown into prisons without any fault. and as unmatched might appropriately be the measure of aversion . Incidents however. One reason is that it is in human nature to detest the oppressor and sympathize with the oppressed. Thus on the events of Karbala converge the interest and attention of the whole of mankind for a variety of reasons. many innocent persons have been put to the sword. the country of Arabia. as intense might well be the degree of sympathy evoked by and shown to Husain. on occasions. but all manner of inhuman atrocities and barbarities meted out to others severally and on separate occasions were perpetrated against Husain alone. as unequalled as the oppression exercised against Husain was and as unexampled was his persecution. Many prophets and saintly personages have. country and section of society. The cruelties and savagery employed against Husain in Karbala are unparalleled in the annals of the world. acquire universal and general application from their peculiar features and far-reaching consequences.

He thus presented to the world the highest example of steadiness. who say. Such a sacrifice would command honour and be entitled to homage in proportion to the merit and the excellence of ht object for which it has been made. It does not follow any act on his part which would be based on high principles. At this critical juncture. devotion to the truth and firmness and purity of character. A variety of objects might be sacrificed but the supreme sacrifice consists in laying down one’s life. brute force and tyranny were riding roughshod over men’s right to liberty of conscience. The second reason is that the sufferings of Husain were not due to his helplessness as would be those of a man. Such a person would indeed be held to be an oppressed one. Truth and justice were being shaken to their foundations. which constitutes self-sacrifice. so unrivalled might aptly be the abhorrence in which his oppressors might be held. . patience. entitled to sympathy. His helplessness. and sacrifice. And since the persecution to which Husain was subjected excelled that to which anybody else was exposed. is uninvited and unwilled. selfabnegation. Husain tore the mask off the face of unredeemed tyranny and sheer perversity by taking to the battlefield along with him his relatives and even children of tender age. might be waylaid and plundered by highway robbers or killed by them. And if a man falter not in offering himself up to his supreme ordeal he would be entitled to the esteem and respect of all mankind. Consequently it would bear no comparison to Husain’s helplessness.evoked by his oppressors. self-control. and all the cruelties in support of a rightful cause and in defense of an exalted principle. resolution. as Husain undertook to suffer all the hardships. The self-immolation of Husain in Karbala stands unrivalled in the chronicles of mankind. he may. On account of these virtues which Husain so splendidly vindicated. however.

and. for the underlying object of them all. If Husain had striven against the non-Muslims then. deathless. was not such as might be the subject of the slightest controversy between different faiths. Husain’s aim coincided with this common objective of all religions. liberty of conscience.in justice. all the nations of the world who prize sacrifice in a noble cause like truth. Husain’s self-immolation . His performance re-established humane conduct which was at its last gasp and gave to mankind a message which is. or freedom of worship cannot but value exceedingly highly the sacrifice which Husain offered. faith and objective. and would remain. indeed. The tragedy of Karbala may well have fallen short of commanding universal sympathy. howsoever impeccable might have been the object of his sacrifice. It is entirely another matter. in submitting himself to the sacrifice. howsoever heartlessly he might have been led to martyrdom. supporting their various super-structures. all religions tend to be at one with each other. Accordingly. not be identified exclusively with any one particular nation or religion. Husain’s object. that on account of the contrariness of the times. He acquainted the world with the real value and merit of truth and truthfulness. however the nub of all religions is to refine human conduct and perfect human qualities. certain principles and directions of the various religions might have been modified or altered on account of the misunderstandings of succeeding generations. is to develop human conduct and morals to perfection. his adversaries might well have pleaded animus with his name. There is yet another reason. but must be reckoned as correlated and belonging to the whole of mankind. to get away with their crimes. As already stated. At a certain level concerning human excellence and high morality. and presented for its edification a mode of death in which immortality itself is unmistakably latent.

a perennial source of practical instruction which may be turned to advantage by them all. that it is productive of beneficial results and advantages to . Distress occasioned by the chances and changes of life is sought to be driven into oblivion. among the nations of the world most celebrations are commemorative of occasions of good cheer. and re-establish virtue amongst. Events fraught with pain and grief have been sparingly commemorated. the tragedy of Karbala has been solemnized. the perfect examples of a variety of excellent qualities of behaviour and of the manifestations of cardinal virtues that Husain and his followers furnished in such profusion during the tragic developments at Karbala provide for all men. it follows from the doleful manner in which. people the world over have looked upon the tragedy of Karbala as one in which they all were intimately concerned. Consequently since in principle. his sacrifice had been made to uproot the defects of. and do honour and pay homage to Husain’s sacrifice. Again. It was for these reasons that despite all their internal tensions and mutual differences. On the contrary. without any distinction whatever. and all religions equally believe in fostering virtue and eradicating vice. there are no fundamental differences between different religions about the concepts of virtue and vice. followers of one and the same faith. Accordingly. Since human nature cannot support any burden of gloom and depression for any great length of time. By nature men are drawn towards happiness and shun grief. the adherents of all faiths would applaud Husain’s object.was not formally meant to obliterate or support any particular faith. It is only Husain’s martyrdom that has been solemnized over the centuries to the accompaniment of marks of mourning and symbols of woe. and the nations of the world have alike conceded its importance. for ages.

but the memory of the sacrifice to which Husain gave himself up has been kept alive continuously for nearly 1400 years without losing any of its cordial sincerity. The tragedy of Karbala has so forcibly defied this tendency. Civilization has seen many upheavals and standards of behaviour and modes of thought and feeling have undergone many radical alterations. men of letters and those of a reflective turn of mind. and its historical uniqueness and meaningfulness. has maintained its sway over the hearts and minds of people so long. to be conceded that Husain had offered the sacrifice in defense of such unexceptionable and exalted principles of human conduct. in prose and verse. It is obvious that in proportion to the importance of an objective. As a corollary. as the tragedy of Karbala. in consequence. and has stood its ground against all later events with such conspicuous firmness. so long as mankind and the nobler traits of humanity survive. whose impact on the imagination of humanity might rival Husain’s sacrifice. . showing its unmatched significance. as evidenced by the undiminished fervour with which it has been observed for centuries.mankind. those principles will continue to be cherished and the memory of Husain’s sacrifice would remain fresh. No single incident in the history of the world has collected round itself such a huge mass of writing. It would have. that one is constrained to believe that the world has yet to produce an event of greater weight and moment. Numberless revolutions have taken place in the world after the events at Karbala. exercise the powers of their pens and the energies of their minds about it. as are shared in the largest measure by people. It is a fact that fresh events blot out the memory of earlier happenings. all over the world.

and of piety. putting all his forces against him? Husain and his 150 odd companions stood firm against a huge army of 30. from the morning of 7 th Muharram onward. it has the power to make people weep over the past incidents? Why was Husain’s martyrdom so different from all the other people who keep dying for one cause or other. And why is that the tragedy of Karbala is the highest example of the fight between truth and untruth. spread hatred among humans. signifying the beginning of the month of Muharram. the martyrdom of Husain (grandson of Prophet Mohammad). In effect. Yet the name Muharram brings to mind the tragedy of Karbala.000 or even more. did not budge from his stand despite the then ruler of the Islamic world. that too in the scorching summer heat of Karbala. and between attempt to restore order against those flaunting the teachings of God. amass wealth. forgetting the plight of the poor. and indulge in acts of terrorism. What is so significant about Karbala that even after 1400 years of its happening. bigotry and injustice. righteousness and justice standing against cruelty. or indulge in any type of corruption. Tazias and processions are carried out and people are even seen crying upon listening to the events associated with Karbala. who reached Karbala on 2 nd of Muharram. even so these . As soon as the soon is sighted. between godliness and evil.Significance of Muharram and Karbala Muharram is the first month of the Islamic lunar calendar. countless gatherings called majlis are convened to mourn the tragedy of Karbala. each day? And why was it that Husain. oppression or those which hinder peace. preferring death over life on the 10 th of Muharram. Yazid. Karbala can also be described as a war against those who commit crime. and despite having no water or food for three days.

rich and high-born were considered superior to the rest of the people. Let us go in detail and see the causes that contributed to the great catastrophe of Karbala. Prophet’s job was to cleanse all those beliefs. and also the events associated with that holocaust. superstitions and traditions that had become integral parts of their lives. Karbala is an attempt to lead mankind back towards God not just through giving sermons put showing how those can be put to practice even in the most adverse of circumstances. In short. weak and insecure against oppressors and unjust people. Husain fought a war where sacrifices were of such nature that history trembles even upon describing them. the great difference being that while Krishna fought a victorious war where the sacrifices that were given were minimum. Karbala is the voice of the downtrodden. Karbala is not just the epitome of Islamic teachings put to practice but depicts a more vivid adherence to all that is contained in Gita. considering it an act of maintaining their self-respect. He had to teach tolerance. Prophet Mohammad had arduously worked to reform a diseased social order where petty fights resulted into bloody warfare lasting generations. so much so that the murder of an important person was avenged by putting to death hundreds of people belonging to the tribe of the murderer. humility and forgiveness to those who deemed forgiveness as evidence of weakness and forbearance to those who saw it as symbol of cowardice. whereas important people were allowed to kill ‘insignificant’ or ‘unimportant’ men. forbearance. He had to give lessons in equality and fraternity to .are performed by the State. Husain’s grandfather. people slaughtered their daughters.

Husain saw his grandfather toiling hard to eradicate all kind of evils from the society. And then. From his childhood. Husain saw how the entire direction that his grandfather had given to the teachings was hijacked by the selfseekers and satanic forces. he gave freedom to women from what was. justice. The priestly order was all-powerful which claimed to be an intermediary between the worshippers and the worshipped. so much so that lot many customs of the pre-Islamic period that were banned by Islam. who unmindful of any divine law or human regulation. brazenly enjoyed the fruits of the toil and labour of others. within 50 years. he gave freedom from the tyranny of the affluent. were reintroduced. the Prophet brought a message of freedom to world groaning under the power and authority of priests. and he gave freedom to the ordinary man from the constraints imposed upon him by narrow inhibitions of castes. it came to a stage where vices were not only being openly committed. but there were deliberate attempts to portray Islam as a . He grew up in an environment where righteousness. but in their hearts valued their own interests more to Islamic injunctions. to all intents and purposes. colour and race. he gave freedom to the slaves and the suppressed classes from the oppression of their masters and social superiors. The Arabs could not even dream that piety and righteousness were the highest merits in the eyes of God. piety. He grew up to eradicate all kind of evils from the society.those who divided themselves upon their high births. On the contrary. or that the lowest of men could claim equality with any member of the noblest families in Arabia. generosity and uplifting of all social virtues were the order of the day. After his grandfather’s death. slavery which divested them of even their elementary human rights. It started with those who showed themselves to be the most pious.

Ali showed to the world for the first time what a ruler’s role ought to be when he lived like a poor man and . Blood of innumerable innocent people was made to spill under his orders. He is famous for giving strict guidelines for his governors. while Yazid’s palace vied with the palaces of Byzantine and Persian kings. Husain’s grandfather Prophet Mohammad had taught the virtues of peace and piety. but also of the basic rational inclinations of the human mind. Yazid was committing every crime and evil under the sun. The conscience of the rightful was either purchased or their souls tormented into obedience and to such humble submission that their sensibilities were deadened to dumbness. that too under the banner of Islam – the very religion that had taught the Arabs the essence of being humans. so much so that even today.constituent of those vices. Yazid was preaching war and hatred. Degradation had reached a stage that Islam’s face was distorted and people had begun to view the Islam of Muawiya as the real Islam. Ali is known for giving the first charter of ruling a nation. not only of the teachings. in grandeur. Mohammad had never allowed forceful subversion of other territories. it is said that Islam spread through sword. when he was made Caliph of he Muslim world for a brief period of four years. He considered himself as an almighty dictator who paid no heed to the laws of civilized society. Yazid even went further and distorted the teachings of Prophet Mohammad to such a degree of ugliness that it became a mockery. even when he had become the Caliph of the Islamic world. lived in a small cottage. Muhammad had preached simple living and Ali. about the manner in which even the poorest of poor ought to be treated. whereas Yazid and even his father Muawiya had sent Muslim armies as far as Africa and India.

When Muawiya appointed Yazid as his successor. who demanded allegiance form Husain. For ten years after passing of Hasan and becoming the Imam of the people. Yazid went back to the preIslamic era where women were treated as peace of objects. secluded life. How could have Husain given his consent to the allegiance when he had seen that his father too never did so. On the contrary.took only that amount from the government treasury that went to the poorest of the poor. and brought restrictions on the number of permissible marriages. he was witness to open flaunting of the peace agreement between his elder brother Hasan and Muawiya for the past twenty years. and anybody who became a Caliph by his own might was a usurper. they led a simple. Therefore. During this period. Whereas Mohammad had given freedom to women form the age-old traditions of suppression. But when allegiance was demanded. Hence he tried his best to gain support. without giving a way out. injustice. and it was made clear that there was no way out. he also violated the last of the points of the treaty as well. Husain had no choice but to migrate or fight. no body could have ever pointed a finger at them that they were working against the interests of the state. not only his nomenclature was unjustified from the point of view of the treaty. and even when that . As long as the Ahlebayt were not forced to pay allegiance. cruelty prevailed during Yazid’s rule. In fact. whose very position as the Caliph was as violation to the terms of the treaty. Giving allegiance meant that Husain had given his consent to the (mis) rule of Yazid. He was a usurper of wealth and treasures while people died of hunger on the roads of Damascus. Husain was a silent witness to the tortures and misdeeds of Muawiya. even sent his brother Muslim to Kufa at the instance of the people there. Husain also knew that Caliphate was a Divine honour.

Likewise. On 10 th of Muharram. where he had lived most of his life and moved to Mecca to avoid bloodshed.failed. Husain left Medina. if it is detected correctly and in time for it to go out of hands. Within 50 years of the Prophet’s death. despite the fact that they had been weakened by the hunger and thirst that lasted three days before their death. a greater intensity dose is required. power and materialism. when the patient is given shocks to bring him back to normal. even at the cost of life. righteousness and spiritualism and the other clinging to debauchery. There are times. he along with his companions was put to death during a battle. one upholding piety. all evil acts would henceforth be seen as given sanctity by Islam. truth. Husain knew well that a large number of people looked at him as the true inheritor of Prophet’s legacy and teachings and if he would put his stamp of approval. love. the sabotage from within by those nurturing materialistic hopes. despite the severity of the illness. he left Mecca and proceeded towards Iraq. the greater is the effect of the medicines. The same was the case of Husain’s sacrifice. Husain and his companions fought bravely. but as a war between two contradictory principles and ideologies. he was made to stop by Yazid’s army on 2nd of Muharram. which lasted an entire day. helped further by those who had always been enemies of the Message . But when Husain saw that Yazid had sent shooters to kill him in Mecca. continued to adhere to his stand of not giving allegiance of the untruth. Remember the more severe the illness. that resulted in tyrannical imperialism and spiritual bankruptcy. The battle of Karbala can never be defined as a clash of arms between two princes. At a point called Karbala.

but had no choice but to publicly become adherents, had hollowed the very foundations of the Message. The entire philosophy behind the slogan, ‘no god but Allah, and Muhammad his Prophet’, had aspired to lead man to the one God, through the path that the Prophet showed in the light of the teachings of the earlier Apostles; an act similar to a road broadened and rebuilt on a previously built road that had become uneven and patchy through rough use over the period of time. Thankfully, the intensity with which the slogan had negated all other Gods but Allah, did not allow idols to come up in mosques and homes. However, Allah was least visible in actions and several virtual idols had made inroads in the minds of the people, who looked at awe and aspired for all worldly luxuries like power, wealth, fame and women and were ready to go to any extreme to achieve their goals. It is true that the world had never been devoid of such people but the most unfortunate thing was that these people were committing their acts under the veil of that Message itself that the Prophet had so laboriously propagated after giving immense sacrifices of all type. Threat that was not hidden from sincere guardians and propagators of the Message in its original form was that this Message was also on the verge of getting lost or altered. They had seen what had happened of the teachings of the previous Apostles prior to Muhammad. People remembered the Apostles, had made huge temples to house their idols, but followed none of their teachings, which too had lost their shine due to wrong interpretations, altered implications or forged lies and fabrications. This had already started with great intensity, further aggravated by the huge propaganda campaign unleashed to malign the original teachings of the Message and denigrate the personality of those who were its chief champions. The things were compounded by the fact

that people were lured away by showering riches on those who sided with them and forced to distance themselves from the teachings out of intimidation or fear of being tortured or killed. The Message had united everybody as equal before the eyes of the Creator but aristocracy and slavery had re-entered on the two extremes and was commonly visible. Nobody cared for the plight of the poor and there was no one to hear call for justice. The Message had given equal status to poor as citizen and had championed for a minimum guaranteed sustenance quota out of the State exchequer but the rulers were living a life of grandeur and pomp, ate in silver and gold utensils, whereas the poor died of hunger under the shadows of their fortresses. The Message had encouraged pursuit of knowledge, but the knowledgeable were being harassed and killed out of fear that may reveal the truth to the masses. The Message had believed in the conquest of hearts and minds, unless forced into an armed combat, but the self-appointed Caliphs and rulers were sending armed expeditions on all frontiers to capture new territories each day. On the whole, the Message had taught and trained to remember the one and only God, not only through the five time prayers that each Muslim is supposed to offer, but through all acts that one perform from morning till evening. And the self-appointed guardians of faith usurped wealth of the masses, killed and murdered innocent at will, indulged themselves in drinking, maintained harems where women were brought from all corners of the empire, publicly insulted the might of the Almighty and those He created; all their acts revealing that they were men of the world. Husain was a silent spectator to all this! The Message had taught him to raise voice of dissent against injustice, corruption and evil, yet he knew that most of the people who would have stood up to fight with him were either

killed or imprisoned. He knew there was no support to come. He saw with unease the degradation of the moral values of the people and public insult of the values cherished by God, through the hands of despotic and arrogant Yazid and his men. Yet he did not want to be labeled a rebel against a ruler, so he kept quiet. Yazid himself left him with limited options when he asked for Husain’s bayt – a custom in the Arab world where a person put a hand on the hand of the ruler, signifying that he attested the ruler’s claim and policies. Through the eyes of a person used to the worldly ways of society, it was a ‘God-sent opportunity’ as Husain even had a chance to live with splendour, if only he had he negotiated for a hefty sum in lieu of his bayt. Or else he could have done so in the desert of Karbala, returned to Medina with all the wealth, and lively happily afterwards. On the other hand, anyone who has understood the gist of the teachings of either Gita or Quran would agree that it was the most impossible thing to do. Husain offered Yazid to let go of the question of bayt and let him live quietly in Medina. When Yazid didn’t agree, he gave him another offer that he would quietly go to India, a place outside the dominions of Yazid. When Yazid’s commander didn’t agree to this as well, Husain, surrounded as he was with a huge army numbering into thousands of soldiers, just asked for one thing: deferment of fight for a night so that he can pray his God. The outcome was certain, 100-odd men faced against an entire army. Yet the night was spent in prayers, so much so that historians have commented that for the entire night only the buzz of prayers could be heard from Husain’s camps. Remember: “Remember Me and fight” in Gita. No one attempted to escape in the darkness of the night. No one panicked as this was a stand taken

willingly by each one of them. None grieved over the expected fate of their near and dear ones – husbands, sons, brothers, fathers, relatives and friends. No one lamented or blamed Husain, as they were a selected bunch of men who shared the same ideals and belief. All immersed themselves in prayers, as this was the last night when they could pray. The fighting started even before the time for the morning prayers, yet the prayers were offered for God, who was centre to all the fight. Noon prayers were offered under the shower of arrows, at a time when this ‘army ’ of 100-odd people was reduced to less than half. Meanwhile, God was never forgotten, even in the treatment of corpses of the enemy, or letting go those who fled, only to come back later. As the day progressed, Husain kept loosing his companions one by one, who fought valiantly but being outnumbered, hungry and thirsty for three days, they could not stand out for long. Scholars and teachers, traders and slaves, whites and blacks, young and the old, all who shared the same cause as that of Husain – that of upholding righteousness and fighting against evil – fought till their last breath. Husain’s friends, relatives, brothers, nephews, and sons too were put to death before Husain himself was martyred. But before Husain’s martyrdom, an event occurred which exposed the true character of Yazid and his army and put a seal till the end of the world that Yazid was a symbol of evil and Husain a symbol of virtue brought together. It also silenced the mouth of all those who would have labeled this as a war to crush an uprising, as Yazid tried to put forward though unsuccessfully. The ‘uprising’ from Husain’s side was even done by an infant barely sixmonth old. River Euphrates flowed a few hundred meters ahead but Yazid’s army had put forces on water and prevented

Husain and his companions from gaining access to it. On Husain’s side were also women and children. Summer was at its peak and the barren rocky land of Karbala only heightened the heat as it reflected from the rocks. There was no other source of water. Water that was present in Husain’s camp got exhausted on the 7th morning. Food had exhausted even before. For three days, Husain and his companions including infants and children remained without food or water. This was being done to the same Husain who had offered water to the mortally tired soldiers of the first band of 1000 soldiers of Yazid’s army, under the command of Hur, who had stopped Husain from moving further. It was very easy for Husain to order his companions to kill this band, dying of water. The effect of this act was such that about a week later, and after doing much introspection, Hur came to Husain’s side, along with his son. By the 10 th of Muharram, the condition in the Husain’s camp had become such that children were crying ‘thirst, thirst’ and there was no water. At a time when nearly all the companions on Husain’s side had been killed, and Husain was preparing to go the battlefield, he was told that the 6-month old son Ali Asghar was dying of thirst. Husain took the infant in his arms to the battlefield and asked Yazid’s forces to give the child some water as he was dying of thirst. He even said that even if they considered Husain to be a sinner, the child had done no harm and was innocent as per all religions and beliefs. Not only this, Husain laid the child on the hot sand and moved back, so that they can give water to the child through their own hands, if they feared that Husain would drink it under the pretext of offering water to the child. The river flowed nearby as a proof of God’s gift to humanity and there was no water for that young sibling, yet to know of the rules of humanity. No water was given. Husain lifted the child in hands, as Shimr

’ (what accolades can be showered on my God who is supreme and worthy of all praises). ‘subhaanallah . They are pure in the eyes of all. . the flow of innocent blood in plenty and the severed heads of the most pious of men on the edges of spears. As he kneeled down to say. Children do not commit a sin. raised in the sky to .from Yazid’s force asked Hurmula to shoot an arrow at the child. and began to pray. a shade prior to the time for evening prayers. Husain’s turn to go to fight came. This is the belief of all religions. one from amongst the army of the then ‘Caliph of the Muslims’ severed his head from the body. he fought bravely. . written as it was by the self-sacrificing blood of Husain and his followers. When the elders came in the battlefield. Wounded and without water for three days. When he fell from the horseback. taken from city to city till it reached Yazid’s palace in Damascus along with all the ‘prisoners of war’. they came with a sword or spear. The arrow hit the child on his throat and the tender neck of child was slit open. People could have said that since they had come to fight. as the lone survivor of all who formed this ‘army’. while he was in his father’s arms. it became evident that all were innocent. they had no alternative but to kill. Husain had died but the name of God and his Message survived. one last time. Nothing but the bare corpses of Husain and his followers under the heat of the sun. When the arrow from the side of Yazid’s army killed this child in the arms of Husain. the time for evening prayers had just come. The presence of a six-month old child in the list of those martyred in Karbala on Husain’s side proved the innocence of all who were there on Husain’s side. Hurmula was the most famous marksman of the army. only to be put on top of the spear. Husain decided to remember his God.

the highest living example of the way of life that Gita taught and desires from us? Once Husain was martyred.celebrate the victory. his head severed from the body while he was still alive and put on top of a spear as a mark of victory. tied together. could have aroused the underlying sensibilities of the society. to which he added another line ‘Rizan be qazaehee wa tasleeman le amrehe’ meaning “We are from God and we are to return to God. Ali bin Husain Zainul Abidin – were taken prisoners. remaining children and womenfolk arrested and tortured. and that of his relatives. even children small enough to feed on their mother’s milk not spared by the arrows targeting them. The camps of the womenfolk were set on fire. but all this sorrow and suffering was too small a sacrifice. when 6-month old child was killed by an arrow. please reflect: Is not Husain’s life and stand in Karbala. Husain and his companions were brutally killed. So much so that whenever he was faced with a severe calamity. Those who have understood Gita. their belongings looted and all – women and children and a sole male member in the form of Husain’s sick son. in front of them. Husain’s sacrifice helped change innumerable minds. No doubt. Husain knew that the unconscious cannot be awakened but from the sprinkling of his own blood. A clear . we are in agreement with all that happens to us and all our actions are meant for Him’. friends and co-thinkers. were on the camelbacks with the severed heads of their husbands. All were tied with one rope and made to sit on camel-backs and taken in the form of a victory procession from Karbala to Kufa (in present Iraq) and to Damascus (in present Syria) in such a manner that women and children. brothers. he just had a Quranic verse ‘Inna-ilaihe wainna ilaihe rajeoon’ on his lips. against Husain’s complete devotion to God. sons and children on top of the spears. The result was arousal with a vengeance.

true teachings will always be visible parallel to it for those who wish to imbibe them in their lives. People will continue to do all possible sins. And gave a parallel approach for love of all humanity and of course God. corruption and cruelty. who died fighting but still rules our hearts and mind. were vanquished by a handful of men with Husain. Those mightily armed rulers. communalism. Husain gave a voice to all the downtrodden of the world and became synonymous with all fights against all isms. but their acts will not be viewed as being justified by God’s teachings. who had made subjugation of territories as their goal in life. etc. even calling themselves as believers of God. who is the creator and sustainer of the entire world.line was drawn with red forever between the original Message and those who wanted to corrupt it. . including imperialism. materialism. besides injustice.

They are of the view that Quran talks about them at several places but the Muslims in general. thoroughly purified them. the merciful Lord.Noor and Spirit We know from our study of Upanishads and Vedas that fourteen divine selfs were created prior to the creation. because you have been created to last till eternity. One after another the prophets of Allah came with divine guidance at every stage of development in the human society. after which the office of prophethood was terminated. despite all the attempts of the Prophets. gave them His wisdom. and in the end the last messenger of Allah. who discarded the Ahlebayt immediately after the death of Prophet. in every age and every clime. Muntahiur Aamal talks of Yaume-Alast and says that each and every particle pledged the Oneness of God. the Holy Prophet. have chosen to ignore those verses. You only go from this life of actions (good or bad) to the life of happiness or misery. Through the Imams of the Ahlebayt. In this regard. the thoroughly purified. established the institution of imamat. To protect and preserve the revealed truth in its original form. and appointed Imams (guideleaders). after risalat. at the time of Creation. and then commissioned them to guide mankind. came with the final message. Shias are of the opinion that they are the 14 Ahlebayt. till eternity. including the Prophet. uncorrupted. The Holy Prophet said: You shall not be annihilated. the divine guidance will continue . Pooya/Ali commentary states: “The creator Lord created a group of His chosen representatives.

and surely it is this noor of Mohammad through which the entire cosmos was created is being talked about. or reject them and go astray. We have already mentioned before that Prophet Mohammad once said: I was a prophet when Adam was yet amidst water and clay. And on another occasion he said: Ali and myself are the two halves of the same noor (light). help him. Allah has shown him (man) the right way (Dahr: 3). 7:157 And said: Now hath come unto you light (noor) from God and a plain scripture. This closed the doors to all the guidance that we would have received from the true knowers of Quran. and follow the light which is sent down with him: They are the successful. Q URAN . even the Quran was only half understood. Then those who believe in him (Mohammad) honour him.to guide the people to the end of this world. and given him the free choice to identify these rightly guided guides and obtain true guidance. Q URAN. Muslims had digressed the moment they chose to digress from Prophet’s public announcement telling Ali as his successor and Imam. There are many instances when Quran talks of light (noor). Upanishads and Gita. Consequently. 5:15 And said: . So much so that we are sure that several portions of Quran would now be understood from the knowledge gained from our study of Vedas.

He brings them out of the darkness into the light. Such are in plain error. said: ‘O Jabir! Allah. the Blessed. Q URAN . in it they shall abide. the sixth Imam. the Sublime. created the creatures in three classes. and the Outstrippers. We invite you to see some of these hadeeses. the Outstrippers those are they who . their guardians are Shaytans who take them out of the light into the darkness. prior to the rest of creation. From the narrations of the Imams. 2:257 In addition to this. to Whom belong Might and Majesty: And you shall be three bands – Companions of the Right (O Companions of the Right!). Some of the hadeeses are as follows: Hadees no 714 from Al-Kafi tells that Jafar Sadiq. so that he followeth a light from His Lord (as he who disbelieveth)? Then woe unto those whose hearts are hardened against remembrance of God. there are several narrations relating to Imams that talk of the subject of a Divine Spirit. it is evident that they were aware of the exact knowledge regarding the spirit and its composition but either modesty or the need of the time prevented them from describing the true nature of Divine Spirit. and (as to) those who disbelieve. Q URAN . they are the inmates of the fire. 39:22 Also the following verse may be talking about the darkness that prevailed when Allah created the noor of the 14 devas or Ahlebayts. Allah is the guardian of those who believe. Companions of the Left (O Companions of the Left!).Is he whose bosom God hath expanded for the surrender (unto Him). and this is the word of Allah.

are brought near (al-Waqiah, 56: 7-11). The Outstrippers are the Messengers of Allah and they have a special relation with Allah among His creatures. He put in them five arwah (pl. of ruh, that is, spirit). He sustained them with the ruhu’lqudus (the Pure Spirit), by which they perceive things (as they really are); and He sustained them with the ruhu `l-iman (the Spirit of Faith), by which they fear Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty; and He sustained them with the ruhu `l-quwwah (the Spirit of Power), by which they were empowered to obey Allah; and He sustained them with the ruhu `sh-shahwah (the Spirit of Desire), by which they were made desirous of obedience to Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, and made to dislike obedience to Him; and He put in them the ruhu `l-madraj (the Spirit of Movement), by which people go and come. And He put in the believers, the Companions of the Right, the Spirit of Faith, by which they fear Allah; and He put in them the Spirit of Power, by which they were empowered to obey Allah; and He put in them the Spirit of Desire, by which they were made desirous of obedience to Allah; and He put in them the Spirit of Movement, by which the people go and come.
This narration clearly hits at those who feel they would be spared because of lack of knowledge. Even if there is lack of knowledge, it is because you have not aspired to get it. Yes, if you aspire and do not reach the truth, despite sincerity, then you will surely be forgiven. Moreover, it is to be noted that there is no middle way, of half good, or a half bad. There are two types: Companions of the right and the companions of the left. The Pure Spirit is only in the Prophet and passes

on to the Imams at the death of the previous Imam. This Pure Spirit is all-powerful. Mohammad Baqar was asked about the Knowledge of man of Knowledge (Hadees no. 715). He said:

O Jabir! There are five arwah in the prophets and the successors. The ruhu’l-qudus (the Pure Spirit), the ruhu’l-iman (the Spirit of Faith), the ruhu’lhayat (the Spirit of Life equivalent to the Spirit of Movement in no. 714), and the ruhu’l-quwwah (the Spirit of Power) and the ruhu’sh-shahwah (the Spirit of Desire). Then, by the Pure Spirit, O Jabir, they perceive what is below the Throne down to what is within the earth.’ Then he said: ‘O Jabir! These four arwah may be affected by contingencies, but the Pure Spirit is never diverted nor plays (i.e., it never acts purposelessly).
This is the reason why none of the actions of the Prophet and Imams can be purposeless. How sad that certain people said that the Prophet was mumbling when he asked for a pen and a tablet to write. The entire description is entirely in sync with the Upanishads and a fresh translation will only increase the similarities. Even (in Hadees no. 716), Jafar Sadiq tells the reason how the Imam knows what is all over the earth when he is in his house with the curtain lowered. He said:

O Mufaddal! Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime, has put five arwah in the Prophet: the ruhu’l-hayat (the Spirit of Life), by which he moves and comes and goes; the ruhu’l-quwwah (the Spirit of Power), by which he rises and struggles; the ruhu’shshahwah (the Spirit of Desire), by which he eats and drinks and comes to women lawfully; and the ruhu’l-iman (the Spirit of Faith), by which he accepts

the faith and acts justly; and the ruhu’l-qudus (the Pure Spirit), by which he bears the prophethood. Then, when the Prophet is taken away, the Pure Sprit is transferred and reaches the imams. The Pure Spirit does not sleep nor does it become neglectful, it is not diverted, nor does it falsely display. But the (other) four arwah (spirits) sleep, are neglectful, falsely display themselves and are diverted. He (the Prophet or the Imam) sees (everything) by the Pure Spirit.
On another occasion, Imam Jafar Sadiq – the sixth Imam – talks of the Spirit by which Allah directs the steps of the Imams. Abu Basir (Hadees no. 717) asked Imam Jafar Sadiq about the words of Allah, the Blessed, the Sublime:

Even so We have revealed to thee a Spirit of Our bidding. Thou knewest not what the Book was, nor faith. Q URAN , A SH-SHURA , 42:52
He said:

(It is) one of the created things of Allah to whom belong Mighty and Majesty; (it is) greater than Gabriel and Mikail. It was with the Messenger of Allah; it informed him and directed his steps, and it is with the Imams after him.
More about this Spirit is mentioned in Hadees no. 718. ‘A man from Hit (a town in Iraq) asked him (the Imam) about the words of Allah, to whom belong Might and Majesty: Even so We have revealed to thee a Spirit of Our bidding. He said: ‘Since Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty, sent this Spirit down on Mohammad, it has not ascended to Heaven; and it is in us. In 719, Abu Basir says that he asked Jafar Sadiq about the words of Allah, to Whom belong Might and

Majesty: They will question thee concerning the Spirit. Say: ‘The Spirit is of the bidding of my Lord’ (al-Isra’, 17:85). He said: ‘(It is) a created thing greater than Gabriel and Mikail; it was with the Messenger of Allah, it is with the Imams, and it is from the Kingdom (alMalakut).’ Hadees no. 721 relates to the subject of Knowledge and Spirit. Abu Hamzah asked Jafar Sadiq, the sixth Imam about knowledge: ‘Is it knowledge which the knower gets to know from the mouths of men, or (is it) in the book which is with you which you recite and learn from?’ He said: ‘The matter is greater than that and more essential. Have you not heard the words of Allah, to Whom belong Might and Majesty: Even so We have revealed to thee a Spirit of Our Bidding. Thou knowest not what the Book was, nor faith?’ Then he said: ‘What do your companions say about this verse? Do they accept that he (the Messenger) was in a state in which he did not know what the book was, nor faith?’ I said: ‘May I be made your ransom, I don’t know what they say.’ He said (to me): ‘Indeed, he was in a state in which he did not know what the Book was, nor faith, until Allah Most High sent forth Spirit which is mentioned in the Book; and because He revealed it to him, He taught knowledge and understanding through it. This is the Spirit which Allah Most High gives to whom He wishes; and when He gives it to a slave, He teaches him understanding.’ Another misconception that is present among the Muslims who regard Gabriel as the spirit is discounted in Hadees no. 722: “A man came to Amir al-muminin (Ali) and asked him about the Spirit: ‘Is it not Gabriel?’ Amir al-muminin said to him: ‘Jibril (Gabriel) is one of the angels, and the Spirit is not Jibril.’ – and he repeated this to the man – then he (the man) said to him: ‘You have said something very important; no one claims that the Spirit is not Jibril. Amir al-muminin said to him:

‘You are wrongly guided, and you recount from the people of misguidance. Allah Most High has said to His Prophet: Allah’s command comes; see not to hasten it. Glory be to Him! High be the exalted above that they associate with Him! He sends down the angels with the Spirit (Q. an-Nahl, 16:1-2), and the Spirit is not the angels, may the blessings of Allah be upon them.’” See how the description comes exactly close to the descriptions of the Vedas, Upanishads and Puranas. The following quotes from the Holy Prophet further sheds light on the subject discussed in the Upanishads.

(1) I and Ali are of one and the same light. (2) Ali is a part of me and I am a part of Ali. (3) The root of Ali and me is the same, but all other people come from various other origins.
(Zaynul Fata; Ibna Maghazali; Shafa-i; Kanzul Ummal, Ahmad ibna Hanbal). The Holy Prophet has said:

Allah selected Adam in preference to all other creatures; from among the descendants of Adam, He selected Nuh; from among the descendants of Nuh, He selected Ibrahim; from among the descendants of Ibrahim, He selected Ishmael; from among the Quraish, He selected Hashim. All of them carried my noor (the first light which came forth from the absolute and goes on till the day of resurrection to manifest ultimately in the arc of ascent). It passed through Abd al Muttalib to Abdullah and Abu Talib. I am from Abdullah and Ali is from Abu Talib. Ali and I are one and the same noor.
Verse 3:34 from Quran too cannot be explained until you rely on our argument.

either for the purpose of maintaining the continuity as noor passed from one to another or for the more greater purpose of keeping the torch of worship and knowledge burning. they kept taking birth from one another. Knowing. How else can you explain this? . and Allah is Hearing. it is possible that Fatima b. Our view is that since the Masooms kept taking birth again and again in this world.Offspring one of the other. as it is essential for the very survival of this earth. That is why the Quran says that they were offsprings of each other. Asad and Fatima b. or merely for the purpose of maintaining continuance of their presence on earth. Therefore. Scholars till now have wrongly understood this verse now. Mohammad may be the same devi.

neither an . but if his thoughts are different from his acts. how true is it to label somebody as ‘truthful’. What’s inside is beyond our compression. If we do not understand all this. be with those who are truthful. are meant by the term ‘truthful’ in Quran. Suppose we realize that the thoughts and actions of the person being termed as truthful are on the same lines. but how can we see whether his modalities of senses and mind are on the true path. 1984. However. We do not know whether the person who is being referred to by truthful is really truthful or not. then how can the character be truthful. How are we to perceive what is there in heart? Clearly.The 14 are Truthful In his speech on October 25. The very fact that these two are mentioned together is a clear indicator that the greatness of Allah can be understood through being with the truthful. We do not know what he says and what he thinks is same or not. then it means the Knower of All has found their deeds as truthful. who. In explanation of this verse. If the one who is the Knower of All. it is not possible. this is when we ordinary people call somebody truthful. A Quranic verse addresses the faithful and asks them to understand the elements of greatness of Allah. we say so from the limitations of our sight. Allah or God says a person or a group of person as truthful. Allama says: “If we ordinary people are to call somebody truthful. Allama Ali Naqi Naqvi talked about in length about the Ahlebayt. he said. He would have said so. whoever they are. This means that neither a word uttered by them can be away from truth. their thoughts too as truthful and also their modalities of the mind and senses as truthful. Only when He has seen all through His immense Knowledge.

all their acts. If God calls an entire group as truthful. We will have to believe that all the persons who are included in this group. but it is not possible at all that both are truthful. hands are of fourteen but the work is one. the other says something else. despite being of different colours.action of theirs can be away from truth. the appellations too are different. then it would mean that the eyes are of fourteen but the vision is one. who are being referred to as the truthful ones. this would mean that the whole group is such that He is taking guarantee for the truthfulness of all their words. the acts that they do. all their thought-processes. When there are 14 such persons. Height can be different. and the other does something else. one does something. feet are of 14 but the purpose is one. Now names are different and because of living in different times and faced with different situations some virtues of character became more highlighted than the rest. all their acts and all their thinking. . And here none else but God calls an entire group as truthful. Now ponder over this. names can be different and even a bit of nature can also be different. Someone got more chance to reveal the secrets of hidden knowledge. Be it a group of 5. Isn’t it possible that all fall in the highest parameters of beauty. The skin-colour of the fourteen can be different. one says something. In such a scenario. it is possible that both are wrong. or 12 or 14. and not even the purpose in mind can be different from truth. are united in words that they utter. God calling them truthful is a guarantee by Him for all their words. and the thoughtprocesses that influence the mind. If there are two people who have differences. will be one. but that mould of the character that befits them to be truthful.

all of them are Muhammad. am finding problem in identifying the truthful ones without guidance from God. the middle of them is Muhammad. Sadiqeen (plural of sadiq or truthful). the basic character is one. Otherwise. who has asked us to be with those who are truthful. when we do not know whether the truthful acts being committed by him are also committed in private. And if they did ask. And He is addressing us directly. then why is it they didn’t ask from the Prophet about the identity of those truthful ones. Despite this. then this verse would remain just for reciting and remembering but not for acting.’ I have access to the number of these truthful people. when we do not know what is there in the person’s heart and how his modalities of mind function. God. If I. whose company is made obligatory on us. which tell us .so his appellation became Baqar. and we are unable to recognize who are really the truthful ones. Owing to the mould of character being one. somebody should show us one instance in the books on the period. and they had direct access to the Prophet. It is they who were being directly addressed. his appellation became Salim. There are certain verses of the Quran that were addressed directly to the Prophet. the people in the time of Prophet too were intelligent. after more than 1400 years since this verse was revealed. then how would it be possible for us to identify more than one truthful people. should also be shedding light on their identity as well. he would say: ‘The first of them is Mohammad. but this is addressed to us. when the Prophet would tell their names. so his appellation became Sadiq. He asks us to be with those who are truthful. the enemies recognized someone’s truthfulness as well. someone had to control his anger all through his life. the last of them is Muhammad. If we it is not possible for us to identify one truthful person.

that they asked, and what did the Prophet reply in return. And if no such incident is mentioned that people came to ask, then we will have to believe that they told but the general people forgot what was told to them. Let us see some of the incidents when they were identified as the truthful ones. Remember that there are two ways to tell. First way is to bring all the truthful ones at a place and show their faces to the public so that they can see and recognize them. This is the way that even the less wise ones, who do not feel any need to use their wisdom, or have the urge to ponder or investigate, will get to see all the truthful ones of the chain, who were present in that time. Thereafter, each truthful one would keep identifying the next to us and their presence would continue till the end of this world. We do not have to search much to find this incident. In broad daylight, the Prophet brought these people to public view and the Quranic verse that was revealed and the Prophet’s act, together showed who were the truthful ones. This act of Prophet Muhammad was performed in the Maiden-e-Mubahilah and the verse of Quran that justify from Quran about the identity of these people is the Ayat-e-Mubahilah (verse pertaining to Mubahilah). Mubahilah means ‘mutual imprecation to prove truth of one’s point’. We give in brief the background of what happened at Maidan-e-Mubahilah (the ground of Mubahilah). The centre of Christian activities in Yemen was located at Najran. When the message of Islam reached Najran, the Christians there decided to send a delegation to Medina. Consequently, a delegation of 70 people was sent comprising all the revered priests and clergy. I wish to congratulate them on their reasonable act that they realized that it was a matter concerning religion

and there was not a need to send an army. So those who were the soldiers from the field of religion were sent. Generally it is believed that they were sent to investigate but when we look at the incidents that unfolded, we realize that they were not there just to investigate but also come to an agreement. It means that the delegation was empowered to decide as to do whatever they thought best. I wish to address the people from that religion from whom this delegation was sent. You were so reasonable then why did you leave its side so much so that you that the picture that you portrayed of Islam was having sword in one hand and the book in other. If this was the way in which Islam spread, then why was sword not drawn against you? Sword not coming against your delegation is a proof that sword was drawn only against those who came with drawn swords. The delegation from Najran came to Medina. They had heard that they were going to the ‘Tajdare Medina’ – the ‘crowned ruler of Medina’. This one of the appellations given to the Prophet, and it clearly shows the mentality of the Muslims of the time. Is it difficult to comprehend from this why the Caliphate of the Muslims turned into a monarchy that conquered territories to spread their domain? As long as Prophet Muhammad was at the helm of affairs or one of the truthful persons was a Caliph, no such aggression was witnessed. The Christian priests comprising the delegation too had this notion in mind. Therefore, they got garments stitched that befit a royal durbar. They came to the Prophet wearing those. When they came they had heard accounts of Prophet’s manners and courteousness. Contrary to this, the Prophet did not even look at them. They kept waiting till they were sure that this was a willful act. Then they went back saying that we had heard so much about the Prophet’s manners and courteousness, but

this experience on the contrary showed ill manners and discourtesy. However, they had heard so much about the Prophet’s courteous behaviour towards all that their own experience wasn’t enough to discount what they had heard. Otherwise, why did they wait? They should have gone back. They started inquiring from people about this behaviour and when they couldn’t tell, they were led to the doorsteps of one where all, who couldn’t get right answers, came to seek knowledge – the doorsteps of Ali. All who had not been able to answer the question of these priests too were accompanying them. Perhaps the behaviour of Prophet was contrary to what they too had seen all through. Ali looked at their clothes and asked whether they went to meet the Prophet wearing them. They said yes, thereby meaning that this was not against the durbar culture. Ali said to them that they were the priests, they were the ones who were supposed to have left the world, and these clothes do not befit them. Therefore, they went to meet the Prophet wearing simple clothes and he stood up to greet them. There are some who said after Prophet that Quran was enough for them. What to say of Quran, even the actions of the Prophet could not be understood without coming to the doorsteps of Ali. Discussions started and whatever the Prophet said, they agreed to it. In the end, discussion reached a stage where they asked Muhammad his view on Isa (Jesus). Muhammad read the verses from Chapter Imran. They said all this is correct but do you consider Isa as the son of God or not? Muhammad replied in negative. Then they argued saying that if Isa was not God’s son then whose son was he. The verse was revealed from God that said that Isa’s position was similar to Adam. Here there is one of the two parents, Adam was born with a

father or mother. They could not have opposed this logic as Adam’s birth without a father and mother is explicitly told in the Bible. However, those who do not wish to believe cannot be made to believe by even God or His Prophet. Then the verse that was revealed seemed to be admonishing them. It said that even after such proofs, if they do not believe then tell them to come, we bring our sons and you bring your sons, we bring our women and you bring your women, we bring our selfs and you bring your selfs and then let’s come for mubahilah. We both pray to God for God’s wrath on those who are not truthful. From this it is evident, and no logical reasoning is required, as the Quran itself is giving a proof that when it is not enough to solve doubts, then these people are brought in front. Can there be a better proof that mere Quran cannot be enough? Remember that from opposite the opposite is recognized. If it would have been said that Allah’s wrath on the kafars then it would have meant that those who are brought against them are mumins (ones with complete faith). If it would have been said that Allah’s wrath on the zaalemeen (unjust) then it would have been that those who are brought against them are aadil (just). Both these terms have been used in Quran on several occasions. Nobody can be better than God in usage of words and seriousness of the subject. Here Quran is saying that Allah’s wrath be on those who are not truthful thereby confirming that those who would come against them would be truthful. Let’s look at the Maidan-eMubahilah and all those who would come are sure to be the truthful ones that God is referring to in the other verse. Historical narrations tell that when the day of Mubahilah dawned, Prophet Mohammad came out of

his house in such a manner that he was in the front, with Husain in one of his arms and holding the finger of Hasan by the other. Fatima was behind him who was followed by Ali. Those who are aware of the public psyche would know that the very coming the Christian delegation to Medina must have aroused interest. Moreover, all meetings with the priests were held at a public place, viz. the mosque. It is but natural that people’s curiosity was aroused so as to see the faces that Mohammad was to bring along. If some secretly cherished the hope of being among them, we do not know. However, there is no doubt that several people must have accumulated at the site, even if for the sake of curiosity. That the priests had already positioned themselves when the Prophet appeared is evident. As the Prophet drew near with his entourage of four viz. two children, his daughter and her husband, the chief of the priests asked his companions not to go for Mubahilah with Mohammad. History has recorded his words in the following manner: “I am seeing faces if they ask the mountain to move, it would move from its place.”

The Most Knowledgeable There is no denying the fact that Masooms were the most knowledgeable of all men ever to be born on earth. by the manifold exercise of his power distributes many colours in his hidden purpose and into whom in . it is evident from the preceding verses that Mohammad and Ali are being talked about. then he broke the other into two. We give here a few narrations that confirm the high position of the Masooms.’ He said: ‘The first was the prophethood and you have no part in it. how is this? How did he become a partner with him in it?’ He said: ‘Allah did not teach Mohammad any knowledge.I. Hadees 684 of chapter 49 of al-Kafi states that there was no knowledge that God had given to Prophet that he did not share with Ali. Then the Messenger of Allah said: ‘O my brother! Do you know what these two pomegranates ere? He said: ‘No. See for yourself: IV. You will be interested to know that a verse from Svetasvatara-Upanishad says: “One ate the sweet fruit and the other looked on without eating” Not only this. See the narration: Indeed (angel) Gabriel brought two pomegranates to the Messenger of Allah ate one of them. and ate one half himself and gave the other half to ‘Ali to eat. but the other was Knowledge and you are an (equal) partner with me in it.’ I said: ‘May Allah make things well for you. without commanding him to teach it to Ali. without any colour. He who is one.

7. Another unborn gives her up. who produces manifold offspring similar in form (to himself). (Of these two) the one eats the sweet fruit. that is Vayu and that is the moon. companions (who are) always united. That is the waters. IV. Is there any doubt that it talks of Mohammad and Ali.2. You are the youth and the maiden too. The One Unborn. You. 5. May He endow us with a clear understanding.6. Being born you become facing in every direction. Next verse even states Ali’s position when caliphate was denied to him.3. this verse too confirms their equality and unity. Two birds. IV. white and black. IV. That is Prajapati. As if continuing with Mohammad’s statement that all the Masooms are same as Mohammad. there lies the one unborn (Ali) delighting. red. otter along with a staff. That is Brahma. When he sees the other. IV. That indeed is the pure. That indeed is Agni.the beginning and at the end the universe is gathered. . the Lord who is worshipped and His greatness. who are described as always united and who both are produced from the same self. IV. he becomes freed from sorrow. a person immersed (in the sorrows of the world) is deluded and grieves on account of his helplessness. as an old man. You are man (Ali). that is Aditya. You are woman (Fatima). and the other looks on without eating. cling to the self-same tree. having had his enjoyment (Mohammad). On the self-same tree.

59:7). By Allah. 4:80). we desire that you should speak when we speak. give over (Quran: al-Hashr. has educated his Prophet in moral perfections (Addaba) because of His love for him. and there is no prophet after our Prophet. which is hadees (i. whatever he forbids you. and He to Whom belong Might and Majesty said: Whosoever obeys the Messenger. happening now). and He has said: Surely thou art upon a mighty morality (al-Qalam. and that which is hadees (comes to us through) being cast into (our hearts. that which is ghabir (lit. and through) being spoken (naqr. to educate others) to him. Hadees 692 talks of the narrator who says: “I went into the presence of Husain and I heard him say: ‘Truly Allah. If they possess highest knowledge. the Prophet of Allah delegated (it) to Ali and entrusted (it) to him. Then you accepted this but the (other) people rejected it. As for that which is madin. to Whom belong Might and . for example. lit. thereby obeys Allah (Quran: anNisa. Commenting on the dimensions of the knowledge of Imams. past). In the same manner. tapped) into (our) ears. and He to Whom belong Might and Majesty said: Whatever the Messenger gives you. 68:4). it has been explained (to us by the Holy Prophet). take. This latter is the most excellent of our knowledge. Then He delegated (the duty.. then we should not be surprised. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. We are what is between you and Allah.There is no doubt that the Masooms were created prior to all the creation.. continues) and that.e. and be silent when we are silent. Imam Musa Kazim – the seventh Imam – stated in Hadees 687: The extent of our knowledge is of three kinds: that which is madin (lit. and that which is ghabir is written down (with us).’” He said: “Then he said: ‘Verily.

to Whom belong Might and Majesty. 68:4). which is exactly what the Upanishads had meant when they said that the animate and non-animate – all very created because of them and when God was pleased of their worship. whatever he forbids you. See: I heard the fifth Imam Mohammad Baqar say: ‘Verily. Gita says the God is to be reached but only through the Self. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. has delegated to His Prophet the affairs of His creatures. take. And He. which talks of the One Spirit and its relation to Mohammad: “I head Jafar Sadiq say to one of the companions of Qays al-Masir: ‘Surely Allah. so that He can see how (good) their obedience is. give over (Quran. Then he delegated to him the affairs o the religion and the community. Upanishads as well as Gita talk of this in exactly the same way. Verily. take. so that he might rule over and guide His creatures. and when He had perfected his education for him he said: Surely thou art upon a mighty morality (Quran: al-Qalam.” Hadees no. Allah has not created any good for anyone against our commands. at another stage. 59:7). the Imam has confirmed that the original spirit that was created was theirs. Here too. the Messenger of Allah was the . Upanishads describe that Self comprise of nothing but these. al-Hashr. give over.Majesty.’” Again. 695 is a long narration from the sixth Imam Jafar Sadiq. whatever he forbids you. The entire beings were created by God because of them. Allah. Hadees No. educated His Prophet in moral perfections and made his education excellent. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. 694 also states that the entire affairs of the creatures are presented in front of Mohammad. said: Whatever the Messenger gives you.’ Then they recited this verse: Whatever the Messenger gives you.

morning two. So the obligatory and supererogatory prayers were fifty-one rakahs. afternoon and night). in the prayers of noon. So he was educated in the moral perfection of Allah. that is. in the daily prayers). after mid-night. twice the obligatory (fast) (i. permitted this to him. and the obligation became seventeen rakahs. which is counted as one rakah to go with (the one rakah of) al-watr. plus the two maghrib ones sitting counted as one. after obligatory night prayer). and one rakah at sunset (maghrib). afternoon. and these are counted as equal to the obligatory ones. (The supererogatory prayers are: noon. eight rakish. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. the one who succeeded. Of these are the two rakahs sitting down after darkness (utamah. not obligatory. and the one who was confirmed by the ruhu’l-qudus (the Pure Spirit).one who was rightly guided. and Allah. twice the obligatory (number of) prayers. They may not be omitted except while journeying. and he made the additional rakah in maghrib single and made it fixed both while journeying and while at home. Then the Messenger of Allah actualized the supererogatory prayers as thirty-four rakahs.e.. “`Allah has made the fast of Ramazan obligatory in every year. sunset four.e. And Allah. two rakahs (i. and Allah. eight and two (ash-shaf) and one (al-watr). to Whom belong Might and Majesty made the prayer obligatory as two two rakahs. The Messenger of Allah added to the two rakish. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. and the Messenger of Allah actualized the fasting of Shaban and of three days in each month. eight. “`In this way Allah. permitted all of this to him. to Whom belong Might and Majesty permitted . 30 plus (3x10) days. then rakahs (all together. just as the supererogatory prayers).. making a total of thirty-four). He neither slipped nor erred in anything by which he ruled and guided the creatures. altogether thirty three.

it became forbidden for them to abstain absolutely from doing that which was only makruh (detested and disliked]). had made obligatory. and the carrying out of what he had conceded became an obligation on the creatures just as the obligation of carrying out what is forbidden and what is ordained (i. but he did not forbid them with an obligatory forbidding (haram).this to him. . nor (allow them not to do) anything which he had commanded by a command which must be obeyed. but rather he ordained them with an obligatory ordaining. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. made wine (khamr) forbidden in its essence. and submission to him was made obligatory on creatures just as submission to Allah. and Allah permitted all this to him. and his forbidding to the forbidding of Allah. which intoxicates. which is also authorized by the Upanishads. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. Allah.e. and the Messenger of Allah made any drink.. Thus the command of the Messenger of Allah corresponds to the command of Allah. And the Messenger of Allah did not concede to anyone any reduction in the two rakahs which he had put with what Allah. and did not concede to anyone in this. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. He conceded that they might be done. He did not concede to anyone anything of these except for the traveler. forbidden. “`The Messenger of Allah detested certain things and showed his dislike of them. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. So he forbade any intoxicating drink with an obligatory forbidding. The Messenger of Allah did not concede to them anything which he had forbidden with an obligatory forbidding. the Sublime. the Blessed. that since the creatures were created because God was pleased with the worship of the devatas.’” Isn’t it proof of our claim. No one can permit anything unless the Messenger of Allah has conceded it. instead he forbade them with the forbidding of detestation and dislike.

the Sublime. the fifth and sixth Imams respectively. the Blessed. take. Allah.” Then they recited this verse: Whatever the Messenger gives you. Mohammad Baqar and Jafar Sadiq.they took it upon them to lead and show the way towards worship of God. the modes of worship and how we ought to pray. Hadees No. 696 further confirms that we all owe obedience to the Messenger of God. give over. It is they who frame the rules. have both said: “Verily. and whatever he forbids you. . has delegated to His Prophet the affairs of His creatures. so that He can see how (good) their obedience is.

Same is the case with the gathering near Mount Meru that has been described in the Vishnu Purana. To what extent he gives that knowledge too is up to him. the narration from Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad seems to be mentioning the events that would happen much later in the house of Fatima. Likewise. However. Moses was a Prophet of higher order than Khizr but Khizr was given that knowledge of the future that even Moses was not aware of. Basheer means one who gives . we have also seen certain portions in the Upanishads and Puranas seem to be foretelling the events that would happen in future. Two of the appellations of Prophet Mohammad are Basheer and Nazeer. Similarly. This narration is attributed to the sage Yajnavalkya. Therefore. there is no one who has the knowledge of the invisible. The True Knower of the Invisible is surely with God he may give more knowledge in a certain field to any of his creations. The incidents related to the coming of Kalki avatar prove our point. Allama Ali Naqi Naqawi has narrated a few verses from Quran.Fore knowledge and Knowledge of the Invisible We have seen in the chapter on Hadees-e-Kisa that all the Masooms knew beforehand that the verse was about to be revealed. where it is said that He does not pass His knowledge of the invisible to anybody but to those He chooses. there is a verse in Chapter Jinah. which says that other than God. Therefore all of them endeavoured to prepare the ground for the verse. it is evident that it is up to the wish of God whether he gives the knowledge of the invisible to any of his messengers or not. In this regard.

Every body told of the life after death.” she answered. (Al-Awzai has reported on the authority of Abd Allah b.” “What was it?” he asked. On other occasion. “You have seen well.” she said. “What was it?” he repeated. how is it that he mentioned several incidents about the future? He is reported to have narrated the events of Karbala in advance and tears used to come in his eyes while narrating these incidents. Nobody can be Basheer and Nazeer unless he has the knowledge of the invisible.the good news and Nazeer means one who gives the bad news. “Fatima will give birth to a boy when she is sitting on . it is reported that Husain as a child came to the Prophet Mohammad. Ali asked the reason for this act and Prophet said that he was kissing at all those places where Husain would get wounded from attacks of sword. telling about the invisible God too means that they had knowledge of the invisible. “I saw (something) like a piece of your body cut up and put in my lap. I have had a strange dream during the night. Shaddad. When asked the reasons for this behaviour. After all. He lifted Husain’s garment and started kissing on various parts of the body.” said the Apostle of God. daughter of al-Harith:) She visited the Apostle of God and said: “Apostle of God. Even the fact that the Prophet was the Prophet was based on knowledge of the invisible. “It was terrible. heaven and hell. he said that you do not know the kind of tortures and hardships that Husain would have to face. If Prophet Mohammad was not aware about the future events. on the authority of Umm al-Fadl. was it not the knowledge of the invisible.

who said:) One day while the Apostle of God was sitting down and Husain was sitting on his knee. I could not stop (myself) . what is the matter with you?” “Gabriel came to me.” he said. he was disheveled and dusty and his hand was holding (something). I said to him: “Apostle of God. why do I see you disheveled and dusty?” He said: “I have just been on a night journey to a place in Iraq called Karbala. May God never let them have intercession from me. There I saw the death of my son. his eyes suddenly filled with tears. He came back. “He told me that my community will seek to kill this son of mine and he brought me dust made red by his (blood). I said: (May I ransom you) with my father and mother.” (Simak reported on the authority of Ibn al-Mukhariq on the authority of Umm Salama.” he said. both the eyes of the Apostle of God were flowing with tears.” (She reported:) Fatima did give birth to Husain. One day I took him to the Prophet and I put him in his lap. “He consoled me for the death of my son. Apostle of God. and he was in my lap just as the Apostle of God had said. Husain. and a group of my children and the members of my family (Ahlebayt). why do I see you weeping.] (It is reported with another chain of authorities on the authority of Umm Salama that she said:) One evening the Apostle of God left us and was away for a long time. His gaze turned away from me. Husain and he told me that a group of my community will kill him.” [Proof that Mohammad will act as intercessor and his followers will be given salvation. may I be your ransom?” “Gabriel came to me. I said to him: “Apostle of God.your lap (to give birth). Behold.

” “Apostle of God. It was like red soil. I shrieked (with grief) and wept.form gathering (some of) their blood and here it is in my hand. I have kept it secret up to the present tie.” “Will we die an (ordinary) death or will we be killed?” Husain asked.” he answered. Then I would weep for his fate. I took out that phial every day and night.” he told him.” He opened his hand and said: “Take it and look after it. then to the day when the messenger bringing the news of his death came to announce it. my little son. “Your offspring will be scattered over the land. the day on which Husain was killed. “Rather you will be killed unjustly. I used to smell it and look at it. On the 10 th of (the month of) Muharram. Then what I had seen was proved. your tombs were scattered around (the country). and your brother will be killed unjustly. but at the end of the day. At the beginning of the day it was in its usual condition. “Yes.” I took it. I took it out. Hasan and Husain. It is reported that one day the Prophet was sitting down. When Husain left Mecca on his way to Iraq. Then I restrained my anger out of fear that the enemies (of the family of the Prophet) in Medina would hear and would hurry to rejoice at their misfortune. “The evil men among the people. Around him were Ali. fastened its top and kept it. my little son. Fatima. He asked them: “How would you feel if when you were killed. “Will anyone visit (our graves) after we are killed?” he asked.” he said. who will kill us?” asked Husain. it was fresh blood. behold. “a group (taifa) of my community will gain my beneficence and favour . I put it in a phial.

Upanishads explicitly say that God has given time in their possession.” Prophet mentioned the future conduct of one of his wife too. Vedas and Gita. is that all the Masooms possessed complete knowledge not only about past but also about future. his wife. formulated on the basis of our study of Upanishads. And so on.through visiting (your graves). and at that point she would surely be on the wrong. Ammar was later killed at the age of 80 while fighting as the commander of forces sent by Ali to Siffin against the army of Muawiya. On seeing this Prophet said. Our opinion. He said that the dogs of a particular place named Howab would bark on one of them. They say that they . father of Yazid. Likewise. At another instance. There are several incidents about the future that were told by Prophet and Imams. what to say of Ammar who would be killed by a rebel group. Like the Muslims would get divided into 73 sects and only of them would be on the right path. Even the succeeding imams foretold about the future imams and told of the incidents related to the life of 12 th imam. On the Day of Resurrection. a mosque was being built and while every one was bringing two bricks each Ammare-Yasir was bringing four bricks at a time. which are yet to unfold. The incident occurred when Ayesha. Like a particular friend of Prophet would be killed in such and such manner. and daughter of the first Caliph of Muslims – Abu Bakr – revolted against Ali’s caliphate at the instigation of Muawiya. Prophet told the names of the 12 imams to come and incidents related to the life of the 12 th imam. Ammar would be calling them to heaven and they would be calling him to hell. and others. I will bring them to the place so that I may take them by the arms and save them from its terrors and sorrows.

On another occasion. See a few of them.’ – three times (he said this) – ‘if I had been with Musa and Khizr.created the worlds for the worship of God. I know what is in the heavens and what is in the earth. a group of Shia. He said: ‘Does anyone have their eyes on us?’ We turned to the right and to the left. but did not see anyone. so he said: “I have learnt (all this) from the Book of Allah. and we said: ‘No-one has his eyes on us. to Whom belong Might and . were in the company of Husain at Hijr (a place close to the Kaaba in Mecca). and I know what has been and what will be.” He (the narrator) said: “Then he paused for a moment. and we indeed have inherited this from the Messenger of Allah (Prophet Mohammad). Al-Kafi states (hadees no. and then he saw that this was too difficult for those who heard it from him. 679) that Husain said: Verily. This has been their purpose all through life. I know what is in the Fire (Hell). you would agree that were aware of everything that occurred in the past and that would take place in future. We give here some incidents about knowledge of the invisible from the life of the Masooms. And they are surely not God. and I would have informed them of what was not then present to them. for Musa and Khizr were given the knowledge of what was. and by the Lord of this building (the Kaaba). neither are they sons of God. Surely. but were not given the knowledge of what would be and what will be till the Hour (of Judgment) will come. I would have told them that I had more knowledge than them.’ Then he said: ‘By the Lord of Kaaba. Hadees number 678 from chapter 48 of al-Kafi says: We. I know what is in Paradise.

the Sublime foreordained this for them. Mohammad Baqar said to a group of companions: “I am surprised at the group who accept our mastership. and would then cut off from the them sources of knowledge concerning (those matters that) turn up for them in which there is (question of) the very basis of their religion?” “Then Humran said to him: ‘May I be made your ransom. Truly Allah. would make obedience to those He has appointed masters (awliya) obligatory on His creatures. Can you conceive that Allah. then He carried it out. it is stated the fifth Imam. the Sublime. the Blessed. In Hadees no. Thus Ali. decreed it. and of those who exceeded in corruption overcoming them and killing them. their rising up and their establishing the religion of Allah. what do you say about the affair of the stance of ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib.Majesty. their being slaughtered and defeated?’ Then Mohammad Baqar said: ‘O Humran! Allah. befell them. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. says: “In it is the classification of all things. may His remembrance be glorified. take us as their Imams and claim that obedience to us is obligatory on them just as obedience of the Messenger of Allah (Mohammad) and then go against the evidence they have and defeat themselves and find fault concerning this (which is explained later) with those whom Allah has given the evidence for the truth of the recognition of us and submission to our degree. if they . the Blessed. and He caused those who exceeded in corruption to stand over them. finalized it and made it a reality by means of their volition. Hasan and Husain stood up through the knowledge which had come to come before from the Messenger of Allah. and through (this) knowledge are silent those among us who are silent. O Humran! When what came to them of the will of Allah. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. 681. and would then conceal from the information of the heavens and the earth. Hasan and Husain.

and conceal from him the knowledge of His heaven and His earth.’ Then he said: ‘H does not conceal that from him. O Humran. He would have accepted and rid them of it. Husain replied: “Allah.’ Then he said: ‘Allah is more glorified. 682. it is stated that when Hisham asked Husain from where does he get his knowledge. nor as a punishment for disobedience in which they disobeyed Allah. more mighty and more generous than that He should make obedience to one slave obligatory. that He rid them of this and I had implored Him in their request that the power of those who exceed in corruption be destroyed and their rule be brought to an end. That which befell them. but (it was) for stages and honour from Allah. I would have told everyone .had asked Allah. no man of knowledge can ever be an ignorant person. So do not search here and there about them. the Blessed.’” The aforementioned hadees clearly states that Husain and others were Divine Proofs. (that is. and then the finishing of the period of those who exceeded in corruption and the termination of their rule would have been quicker than a string of beads which is cut and (the beads) scattered.e. Hadees no.) a man who knows something but is ignorant of something (else).” Talking on the same subject. Mohammad Baqar said: ‘No. which He wished them to reach. to Whom belong Might and Majesty. sent on earth for our well-being. if you could keep to yourself what you know). was not because of a wrongdoing that they had committed.’” In Hadees no. 690 states that the fifth Imam Mohammad Baqar said to a group of associates: “If your tongues had been tied (i. by Allah. the Sublime does not use a Proof as an argument for His creatures unless he has everything of which they are in need. indeed no.

Q URAN. 49 God made several similar miraculous signs for Prophet Mohammad.what is to their advantage and what is to their disadvantage. Upon the defeat of the Romans’ (i. with the conquest of Makkah. without fear. you will see the people entering the religion of God in . III. XLVIII 27 The matter took place in the 8 A. if God wills. God said of those who took part in the Battle of Badr before the battle (occurred): The groups (of the enemy) will be defeated and they will turn their backs (in flight). Also He said: When the help of God comes and victory.’” Fact is that the God too has used this method as proof of the Prophethood of Mohammad and other Prophets. son of Mary. XXX 1-4 The matter turned out just as God had said. LIV 45 The matter occurred just as God had said without there being any difference in it. The God also said: Indeed you will enter the Sacred Mosque in safety. Q URAN . through illustrious miracles and signs so as to indicate his prophethood. God made manifest Jesus.H.e. Q URAN . Byzantines) horsemen: Rome has been conquered in the lower lands (of its empire) but in a few years after their defeat they will conquer. Q URAN . He said: I will tell you what you will eat and what you will store in your houses. with your heads shaved or shortened.

there are several reports of Ali – the commander of the faithful . said when the Syrians raised copies of the Quran and a group of his followers began to have doubts (about their position) and insisted (that he agree) to making a truce: “Shame on you. you are not going to make the lesser pilgrimage. the Exalted.” The matter happened as he predicted. Q URAN . you are going to Basra.concerning the unknown and (foretelling) things which would happen before they happen. CX 1-3 This event occurred as He described. Those people do not really mean (to settle the issue by) the Quran because they are not people (who accept) the .parties. Indeed God. this is a deceitful trick. Some of incidents from the life of Imam Ali are being mentioned here. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Another example of that is what he.” The matter was as he had said. will rebuff their plotting and give me victory against them. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ He also said to Ibn Abbas when informing him about their asking for permission to go on the lesser pilgrimage: “I have given them permission despite knowing of the treachery they harboured within themselves. I have appealed for the help of God against them. He never said anything without his statement agreeing with the report of the event so that in this way his truthfulness was established. when they asked permission to leave to go on the lesser pilgrimage: “By God. peace be on him. He said to Talha and Zubair. We wish to tell you that such incidents are in such abundance that they are themselves a subject of an entire book. Likewise.

When he was found.” Eventually (his body) was found among those people and his shirt was torn open. This group of people fell into disbelief after the arbitration (between Ali and Muawiya) and they regretted the action which they had previously hastily embarked on and made him accept.e. They were separated into different groups and destruction came to them soon after. he caused a search to be made for him among those killed saying: “By God. Fear God and carry out your decision to fight against them. he said: “God is greater.” The matter turned out just as he had predicted. After the battle. If you do not. In this there is a warning for anyone who reflects. I have not lied nor have I been lied to. Indeed. his shoulder went back to its position. On his shoulder there was a swelling the breast of a woman. I would tell you the decision God has made through the words of His Prophet concerning those who fight against these people (i. against the Kharijites) as a result of seeing them to be misguided. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Ali said as he was setting out to fight against the Kharijites: “If it was not for the fact that I am afraid that you would just carry on discussions and abandon (all other) action. When they were left.” ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ .Quran. among them is a man with a stunted arm who has breasts like the breasts of a woman. on which were hairs. When the hairs were pulled. They are the wickedest of creatures and the one who fights against them is the closest in relationship to God among His creatures.” The malformation of the man (mukhdaj) had not been known to the people. his shoulder came forward with it. you will be separated into (different) groups and you will regret it when regret will not bring any advantage.

do you have water for ritual purification with you?” “Yes.” I answered and I gave him a vessel. came along.” he said. He sat down in the shade of the spear.” (the man) insisted. by God.” In the morning I went for a walk. the people have crossed the river. “they have not crossed. they have crossed. the Commander of the faithful.” he replied. fitted my shield on it and shaded myself from the sun. Then another man came. Jundub b. until I left the lines (of the army).” “No. who said:] I (i.” . He said to me: “Brother from (the tribe of) al-Azd. He said: “Commander of the faithful.” “ Yes. Suddenly a horseman appeared asking for him.” he retorted. Then doubts came to me about fighting against these people I said: “It is our reciters of the Quran and our choice men whom we are killing. I made a sign and he came. This matter is dreadful. the people have crossed.” he told me. there is a horseman who wants you. While I was sitting.” “Make a sign to him (to come here). Then he came back after he had purified himself. Then I fixed my spear in the ground. Abd Allah al-Azdi. He went aside so that I could not see him. I said: “Commander of the faithful. He said: “Commander of the faithful. I never had any doubts about fighting against those who fought him until I took part in the battle of al-Nahrawan (against the Kharijites). “You are lying. Abd Allah) took part with Ali in the battles of the Camel and Siffin. “they have not crossed.[The historians (ashab al-sira) report in their account on the authority of Jundub b.e. (taking) some vessels of water with me.” “No.

I will be the first to fight against him. O God. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ There is famous account which has a wide circulation among the reporters of historical traditions (athar). then I will go forth with him and fight alongside him.” Then he arose and I arose with him. I struck him and he struck me.” (the man) said. the Kharijites) left (there).“By God.” We returned to the lines (of the army) and we found that the standards and baggage were as they had been (before). My comrades carried me back. and I and another of them were exchanging blows. “They have not done so. who has given me insight into this man and enabled me to recognize his affair. has the matter become clear to you?” “Yes. (What you want) is to kill them and shed their blood. “I did not come to you until I saw the standards and the baggage on that side.” he said. I killed one man from those people (i. We both fell together. If I find that the people have crossed. I said to myself: “Praise be to God. the first to thrust my spear into his eye. By the time I recovered consciousness. If the people have not crossed. the Kharijites) and then I killed another.e.e. He took me by the scruff of the neck and pushed me. I give You a solemn undertaking which You can ask me about on the Day of Resurrection.” “By God.” I replied. Then he said: “Brother of (the tribe of) al-Azd. In it the man tells of his own solemn undertaking towards the Commander of the faithful and (what . “Your business is with your enemy. He is one of two men: he is either a thoroughgoing liar or (one given) evidence (for his authority) by his Lord and a covenant by his Prophet.” he declared. there were none of the people (i. Commander of the faithful.

He would strike with it until he became unconscious. Harith and others report on the authority of the men (whom they cite): When the Commander of the faithful learnt what Busr b. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ There is another report of his words with the same implication: “People. I have called you to the truth and you turned your backs away from me. There is no way that it can be rejected or its truthfulness denied. gives clear evidence of his knowledge of the inner conscience (of man) and his knowledge of what is in men’s souls. Busr has sold his religion for the world.” (Later) Busr used to ask for a sword and a sword of wood would be brought to him. he said: “O God.” It would be given to him and he would strike with it. the sword. The evidence in it is outstanding which could only be equaled by evidence of a similar nature in terms of the greatness of the miracle and its clear proof. Artaa had done in Yemen. I have flogged you and you have made me tired. Whoever torments people in this world will be tormented by God in the next. The sign of that will be that the ruler of Yemen will come against you to settle . Do not let there remain to him in his religion anything by which he would merit Your mercy. He continued like that until he died. so take his reason away. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ In a similar vein is the account which Walid b. They will not be satisfied with this (attitude) from you so that they will torment you with whips and iron. When he recovered consciousness. In it (the Commander of the faithful) provides information about the unknown. he would say: “The sword. After me rulers will rule you. May Busr survive until his mind becomes disordered.happened) after that.

ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Yet another example is reported by Jarir on the authority of al-Mughira. He cut off his hand and his leg. “You who are sleeping wake up. Mishar stood at the gate of Ali’s house. “Where is the Commander of the faithful?” he asked. It was a long trunk and he was under him. as you have told us before. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Then there is the report which the religious scholars recount: Juwayriyya b. a blow will be struck on your head from which your blood will be coloured with blood. He will cut off your hand and your leg.” Time went by after that until in the days of Muawiya. then he crucified him on the tree trunk where Ibn Mukabir (was crucified). you will be pulled before a rough harsh man. He called out: “Come.” That happened as he predicted. he sought for .” was the reply. Juwayriyya so that I can discuss with you what you are saying. Umar will seize the tax-collectors and those who collect the taxes of the tax-collectors.” The Commander of the faithful heard that. Then you will be crucified below the tree trunk where an unbeliever (has already been crucified). “For by Him in Whose hands is my soul. Ziyad became governor. who said:] When al-Hajjaj became governor.” he shouted. “Sleeping.in your midst.” He came and (the Commander of the faithful) said to him: “By Him in Whose hands is my soul. A man called Yusuf b.

myself. When Kumayl saw that. Strike off his head. “But the judgment is yours.” So he went and offered his hand to al-Hajjaj. Hence it has been included in this section where we mention miracles.” “Don’t gnash your teeth at me and don’t threaten me. The Commander of the faithful. “Indeed. I would get closer to God. “you were among those who killed Usman b.” Kumayl replied. he said: “I would have liked to have found a way to get you. It is not right for me to deprive my people of their allowances. “What is left of my life is like mere specks of dust. The latter fled from him. Yusuf al-Thaqafi said: “I would like to strike down one of the followers of Abu Turab (derogatory name of Ali). One day al-Hajjaj b. in addition. Affan. (al-Hajjaj) deprived his people of their allowances (ata).” .Kumayl b. For there is an appointed time to be with God and after death there is the reckoning. This report is also recorded by the non-Shia (amma) which they report on the authority of men whom they regard as trustworthy. Ziyad. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ There is. told me that you would kill me.” “Then that is evidence against yourself.” al-Hajjaj said to him. proofs and evidence (concerning him).” Then he was executed.” answered Kumayl. he said: “I am an old man and my life is nearly finished. When the latter saw him. The Shia (khassa) participates in reporting it. Therefore give judgment as long as you are a judge. Through his blood. the account recorded by the historians (Ashab al-sira) on various authorities.” he retorted.

“We know of no one who was a companion of Abu Turab for a longer time than Qanbar.” “I leave that to you.” Then he ordered him to be slaughtered.” he answered. “(Your kunya) is Abu Hamdan?” he asked [Kunya means ‘tribe’] “Yes. “Because in whatever way you kill me. will you show me another better than it?” he asked. “Yes. It has been included in the section concerning the compelling miracles and outstanding evidence and the knowledge which God specially endowed to His proof among His prophets. his retainer. “So choose what sort of death you prefer. “Are you Qanbar?” he asked.” he was told.” he ordered him. Abu Talib?” “God is my Master. you will be killed in the same way. “If I disassociate myself from his religion. apostles and chosen ones. “Is your master Ali b.” he said. “and the Commander of the faithful Ali is the master of my provisions.” he replied.” “Disassociate yourself from his religion.” he responded. He sent in search of him and he was brought. “Why?” he asked. “The Commander of the faithful told me that my fate would be to be slaughtered unjustly and without right. Therefore it follows on from what has been . “I will kill you.” he replied.” he replied. speaking about the unknown. This is also one of the reports which is established with regard to the Commander of the faithful.

Ibrahim reported on the authority of Ziyad al-Makhariqi. al-Bara b. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ (In the same way Ismail b. shut my eyes. Then carry me on my bier to the grave of my grandfather. so that I may renew my covenant with him. Fatima daughter . Azib used to say: “By God. say nothing about that and wait for what God. I am leaving you and joining my Lord. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ A similar incident. is attributed to Imam Hasan – the second Imam. and said: “My brother. I have been given poison to drink and have spewed my liver into a basin. Therefore by the right I have with regard to you. will decide concerning me. al-Musawir al-Abdo. I am aware of the person who poisoned me and from where I have been made a subject to this deceitful action. who said:) When death was close to Hasan. Sabih reported on the authority of Yahya b. showing the knowledge of the unseen.presented before. my son Husain will be killed while you are alive and you will not help him. who said: One day Ali said to al-Bara b. This belongs to what we have mentioned about Ali giving information about the unknown and the prevailing attitudes of men’s hearts. he summoned Husain. Azib: “Bara.” After Husain was killed. wash me and shroud me. the Mighty and High. When I have died. on the authority of Ismail b. the Mighty and High. (Abd Allah b. After that take me to the grave of my grandmother. Ali b. Ziyad. the Apostle of God.” He showed (much) grief and regret about that. I will oppose him before God. Abu Talib spoke the truth about Husain being killed and my not helping him.

and set him up as their sign-post after himself. My brother.” Then he made his testamentary bequests to his family and his children. When he passed on his (final) journey. Husain washed and shrouded his (body). Ibn Abbas hurried to Marwan and said to him: “Go back to where you came from. Then he carried him on his bier. (He gave him) his heirlooms and the things which the Commander of the faithful had bequeathed to him when he had made him his successor. they will gather to prevent you from doing it. they came towards them with their group. and bury me there. When Husain approached the tomb of the Apostle of God with (the body of Hasan) so that he might renew his covenant with him.” Discord was about to occur between the Banu Umayya and the Banu Hashim. Marwan and those of the Banu Umayya who were with him had no doubt that they would try to bury him beside the Apostle of God. had declared him worthy to occupy his position. For that reason. They gathered together and armed themselves. Ayesha had joined them on a mule and she was saying: “What is there between you and me that you should allow someone I don’t want to. Indeed we do not intend to bury our companion with the Apostle of God. to enter my house?” Marwan began to recite: “O Lord. I swear by God that you should not shed even your blood into the cupping-glass in (carrying out) my command.” (Then he went on:) ”Should Usman be buried in the outskirts of Medina and Hasan be buried alongside the Prophet? That will never be while I carry a sword. Marwan. But we want him to . and had indicated to his Shia that he was his successor. battle is better than ease. the people will think that you intend to bury me with the Apostle of God.of Asad.

” Husain told him. stupid people have come to me claiming that I will kill you. “They are men who dream (of the future). Saad said to Husain: “Abu Abd Allah. was never seen except after the killing of Husain b. Saad went through the gate of the mosque: “There is the killer of Husain b. Abida reported: I heard Mohammad b. Ali.be able to renew his covenant with him by visiting him.” ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ We have already mentioned a few incidents from the life of Husain. he. Ali. [Even the followers of Ali had been told of it. and bury him alongside her according to his last instructions concerning that. Sirin say:) Such a redness. If he had enjoined that he should be buried alongside the Prophet. Then we will take him back to his grandmother. Fatima.” “They are not stupid.” (Yusuf b.] (Salim b. Zakariyya (John . Saad al-Iskaf reported: Mohammad Baqar – the fifth Imam said:) The killer of (Prophet) Yahya b.Sharik al-Amiri reported:) I heard the followers of Ali say when Umar b. which was in the sky. was much too aware of God and His Apostle and the sacredness of his tomb to bring bloodshed to it as others have done (who) have entered it without his permission. However. Here is another: (Abd Allah b. you know that you would the least able to deter us from that. Abi Hafsa reported:) Umar b.” That was some time before he was killed. Yet it pleases me that you will not enjoy the land of Iraq for long after me.

they gave superiority to those who deferred their decision to become Muslims rather than to those who were the pioneers. The killer of Husain b.the Baptist) was a son born out of wedlock. They elected weak ones instead of strong ones. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Even Fatima foretold what was to happen in future in her last sermon. because of not choosing the Caliph designated by the Prophet. I swear to you. It is then that the destroyers of rights will lose and those who will come in the future will find and realize the terrible results of what the ancestors have done. Woe be to them! Is it not more worthy to follow the one who guides rather than the one who cannot find his way if he is not guided? What has happened to you? What kind of a judgment is this? You have impregnated the earth with your act. What a wrong and oppressive exchange they have made! By God. So you should be satisfied with your daily affairs and live in peace prior to the storm and terrible revolts. “What a terrible leader they have elected (Abu Bakr). Iraq and Syria sure has been witness to a lot many of these. . Just wait until the time when it gives birth. when she was ill and the wives of the Emigrants and Companions of the Prophet foretells dire consequences in future. instead of milk. Ali was a son born out of wedlock. They are corrupters who do not understand. The sky only went red for those two. They destroyed those who believe they are performing good affairs. you will have buckets full of blood and poison will flow from the breasts of the newborn. The land of Arabia. See: Fatima’s last sermon. What a terrible helper they have appointed (Omar).

anarchy and the rule of tyrants will overcome you. At that time you will only sigh for there will be nothing that you can do because you were blind and could not see the truth. They will cultivate with force what you have planted with love. the sharp swords of the dominations of the oppressors. The oppressors will enslave you.” ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ . No public assets except a small quantity will remain. They will oblige you because you have turned your faces from the right way and you did not accept it.For them.

if you are believers. A theist can never question the possibility of miracles. most surely there is a sign in this for you. then I breathe into it and it becomes a bird with Allah’s permission and I heal the blind and the leprous. Verse 3:49 of Quran states: And (make him [Isa]) a messenger to the children of Israel: That I have come to you with a sign from your Lord. we should have no problem in believing that He can perform whatever He wills in any manner that He deems fit and necessary. of clay. This verse states how Isa. and bring the dead to life with Allah’s permission and I inform you of what you should eat and what you should store in your houses. formed. It does sometimes happen that the public mind is led to the acceptance of the divine truths not by any rational arguments or moral and spiritual evidence but only by the miraculous manifestations of the divine power at the hands of His approved and appointed representatives to generate conviction in men of average intelligence.Miracles As Signs A miracle (a credential of prophethood) is an extraordinary occurrence. a thing like a bird and breathed in to it . Once we believe in the presence of an Almighty God over us. It may be either above natural law or contrary to it or else independent of it. which cannot be produced by any natural agency but only by the direct will of Allah. by Allah’s permission. that I determine for you out of dust like the form of a bird. because a miracle is only an exercise of free will on the part of the creator and author of the creation with all its laws a fulfillment of His purpose in a way that appears novel to the onlookers (who can never know that which He knows and controls).

Q URAN . magic and witchcraft excited their imagination. Quran explicitly states that Maryam. . put life into the dead and told the people their most secret affairs. the daughter of Imran.13: 38 Fact is that the birth of Isa itself was a miracle from God. 9: 18. She did not have any kind of sexual relation with any man before or after the birth of Isa and remained a virgin in the strict sense of the word till she departed from this world.(and Allah made the thing alive). Matthew 8: 3. 11:11 to 44 refer to the miracles mentioned in this verse. the purpose of the miraculous manifestation of the divine powers at his hands was to make them believe in him and in that which he preached. and Allah breathed into her His spirit (Isa). as Allah says. and John 9: 1 to 7. guarded her chastity. was a virgin. therefore. To each age its Book. 19. and she testified the truth of the words of her Lord . In the days of Isa the people to whom he was particularly sent (the Jews) could not be effectively convinced with the help of arguments based on reason because of their ready inclination to believe in anything which confounded their raw and undeveloped intelligence. cured blindness and leprosy. 23 to 25. as has been mentioned in verse 12 of al Tahrim that Maryam. and she was an obedient servant of Allah. More often than not. the mother of Isa. as the prophet of Allah. and Mark 8: 22 to 25. As Allah says in Quran: Apostles truly have we already sent before thee (O Mohammad) and wives and offspring have we given them. Yet no apostle had come with miracles unless by the leave of God. she was truthful. and Luke 7: 12 to 15. 27 to 30. they responded to suggestions made through either of them. because.she neither lied nor kept anything hidden. Luke 17: 12 to 14. For example.

this was even a greater miracle. most surely Allah is Gracious to people. showing that Allah does what He wills. It so happened that a group of seventy (stupid) elders demanded to see Allah and hear His voice. On account of their lack of faith in Allah. Their bodies turned into dust. It is unfortunate that Muslims believe this but when the very spirit or. and they were thousands. This is a historical reference here to the children of Israel. Quran narrates one such miracle in verse 2:243: Have you not considered those who went forth from their homes. but most people are not grateful. who ran away from their homes in thousands out of fear of the plague. Musa too was given several miracles. thinking that their timely flight would save them from death. There is no escape from the will of the Lord. This is a sad chapter of history that in spite of such clear signs. As regards to Maryam. after which. his followers continued to doubt him all through his life. Only their bones were lying scattered on the ground. but when the manifestation of the divine glory came on . One such miracle was when people died and were raised back to life. Inspired by Allah. then Allah said to them. again He gave them life. their prophet Ezekiel prayed for them by reciting a particular name.We are of the opinion that the complex process of the creation and development of a child in the womb is itself no less a miracle of God that is performed innumerable time each passing day. for fear of death. the noor of Mohammad was here in person they doubt how Ali could have spoken at the time of his birth. as there was no male seed involved. Die. as has been said by Mohammad. Allah brought them to life again. death caught up with them under His command. The spirit was breathed into Isa and he spoke at the time of his birth.

” (Exodus 13) Manna and salwa . It is evident that the people asked Musa to show them the proof of his prophethood by requesting Allah to appear in person. In the same manner. The lightning appeared on the demand of the people. returning of the sun is common to Krishna and Yusha ibn Noon. the Lord all the time went before them.them. are narrated in the Quran as the miracles given to Musa to furnish the proof of his prophethood. their demand was met by another proof . by night a pillar of fire to give them light.two heavenly foods – kept coming for the people. Verse 2:63 of Quran states the miracle of the lifting of the mountain in following words: And when We took a promise from you and lifted the mountain over you: Take hold of the law (Taurait) We have given you with firmness and bear in mind what is in it. Quran talks of a mountain that was lifted. when Bani Israel departed from Egypt towards the Philistine via the Red Sea. Musa too fell down senseless and when he recovered the others were raised after death. It seems that similar miracles given to several prophets. therefore. This miracle is similar to that performed by Krishna when he lifted the mountain to give shelter to the people from rain. they all died. so that you may guard (against evil). In their foolishness they did not know that corporeality is for the creatures. they were destroyed (see Araf: 155). . and upon seeing it. For instance.the raising after death. so that they could travel night and day. by day a pillar of cloud to guide them on their journey. not for the uncreated creator. The following wonderful events. Not only this. which became operative as supernatural phenomena.

. from innocent Abel to Zechariah son of Berachiah. And so. The gushing of water from the rock. Verse 2:118 states: And those who have no knowledge say: Why doth not Allah speak unto us. those with evil hearts are not going to turn believer. I send you therefore prophets. some of them you will kill and crucify. The suspension of the mountain over the people. 4. The coming of manna and salwa from the heavens. and teachers. In spite of these miracles. The brilliance of the palm of Musa. 8. sages. on you will fall the guilt of all the innocent blood spilt on the ground. people didn’t listen to their prophets and in fact killed a lot many of them. We have made clear the revelations for people who are sure. M ATTHEW 23: 34 AND 35 Quran states clearly that in spite of all visible signs. Verse 2:66 of Quran states: So We made them an example to those who witnessed it and those who came after it. The raising of the dead. The shadowing of the cloud over the Bani Israel. 5. 3. whom you murdered between the sanctuary and the altar. or some sign come unto us? Even thus. others you will flog in your synagogues and hound from city to city. Their hearts are all alike. spake those (who were) before them. 6. The transformation of the transgressors into apes.1. The rod of Musa transformed into a serpent. The splitting of the sea. 7. as they now speak. 2. 9. and an admonition to those who guard (against evil).

Not only the Holy Prophet. The demand for miracles (as stated in verses 90 to 93 of Bani Israel) was made to satisfy the lust for witnessing wonders. performed by him. At another place he said to the Pharisees: It is a wicked. It is also true that the belief. Quran has even called itself as a miracle or sign from God. generated by a miracle. who had already performed a large number of miracles and whose very birth was the greatest miracle ever witnessed. The signs of Allah are enough for those who are sure. It was not the true mission of the last prophet of Allah to satisfy the vain desires of the people who merely wanted to watch and enjoy miracles. We have seen a passage as per which 4444 miracles are assigned to him. keeping in mind the higher IQ levels of the people after Mohammad. he. refused to comply with the request. have been recorded in the books of history reported on the authentic and unbreakable evidence of the traditions. Likewise when prophet Isa was brought before Herod to perform a miracle. deprives the individual of the possibility of enjoying the real value of the faith acquired through reason and conviction. but also the divinely chosen holy Imams had performed miracles whenever they deemed it necessary and thought that it could serve a definite purpose but refused to put them to use as an answer to the challenge of any antagonistic individual or group. and challenged all and sundry to attempt to come with even . M ATTHEW 12: 39 This is the reason why. a large number of miracles. godless generation that asks for a sign. who even after witnessing a miracle would not accept the truth.Not that Holy Prophet did not perform miracles! Besides those mentioned in the Quran.

for ever. No attempt has been made so far. B ANI I SRAEL : 88 Even if any one makes an effort. there will be no witness available to testify to his claim. Aga Mahdi Puya says: “Since the beginning of Islam till today. Say (O Mohammad). and not to its effects as some commentators wrongly try to prove. This challenge refers to the Quran as a work of literature and wisdom. the enemies of Islam have been trying to belittle Islam but they never dared to answer the challenge. then produce a chapter like it and call on your witnesses besides Allah if you are truthful. If men and jinn should unite to produce the like of this Quran they could not produce the like of it though they were helpers one of another. but also to put an end to doubts and speculations.” Another miracle performed by Mohammad shows . The inimitable literary excellence and the pure and perfect wisdom of the Quran has been and will always be beyond the reach of the literary and intellectual genius of mankind. that it could be the fabrication of any human mind. not only to assert the genuineness of the divine words revealed to a man who did not receive any type of education from any mortal. Pooya/Ali Commentary says: “In this verse the almighty all-wise Allah throws an open challenge to mankind for making an effort to compose even one surah (chapter) in the style and manner of the Quran. Q URAN. in spite of repeated attempts made by the most celebrated scholars and men of letters. and no one shall succeed.a chapter like it. See verse 2:23: And if you are in doubt as to that which We have revealed to Our servant. jointly and severally.

/948A.) in his book Kitab Al-Irshad. We give the accounts of miracles here as given by Shaykh Mufid (336A. where a mosque called Masjid-e-Ghamama (Cloud) is presently located. Some of the Miracles of the Commander of the Faithful – Imam Ali (The following are) some of the signs of God. to pray for rain. According to some traditions.why Indra of the Vedas. which indicate his position with regard to God. Immediately clouds gathered and it rained. perfection and the demonstration of the proof of him. who is none but Mohammad. the Prophet asked Imam Husain.H.D.D. to remain steadfast in respecting his authority and closeness to God (wilaya). to recognize his rights and the certainty of His Imamate. Now this city is within the confines of the city. then a young child. the Mighty and High. (The . – 413/1022A. The people of Medina requested the Prophet for dua (prayer). and his special endowment with miracles by which he was set apart from everyone else through the call for obedience to him. The Prophet brought the people to a spot outside Medina. His Miraculous Victory over the Jinn Another example is the tradition which has become well known about the Apostle of God sending him to the valley of the jinn. outside the city. During the time of the Prophet. There is a namaz in Islam called Namaz-e-Istisqa (Namaz for rain) and it is advisable that the namaz should be offered under the open sky. and His clear proof of the Commander of the faithful. there was a severe drought in Medina as there had been no rain for several years. and to aware of his protection (from error). came to be called rain-god. the Exalted. Gabriel had told him that groups of them had gathered to plot against him.

(Mohammad b. He sought refuge with God from his enemies and he named God. Abi al-Sirri al-Tamimi reported on the authority of Ahmad b.” The Commander of the faithful set out for the valley. who said:) When the Prophet set out against the Banu alMustaliq. on the authority of his father. will come against you. on the authority of Wabira b. came down to tell him that a group of unbelieving jinn had gone into the valley with the intention of plotting against him and causing harm to his Companions. Repel them with the strength which God has given you. on the authority of al-Hasan b. Night came and stopped near a rugged valley. who want (to attack) you. al-Faraj.” He sent with him a hundred men from different groups among the people. You will be protected by the names of God which He has specially endowed you with knowledge of. He went forward and stood at the edge of the valley. he avoided the road. Towards the end of the night. al-Harith. He repelled them from the believers through his strength by which he was set apart from the rest of them. Musa al-Nahdi. He told them: “Stay with him and obey his orders. He called for the Commander of the faithful and told him: “Go to this valley. They came closer and there was a gap between him and them of the distance . When he was near the side of the valley. he ordered the hundred men who had accompanied him to stand close to the side and not do anything until he gave them permission. those of the jinn who are enemies of God. Gabriel.Commander of the faithful) took the place of the Apostle of God and through God was sufficient for the believers against the plotting (of the jinn). He signaled to the people who had followed him to come closer. on the authority of Ibn al-Abbas.

we almost died of fear and anxiety for you because of what you met. He stood with the people who had accompanied him. Therefore I went into the valley without any fear of them. If they had remained in substantial forms. The Commander of the faithful shouted: “I am Ali b. It was not long before the persons became like black smoke. The Companions of the Apostle of God said to him: “Abu al-Hassan (Ali). they became smaller and I knew the terror which had come upon them. The rest of them will go ahead of me to the Apostle of God in order to (confess that they) believe in him. Abi Talib b. the testamentary trustee of authority (wasi) of the Apostle of God and his cousin.” he told them. I would have attacked them to the last one.” “When the enemy showed themselves to me. God was sufficient (protection) against their plotting and He was sufficient (help) for the Muslims against their wickedness. The Commander of the faithful penetrated deep into the valley. the Exalted.” The Commander of the faithful returned with those who had been with him to the Apostle of God.of a bowshot. among them. He gave . “and I shouted the names of God.” Persons in the form of gypsies appeared before the people who seemed to have torches of fire in their hands and they dried up (all) the sides of the valley. Defy (us) if you want to. It was worse than (anything else) that has happened to us. Then he climbed back the way he had come down. The place became yellow as a result of what had happened to it. Abd al-Muttalib. while reciting the Quran and signaling to right and left with his sword. The Commander of the faithful magnified God. which almost made the people fall on their faces because of its violence. They could not keep their feet on the ground because of terror of opposition and terror of what would come upon them. Then he began to god down into the valley when a hurricane arose.

Thus he compelled the Commander of the faithful in that position. once during the life of the Prophet and another time after his death. Abd Allah al-Ansari. Umm Salama. When (the Apostle) awoke from his trance. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ His Sending Back the Sun Among the wonderful signs which God has brought forth through the hands of the Commander of the faithful. When inspiration closed in upon him. the reports of which have become widespread among the biographers and historians (ulama al-siyar wa al-athar) and about which the poets have composed verses – (namely) when he sent back the sun (to its earlier position) on two occasions. The account of it being sent back on the first occasion has been reported by Asma daughter of Umays. Ali b. the wife of the Prophet. (The Apostle) was delighted with him and prayed for his well being. he said to the Commander of the faithful: “Have you missed the afternoon prayer?” . giving a nod (with his head) for his bowing and prostration. is one. Jabir b. Abu Said al-Khudri and a group of the Companions. Then he said to him: “Ali.him the news. One day the Prophet was in his house and Ali was in front of him when Gabriel came to him to speak privately to him about God. he used the thigh of the Commander of the faithful as a pillow.” Then he continued the journey with all the Muslims and they passed through the valley in safety and without fear. Abi Talib. So he prayed the afternoon prayer sitting. They submitted to Islam and I accepted their submission. those whom God filled with fear through you have come ahead of you to me. He did not raise his head from it until the sun had set.

“Ask God to send the sun back for you so that you may pray it standing at its proper time just as (it was) when you missed being able to d it. Apostle of God. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Another incidence of the sun being sent back happened after the Prophet’s death when Ali wanted to cross the Euphrates at Babylon and many of his followers were occupied in taking their animals and baggage across. It was sent back for him so that it came into its position in the sky at the time for the afternoon prayer. earth and all beings were created by them. will answer you because of your obedience to God and to His Apostle. The people recalled the merit of being together for that (prayer) and they spoke about that. The Commander of the faithful prayed the afternoon prayer at it proper time. God gave this power owing to the intense worship that they performed. he asked God to send back the sun so that all his followers might be together to perform the afternoon prayer at its proper time. When the people had said the final .” [Note the verses from the Upanishads which say that sun. The horizons became such as they are for the time of the afternoon prayer. Then it set. the Exalted.” he answered.] The Commander of the faithful asked God to send back the sun. answered him by sending back the sun for him. “God. God. When he heard their talk about it.“I could not pray it standing because of your position.” he told him. and the circumstances of hearing inspiration which I was in. (Asma reported:) By God we heard it at its setting screeching like the screech of the saw in wood. The people did not finish their crossing and many of them missed the time of the prayer. the Exalted. He prayed the afternoon prayer himself with a group who were with him. moon.

Therefore. Ali and the rest of the Imams showed all the miracles collectively that the earlier Apostles were given individually as proof. Truth is that the Prophet Mohammad. the earth and trees – all supplicate to God. the sun disappeared and a violent throbbing was heard from it which terrified the people. Concerning that al-Sayyid b. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Ali talking to the fish too is widely reported. the moon. Then it fell like a shooting star. as is the fame of wolves speaking to the Prophet and the stones praising God in the palm of his hand. in their declarations of His uniqueness. we request you to remember The Matsya Purana where a fish talks and tells the future events to a person. and in praising God for the favour which he had shown to them. we have seen that some Apostle brought back the sun (like Krishna . Also. [Last Hymn of the Yajur Veda that we have described in the Book-III confirms that the sun. It has not been sent back for any Arab creature. They became profuse in their glorification of God. For him it was sent back another time at Babylon. The reports of that have reached the (distant) horizons and its account is widespread among the people. and in seeking forgiveness form him. Mohammad al-Himyari recited: The sun was sent back for him when he missed the time of the afternoon prayer and sunset had drawn near. So that its light shone (the same as) at its time for the afternoon.greeting (at the end of the prayer). Only so that his first (view of it) may be mixed with his later (view of it) and so that it being sent back me be an explanation of a wondrous matter. perhaps a Prophet.

It made a croaking sound that many of them heard. he bent down towards the snake and the snake spread itself up towards him so that it could gobble his ear. as that description itself would go into a voluminous book. This is just a small portion of the list of miracles that are attributed to Ali. Likewise. The Commander of . The people shook with fear at that and were worried about its purpose and about driving it away from the Commander of the faithful. the entire 4444 miracles attributed to the Holy Prophet cannot be recounted here. Then it glided away.and Yusha ibn Noon). The ground had swallowed it up. When it reached the raised platform on which the Commander of the faithful was standing. Then it went down from its position. when a snake appeared at the side of the pulpit and began to climb up until it was near the Commander of the faithful. some brought dead back to life (like Jesus). The Commander of the faithful moved his lips in a whisper and the snake acted as if it was listening to him. He signaled to them to keep away from it. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ The Commander of the Faithful and the Jinn The historians (hamalat al-athar wa-ruwat alakhbar) have also reported the story of the snake and the sign and miraculous nature of it. some foretold the future (like those on whom Vedas were revealed). (They reported:) One day the Commander of the faithful was making a speech on the pulpit at Kufa. which is like the story of the fishes and the abating of the waters of the Euphrates. The people fell silent and became distraught at that. some used to talk of animals (like Solomon). and other such miracles performed by the earlier prophets.

So to save their lives they ran away to this cave. It says: (The Ashab-e-Kahf said to be sleeping at a place in Syria) are six or nine people. He told them: “That was not as you had thought. the people gathered around him. When the King of that time heard of the incidence. But the people of Ashab-e-Kahf used to believe in Allah and never used to worship idols. whom a case had confused. According to history and belief. by the Grace of the Almighty Allah. praying to Allah to save them from king. they went to sleep.the faithful went on with his speech and brought it to a close. who used to worship idols and also forced the people to worship idols. they went to the town but found that everything had changed. I informed him about it. they became very frightened and prayed to Allah to keep them in the same condition . he thought that they were dead and went away. When the king arrived at the cave with his men. After many years they woke up. When the people of the cave heard of this visit. And they were sleeping in such a way that it looked as if they were dead. The coins (money) were also old-fashioned. He came to me to find out from me about it. So.” ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ A very interesting incident regarding the Ashabe-Kahf (the Men of the Cave) and Imam Ali is mentioned in the booklet “Ziarat Places in Syria” published by AlMahdi Special Needs Organization. and feeling very hungry. He wished me well and departed. UK”. questioning him about the circumstances of the snake and the wonder of it. The king Dakyanus was very angry and ordered that the people of Ashab-e-Kahf be killed. When he had finished it and gone down. he decided to come and visit them. It was only one of the judges of the jinn. At that time the king of Rome was Dakyanus. they are the inhabitants of Rome. The King Dakyanus had died and also many years had passed.

Salman Farsi and Anas bin Malik sat on a carpet. they flew in air from Medina to Shaam (Syria) and landed near the cave of Ashab-e-Kahf. Nobody got the reply. that is the time when people wanted to know more about it. namely Umar. the people had forgotten about the incidence of Ashab-e-Kahf. When the king came. put his foot on the stone and said Salaam (greetings) as follows: “Assalamun Alaykum Ya Ashabe Kahf Var Raqim. This incident occurred before the time of Hazrat Isa (Jesus).” (Salam on you the people of the cave) He got the reply as follows: . Hazrat Ali said: “This is the cave.” All of them said salaam. Please salute to them.as they were before. he saw them and ordered the cave to be closed and they are still sleeping there. When Allah revealed the above incidence to the Prophet in Quran in Sura-e-Kahaf. they will wake up. When our 12 th Imam will come. The names of these are as follows: a) Yamlikha b) Maksalmina c) Maslina d) Marnosh e) Dabarnosh f) Shaznosh g) Kafshsat-tayush h) Kutmir By the time of Prophet Mohammad. Abu Bakr. So they went to sleep again. and by a miracle. the angels come and change their sides. It is said that every six months. Hazrat Ali went near the cave. Hazrat Ali and four other people. With the permission and blessing of Prophet Mohammad.

ordinary mortals cannot perform returning the sun or dividing the moon into two. We narrate it here because of its more contemporary nature. Our view is that performing a miracle is not a big deal. the Merciful. Yes. there is a mosque where a stone is kept on which Imam Husain’s head was kept and a drop of blood fell on the stone.“Wa Alaykum Salaam Ya Wasiy Yur Rasullulah. and I am the Oft-returning (to mercy). ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Miracles by Friends of Ahlebayts Quran 2:160 says: Except those who repent and amend and make manifest (the truth). but just true believers in God. who surely must have died more than 1300 years back. we have seen incidents from the lives of certain pious men throwing something on ground that changed into snake. But events like walking on water or flying in the air have oft been performed. which is on the way to Siffin.” (Also Salam on you the vicegerent of the Prophet of Allah. walking on water.) ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ In Allepp town in Syria. even by those who are not Prophets or Imams. We narrate here an incident of a companion of Prophet. Hanuman is not the only one who is reported to have flown in the sky. Likewise. Hazrat Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari was a close companion of the Holy Prophet who lived a long life. these it is to whom I turn (mercifully). Puranas recount several such incidents. There was a noor (light) in that stone and therefore the king of that time preserved it. . or performing similar extraordinary feats.

He was the first visitor to the graves of Shohada-e-Karbala (martyrs of Karbala). . His vazir (chief minister) was Nuripasha. The army saluted the bodies and they were transferred to another grave at a new site at ‘Salman Pak’ near the grave of Hazrat Salmane-Farsi. accepted Islam. Many Germans.The Holy Prophet had told him that he would see the 5 th Imam Mohammad Baqar and to give him his salaams. It was wet. when they were taken out of the graves were intact with same Kafan (cloth worn on the dead) and even the eyes were wide open and the hair of beard looked as if it was given ghusl (bath) a few moments before. Also some Germans came to witness the transfer of the bodies from the graves. The bodies. It was announced in the PTI News Agency worldwide. Namaz-e-Mayyat (namaz for the dead) was prayed again. Shah of Iraq was Shah Faisal. It was the water of River Tigris. Shah had also seen the same dream. upon seeing this. on 20 th Zilhajj. In 1994. When he went to visit the grave of Imam Husain he performed Ghusl (bath) in Nehre Furat (River Euphrates) and wore Ehram (single-piece garment worn by Hajj pilgrims). Nuripasha told Shah Faisal about the dream. 26 th March 1934 they decided to transfer the bodies. Soon after the Hajj. Nuripasha saw the dream for three days wherein Jabir told him that water was coming in his grave and there is too much of dampness in Hozaifa’s grave and to please transfer them to another grave. In 1934. the rauza (mausoleum) with all the graves inside it was built.

break one’s neck. Prophet Ibrahim later built the walls of the Kaaba again. press one another in a crowd. not far from the Red Sea is the town of Makkah. Pooya/Ali Commentary says: “Bakka is a variant for Makkah. By the time of Prophet Muhammad.Kaaba – The House of God In the province of Hijaz in Arabia. In the centre of the town is a small square-built stone structure called Kaaba. At the time of the conquest of Makkah. the people disobeyed his orders and put hundreds of idols inside the Holy Kaaba. blessed and a guidance for the nations. in a miraculous manner. hundreds of idols had again found place inside Kaaba. which is in heaven. Kaaba was destroyed but the foundation remained. either derived from tabakk i. Another version is that Bakka means the holy . the incident is mentioned in Part-III of this book. these idols were removed from the Kaaba and destroyed. The word ‘Kaaba. Ali was born inside the Holy Kaaba on the 13th of Rajab. It is also the same shape as Baitul Mamoor. About 30 years prior to this. Quran says in verse 96 of Chapter 3: Most surely the first house appointed for men is the one at Bekka. Explaining this verse further. or bakk i. After the strong waves and currents of Prophet Noah’s ship. literally means square. This took place in the 8 th year of Hijra that was 630 AD. This was done for the devotees to worship in one God but during with time. Prophet Ibrahim had to clean the Kaaba. because whenever it was attacked by an invader his neck had been broken-defeated and crushed.e. It is believed that Kaaba was first built by Prophet Adam exactly under Baitul Mamoor.e.

purify it and establish it as a place of worship of the almighty Lord. 31). The term Ahlebayt has been used for the descendants of Ibrahim (the lineage of Ibrahim through Ishaq was cut off after Isa). Ibrahim’s prayer in Ibrahim: 37 confirms its antiquity. the object of the greatest veneration It is reported on the authority of the Ahlebayt that the valley of Makkah was the first part of the earth which emerged above the surface of the water and cooled down when the heavens and the earth (an integrated mass) were split by Allah’s command (Anbiya: 30. in support of which there are a number of geological evidences. to the service of Allah and His house.house of Kaaba. Many a non-Muslim scholar agrees that this holy place. In Baqarah: 125 and 129. it is implied that Allah commanded Ibrahim to renew its foundations. even before Ibrahim. It had been throughout the ages. They were the founders and the protectors of the house of Allah. and it is to . was not only known to the people of Semitic origin but also to the ancient inhabitants of India according to the references available in pre-Sanskrit literature. dedicated to the worship of the Lord of the lords. The family of Ishmael was chosen as the first human family to inhabit this land with the sole purpose of dedicating themselves wholly to the worship and the service of the Lord of the worlds. and the descendants of Ishmael have been referred to as Ahlebayt because they had devoted themselves. Actually al-bayt (the house) refers to the house of Allah. gap or drift. The family of Ishmael was the first to be called “the people of the house” (Ahlebayt). Aqa Mahdi Puya writes: “The great antiquity of this house is undisputed. and settle down there along with his family. then Ishaq and his mother (Hud: 73) and after that Musa and his mother (Qasas: 12) were referred to as Ahlebayt. without any deviation. a guidance unto the worlds.

and a guidance unto the worlds. because his faith (belief in the unity of Allah) was perfect. The place they founded and established for the remembrance of Allah has been described as a blessed. and whoever disbelieves. is the house of Allah. Their house. sacred sanctuary. The house is a sanctuary and a blessing if one enters it by the permission and pleasure of the Ahlebayt. above any need of the worlds. the standing place of Ibrahim. an ideal for every believer. As they cannot be separated from the Quran (hadees al Saqalayn) the house of Allah can never be without their presence. described as Safinatul Nuh (ship of Nuh or Noah). Writes Pooya/Ali commentary: “The station or the standing place of Ibrahim. and whoever enters it shall be secure.their lineage references have been made in verses 36 and 37 of al Noor. wherever it may be. the model believer in the unity of Allah. (1) The standing place of Ibrahim has been made the permanent religious centre of all monotheists.” Verse 3:97 of Quran states: In it are clear signs. then surely Allah is Self-sufficient. has the following points of significance (clear signs). (2) It is a sacred sanctuary. because they devoted their lives to its service and attracted mankind to its ultimate purpose through their ideal virtues and righteousness. (upon) every one who is able to undertake the journey to it. and pilgrimage to the House is incumbent upon men for the sake of Allah. The house and the people of the house are inseparable. The house is a guidance if the people of the house are identified and kept in view. Whoso enters it is safe from .

no convener. (3) Pilgrimage to the Kaaba to seek spiritual guidance has been made obligatory on mankind forever. So he who willfully neglects the pilgrimage does so at his own peril. At Kaaba. dressed in a simple identical garment. ideology. shoulder to shoulder. before their Lord. and not to any hurt to his Lord. It is a historic fact that all invaders who attacked this holy precinct were destroyed. in the language of the Quran. He is self-sufficient. colour. Every year a great many pilgrims come to Kaaba to translate their faith into action. it makes no difference to Him whatsoever. race. In the end it is made clear that one who has sufficient means must perform the hajj. no compulsion. in front of His holy house. they forget their social status. is the everlasting miracle of the prophet of Islam. It is an escape from the sins a man commits (and its consequences) to take refuge under the shelter .” Says he on another occasion: “This institution of pilgrimage (hajj) has taken root in the lives of the Muslims. during the pilgrimage.the clutches of the disbelievers. no invitation. and nationality and become a single party of the servants of Allah. a clear sign of the victory of truth. There is no profit or gain for Him. Willful neglect of this commandment of Allah amounts to the abandonment of His faith (infidelity). which. It should be noted that this prophecy was made at a time when the Muslims were in danger of being exterminated by their enemies. The hajj has been prescribed for men’s own good. There is no sponsor. Whether the whole mankind serves Him or none observe His commandments. praying to one God. truly. standing in rows. The believers shall go to Kaaba to carry out the command of Allah till the day of resurrection. because He is independent of the worlds.

all beliefs. In the case of any adverse condition this ordinance is not applicable. is that all material associations with God have to be discarded. If that is so. For this reason. said others? This is the . particularly those of the Wahabis. in spite of available resources. they have banned tazia processions in their country and also razed the mausoleums of Imams as well as Fatima to the ground. what is Kaaba doing there. becomes an infidel? How can all worship. all piety become useless when one does not go to perform hajj? This writer tried to ask this question from several Muslim scholars but none could give a satisfactory answer. Their belief. Muslims continue to believe in One Absolute Non-Visible God. It is a positive test of the submission to Allah’s will and a sure remedy to cure the evil disease of egotism. health and security. Why is it that this material structure given so much of importance that one who willfully refrains from performing hajj.of Allah’s mercy.” Millions of Muslims converge to the Kaaba at the time of Hajj each year. This is the proof of Allah’s victory. some said. Hajj wipes out the sins as fire removes corrosion from the iron. Yet none truly knows what is the significance of Kaaba. (2) Man kafara (whosoever denies) shows the importance of the pilgrimage. Aqa Mahdi Puya says: (1) “Who can afford” means ability with ease concerning wealth. As the Holy Prophet has said “the able but willful non-performer” becomes an infidel. The Holy Prophet has said: He who willfully does not perform the hajj shall rise on the day of resurrection in the state of infidelity. having no vision. This is the dictate of the God.

which prospered with the concept of denying all associations other than God. The self-appointed guardians of Kaaba who have razed all the mausoleums of Imams and Fatima need to reply to this! Just think for a moment. even if it is that of the Prophet. personal investments in Western companies and seeking entertainment on Piccadily Street nightclubs in London. Similar to the Sheikhs of present-day Arabia. If their view is true then how could it be that Islam. Without oil. was another opinion? But why a material structure. which they spend lavishly on propaganda. Would it be easy for them to forego the guardianship of Kaaba. citing their version of Islam as true. It is this guardianship that has given them the money. so much so that they are using it to implement their concepts of religion. when Sauds themselves claim to have vanquished all signs of material attachments? Material attachment is discounted so much so that even taking of photographs or preparing a sketch of a human being is prohibited by a few. investments and even seeking entertainment on Piccadily Street nightclubs.consequence of Ibrahim’s prayer being fulfilled. Fatima’s mausoleum has been brought down citing this argument. Kaaba was one of the major revenue earners for the governments of the region. if the rightful descendent of Prophet’s house was to appear? It is this guardianship that had given them the respect in the world. they need money to spend on their lavish propaganda drives. left this stone structure on earth? Is this also part of the Saud’s belief to bring Kaaba to ground and they are unable to do so out of fear of the Muslim community? Or is it the charm of huge hajjmoney that comes that does not allow them to do so? After all. the rich and the influential never wanted that that all this money be given to feeding the poor or helping the needy. .

man either deified that prophet or made other structures to give a material form to God. Fact is that God had no choice but to take help of material devices to prove his presence. Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) together with his son Ishmael rebuilt the Kaaba. Gita has said clearly that it is difficult for man with a materialistic bent of mind to comprehend a nonManifest. And it was the same that Vedas were trying to give: to identify the place where God’s Divine signs were to appear. uninhabited land. no deviation from Islamic principles would ever be tolerated. they were certain that there would be no benefits even in future. while the rest had been terrorized to stay indoors by a sword-wielding gentleman. And it was done in such haste that just handfuls were present with Ali to bury the Prophet. It is said that Adam laid the foundations of Kaaba with stone. it barely took a few weeks for them to do so. This was the reason why each time a Prophet came with his teachings. Message was clear. They knew that no corruption. No one ever gives a thought why so much preparation was done to the building of this small house. Due to the Great Flood. They had little choice but to deny Ali the Caliphate. The entire preparation was related with identifying the concept of the Triad. while they gathered at a place to appoint the successor. non-visible power. In case of Musa. no ill-gotten money. If we read the story of Ibrahim carefully. Take the case of Quran! Is it not a material thing? Had God any choice . we will find that out of way preparations were done prior to building of Kaaba so much so that Hajira (Ibrahim’s wife) and the young Ishmael were left to fend for themselves at a barren.of which they had become so sure after seeing the conduct of the members of the Prophet’s family. the foundations had crumbled. They had joined Islam to reap on the benefits and consequent to Prophet announcing successor.

This was synonymous that the material or allow us to say manifest proofs of God would come. there is no doubt that they had knowledge of everything that happened from then onwards. This necessitated the creation of 14 devatas or Masooms from the pure essence. who are we to doubt? Adam knew that this was the first lesson that he was taught (when he was told the names). he. one of whom would bring the book. God appointed Apostles or . right at the beginning of creation. We will prove later that they even possessed knowledge about future. knowledge etc. Therefore. They have to be superior to the thought and reach of all men. material connotations cannot be discounted. immediately upon coming on earth. Since God before all Creation created them. Therefore. that these parameters of purity. but only to that extent that was given by God.as regards to this? Even if Quran had been confined to speech or presented as written on the face of the sky. Moreover. even so it was just a stone that served as an indicator. it cannot be said with guarantee about a person who is pious at the moment that he would remain so in the days ahead. This book or the purpose of showing the path could not have been delegated to ordinary mortals. Remember. If He decided to have Divine Proofs in the form of Ahlebayts. How could it be guaranteed that the Messengers chosen by God do not deviate? It was essential that they be pure to such an extent that God could vouch for their chastity and conduct. which could have triggered the same disunity that we had talked earlier and which Islam was trying to remove. built the Kaaba. and all of whom would be ever united with its content. Even those who were born prior to the time when the art of reading or writing developed needed messengers. It was also essential that they be knowledgeable. are not ones made by us but by God.

Not only at this moment but also on countless other occasions. Not only this. Yet. At Ghadeer-e-Khum. However. Yet all the earlier Messengers made it a point to inform of those who were to bring the entire scripture on earth and who were to take teachings to conclusion. while returning from Hajj (from visit of Kaaba). Not only this. The Muslims universally recognize the book’s (Quran’s) importance. the Prophet asked thousands of men accompanying him to converge at a point. It is unfortunate that Muslims and including Shias thought that from Ahlebayt the members of the House of Prophet were mentioned. this book was completed only when its teachers were introduced. Muslims were asked to hold on to book and Ahlebayt. they would be those with answers to each and every query or problem faced by us and who would show through practice how each and every line of the entire revealed book can be put to practice. They tried to highlight one or the other facets of teachings present in this book. The level of their purity and auspiciousness decided the amount of this Divine Book they had access to. it can be . Then he raised Ali high in his hands and introduced him as the successor. all the Muslims accompanying him were told to pay respect to Ali and also told to pass on this vital message to others. the greater was the level of their teachings. It was at this moment that the last of the verse was revealed which informed of the completion of the book. which showed that material things couldn’t be discounted in God’s scheme of things.Prophets who came with the teachings. The conclusion is therefore that Hajj was introduced to highlight the importance of Kaaba. the Prophet had clearly told the importance of the Ahlebayt (Men of the Household). The higher the level of the Prophet. There were those Messengers too who only reiterated the teachings of the earlier ones and didn’t bring a scripture.

The last sermon. That is why the Prophet tried his best to identify his successors. If this is not the case why is Mohammad also addressed as Ahlebayt in Ayat-e-Tatheer (see Hadees-e-Kisa in BookI)? Clearly. Kaaba was a symbolic house of God on earth and Prophet. Look out for the People of . it is God’s wish that you remain pure’. the verse was meant for all those under the sheet and Muhammad too was there. ‘Khudba-eGhadeer’ which is a long speech in which he talked of nothing but the importance of Ali in God’s schemes for future. Muhammad too is the member of the House. Message is clear! The House of Allah in its material form is in front of you. got so feeble within a period of 50 years after Prophet Muhammad that Husain had no choice but to sprinkle his own blood and that of his friends and relatives. Fatima and the twelve Imams were the representatives in human form of God Himself. you won’t ever be misguided. ‘O members of the House (of God). the head of the members of the House – the head deva in heavens. immediately after the death of the Prophet and appointed their own Caliphs. It is the most unfortunate that people left the side of the Caliph-designates appointed by God and identified by the Prophet all through his life and by all the Prophets who had come prior to him. Book of Allah has been given but it required a material presence of a human to give it. House can never be without inhabitants. Members of House of God are meant. to give life to it.proved that by the word Ahlebayt. Consequently the teachings of Islam got corrupted and tree of Islam that the Prophet had laboriously strived to grow and maintain. is a case in point. and if remain associated with them. And it addressed the Ahlebayt directly. Finally. we conclude our discussion. in fact. the book and the progeny. right from the time when the Message was first made public. He even said that ‘I am leaving behind two valuable things.

except such of them as are unjust. turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque. the Ahlebayt. was kept on Safa. and the path shown by them. Usaf. And see verse 158 of Chapter 2: Surely the Safa and the Merwa are among the signs appointed by Allah. And from whatsoever place you come forth. They. another idol. after being left alone with Ishmael in the blistering heat and wilderness of Makkah. so that people shall have no accusation against you. and whoever does good spontaneously. and Nu-allah. at all times! As Quran says in 2:149-150: And from whatsoever place you come forth. was . so whoever makes a pilgrimage to the House or pays a visit (to it). If Allah has pointed at a structure as His house and you give it so importance that you converge in millions to perform hajj.the House. Look out for them! You will only find them clinging to the book. and Allah is not at all heedless of what you do. Knowing. then keep in mind the People of the House of God. and surely it is the very truth from your Lord. then surely Allah is Grateful. Pooya/Ali commentary says: “Safa and Merwa are two clusters of rocks between which the pilgrims run back and forth during hajj. turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque. Before the Holy Prophet had purified and perfected the rituals of hajj. alone lead to salvation. that I may complete My favor on you and that you may walk on the right course. so do not fear them. an idol. there is no blame on him if he goes round them both. and fear Me. and wherever you are turn your faces towards it. They are the scene of Hajira’s running to and fro in search of water.

” What sign is there in Safa and Merwah that importance was attached to it. Syria. beyond which the Southern Hemisphere commenced. minus the discovery of America. Mahabharata states that Arjuna had to go to Mount Meru to meet Indra and even to enter his heaven. In fact. whose remembrance itself would be an act of virtue or devotion to Allah. a direction is pointed from Meru that goes to India. you go a bit west and you reach west. associated with the holy Imams. so much so that Puranas talk of it as a mighty mountain.kept on Merwah. tazias. the said stigma has been removed and running between the two rocks has been made an obligatory function of the hajj. Our view is that Merwah is the same as the Meru of the Vedas. In fact. which remind a person of Allah or a representative of Allah . Pakistan. It is in this sense that the followers of Muhammad and Ali Muhammad give respect to alams. therefore. Our analysis has shown that it is recorded as being in Asia but certainly not in India. Myths state Mount Meru is situated in the centre of the world. while India. Europe on the west of Arabia is acknowledged as West even today. Isn’t Kaaba located at the centre of the world? You go a bit east and you reach east. people did not like to go to these rocks. Sha-a-irillah means signs of Allah.a prophet or an imam. Afghanistan are acknowledged as East. Arabia was exactly . With time a lot many myths got associated with this as well. The countries north of Arabia. Through this verse. Yet. a little north of this place takes you to north and south is sea but that is definitely considered the south. And the equator is not much to its south. and Iraq and other countries broken from the erstwhile USSR would be termed as situated in the north by anybody. zarihs. though not much was known of it during those times.

be it in Europe. The Vishnu Purana states that it had been formerly agreed by the Munis.” Did anybody ever bother to find out what meeting is being talked about? . within a period of seven nights. They all said that they would agree. Africa. as they had never heard Mohammad saying anything that was incorrect. It is stated that when Prophet announced his Prophethood for the first time. did not join an assembly held on Mount Meru should incur the guilt of killing a Brahman. that any of them who. and asked them whether they would believe if he were to say that a mighty army is coming from behind this mountain to attack them. he called all Quraish to a mountain. at a certain time. India and China. Then Mohammad told them that he had been appointed by God as His Prophet and invited them all to accept his teachings. perhaps Merwah. situated strategically at the centre of all major civilizations.at the centre.

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