Book - IV

The Brhad-aranyaka Upanishad
We return to our study of the Upanishads. We are sure that by now things are far more clear to you about the identity of the devas. We are treating this Upanishad individually considering the importance attached to it as one of the most important of the Upanishads. It forms part of the Satapatha Brahmana. We have already mentioned a part of this Upanishad earlier in this book. Let us study some portion of it again. We start with the fourth Brahmana, which has already been mentioned before. It talks of the creation of the noors of Mohammad and Ali, then of Fatima and their sons, Hasan and Husain. See I.4.3:

He (the original Self) verily, had no delight. Therefore he who is alone has no delight. He desired a second. He became as large as woman and a man in close embrace. He caused that Self to fall into two parts. From that arose husband and wife. Therefore, as Yajnavalkya used to say, this is one half of one self, like one of the two halves of a split pea. Therefore this space is filled by a wife. He became united with her. From that human beings were produced.
We have seen earlier how the Masooms form an inseparable part of our bodies. Without them, there would be no life. The same is described in the aforementioned verse. Also, Yajnavalkya’s words are significant and describe that Mohammad, Ali and rest were all alike, like the two halves of a split pea. Moreover, we have already commented on the statement ‘from that arose husband and wife’. Since

Fatima was born out of Mohammad, this statement is extremely significant. Mohammad and Ali didn’t become husband and wife but from the self of Mohammad and Ali arose husband and wife.

I.4.5: He (God or original self) knew, I indeed am this creation for I produced all this (subsequent selfs like Mohammad, Ali, and succeeding Imams). Therefore he became the creation. He who knows this as such comes to be in that creation of this.
This talks of the deviations that had occured in the Vedic teachings by the time of Yajnavalkya. People knew that the cosmos was created created by the Masooms for the worship of God. But they had forgotten the latter part and had started worshipping the Masooms themselves. Attempt is made here to stress that since Masooms themselves were created by God, God verily is the Creator of all this. See I.4.6:

When they (the people) say ‘sacrifice to him’, ‘sacrifice to the other one’, all this is His creation and indeed He Himself is all the gods (devas). And now whatever is moist, that he produced from semen, and that is Soma. This whole is just food and the eater of food. Soma is food and fire is the eater of food. This is the highest creation of Brahma, namely that he created the gods (deva) who are superior to him. He, although mortal himself, created the immortals. Therefore, it is the highest creation. Verily, he who knows this becomes in this highest creation.
This also speaks of the deviations that had occurred. People had started given sacrifices to individual devas, when they should have been given to God. They surely are the highest creation of God and are immortal. This

knowledge is so important that one who knows this becomes part of this highest creation.

I.4.7: At that time this was undifferentiated. It became differentiated by name and form (so that it is said) he has such a name, such a shape. Therefore, even today this is differentiated by name and shape (so that it is said) he has such a name, such a shape. He (the self) entered in here even to the tips of the nails, as a razor is (hidden) in the razor-case, or as fire in the fire-source. Him they see not for (as seen) he is incomplete, when breathing he is called the vital force, when speaking voice, when seeing the eye, when hearing the ear, when thinking the mind. These (Divine Personalities) are merely the names of his acts. He who meditates on one or another of them (Divine Personalities) he does not know for he is incomplete, with one or another of these. The self is to be meditated upon for in it all these become one. This self is the first-trace of all this, for by it one knows all this, just as one can find again by footprints (whatever lost). He who knows this finds fame and praise.
This verse indicates that the fourteen are so alike in nature that for a long time they remained without a name. In order to distinguish them certain appellations were given at a later stage. They pervade everything to the tips of the nails, as a razor is hidden in the razorcase, or as fire in the fire-source. All activities and powers, even trifle ones like breathing, seeing, hearing, thinking, etc. emanate from them. Since all are alike and collectively form the Manifested Self of God, it is wrong to meditate on them individually. One who knows this position truly finds fame and praise. Others are destined for ignominy in the long life.

I.4.8: That Self is dearer than a son, is dearer than wealth, is dearer than everything else and is innermost. If one were to say to a person who speaks of anything else than the Self as dear, he will lose what he holds dear, he would very likely do so. One should meditate on the Self alone as dear. He who meditates on the Self alone as dear [and not on their physical forms], what he holds dear, verily, will not perish. I.4.9: They say, since men think that, by the knowledge of Brahman, they become all, what, pray, was it that Brahman knew by which he became all?
We have said earlier Brahman is the name of this Paramatma or the Manifested Self. True knowledge is about recognizing the Non-Manifest Absolute God. Brahman surely knew this and it was this knowledge that made him supreme. Doesn’t the tone and subject of these verses reveal that attempt is being made to lead the people, who had taken to worship of devas as gods, back to God? How sad indeed that from that extreme we have now moved to the other extreme when we do not even know the identity of the devas and some of us interpret their appellations of Indra, Agni, Vayu as the material sun, fire and air.

I.4.10: Brahman, indeed was this in the beginning. It knew itself only as ‘I am Brahman’. Therefore (after chanting) it became all. [After chanting has been unnecessarily added, and changes the meaning. Brahma was one, then the entire world was created out of it, so it became all.] Whoever among the devas became awakened to this, he indeed became that. It is the same in the case of seers, same in the case of men. Seeing this, indeed, the seer Vama-deva knew, ‘I was Manu and the

Sun too.’ This is so even now. Whoever knows thus, ‘I am Brahman’, becomes this all. Even the devas (divine persons) cannot prevent him becoming thus, for he becomes their self. So whoever worships another divinity thinking that he is one and another, he knows not. He is like an animal to the devas. As many animals serve a man so does each man serve the devas (divine persons). Even if one animal is taken away, it cause displeasure, what should one say of many (animals)? Therefore it is not pleasing to those that men should know this.
Brahman or the Self pervades inside us through the noor of Masooms to such an extent that sages of yore used to say that they were themselves Brahman. Not only the sages, we have even seen the Sufi saints of Middle Ages chanting the same. Unfortunately, we didn’t recognize the true essence of their wordings. One who progresses on the spiritual journey through this path attains union with God. Again, in order to correct the views of the people of the time, it is said that even the devas cannot prevent this. Factually the devas would never prevent a person as this indeed is their aim. But in order to drive home the message, Yajnavalkya has used such words. Now we wish you to see verse 1.4.11 of Brhadaranyaka:

I.4.11: Verily, in the beginning this (world) was Brahman, one only. That being one, did not flourish. He created further an excellent form, the Ksatra power, even those who are kshatras (rulers) among the devas, Indra, Varuna, Soma, Rudra, Parjanya, Yama, Mrtyu, Isana. Therefore, there is nothing higher than Ksatra. Therefore at the Rajasuya sacrifice the Brahmana sits below the Ksatriya. On

Ksatrahood alone does he confer this honour. But the Brahmana is nevertheless the source of Ksatra. Therefore, even if the king attains supremacy at the end of it, he resorts to the Brahmana as his source. He becomes more evil as he injures one who is superior.
We have seen that terms Rudra, Indra, Varuna, Soma, etc. have been used for the Masooms in the Vedas. Interestingly, these terms have been used for the origin of Kshatriyahood. It is clear from this that the aforementioned devas created Kshatriyas as fighters against the evils that had got associated with Brahmans. Till that time all were Brahmans. But when attempts were made to rectify the beliefs, those who accepted it were called Kshatriyas and those who remained adherent to earlier beliefs remained Brahmans. Sometime after this cleansing, the Kshatriyas too deviated from the core teachings and another class of Sudras were created. This verse also indicates that there was a time when bitter rivalry existed between Kshatriyas and Brahmans because of their different beliefs and till much later there were certain Kshatriyas who considered injuring of Brahmans permissible, even though by the time this verse was revealed, Kshatriyas themselves had deviated to such an extent that several attempts had been made to cleanse their beliefs. Yajnavalkya has criticized those Kshatriyas, who had started injuring the Brahmans, considering that they were on the right and Brahmans were on the deviated path. It seems self-proclaimed champions of religion have always been misusing Jehadlike tools to further their selfish aims and objectives. This book itself is a manifest proof why armed warfare, unless in self-defense, is unlawful, until we have taken the Divine Consent, that is only possible when a Divine Messenger or Representative says so. In such a case, it becomes obligatory on each of us to abide by what he

The Vasus. Kshatriyas started fighting for material gains just as the Jehadis of today. you have seen how we can be on the wrong. This was followed by the creation Sudras. including the Muslims. Fighting is prohibited unless under the command of a true representative of God. The next class that was created was the Vaishyas. but seldom for God. When the Self still did not gain the position it ought to have. for she nourishes everything that is. True realization of one’s self enables a person to pursue peaceful living.13: He did not flourish. as it is controls our life in all manners. Adityas. and the community that the fourth attempt to lead mankind towards the right path too faded with time. Satan again had its way. material gains. I. With time. So much so that today. all the four classes are equally deviated as the rest of mankind. He created the vis (the commonality). who fight for their ego. vanity. this is Pusan (the nourisher).” Ksatriyas too underwent the common ailment. He created the Sudra order. none knows of the true reason why these classes were created. as Pusan. the Rudras. Verily. Consequently. This is so because the representative from God is aware of God’s will. and he. when we have not thought so in our wildest dreams. I. Otherwise. the Self created the Sudra order.says. Visvedevas and Maruts.4. This shows that the animal inside us is basically violent in nature.4.12: “Yet he (Ksatriyas) did not flourish. etc. these classes of devas who are designated in groups. even though the Varna system divides our society into rigid classes. as Pusan (the nourisher) for the Self nourishes everything on earth. The injunctions in Manusmriti to confiscate the properties of Sudras or to kill them too must be seen in .

but people forgot the real purpose of all religiosity i. “One of his foods was common to all beings. is that which is common to all (the original self). The purpose of these processes of refinement. in his own lifetime. One should meditate only on the Self as his world. because they. which led to creation of various castes. Let us now study the Fifth Brahmana of this Upanishad. Even if one performs a great and holy work. out of that very Self he creates whatsoever he desires. that work of his is exhausted in the end.e. when as deva.15. consequent to which he asks Arjuna to fight the Kauravas. he assigned to the devas. It is evident from this verse that religiosity and religious rituals were still adhered to.this light. Perhaps deviations had occurred to such an extent at some particular time that some representative from God allowed their killing just as Krishna himself participated in a war to kill the highest-ranking Kshatriyas and Brahmans at a later stage. How could he have permitted this deification of his own personality. but without knowing this. is mentioned in I. “Two. The work of him who meditates on the Self alone as his world is not exhausted for. Similarly. which is eaten.4. . Ali waged a war against those who began to call Ali as God.” The same thought is mentioned in Gita again. had removed God from their lives.” means that the food of his. and talks of the ‘seven kinds of food’ produced by the Father of knowledge and austerity. despite being apparently religious. to “meditate on the Self alone as his world”… “but without knowing this. all his time had been spent in leading the world to the worship of One Absolute God. which again refers to number seven. that work of his is exhausted in the end.

deal with the subject in similar manner. material wealth. yet Satan reigned supreme on their hearts and mind. likewise they speak of a newborn calf as one that does not eat grass. No doubt. Therefore they make a newborn babe first lick clarified butter or put it to the breast. other than God (I. and other deities like worldly power. The same calf eats grass at a later stage. If we notice.4. animals have been described earlier as those who worship deities. Both the sacrifices are surely different due to the needs of time. Note that in Upanishadic terms we all have been compared to food.” He who worships that (one) food is not freed from evil for. lust. Husain is described here when it is said that he gave it to animals. verily that (food) is mixed with others and is common to all. Or it can be reference to the fact that all of them would be killed. Husain was killed by people who claimed that they followed the same religion as him.10). one he gave to the animals. just as a . three he made for himself. he assigned to the devas.three he made for himself. Two. men and animals live on milk alone. See the verse continuing: But they also say that they are the new moon and the full-moon sacrifices. we have seen. when engaged in acts of evil. Vedas too. one he gave to the animals. had subdued their senses. Radhakrishnan says that at first. This can be understood by the following text that talks of a sacrifice or giving oneself up to the animals. Our view is that the difference between Hasan’s and Husain’s stand and their consequent sacrifices is being mentioned here. The true purpose is to reserve this food for God rather than allowing it to be eaten away by satanic forces.

and who failed? Hasan’s stand has been described as the “new moon” sacrifice and is akin to the milk that is given to the young calf. When God alone is considered the ruler of our self. but when the greatest imperialist power of that period. which is followed by grass. In I. he knowing fully well the imperishable nature of life. See how ‘breaths’ meaning Hasan and Husain are said to be a byproduct of union of Sun and Heaven. Likewise. ‘Heaven’ for Fatima and ‘Sun’ for Ali. while loss is to the person who is unable to fulfill his objectives. decided to sacrifice his entire family. including his own life.12. Who emerged victorious. The history proves who attained his objectives. when the calf grows up. Hasan too would have sacrificed himself. “He who knows this imperishableness” stands for the imperishableness of life for the righteous through death. victory is for the person who is able to attain his objectives. Husain was ready to live a life of a recluse. ‘Mind’ has been used for Mohammad.calf is fed milk and after a year given grass. That Vital Breaths are . Husain too would have done the same had he been in Hasan’s shoes. Upanishad invites all people to decline to live under oppression and injustice. Yazid or Husain? No dictionary says that the victor is the person who has killed and looser is the person who got killed. people would stop supplicating to imperialistic powers. God alone is to be worshipped. in the form of Yazid’s mighty army. Instead.5. had he been in Husain’s position at Karbala. Why then they do (the people) not decline when they are being eaten all the time?” tells the story of the period after Mohammad. but didn’t bow down to the wishes of Yazid. wanted him to forsake his religious freedom in front of Yazid. when all type of oppression was being carried out on people by Muawiya and Yazid yet they remained mute witness to all.

These two entered into union and from that was born breath. a second person is a rival. Indra (Mohammad) being the highest of all creations is without a rival. and on earth are finite. ‘He who knows this has no rival. Verily. . wins a finite world. he who meditates on them as finite.5. so far that Sun. Verily. Thereafter. and Speech are oft used for the devas. Sun. Heaven and sun (viz. Fatima and Ali) entered into union and from that the breath viz. I. Terms like Heaven. But there is indeed a person named Ali who exactly similar to him. It is clear that heaven has been used for Fatima and sun or Aditya is the Ali. He is Indra.Hasan and Husain has been described at several places in the Upanishads and it seems that people of the period were even aware of this.12: Now of this mind. Unless you believe that this is the mention of devas who. you won’t be able to understand this verse. As far as the mind extends so far extends the heaven. ‘As far as mind (Mohammad) extends so far extends the heaven.5. That Mohammad said that all of them were alike is being described in this verse. heaven is the body and its light-form is that sun. Hasan and Husain were born. How can this be? This surely is not reference to God as more than one is talked about.‘ I. it is said. Verily. But he who meditates on them as infinite wins an infinite world. He who knows this has no rival. while in heaven are infinite. owing their common source of births. The verse says that they are finite as well as infinite.13: These are all alike. all endless. The statement ‘He is without a rival. He is without a rival. Now we know who is what. so far that Sun. a second person is rival’ too cannot be explained without subscribing to our view point. and hence is a rival.

let him preserve me from this world. But what is it that the father was to transmit? It clearly shows that people of the period were waiting for the time when Husain would come so that they could sacrifice themselves along with him.5. all those. Verily. Being thus the all. the time for that grand sacrifice did not come. they call a son who is instructed ‘world-procuring’ and therefore they instruct him. thus.17: When a man thinks that he is about to depart. Putra: from pur. It is through the son’s act that the father was to stand firm in the next world. you are the sacrifice and you are the world. When one who knows this departs from this world he enters into his son together with his breaths. This is not the first time that this sacrifice is being . Then into him enter those divine immortal breaths. Whatever has been done by him.’ The son answers. he passed on the responsibility to his son. a deliverer who fills the holes left by the father. son frees him from it all. ‘you are Brahman. whatever has been learnt. Radhakrishnan says that the word samprattih here means transmission. ‘I am Brahman. whatever sacrifices have been made. We know now with certainty that the big sacrifice being defined here is reference to Husain’s sacrifice at Karbala. therefore he is called a son. But since during his lifetime. It is so called because the father in this manner transmits his own duties to his son. I am the sacrifice. I am the world. Clearly.’ Verily. all that taken as one is knowledge. Al this is indeed this much. who vowed to give himself as sacrifice. ‘to fill’ and tra ‘to deliver’. taken as one are the world.I. the father too considered it his duty to give himself as sacrifice when that need emerged. Therefore. By his son a father stands firm in this world. he says to his son.

Indra. at some phase during the long passage of time. II. And whoever strives with one who knows this shrivels away and after shriveling dies in the end. I. Heaven. they call that family after him.1. which has been described here. In fact. See I. the Ksatriya.’” This is same as a greater sacrifice.21: In whatever family is a man who knows this. whose names are Rudra. Seven vows that the a couple takes in the name of Siva and . Such was the importance that was given to sacrifice of Husain. even so from this Self come forth all worlds. Its secret meaning is the truth of truth. all beings.20 says: As a spider moves along the thread.5. Earth. Fire. who meditated on the Absolute. Vital breaths are the truth and their truth is it (that has been told here). as small sparks come forth from the fire. Whoever knew of this was successful and one who was unaware was akin to being dead. However. this chapter further talks of “the Seven Imperishable Ones”. this knowledge was lost and what remained was a ritual exercise without a purpose. Initially people were aware that their rituals were to remember these sacrifices. Such was the importance given to seven. Earth or Heaven. which God talked about in Quran. as regards to Husain’s sacrifice. and Ajatasaturu.2. Parjanya. Chapter Two further elaborates on this knowledge itself. We need not tell anymore who are the people meant by Rudra.6 “He desired: ‘Let me sacrifice again with a greater sacrifice. all divinities. It starts with describing the conflict between Gargya (a Brahmana) who mediated on the Self and its manifestations. Indra.talked about. Aditya.

this Kshatriya. See for yourself. The importance of this Self has been told by Yajnavalkya to his wife on his deathbed. Perhaps he wanted to show that that his action was what each of the Imams would have committed had they been in his place.4. we have already mentioned the importance attached to seven.Parvati. and worship only the original Self. The devas ignore one who know them as different from the Self. In Part-I. The same has also been said in Gita: Just as a donkey bearing the weight of sandalwood knows its weight but not its fragrance. The fact that Upanishads hold a divine secret can only be understood by reflecting on the verses.4. The beings ignore one who knows them as different from the Self. Sayana compares those who recite Vedas without brains to lifeless pillars which bear the weight of the roof. including these selfs were composed from the One Divine Self. II. Even Husain is said to have moved forward and backward seven times with the dead body of Ali Asghar in his hands. which ask everybody to reflect. The Kshatriya ignores one who knows him as different from the Self. Yet individually we may take these Personalities as the Torchbearers of the Path of Truth. these beings. from which they were born. were actually the seven vows in remembrance of these names. Every being in this world. we have to treat them as one. Muslims too value this number a lot.6: The Brahmana ignores one who knows him as different from the Self. This is mentioned in II. so also is a Brahmana who knows the text of the Vedas and scripture but not their significance. All ignores one who knows it as different from the Self.4. these devas. This Brahmana. and this all are this Self. . these worlds. at the time of marriage.

Verily.5: II. said to Maitreyee. Verily. not for the sake of the husband is the husband dear but a husband is dear for the sake of the Self. not for the sake of Brahminhood is brahminhood dear but brahminhood is dear for the sake of the Self. This is the knowledge that is the secret of all Vedas and Upanishads. Yajnavalkya asks Maitreyee to reflect on what he was about to say. manifested form of the Almighty God.4. but the sons are dear for the sake of the Self. it is the Self that . not for the sake of the wife is the wife dear but a wife is dear for the sake of the Self. when he was about to leave the present state (i. not for the sake of wealth is wealth dear.However. Let us also try to reflect while reading II. and this was something that was passed on by the righteous to the righteous-minded people. body). Verily. not for the sake of the devas are the devas dear but the devas are dear for the sake of the Self. Verily. not for the sake of the beings are the beings dear. Verily. Verily. not for the sake of the worlds are the worlds dear but the worlds are dear for the sake of the Self. not for the sake of all is all dear but all is dear fro the sake of the Self. the purpose of creation of all these Selfs was to lead us to the worship of the Original Self. Verily. See what Yajnavalkya (perhaps a saint or a Prophet of his time). when they were about to die. not for the sake of Ksatriyahood is Ksatriyahood dear but Ksatriyahood is dear for the sake of the Self. Verily. O Maitreyee.4. Verily. not for the sake of the sons are the sons dear. who asked Yajnavalkya to pass on what he knew before he departed.e.5: Then he (Yajnavalkya) said: ‘Verily. but wealth is dear for the sake of the Self. Verily. but the beings are dear for the sake of the Self.

After this. history. these devas. the sciences are due to this Self indeed. The worlds ignore one who knows them as different from the Self.11: As the ocean is the one goal of all waters. All ignores one who knows it as different from the Self. II.10: As from a lighted fire laid with damp fuel. these worlds. even so my dear. The Kshatriya ignores one who knows him as different from the Self. explanations and commentaries. indeed. Verily. sciences. he told this verse that we have already mentioned before. these beings and this all are this Self. as the ear is the one goal of all sounds. as the skin is the one goal of all kinds of truth. are all these breathed forth. by the hearing of. aphorisms. From this. by the seeing of.” Sure Self is the purpose of this world. as the eye is the one goal of all forms. as the tongue is the one goal of all tastes. verses. as the heart is one goal of all .6: The Brahmana ignores one who knows him as different from the Self. the Yajur Veda. The devas ignore one who knows them as different from the Self.4. as the nostrils are the one goal of all smells.4. by the thinking of. the Rg Veda. the Upanishads.should be seen. Even the Vedas. This Brahmana. II. The beings ignore one who knows them as different from the Self. How much we know of this Self is known to you already! II. this is what is being communicated here. this Kshatriya. the Sama Veda. all this is known. Upanishads. Atharvangirasa. reflected on and meditated upon.4. as the mind is the one goal of all determinations. by the understanding of the Self. ancient lore. various smoke issue forth. heard of.

how can Self depart. indeed. .4. infinite. departure of which will mean no knowledge? Naturally. But if Self is God. ‘when he has departed there is no more knowledge. but wherever one may take it as salty indeed. Arising from out these elements one vanishes away into them. so verily. there is sure going to be a great secret in it. as speech is the one goal of all Vedas.13: Then said Maittreye: ‘In this. you have bewildered me. as the feet are the one goal of all movements. II.4. limitless. by saying that. Maittreyee is unable to comprehend and Yajnavalkya explains: II. consists of nothing but knowledge.12: As a lump of salt thrown in water becomes dissolved in water and there would not be any of it to seize forth as it were. as the excretory organ is the one goal of all evacuations.forms of knowledge. as the hands are the one goal of all acts. One goal of the entire Universe should be the identification and unity of Self. my dear’: so said Yajnavalkya. When he has departed there is no more knowledge. But what knowledge is this? Self pervades universe as salt gets mixed with water. This is what Yajnavalkya talks about here. This is enough for knowledge. This is what I say. Please note that this is no ordinary sentence.’ Yajnavalkya said: ‘Certainly I am not saying anything bewildering. this great being. venerable sir. This verse brings the surprise about which the need for reflection has been mentioned. Yajnavalkya is about to die. and Maittreyee asks him to pass on the knowledge. as the organ of generation is the one goal of all kinds of enjoyment.

verily. then by what and whom should one smell. That Self alone is to be worshipped. said Yajnavalkya.4. If no duality would have been brought in. Once there would be no knowledge. there one sees another. there one smells another. my dear. there one understands another. We have mentioned before that Mohammad alone was not that Divine Spirit. ‘Certainly I am not saying anything bewildering’. there would be no knowledge. the Spirit had come. then by what and whom should one see. there one hears another. everything has become the Self. But when all the fourteen components of that Spirit descended on earth. When the last of the portion of God (Baqiatullah) would depart from earth. there one speaks to another. All together comprise the Self. Yajnavalkya explicitly says that he talked of duality to express the point. All 14 devas originate in the Self. then by what and on whom should one think.’ II. we have been unable to do so. Where.Did you understand? Jesus foretold of the time when the Divine Spirit would come on earth.14: For where there is duality as it were. Yajnavalkya is referring to that alone. then by what and to whom should one speak. there one things of another. Naturally Maittreyee was perplexed when Yajnavalkya said that even that Self would depart that pervades the universe like salt in water. should one know the knower? It is unfortunate indeed that despite Upanishads trying so laboriously to make us understand a few vital points. then what and whom should one understand? By what should one know that by which all this is known? By what. we would have never understood that devas would come to earth at a . ‘This is enough knowledge. then by what and whom should one hear. there would be no world that would survive.

3. Yajnavalkya said. Asvala. None of the Brahmans dared to come forward but Yajnavalkya drove the cows away. the hotr priest of Janaka of Videha. having strung his unstrung bow and having taken in his hand two pointed foe-piercing arrows.certain time. the formed and the formless. as in II. ‘As a warrior son of the Kasis or the Videhas might rise against you.’ Janaka in Chapter III performs a sacrifice where many presents were offered to the priests. Answer me these. the mortal and the immortal. do I face you with two questions. Brahmanas of the Kurus and the Panchalas were gathered together there. asked Yajnavalkya whether he was indeed the wisest among all priest there.8. We bow to the wisest Brahmana but we just wish to have these cows. the actual and the true.3. there are two forms of Brahman.2 is another example that proves that those who aspired for true knowledge were killed or punished. And one should understand the God through this Self indeed. This duality has previously been talked about at other places in this Upanishad. To the horns (of each cow) were fastened ten coins (of gold). When he (Self) has departed there is no more knowledge. This is reference to Non-Manifested and Manifested God with a Self through whom God created and controls the universe.1: Verily. . II. III. O Yajnavalkya. even so. the unmoving and the moving. She (Gargi) said. Janaka offered to give 1000 cows to the most learned of Brahmans.1.

1). Religion of the court was the religion of the masses. even the rituals were performed for the love of heaven and not for God. Krishna himself says at numerous occasions that this war has become imminent because these people have removed God from their lives and most of their time is spent in entertainment or pursuing worldly objectives. Irony indeed.This is not a general sentence. that those who had studied the ‘scriptures of sacrifices’ didn’t know what were these sacrifices for and for whom. there were men like Yajnavalkya even then who continued on their mission to impart the true teachings about Self. the questions that were asked by the supposedly religious heads were not about God but about worldly things. Now Kahola Kausitakeya asked him. How could austerity and real religious beliefs prevail in such a situation? The questions asked by the priests clearly indicate that the sacrifices were common but they didn’t know for whom were they meant. to which Krishna devotes an entire chapter in Gita. ‘Yajnavalkya’. And it was Yajnavalkya who led the answers towards God. that is the self in all things.’ ‘This is your self which is .7. Moreover. Note this verse also indicates that Brahmans were initially adherents of a particular way of life (you may call religion). This explains why Krishna had to fight the war with the most religious priests of the time. Even the scriptures were talked about as the ‘scriptures of sacrifices’ (II. said he. Neither were these people open to reason. but tells the entire social situation of the time. Verse III.5. ‘explain to me the Brahman that is immediately present and directly perceived.1 explains how degradation had come in the Brahmans. The priests of the Kuru and Panchalas were there for the cows and the accompanying gold coins. However.

then he becomes silent meditator. half-month. desire to live as a child. O Gargi. sorrow and delusion. O Gargi.9. months. having overcome the desire for sons. the sun and the moon stand in their respective positions. seasons. that which is the desire for wealth is the desire for the worlds for both these are but desire. therefore let a Brahmana.’ ‘Which is within all things. the devas (are desirous of) the sacrificer and the .’ ‘How does a Brahmana behave? ‘Howsoever he may behave. O Gargi. O Gargi. years stand in their respective positions. some rivers flow to the east from the white.8. days and nights. mountains. what are called moments. the views of Yajnavalkya are summed up. That which is the desire for sons is the desire for wealth. heaven and earth stand in their respective positions. The Brahmans.’ Thereupon Kahola Kausitakeya kept silent.’ ‘It is that which transcends hunger and thirst. At the command of the Imperishable. having known that self. he is such indeed. At the command of that Imperishable. In verse III. At the command of that Imperishable. the desire for wealth. By the command of that Imperishable. others to the West in whatever direction each flows. Having done with (both) the nonmeditative and the meditative states. Verily. hours. Yajnavalkya. Everything else is of evil. then he becomes a Brahmana (a knower of Brahman). after he has done with all things. When he has done (both) with the state of childhood and with learning. at the command of that Imperishable. old age and death. men praise those who give. the desire for worlds. O Gargi. live the life of mendicants.

fathers are desirous of the darvi offering. III.8.10: Whoever, O Gargi, in this world, without knowing this Imperishable performs sacrifices, worships, performs austerities for a thousand years, his work will have no end; whosoever O Gargi, without knowledge of this Imperishable departs from this world, is pitiable. But, O Gargi, he who knowing the Imperishable departs from this world is a Brahmana.’
We leave it to you to decide whether our devotion or worship to God has been accepted till now or not! The aforementioned verse again tells that it was possible for anybody to depart as Brahmana from this world and those who assigned Brahminhood to a particular group of people were on the wrong.

III.8.11: Verily, that Imperishable, O Gargi, is unseen but is the seer, is unheard but is the hearer, unthought but is the thinker, unknown but is the knower. There is no other seer but this, there is no other hearer but this, there is no other thinker but his, there is no other knower but his. But this Imperishable, O Gargi, is pace woven like warped woof.
In the end, Yajnavalkya, who was being asked questions till that time, asks a question, but no body is able to give the answer to this. See III.9.28:

1. As is a mighty tree so, indeed, is a man; his hairs are leaves and his skin is its outer bark. 2. ‘From his skin blood flows forth and sap from the skin (of the tree). Therefore when a man is wounded blood flows as sap from a tree that is struck. 3. ‘His flesh is its inner bark, his nerves are tough like inner fibres. His bones are the wood within

and the marrow is made resembling the pith. 4. ‘A tree when it is felled springs up from its root in a newer form; from what root does man sprung forth when he is cut off by death? 5. ‘Do not say “from the semen” for that is produced from that is alive. A tree springs also from the seed. After it is dead it certainly springs again. 6. ‘When born, he is not born (again) for who should create him again? Brahman who is knowledge, bliss is the final goal of him who offers gifts as well as of him who stands firm and knows.
Even a person can offer himself as gift; this person who offers himself as gift is one who stands firm and who knows (the true nature of God). Verse IV.1.1 onward is a chain of verses that, in the end, give an altogether different reason why the true names of Masooms were not mentioned in advance. This also tells that the name of one of these persons as Indra. We have explained earlier that the Divine Personalities mentioned took birth as humans, and it is not possible to accept the generally acceptable meaning that says that god Indra is being mentioned. Also we have derived that Indra is none other than Mohammad. Now see the chain of verses yourself. Yajnavalkya is in the court of Janaka (king) of Videha. Yajnavalkya talks of the abode of the support of self. Initially, as if to hide what he is to say, he tells several incomprehensible explanations but ends them by saying that ‘My father thought that one should not accept gifts without having instructed.’ He leaves this as an indicator that he has not instructed anything in that verse (IV.1.2). Also, this was said as a lesson to all those priests present in the court who merely fooled the kings and didn’t pass the true knowledge to them.

In IV.2.1, Janaka says that he is willing to be instructed. It is evident from conversation that Janaka is well equipped with the teachings of the Upanishads, and had studied the Vedas. Yajnavalkya asks him, ‘Where will you go when you are released (from this body)?’ and Tells him of the Person to whom he will go.

IV.2.2: Indha by name is this person who is in the right eye. Him, verily, who is that. Indha people call Indra, indirectly, for the devas are fond of the indirect, as it were, they dislike the direct.
The fact that people had doubts about the identity of these people can be known from the Rg Veda, which says of Indra:

Of whom they ask, where is he? Of him indeed they also say, he is not. In another hymn, the priests are invited to offer a song of praise to Indra, ‘a true one, if in truth he is, for many say, “There is no Indra, who has ever seen him? To whom are we to direct the song of praise?”
This shows that Indra had not come till the time of Rig Veda. No body had seen him by then. Yet Rig Veda goes on to talk of Indra at innumerable places. The verse saying that no body has ever seen him, even when the same Vedas are replete with his name is proof that all myths about Indra meeting people or Indra producing children were product of fictitious thinking. A verse here shows that people who understood Brahman the way he ought to be understood were called Brahmana. Gradually this became a hereditary thing rather than concerned with a certain thought process. This verse also explains the relation of Brahman to Self. The following verses talk about death and says that those who become one without duality, at the time of death, attain the highest goal.

IV.3.19: As a falcon or any other bird having flown around in the sky becomes weary, folds its wings and is borne down to its next, even so this person (after moving along both the states – the state of dream and the state of waking – and having seen good and evil) hastens to that state where he desires no desires and sees no dream. Such a person becomes like water, one, the seer without duality. (IV.3.32). This is the world of Brahma. This is his highest goal; this is his highest treasure; this is his highest world; this is his greatest bliss. On a particle of this very bliss other creatures live.
Again, both the states are being described here. One when the devas are part of the Self and reside perhaps in the heaven and the other when they come down to earth. One who recognizes both the states is left with no wish, as all his wishes are granted. IV.4.1 says that even when a person is about to die, ‘the breaths gather round him.’ Since ‘he is becoming one’, he neither sees, nor smells nor tastes, nor hears, nor thinks, nor touches. When Self departs, life departs after him.’ When life departs the vital breaths depart after him. He becomes one with intelligence. Intelligence departs from him, or is left in the brain. Then, ‘his knowledge, and his work take hold of him as also his past experience.’ This again refers to the breaths gathering round a person about to depart. What are these breaths? Truly, they are the breaths that were discussed earlier, progeny of heaven and sun. They are Masooms. They gather around every one about to depart. Shias are of the belief that Ali and the rest of the Masooms come to the bedside of the righteous to relieve the person from the pain of

death. Note that Yajnavalkya has again used words that clearly reveal that certain superhuman beings are talked about, who are not God, as they are plural. How cleverly has Yajnavalkya ensured that the information he wishes to give reaches the intended people!

IV.4.4: And as a goldsmith; taking a piece of gold turns it into another, newer and more beautiful shape, even so does this prana, after having thrown away this body and dispelled its ignorance, make unto himself another, newer and more beautiful shape like that of the fathers or of the gandharas, or of the Devas or of Praja-pati or of Brahma or of other beings. On this there is the following verse: ‘When all the desires that dwell in the heart are cast away, then does the mortal become immortal, then he attains Brahman here (in this very body).’ Just as the slough of a snake lies on an anthill, dead, cast off, even so lies this body. But this disembodied, immortal life is Brahman only, is light indeed, Your Majesty. IV.4.14: Verily, while we are here we may know this: if not we would be ignorant, great is the destruction. Those who know this become immortal while others go only to sorry. IV.4.19: Only by the mind is it (self) to be perceived. In it there is no diversity. He goes from death to death, who sees in it, as it were diversity.

Knowledge of the Self – Core of Upanishadic Teaching
Most Upanishads are replete with mention of the Self and the seven names or fourteen bodies as its constituents. Verse 1.2:4 of Mundaka Upanishad talks of the seven and does not fail to state that one of them is a devi. We have seen earlier how Puranas state that of the 14 Manus, one is a devi. Even in case of Manus, number seven was used at times, indicating that Manus and devas are one and the same. We fail to understand how commentators failed to notice even this.

I.2.4: The seven moving tongues of fire are the black, the terrific, the swift as mind, the very red, the very smoky-coloured, the spark blazing, the all-shaped (or all-tasting) goddess (translated for devi).
Next verse tells clearly that there would be a time when these seven tongues, of whom one is a devi, would come shine on this earth, like the various rays of the sun. It is stated that this would happen at an appropriate time. Our view is that by performing work and making offerings when they would shine, the same view is expressed that was told in Brhad-aranyaka, as per which people used to tell to their sons to sacrifice themselves for the devas, when they would come. See I.2.5:

Whosoever performs works, makes offerings, when these are shining and at the proper time, these in the form of the rays of the sun lead him to that where the one lord of the gods (read devas) abide.
Verse 1.2.6 again shows clearly that the devas had not come by then and through ritual offerings, aim

was to invite them to come. This is the translation of Radhakrishnan where a sacrificer is praying to them so that they come and carry him along. See I.2.6.

The radiant offerings invite him with the words, ‘come, come,’ and carry the sacrificer by the rays of the sun, honouring him and saluting him with pleasing words: ‘This is your holy world of Brahma won through good deeds.’
Calling this world as ‘your holy world of Brahma won through good deeds’ is reference to the point that God created the universe when pleased with the worship of devas. Verse 8 tells clearly that those who consider themselves as wise but are ignorant of this knowledge are blind.

I.2.8: Abiding in the midst of ignorance, wise in their own esteem, thinking themselves to be learned, fools, afflicted with troubles, go about like blind men led by one who is himself blind. I.2.9. The immature, living manifoldly in ignorance, think ‘we have accomplished our aim.’ Since those who perform rituals do not understand (these 7 moving tongues of fire) because of attachment, therefore they sink down, wretched when their worlds (i.e. the fruits of their merits) are exhausted.
Isn’t the aforementioned verse again states that it is not possible to ‘accomplish one’s spiritual aim’ without recognizing these seven devas? People who are not able to recognize these seven moving tongues of fire are described as wretched, immature and ignorant. Are our knowledgeable scholars aware of any explanation about the identity of the seven?

I.2.10. These deluded men, regarding sacrifices

sage Svetasvatara gives the cause of our creation as something else than the Brahman (God). It can henceforth be inferred that the cause of creation through the atma of the devatas was to worship the Brahman. See Paingala Upanishad). In Svetasvatara Upanishad. they enter again this world or a still lower one. Svetasvatara Upanishad refers to this devatma-sakti (self-power) as the cause of this universe. each a ruler of the 14 spheres. and goes on to say in verse I. presided over by whom do we live our different conditions in pleasures . when Brahman (God) was pleased with their worship. Salvation is attained only through recognizing the Self in its two states. Clearly Brahman created the devatmasakti (the power of the combined soul of devatas). Sage Svetasvatara is asked the question. which is presided by the Brahman (God). do not know any other good.4 that the rope of this devatma sakti is manifold (as it comprises of 14 devatas. Having enjoyed in the high place of heaven won by good deeds. The fourteen devas who were created out of this One Self or devatma sakti govern our bodies. We move ahead to give you still more examples. Those who perform righteous acts without the knowledge of Self may get temporary rewards but eventually has to come back to earth. as mentioned by none else than Radhakrishnan. more likely in a lower state.and works of merits as most important. “What is the cause? Brahman? Whence are we born? By what do we live? And on what are we established?” Svetasvatara replies that the cause is the devatma-sakti. He says: O ye who know Brahman. and also the rulers of our organs of senses and action. In this Upanishad. as has been mentioned before. and then the mankind was created out of this Divine Atma (Self).

O Gargi. In the next verse. this rope is compared to a river of five streams. Just as a rope comprises of several ropes. We have already quoted a similar verse in Book-I. without . Now see the succeeding verses in succession: I. each of which has similar attributes and may have further sub-ropes. He is the one who rules over all these causes from time to the soul. similarly. For instance.6: The Brahmana ignores one who knows him as different from the Self. five devas comprise the five streams.10: Whoever. I. This make us come to a very important observation. chance.4. Him (the self-power).3. the (five) elements. Brhad-aranyaka says: II. I. it is said: III.8. Even the soul is powerless in respect of the cause of pleasure and pain. See how clearly this Upanishad states that the selfpower created by God divided into manifold self. inherent nature.4. necessity. the womb or the person be considered as the cause? It cannot be a combination of these because of the existence of the soul. all bearing the same characteristic. which together comprise the Life (Prana). in this world. And at another place. Those who followed after meditation and contemplation saw the (devatma-sakti) self-power of the Divine hidden in its own qualities. and from them emanate the 9 sub-streams. where Life is described.and other than pleasures (pains). whose one rope is manifold. We have seen that on countless occasions it is stated that one who cognizes the Imperishable devas is Brahmana. Time.2.

it is emphatically made clear that we should not get confused when we see them taking birth in human form. worships. without knowledge of this Imperishable departs from this world. his work will have no end. Then. that one who gets blessed attains life eternal. It was expected to remind them time and again of their purpose in life.6. Whoever the rivers are. ‘The soul flutters about thinking that the Self in . But. when blessed by him. O Gargi. whose original source is the five-fold perception. We meditate on him as a river of five streams. whosoever O Gargi. he gains life eternal. he who knowing the Imperishable departs from this world is a Brahmana. the five rivers are not the five elements. is pitiable. divided into fifty kinds with five branches. performs austerities for a thousand years.’ Here it is said that the devatma shakti or self-power is manifold. This brings us to the conclusion that the sacred thread that Brahmans began to tie on their bodies was in remembrance of this rope. Blessing by these persons are of such a nature.knowing this Imperishable performs sacrifices. with five whirlpools. Clearly. In this vast Brahma-wheel. fierce and crooked. that means to say that the person becomes one with God and attains salvation. they continued to tie the thread. the soul flutters about thinking that the Self in him and the Mover are different. whose waves are the five vital breaths. I. I. yet forgot the purpose. which enlivens all things in which all rest. Therefore. from five sources. Unfortunately. which can only be done by an eminent sage. they are capable of blessing us. an impetuous flood of five pains.5.

’ When these five entities who comprise Prana or Life (the One Self is the Prana or Life) bless a person who recognizes their true worth and gets to know the relationship between his individual self with them and their relationship with Brahman (the God). of universal . Mutable and Immutable refers to devas taking birth in this earth and devas created from the Self. This explicitly says that all animate and non-animate beings are supported by a combination of the manifest and the unmanifest. then the person attains salvation. It is the firm support. The Lord supports all this which is a combination of the mutable and the immutable. The knowers of Brahman by knowing what is the rein become merged in Brahman. And the soul. Clearly. The three together comprise the triad. and get freed from birth. I. mutable and the immutable. This has been sung as the supreme Brahman and in it is the triad.9. the manifest and the unmanifest. Indeed there is one who is unborn. the knowing and the unknowing. There are two unborn ones. The knowers of this truth become merged in Brahman. not being the Lord. By knowing God is freed from all fetters.him and the Mover are different. Gita too confirms this when it says that only such a person attains to wisdom. the imperishable. And there is the infinite self. the all-powerful. connected with the enjoyer and the objects of enjoyment. non-Manifest and Manifest are references to the Absolute God. This triad is the firm support. and becomes one with God.7. Manifest state of God is actually the Immutable state of devas. intent thereon and freed from birth. the other powerless. The same is being said in the verse that follows: I. I.8. the imperishable. is bound because of his being an enjoyer.

the God. This Self is all knowing and all-powerful. The same thing described above is described here in another manner. From this. even in the state which is described as unknowing and powerless.form. By meditating on Him. One can imagine what kind of knowledge and power has been bestowed upon them by God when. However. by reflecting on His being more and more. What is immortal and imperishable is Hara. but the fact is that the triad does exist even though it had been misunderstood till now.10. When one finds out this triad. I. It is this triad that has led people like Ramanuja to suggest the doctrine of triune unity. Apart from these two. However. by uniting with Him. there is the infinite Self. that is Brahman. they are unknowing and powerless. Over both the perishable and the soul the one God rules. it is clear that the Manifested Self too is unborn. Two unborn ones comprise the Manifested Self in the form of devas in heaven and they taking birth as human forms. non-active. there is complete . when the devas take birth as human forms. before I leave’ and the Masooms showed such amazing miracles that confounds our rational thinking. The Self may have been created by the God but not in this Manvantara. It is this that the Christians believe. One attains unity with the God only when one gets to know this Triad. We have mentioned from a Purana in Part-I that this is the 994 th world in which the same devas continue to dwell. What is perishable is the pradhana. Ali goes around saying ‘Ask whatever you wish. who is essentially non-active after creating the Manifested Self. It is said that this would continue till the 1000 th . neither Ramanuja nor the Christians could have understood what the unborn ones mean. Muslim scholars have criticized the Christian concept of triad.

cessation from the illusion of the world. the soul in a human body at the time of birth is in pure state. universal lordship. the soul became impure and when such a person dies. that is the perishable form. how they cared for all the beings living in this world. the soul is not in a position to reunite with the Divine Soul from which it had come and henceforth. You already know now that when they came to live here. when they would come to live in this earth. depending on the state of the soul. The purpose of creation of the world was that it would worship the God. how they were totally united with God in worship. one gets complete cessation from the illusion of the world.11. his desire is fulfilled. This . when the man didn’t do this. Since various Upanishads like Paingala Upanishad confirm that the devas were created from the pure (sattvik) essence of Vishnu. termed as pradhana. by reflecting on this more and more. When such is the affect on us. must be totally aloof from the illusion of the world. When they would come to live on this earth. it being directly related to the devatmasakti. By knowing God there is a falling off all fetters. being alone. This is the only route to get united with the God. The purpose of these devas is to lead us to God. how they were totally removed from this world and yet. The God rules over the perishable form of theirs when they would come to live at a secret place in this earth and also on their soul. there is the third state. there is cessation of birth and death. I. The devas ceaselessly try to lead us to God and won’t be satisfied until all the souls get united with the God. then these Divine Beings. on the dissolution of the body. By meditating on Him. Gita confirms this as well. Their soul is immortal and imperishable. However. continues to take rebirth in different wombs. when the sufferings are destroyed. termed as Hara.

This is the Threefold Brahman. This process of the desire that devas are ceaselessly trying to fulfill. they even took birth in human form. that has been described by Buddha. contrary to popular belief. everything has been said. only confirmed what Rama had said before. Introduction) In a subsequent work of ours. In order to fulfill this desire. the object of enjoyment and the mover. Similarly messengers were sent to other parts of the world as well. which is known as Paramatma. continued all through history till when these devatas themselves decided to take birth as humans. or the last of the 14 devas. (See Dhammapada. we will also see how Krishna. lived a life of hardship and even gave sacrifices of their happiness as well as life. we conclude that the various Prophets and Messengers who were sent on this earth were appointed by the Manifested form of God. would surely achieve that goal. That Eternal which rests in the self should be known Truly. I. Presently. From this.12. Even the Buddha said that his teaching was only a restatement of the four ancient truths. it is our duty that we live the life in such a manner that we give these devas reason to be pleased with us. Roman scriptures and even those of the Red Indians of America. cat vari arya-satyani . that is why we find reference of these devatas in ancient Greek. This also says that the ultimate aim is to know the Eternal God. but continue working to achieve their objective. The one who is referred to as Kalki Avatar in Vishnu Purana and elsewhere. All Messengers reiterated the same teachings. and they both confirmed what was present in the Vedas. Devatma-Sakti as referred by Radhakrishnan . There is nothing beyond this to be known by knowing the enjoyer. albeit in more refined form than the predecessor.

We are sure you are already aware of the names of these 14 devas and their inter-relationship by now. If we look for the Self through the help of Aum. We have seen how Aum too is related to the flight towards attaining unity with God. Everything has been said and there is nothing that is to be said apart from this relationship of ours with the Absolute Brahman. we will know that this is present in our souls itself. whether in deva state or present on earth as human beings.13. also part of the Prana or Life. who were created from the One Self called Life or Prana. The Eternal is very much present in the self inside our body but it cannot be truly known without the means of the syllable Aum. but through a bird composed of fourteen devas. As oil in sesamum seeds. as fire in friction sticks. I. so is the Self seized in one’s own soul if one looks for Him with truthfulness and austerity. This alone is the Threefold Brahman. signifying the fourteen devas. That merely uttering a word lead us to such a state. and the ardh-matra signifying the 9 devatas. through the path shown by the devas when they come to live on earth and through the help of Divine Self (the devatma-sakti). as butter in cream.ceaselessly works to attain that objective. But truthfulness and austerity . it would be naïve to think so! Salvation cannot be attained unless we know the meaning of Aum truly. As the form of fire when latent in its source is not seen and yet its seed is not destroyed. I. but may be seized again and again in its source by means of the drill. so it is in both cases. The vowels of Aum signify the five devas. one of whom is a devi. The self has to be seized in the body by means of the syllable Aum. as water in riverbeds.14.

It says: Even as a mirror stained by dust shines brightly when it has been cleaned. who has entered into the whole world. I. II. who is in trees.16. through the devas. Verse 14 of Chapter II describes further the condition of one attaining unity with the Self. the highest mystic doctrine. The God who is in fire.17. without which it is not possible to realize one’s self and attain unity with the God. he is released from all fetters. He is the first-born and he is within the womb. who is in water. to that God be adoration. II.16. so the embodied one when he has seen the nature of the self becomes integrated. steadfast. yea. of fulfilled purpose and freed from sorrow. He stands opposite all persons. the subject again returns to devas in the third chapter of Svetasvatara Upanishad. free from all natures. but when they all are united. We have seen in Vedas that Rudra has been used for . When by means of the nature of his self he sees as by a lamp here the nature of Brahman. be adoration. After talking about the God. He indeed. is the God who pervades all regions. It is Brahman alone who is present in all of us as butter is so uniformly present in milk. having his face in all directions. That is the highest mystic doctrine.15. He has been born and he will be born. by knowing God who is unborn. that is Brahman. that is the Brahman. II. The Self which pervades all things as butter is contained in milk.are pre-requisite. The Self may have 14 constituents. which is the root of selfknowledge and austerity. who is in plants.

he is the protector. cognizing their true identity and complete knowledge about them and the path shown . (Remember the seven great seers of Gita). after creating all worlds. It is through him that all the devas and consequently all the beings originated. the protector. with his ruling powers. See what III. withdraws them at the end of time. who rules all these worlds. It is he who is the great seer. or one entity. who are compared to tree. who remains one. may he endow us with clear understanding.1-2 says: The one who spreads the net. established in heaven. the one who gave birth to the golden germ. the great seer. they who know that become immortal. is beyond this world. See III. from whom the whole universe is filled. but others go only to sorrow. It is he who rules all these words with his ruling powers. and source and origin of all the devas. are without form and without suffering. the ruler of all. it is said. Truly Rudra is one. (Hiranya-garbha). described as Person. Here it is explicitly stated that Rudra is the great seer. all the devas or Masooms are described. These. who rules all the world with his ruling powers. He stands opposite creatures. who of old gave birth to the golden germ. while arise and continue to exist. It is expressly stated time and again that through meditation on these devas. who rules with his ruling powers. Rudra. Those who know that become immortal. there is no place for a second. Thereafter. He.Ali.4: He who is the source and origin of devas (powers). Prayer to Ali is being made. and it is he who after creating all worlds withdraws them at the end of time.

of the stationary and the moving. After bringing the readers till this stage. Chapter IV of Svetasvatara Upanishad proceeds with describing the appellations of these devas. Only then would Rudra attain human body. not even the Shia Muslims. make auspicious the arrow which thou holdest in thy hand to throw. Isn’t it the mention of a soul who would open up 9 gates to reach the city? Take note that Mohammad said: I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its them. unterrifying. as they are used in the Vedas. the controller of the whole world.5: Rudra. The prayer continues till it reaches the mention of nine devas in the progeny of Ali’s son. one becomes immortal. [Saturudriya again refers to the seven. injure not man or beast. is the only path to immortality. ‘Once students of sacred knowledge asked (Yajnavalkya): Can we gain life eternal by the repetition of formulas (mantras)? Yajnavalkya said (in reply) By (meditation on) saturudriya which are the names of eternal life.] And see how the prayer to Ali (Rudra) is made in the following verses: III.6: O Dweller among the highest. Verse 3 of Jabala Upanishad too confirms this. your body which is auspicious.18: The embodied soul in the city of nine gates sports in the outside. It is unfortunate that we. III. Looking with the body shows that the prayer is being made to come on earth. See for yourself: . showing no evil – with that most benign body. O Protector of the Highest. look upon us. know the greatness of Ali. Husain. O dweller in the high places. See III.

without any colour. it would not have been possible for us to unearth the mystery regarding their true identity.I. May He endow us with a clear understanding. when the relationship of the devas with the One Self or the Manifested Form of God is to be described in the succeeding verses. Here. It is these seven names that form the fourteen devas. Aditya. IV. We already . that is Vayu and that is the moon.2. Vayu. commend the far-sightedness of those sages who wrote these Upanishads. The entire literature survived various turbulent periods in history only because the names were cleverly hidden. That indeed is Agni.IV. Seven names are being described here. Those who wrote this Upanishad also knew that they were deliberately not giving the names of these devas. They all have emanated from the one Manifested Self alone. it said that the One Manifested Self represents all the seven devas. however. by the manifold exercise of his power distributes many colours in his hidden purpose and into whom in the beginning and at the end the universe is gathered. The One Self from whom the fourteen were born is responsible for the beginning and end of this universe. That indeed is the pure. Unless they had hidden the identity of the devas cleverly. Brahma. waters. that is Aditya. Agni. We must. That is why the prayer to endow us with a clear understanding has been made. Prajapati are appellations given to the seven devas. this is done to indicate that certain hidden meanings are there. moon. Also. That is Prajapati. That is Brahma. which can be unfolded by a bit of investigation and hard work. That is the waters. He who is one.

Mohammad. This verse again states the process described in Paingala and Brhad-aranyaka. IV. Verse IV.6 calls them both companions who are always united. You are man. who produces manifold offspring similar in form (to himself). who both cling to the self-same tree. having had his enjoyment. The fact that one became two. How manifold offsprings were produced from the One Unborn Ali. You. The Self constitutes all. Arjuna was asking . who had given Fatima in marriage to Ali. You are woman. Another thing that we would like to stress is in regard to the reaction of Arjuna in Gita. to the delight of the other unborn. You are the youth and the maiden too. having lived with the devi during the initial years of her childhood and till adolescence. The One Unborn.5. who became five and then they became 9 is similar to the branches of the tree. as an old man. thereby confirming again the inevitable presence of Fatima among the seven names as well as the fourteen devas. Next verse will indicate that both sexes can be found in the seven names.know them from our study of Rig Veda and Yajur Veda. It was said that one gave his daughter in marriage to the other Ali.3. there lies the one unborn delighting. Again the reference of tree is made. 5. This has confused the commentators of Gita and they have given wild meanings. red. Had they seen this Upanishad they would have known that this is reference to the emanation of devas from One Self. IV. otter along with a staff. white and black. Mohammad and Ali were described in verse IV. Another unborn gives her up. Being born you become facing in every direction. through which we can understand the fig tree mentioned in Gita.

Further it is said that of the two. as he feared that Ali’s position would be usurped.8. Two birds.questions from Krishna. a person immersed (in the sorrows of the world) is deluded and grieves on account of his helplessness.6. IV. (Of these two) the one eats the sweet fruit.e. The subject of Mohammad and Ali continues in IV. On the self-same tree.7. which confirms our view that at least till the time of Krishna people were fully aware of the identity of these devas. When he sees the other. Upanishads have maintained that Mohammad and Ali. he becomes freed from sorrow. the other i. For him who does not know that indestructible .7: IV. cling to the self-same tree.e. even when he was unable to understand a trifle point. and the other looks on without eating. companions (who are) always united. and in that aspect all the devas. Next verse still confirms the correlation between this deva mentioned here and the Rig Veda when it says: IV. the Lord who is worshipped and His greatness. Arjuna didn’t react. but forgot it during the succeeding period. This explains why Mohammad was extremely worried during his last few days. one became the Prophet of the Muslims and hence is seen reverentially by the world. This verse too says that they are identical but goes on to say that while one ate the sweet fruit. Not that Mohammad didn’t say this when he said that Ali and he were the divisions of the same noor or said that all of them were Mohammad. i. were exactly similar. Ali had to look on without eating as Caliphate was denied to him. When Krishna referred to this tree. while the other looked on without eating. one ate the sweet fruit.

This verse further tells the importance of these devas in our lives. This also confirms that these devas are the controller of the whole world. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ . of the stationary and the moving. which have been created by God to reveal the identity of either one or all of them. Upanishad says clearly that the Vedas were of no use for such a person.being of the Rig Veda. where on in the highest heaven all the devas reside. the sacrifices. rituals. On the other hand. the future and what the Vedas declare. IV. the future and what the Vedas declare. there were people who didn’t know the true content of the Vedas. It seems that during those times as well. whose identity we have forgotten with time. the past. who know that rest fulfilled. through his maya. one who is aware of the true content of the Vedas rests fulfilled.9. of what avail is the Rig Veda to him? They. in this the other is confined by maya. the past. all this the maker sends forth out of this. and created sacrifices. The Vedas. Doesn’t it confirm the view held by several Upanishads that all animate and inanimate beings are related to God through the Masooms? God has confined all things in the Masooms. the observances. observances. This is a clear indication of how serious is the issue of forgetting the identity of these devas. It tells clearly that the God sent the Vedas. See how so much stress is given in verse after verse and Upanishad after Upanishad about this knowledge. You have seen how the Vedas are replete with the mention of the devas. the rituals. indeed. And they alone are the subject of discussion in the Vedas. only through these Masooms or devas.

Those who verily. thereby leading to rebirth. it goes to the heavens and gets free from rebirth.I). they all. (See verse I. They have already been described at various places as the controller of the whole world. some question is asked after death. Even in the Gita. it rains down here. Whoever answers it (properly). Krishna mentions that knowledge of the self is the highest science and says that those who get to know the relationship between our souls with the self attain union with the God. What are the questions asked from a soul upon its death that are so important that on their answer depends whether we would go to heaven or whether we would have to take rebirth in this world. You will be glad to know that the Shia Muslims have an answer even to this. Apparently.2. is the door of the world of heaven. But whoever answers it not. go to the moon. this Chapter of the Upanishad also deals with the important subject of our death and its relationship to these devas. brings this soul back to earth. Moreover. verily. the question is asked from the . The moon. too refers to the Vedas as fuel. The tremendous stress given in each of the Upanishads regarding the identity of the devas make us believe that the question would be pertaining to these devas alone.The first verse of the first Chapter of KausitakiBrahmana Upanishad. him it sets free. in truth. They maintain that after the death of a person. depart from this world. There are innumerable similar attributes described. See verse I. and those who know the devas are said to be the ones who rest fulfilled. and their relationship with the God. In case the soul answers the question. the Vedas have been described to be created because of them. him having become rain. and the soul’s inability to answer those questions. also called Kausitaki Upanishad. which used to give answers to all the hidden questions that people had.

While the Upanishads of the earlier period and those which are part of the Vedas are seen to be explaining the identity of the devas in various ways. etc. the Kausitaki-Brahmana Upanishad itself narrates the names of the 14 Masooms (devas) one by one. As time progressed people deviated from the path. he goes to heaven. The One God. They used to meditate on them to reach God. the Upanishads of period closer to the Mahabharata are seen doing the reverse. All this is work of God and it is He alone who is to be known.soul regarding the God. to control their hold on the kings and also to help the kings spread their domains. We have mentioned time and again that people from the time of the Vedas and till the time of Krishna knew the identity of the devas well. in Chapter IV. The name of the devas was used by priests to accumulate wealth. so as to harm others. It was believed that the fourteen devatas resided somewhere in the heavens and would take birth sometime in the future. Devas began to be worshipped for material and worldly gains and even for the purpose of magic. We have proved in this book how Mahabharata was actually a fight between these two groups. Isn’t it a proof that salvation is obtained upon successfully answering the questions? What the Muslims aren’t aware is that upon soul’s inability to reply correctly. In fact. it is sent back to earth as rebirth. After talking of the question to be asked from the soul. the Prophet and the Imams. If the person is able to tell that he believe in One God and Mohammad is His Prophet and narrates the names of Mohammad’s rightful successors. was forgotten. creator of these Devas. thereby giving the answer for those unaware. who had been totally forgotten. On one . they confirm the importance of these devatas time and again but actually try to lead people back to their true worship and to the worship of One God.

He who meditates on . all through Gita. the Dronas and Kauravas who blindly worshipped the devas as gods and had digressed to such an extent that even the worship of devas had become only ritualistic and was accompanied by all the sins that they used to commit in the name of these devas.Krishna . See these verses from Chapter IV. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Kausitaki Upanishad is one of those Upanishads that confirms the importance of devas and leads us back to God. but eventually recognized the truth about the Absolute God and the purpose of creation of these devatas by Him. On the other side was the true Apostle . but laboured hard to introduce God. through reasoning.side were the Bhishma. ‘The person who is in the sun. It is extremely unfortunate that we took to worship Rama and Krishna themselves. Consequently we forgot both the devas and the God. the head of all beings. he even says that it is not possible to reach the One God without knowing them. then Ajatsatru said. the supreme. who came down to tell us that the devas are not to be worshipped and their importance is that they should be known and the path shown by them adopted so that we could reach the Absolute God. on him indeed do I meditate!’ To him.3: Then Balaki said. I meditate on him who is the deva. clad in white raiment. At one point. Gita says that even the worship of these devas is permissible but that is the unorthodox way and the right path is to worship God while meditating on them and understanding their role in our lives. and came to Krishna’s side.who continuously reiterated the importance of these devas. Arjuna too was an ardent worshipper of devatas. who had been forgotten by the people. as all the rest of the people of his time. IV. ‘Do not make me to converse on him.

indeed. Ajatsatru said. certain priests instigated others to raise an army in order to suppress the true teachings of Krishna. at a later time. indeed. He who meditates on him thus becomes. fire. the great fight of Mahabharata took place. In the end Ajatsatru said: He.5. sound. ‘The person who is in the thunder. See how intellectual debates too were common as regard to the identity of the devas and their relation to the One God.6. Thereafter. then.’ To him then Ajatsatru said. He who meditates on him Thus becomes indeed. left eye are mentioned. Consequently. mirror. O Balaki. indeed. ‘Do not make me to converse on him. echo. space. ‘Do not make me to converse on him. verily. ‘The person who is in the lightning on him. Then Balaki said. on him. the self of truth!’ IV. he of whom this is the work. water. Unfortunately.’ IV.4. shadow. on him indeed do I meditate!’ To him. the self of food. who is the maker of these persons (whom you have mentioned in succession). body. indeed. I meditate on him as the self of food. Then Balaki said: ‘The person who is in the moon. .him thus becomes indeed supreme. do I meditate. He who meditates on him thus becomes. the head of all beings. ‘Do not make me to converse on him. I meditate on him as the self of truth. the person who is in the air. he alone is to be known. do I meditate.’ To him then Ajatsatru said. IV. right eye. Then Balaki said. I meditate on him as the self of sound. the self of sound.

And surely. By him this body is set up as possessing intelligence or in other words. this one verily is the driver. steadfast. That he is called Prajapati or Visva is evident in verse II. One Self from whom all these devas were created and who is responsible for the creation of the entire world is known as Prajapati or Visva. II. breathless. which divided to become two. who is reputed as standing aloof amidst qualities. undecaying. It is to be noted that while describing the varied qualities of this person. This is a person. He. by this kind of desireless being is this sort of thing set up as possessing intelligence. void. This alone is the subject of the fourth Chapter of Kausitaki Upanishad. there is no doubt that Mohammad and his progeny comprise the 14 on earth. there are two seemingly negative . clean. ‘How Revered Sir. then the two became five and the five became fourteen. Then they said.5 of Maitri Upanishad or Maitrayaniya Upanishad belonging to the Maitrayaniya Sakha or branch of the Black Yajur Veda. he indeed is pure. He abides in his own greatness. unborn. Even this One Self (Prajapati or Visva) is not God. It is clear from this verse that God is not the subject of mention here. endless. or in other words. His attributes are described in detail and it is said that intelligence in us is because of this person.4. who were created from the One Self. In response to the question about what things makes this body intelligent. mindless. who would later be described as Prajapati and Visva. eternal.It is now as clear as daylight that there are fourteen devas. how is this one its mover? The he said to them. like those of vigorous chastity. the Upanishad says in Chapter II. independent. tranquil. but the Manifested form of the God who is Non-Manifest in nature.

which is entirely intelligent in every person is the spirit which has the marks of conception. ‘Revered Sir. Now. thereby implying that the worlds have been wound up several times over. mindless and breathless. invisible one. called the person. assuredly that part of him. Adam. somebody asked Ali what was there prior to Adam. and he said Adam. This is perhaps because they wanted it to rhyme with desireless. By him as intelligence is his body set up as possessed of intelligence. viz. or in other words this very one is its mover. When asked prior to this Adam. Prajapati called Visva. he said. Prophet Muhammad is described as a person who did not uttered a word. only to commence again. when in heavens. At another stage. that subtle. determination and self-love.. without the consent of God. with previous awareness (volition) even as the man who is fast asleep awakes by his own awareness (volition).virtues. it is used to indicate that they were not living like us human beings who are reliant on breathing for survival. Prophet Muhammad is said to have said that I was the Prophet even when Adam was in the process of creation.5 of Maitri Upanishad states: Verily. Then they said. This is courtesy the mindless translation by the commentators. What we feel is that he is the person who is not prone to the wavering of the mind or a person who acts only as per the God’s wish. dwells here (in this world) with a part (of himself). if by this kind of desireless being this sort of thing is set up . As regards to ‘breathless’. He kept repeating the same 70 times. See even this person is unborn. This is a subject that even Puranas like Vishnu Purana and Matsya Purana confirms and even goes on to tell the names of these devas in various worlds. one who does not have desires. ungraspable. Verse II.

which is being described in the next verse II. This is how the God used His maya to create all beings through the devas or Masooms. the Upanishads have called each of the deva by a certain name. from whom our selfs were created. we know from Yajur Veda that it was Prajapati called Visva who was born as Indra or Mohammad. apana. which again gives the process of creation of five and then many. This verse confirms that prana. That the spirit would come in fourteen possessed of intelligence. He had no happiness. samana. Verily. standing like a post. Perhaps. He divided himself five fold and is called prana. who are all similar to the first. samana. vyana. .6. without life. ‘Let me enter within in order to awaken them. He saw them to be like a stone. Also. And we know that the self is none but the Ahlebayts together. being alone. udana.’ He made himself like wind and sought to enter into him. still. vyana are the names of the five selfs or Panjetans created out of the one self. meditating on himself. If you remember. Then. Even inside us. It is this Prajapati called Visva through whom we are to gain wisdom. udana. Isa had predicted of a time when the spirit would come. he could not do it. Being one. He then thought to himself. His virtues are being described in all these succeeding verses. We had quoted that in Book-II. apana. He had no happiness. Krishna too in Gita says that the knowledge of the self only is wisdom. without understanding. we never knew! The same is being referred to here in the aforementioned verse. in the beginning Prajapati stood alone. different names were given to them. how is this one its mover? Then he said to them. he created numerous offspring.

Wherever the names of Indra. imperceptibility. unagitated. fire sacrifices. steam engines. Verily. he remains fixed. as it seems. As an enjoyer of righteous work he covers himself with a veil made of qualities. thus leading to confusion.the Shias . freedom from self-sense (the self) is unabiding and a doer only in seeming. etc. ungraspability.9 of the Paingala Upanishad. but not about the self. Ali. oblations. separate names were there for devas in heaven and for devas when they would take birth on earth. remains fixed like a spectator and abiding in his own self. truly is not a doer. On the contrary the existing translations talk of rituals. Agni. subtility. he is pure. are mentioned. Fatima. steadfast. Likewise. This is the proof that the Vedic translation done by us is correct as none of the other translations talk of self and its recognition. yea. he is abiding. This is the reason why these devas are referred to by so many names. II. but he remains that we get to know that this is the mention of deva inside our body.ever believed. Hasan and Husain enjoy far more control over us than even those who were blamed with unnecessarily enhancing their status . this self. Another proof that the Vedas contain no other information but that of the Self is found in IV. being solved? Muhammad. airplanes. the seers declare. wanders here on earth in everybody unaffected. Vayu. On account of this unmanifestness. stainless. free from desire. Verily. even they are interpreted as either meaning the material things or talking about steam .7. by the light or the dark fruits of action. Aren’t all the complexities regarding our karma (actions) and its relation to five devas who are present in the form of the Person in the self. unswerving.

Not only this. they also undertook the task of giving us lead about the true course of life and the true content of various sacred scriptures. They are clearly the work of mischievous minds. Vedas are of no importance to one who has perceived the Self. sharing the bed with the teacher’s wife and associating with those who have committed these sins! All those who cite the myths associated with Siva and others about drinking take note. Not only drinking. etc. or adultery with the teacher’s wife. airplanes.24: He who studies this Upanishad everyday… becomes free from the sins of killing a Brahmana.9. as he has already attained the purpose that the Vedas wanted us to achieve. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ . Since the purpose of Vedas is to introduce the Divine Selfs to us. Isn’t Yajnavalkya’s words confirming to what we are saying? And this knowledge is of such importance that it destroys even the gravest sins committed by man. and all Vedas are replete with their mention. stealing gold. It is akin to killing of a Brahmana or stealing of gold. as has been taken to mean by RDS. even association with one who does so is a sin. otherwise drinking liquor is among one of the five most serious sins from time immemorial. drinking liquor. See IV. See IV.engines. What is the use of milk to one satiated with nectar? Even so what is the use of the study of Vedas for one who has perceived the Self? We must salute sages like Yajnavalkya who did all in their power to keep us on the right path.

he attains unity of (with) the person. yea. please take special note. They said. How unfortunate that we know nothing about the devas. IV. this whole world is Brahman. you are the teacher. etc. .’ Verily. food. you are the teacher. as five elements. these. breath. For it has been said. the bodiless Brahman. sun. It is clear from the question that the questioner wished to ask whose worship was the best. Please note that all names are not taken. time. some meditate upon one. And when all things perish (in universal resolution). fire. since there are fourteen devas. Fire. However.6.We know now that from One Self. Brahma. worships and discards. Now answer a further question. out of all the devas. Those who still see air. ‘Verily. other than what we are telling you at present! See these verses from Maitri Upanishad. which are its chief forms one meditates upon. Vishnu. See the answer in IV. air. Tell us which one is the best for us! Then he said to them. This is evident from mention of ‘whatever it is’ in between.6: IV. Rudra. whatever it is.5. These are but the chief forms of the Supreme. Who is the superior-most of these fourteen? Whom should we worship the most? The same question is asked in Chapter IV of Maitri Upanishad thereby proving our claim that people were worshipping one deva or the other during the period when these Upanishads were written. some upon another. of the person. To whichever each man is devoted here in this world he rejoices. For with these one moves higher and higher in the worlds. ‘Revered One. What has been said has been duly fixed in mind by us. fourteen devas or selfs were created. the immortal. there were people who worshipped one or the other.

kindled like fire. Please note that when they were supposed to be in heavens and had not come to earth. free from fetters. at the time of universal dissolution. the unshaken. the pervader. He is the self which is free from evil.Unable to notice the words like ‘chief forms of the Supreme’. Till then individualities are retained by the souls including the world-soul. and presence of revered names like Brahma. sorrowless. to reach the Absolute God. spirit. is the self within the heart. whose conception is the real. Prajapati or Visva – the head of these devas and from whom the fourteen were created . the golden germ. It was believed that once they would come. He is the determining bridge. Then it would be necessary upon us to study their teachings and follow them. this Chapter states that despite being distinct individual entities. Narayana. endowed with all forms of him all this is food. they would give us true knowledge and lead us through the best of paths to reach God. This self. he is the ruler of beings. In him are woven creatures here. verily. very subtle. Vishnu and Rudra. he is the protector of beings. Creator of all. the beneficent. ageless. life. the ruler. deathless. Hiranya-garbha lapses into the Absolute Brahman. truth. free from distinctly described in Chapter VIII (verse 7) of Maitri Upanishad. Radhakrishnan has wrongly concluded that this is reference to entire humanity. He is the supreme Lord. verily. Says he: ‘At the end of this world. it was only possible to meditate upon them. the devas are all one and the same and it does not matter whom we are meditating upon. which states: And he.’ Contrary to his view. whose desire is the real. He who is yonder in the . is the Lord.

It does not feed on anything. becoming Brahman remains Brahman alone. self-control. not manifest. he is one. Isn’t this clearly establishes the relationship between Brahman and the Self. austerity. To these who art this. That which is lifeless. not minute. adoration. The pranas (vital breaths) of this (knower of Brahman) do not go out. devoid of touch. charity and compassion. without an exterior. devoid of smell. imperishable. devoid of glowing redness (like fire). uestablished (in anything else). immeasurable. not gross. we present here two separate verses from Subala Upanishad. headless. not definable. not obscure. One should also attend to the following three. Please note that this is not the mention of God but of the highest creation of God in the form a self – a manifested self or Mohammad. splendourless. as one’s own self (he). which will clarify the distinction between the description of One God and the One Self.sun. not demonstrable. even where He is they get merged. not small. If there is any confusion. originless. not obscure. He who knows thus. nor does anything feed on it. not long. IV. devoid of taste. devoid of sound. not shrouded. not shrouded. devoid of name and clan. mindless. One should attain this (Brahman) by recourse to the six means of truthfulness.I. not short. not manifest. not demonstrable. endowed with all forms hidden in the real space. devoid of form. not great. charity. fasting. sorrows not. not dense. given birth by God prior to the . chastity (of mind and body) and complete indifference to worldly objects. speechless. mouthless. without an interior. In the beginning this was non-existent. earless. not prodigious.

whence (can arise) immortality? (It is) not (endowed) with internal knowledge. not knowledge. Another verse describes this Self in detail. V.15. nor with both these kinds of knowledge. This is the source of all. which eventually merges with Him. This is the Lord of all This is the ruler of all. consisting of life (it is) the self of (all) sense organs. nor with external knowledge. not (previously) known or capable of being known. This is the doctrine of Veda. Whose food is all this but who (himself) does not become the food of any. consisting of bliss. This is the indwelling spirit. This. the supreme director of all. when there is not Oneness whence (can arise) duality? When there is not mortality. it is stated in this verse and elsewhere that the doctrine of all Vedas talks of the knowledge of Self. nor not-knowledge. This is the doctrine of the Veda. Notice the emphasis on the knowledge contained in the Vedas. Several times over. This. For that very reason (it is) the most excellent. not a mass of knowledge.creation of the universe. does not stand in need of happiness of any kind. This (self) is all-knowing. Why this discrepancy? Are all these verses talking about the real content of Vedas are wrong? Or is it that we have understood the Vedas wrong? You already know the answer! . The commentaries and translations of Vedas do not seem to be talking about this subject. This is the doctrine relating to liberation. (it is) the self of dissolution. that is adored by all the Vedic texts and scriptures does not stand in need of Vedic texts and scriptures. that is resorted to by all forms of happiness. Consisting of food (it is) the self of (all) gross objects. which is also the doctrine that leads us to liberation.

Mangala in Gangatirtha. Utpalaksi in Sahasraksa. Ratipriya in Gangotri. Kali in Kalanjar hills. Kamacharini at the Mandar Hills. Sugandha in Madhavavana. Puruhuta in Puskara. wife of Ali and mother of Hasan and Husain. Lalita in Prayaga. Trisandhya in Godasrama. Margadayini in Kedar. Visalaksi in Kasi. Jayanti in Hastinapura. Let’s see how many accounts available confirm that relationship. Rambha on the Mount Malaya. Madhavi in Srisaila. Narayani in Suparsva. Nanda in the Himalayas. Vipula in Vipula. the Devi Sati’s various names are mentioned by which she was known at different places. Madoktata in the Chaitraratha forest. Patala in Pundvardhana. Bhadra in Bhadresvara. Amoghaksi on the banks of the Vipasa river. Visvakaya in Ambara. Kapila in Mahalinga. Vimala in Purushottam. Kumuda at the Manasa lake. Jaya in Varahaksetra. Lingadharini in Naimisaranya. Bhavani in Sthanesvara. Kamaksi in Gandhamadana hills. Bhadrasundari in Vikuta. Gauri in Kanyakubja. Kalyani in Malayachala. In Chapter XIII of Matsya Purana. Rudrani in Rudrakoti. Bhadrakarnika in Gokarna. Visva in Visvesvara. Kumari in Mayapuri. Kamala in Kamalalaya. Gomati in Gomanta.The Devi is Fatima We know that Fatima was the daughter of Mohammad. Lalita in Santana. Jalapriya in Sivalinga. Bilvapatrika in Bilval. Mahadevi on the banks of the Salagrami river. Sivananda in . Mahotpala in Kamalaksa. Kirtiwati in Ekambhaka. Mukutesvari in Markota. Kotavi in Kotitirtha.

Mrigavati on the banks of the river Yamuna. Radha in Vrindavana. Aroga in Vaidyanathan. Gayatri in the Vedas. Vinduvasini in Vindhyachala. Svaha in Mahesvara. Sinhika in Krita Saucha. Mahesvari in Mahakala. and Brahmakala in the mind. Pusti in Visvesvar. Tara in Kiskindha. Manmatha in Hemkuta. . Sivakarini on the Achodaka tank. Medha in Kashmir. and Sakti in all bodies. Pingalesvari in Payosni. Saraswati in the mouth of Brahma. Nandini on the banks of the Devika river. Vandaniya in Asvatha. Pusti in Devadaruvna. Chandrika in Harischandra. Bhima in Himalaya.Sivakunda. Chandika in Amarakantaka. Tillottama among women. Mahabhaga in Mahalaya. Pushkaravati in Prabhasa. Vaisnavi in the Matrikshetra. Satyavadini in Mukuta. Visvmukhi in Jalandhara. Parvati in Kailasa. Prabha in the disc of the Sun. Umadevi in Vinayaka. Subhadra at the confluence of the Ganges and the Sone. Mandavi in Mandvaya. Devaki in Mathura. Urvasi in Badarinarayana. Nidhi in the town of Kuvera. Dhriti in Pindaraka. Rukmini in Dwarika. Mata in Siddhapura. Mahalakshmi in Karavira. Kala on the banks of the river Chandrabhag. Sita in Chitrakuta. Arundhati among the Pativratas. Sudhi in Kapalamochana. Indrani in Devaloka. Yasaskari in Kartikeya. Paramesvari in Patala. Ekavira in Sahyadiri. Ausadhi in Uttarakuru. Abhaya in Usnatirtha. Prachanda in Chagalanda. Amrita in the caves of Vindhyachala. Ramana in Ramatirtha. Devamata on the banks Paravara of the Sarasvati river. Lola in Utpalavarta. Kusodka in Kusadvipa. Laksmirangana in Bharatasrama. Amrita in Vena. Dhvani in Sankhodhar. Mata in Kayavarahana. Vararoha in Somesvara.

Dasa-bhuja. The names which Devi obtains from her husband are: . Iswari.’ Avara. ‘the revered.’ and Ambika. ‘the youngest. ‘With disheveled hair. Bhagavati. ‘The black. Mridani. when she fought with the Asura general Rakta-vija. ‘the bee. ‘Siva’s messenger.’ Sati. Sarvani. speaks of her under the following names: 1.’ Karna-moti.’ Ananta and Nitya. which celebrates the victories of this goddess over the Asuras. ‘always auspicious.’ an Asura in the form of a buffalo. ‘nourisher of herbs. Kirati. Chhinna-mastaka. Mukta-kesi. 6. ‘Fosterer of the world.’ Karburi. 8.’ Bhramari. ‘victorious. ‘mountain-born’ [remember Himavat or Daksha is her father.eared.’ Arya. Kausiki. ‘World’s fair one.’ She killed Rakta-vija. Siva.’ Kotari. Durga. ‘pearl. ‘the everlasting.’ She killed Sumbha. Tryambaki.’ when she again defeated the Asura army. 3. Isani. Mrida. 4. 9. Rudrani.’ She is Kanya.The Chandi-mahatmya. ‘Ten-armed.’ Riddhi.Babhravi (Babhru). 10. ‘spotted. Him signifying mountain).’ the headless form in which she killed Nisumbha. jagad-dhatri. ‘sprung from Daksha. ‘Destroyer of Mahisha. ‘the youthful virgin. ‘distinguished by a lotus. Kali.’ Siva-duti. dark. ‘the rich. ‘Riding on a lion’.’ Dakshina. 2.’ when she destroyed part of their army.’ Again defeats the Asuras. From her origin she is called Adri-ja and Giri-ja. ‘virtuous. Jagadgauri.’ Dakshaja. ‘earth-born. ‘Decapitated. ‘right-handed. ‘Star. Ku-ja. ‘the virgin.’ Padmalanchhana. when she received the messengers of the Asuras.’ Sarvamangala. Tara.’ Sakam-bhari. Mahisha-mardini. Maheswari. Sinha-vahini. ‘the mother. Kapalini.’ Pinga.’ as lauded by the gods for her triumphs.’ Kanya-kumari. 5. 7.’ Vijaya. ‘the naked. ‘tawny. Kalanjari.’ .

Himavat. Dyaus. ‘the fierce. Rudra or Siva) and the two Aswins) that existed between Fatima and Mohammad (her father). As we progress.’ As addicted to austerities she is Aparna and Katyayani. Rajasi. Just as this Devi is known by various names. some of the names of these devas will become clear to you. Hasan and Husain have been addressed in Vedas and the Upanishads. all of whom are not known to us at the moment.Sinha-rathi. ‘riding on a lion. Agni or Kumara is Husain and Vasu is Hasan. To cite an example. Bhima-devi. Ali. Just imagine. Matangi. the devas too are referred to by several names. but we have continued to regard them as different persons. We are not concerned much about the legends attributed to her as we have seen that various legends have emanated from people’s inability to understand the true sense that was being conveyed. Mahamari. Chamunda. most of them applicable to her terrible forms. ‘called by the name of Kama. Brahma and Indra are the various names of one person only viz. and as Gana-nayaki. She is Kamakshi. desire.’ and Kamakhya. Daksha. so many names have been given to . the leader of the Ganas. ‘red or bloody toothed.’ and Rakta-danti.’ The one devi was referred to by so many names. You already know that we maintain that Indra or Brahma is Mohammad. Vayu (also Marut. Vayu or Rudra or Siva is Ali. are Bhadrakali. ‘wanton-eyed. Maha-kali. Mohammad. Visvadeva. As Bhutanayaki she is chief or leader of the goblins. This exercise will also facilitate us in identifying the various names by which Mohammad. Mahasuri.’ Other names. Our aim is to see whether this devi (who is the only female among the 14) maintains the same relationship (with Indra. Ali (her husband) and Hasan and Husain (her sons).

She gave so many sacrifices in life and hence is called Svaha in Mahesvara. And that is why she is called Mahesvari in Mahakala. hence she is called Kirtiwati in Ekambhaka. which confirms her relationship with Rudra or Ali. Her father is known as Visvadeva and she is called Visva in Visvesvara. hence she is known as Visvakaya in Ambara. The devi is said to be the mother of eleven devas having been married to the first of the Adityas. hence she is referred to as Narayani in Suparsva. No devi matches her stature so she is known as Mahadevi on the banks of the Salagrami river.Ja (sprung from Daksha) and Indrayani (daughter of Indra). That one of her names is devi itself proves it. Parvati. which shows her relationship with Mahadeva. hence she is called Lingadharini in Naimisaranya. She is also Devayani. She is one of the fourteen who were responsible for creation of this world. All fame is to her. have been used for Fatima in the Vedas. She is also Rudrani. if we were to find them on international basis? The fact that she is the same female devi among the fourteen can be known from the very nature of names above. etc. She was the mother of eleven devas hence is called Devamata . and hence is called Devaki in Mathura. which confirms that Indra and Daksha are same. just as Saraswati. and Indra is undoubtedly Mohammad in the Vedas.Devi in India alone. She is Daksha. It is through her that it is possible to reach God. What would be the number of names. She is one Devi among the 13 devas. Then she is called Mahadevi. hence is called Paramesvari in Patala. which is another name for Siva or Rudra or Vayu. used for Ali. also shows her relationship with Deva. She is the wife of Rudra and hence is called Rudrani in Rudrakoti. We are of the opinion that these devas were introduced around the same time in all the major civilizations of the world. She was the chief of the creations created by God.

’ and a type of . the Himalaya mMountains [This confirms that Himavat. History and Literature’ writes that Arundhati meaning ‘the morning star’ is described as the wife of Rishi Vasishtha. Indra are the same]. and with several of her peculiar characteristics. but she owes her great distinction to the Puranas and later works. In her milder form she is Uma.’ or Maha-devi. “‘The goddess. she is called Indrani in Devaloka and Sakti in all bodies.’ wife of the god Siva. and actions. we are prompted to conclude that Rishi Vasishtha and Siva may be the names of the same person. Bharati too is a name of Arundhati. Now see how Dowson has described this Devi. and daughter of Himavat. It is she who is referred to as Gayatri in the Vedas. She has a great variety of names. John Dowson in ‘A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion. Daksha. one mild. All other names given to her too confirm one or other of other virtues.on the banks of Paravara of the Saraswati river and Mata in Siddha pura and Kayavardhana. Dowson lists Bhawani as one of the names of the wife of Siva. and a model of conjugal excellence. ‘light. All the things in world are due to her hence she is called Visvamukhi in Jalandhara. She is also known as Fatima by Muslims.e. i. referable to her various forms. but these names are not always used accurately and distinctively. Geography. As the Sakti or female energy or Siva she has two characters. The account from Matsya Purana too gives Bhavani as the name of the Devi in Sthanesvara and since Arundhati too is there in the aforementioned list. She is mentioned in the Mahabharata under a variety of names. the other fierce. ‘the great goddess. daughter of Mohammad. attributes. Owing to being the daughter of Indra. She is one of the five who constitute Life in our body and hence is called Dhvani in Sankhidhar. and it is under the latter that she is especially worshipped.

’ and Bhavani. As Maha-maya she is the great illusion. and that the indecent orgies of the Tantrikas are held to propitiate her favours and celebrate her powers. hung round with skulls and human heads.’ she is worshipped at a place of that name where the Vindhyas approach the Ganges. Jayanti. ‘the mother of the world. as per Dowson. and in most of her hands there are weapons. Jagad-dhatri (dhata) ‘sustainer of the world’ too is an epithet given to both Saraswati and Durga. ‘the dweller in the Vindhyas.’ and Bhairavi. ‘the yellow or brilliant. encircled with snakes. Gauri. near Mirzapur. That Indra is Mohammad. We have already said that our concern is not with these as they are product of an ignorant’s attempt in defining his religion. ‘the mountaineer. As Durga she is beautiful yellow woman. and it is said that there the blood before her image is never allowed to get dry. ‘the black.” As Vindhyavasini. She has ten arms. ‘the terrible. we already know].’ Kali and’ Chandi and Chandika. who is more commonly known as daughter of Indra and whose other names are Deva-sena and Tavishi too is included in the list of names of Devi in Matsya Purana. ‘the inaccessible.” See how people’s inability to understand the content of Vedas led to creation of myths. from her parentage.’ and Haimavati. Sraddha (devi . What Dowson is unaware is that both are the names of the same person. ‘the fierce. that the barbarities of the Durga-puja and Charak-puja are perpetrated in her honour. riding on a tiger in a fierce and menacing attitude. a hideous and terrible countenance. In her terrible form she is Durga.’ “she is represented with a black skin. dripping with blood. As Kali or Kalika.’ Parvati. Jagan-mata.’ It is in this character that bloody sacrifices are offered to her. [This proves that Indra too is the name of the father of devi. and in all respects resembling a fury rather than a goddess. ‘the black.

thus confirming that Manu Swayambhuva is Ali. the daughter and wife of Brahma. of Manu. which is not correct. commonly called Gayatri. who is said to be mother of Kama. one of her two sons. The account given by Manu is that Brahma divided himself into two parts. who is sometimes regarded as a personification of the holy verse. was born. According to one account she was the daughter of Brahma. the Lord of Justice is same as Rudra or Ali and Kama is either Hasan or Husain.” And Satarupa is described in the following manner: “‘The hundred-formed. 2. not the mother. we have reasons to believe that Aditi is another name of devi. This proves that Dharma. male and female. and from their incestuous intercourse the first Manu. Aditi is called the daughter and wife of Daksha. Since we have shown above that Daksha is Mohammad and Aditi is described as daughter of Daksha. thereby confirming the common . named Swayambhuva. Owing to people’s inability to understand the process of creation. married to Dharma (the deva of justice).” Why she is called wife of Brahma is clear from Dowson’s description of Satarupa and we need not explain it. who is none but Ali. But.’ The first woman. A name of Satarupa. which confirms that Brahma is Mohammad and she was married to first Manu Swayambhuva. Most interestingly. Another account makes her the wife.of faith) too seems to be one of her names. and from them sprang Manu. she has been described as wife of Vishnu as well as Brahma. just as Satarupa was called daughter and wife of Brahma. She is also called Savitri. Now we come to the name Savitri. Dowson describes it in the following manner: “The holy verse of the Veda. it is said that she is daughter of Brahma.

for protection and for forgiveness. and also of Indra.” Eight sons were born from the body of Aditi. beyond the clouds. or.’ Infinity. which confirms her to be the same as the devi in 14. She is also compared with heaven and earth. She is the mother of the Adityas. by whom she was mother of Vishnu. See the description of Aditi by Dowson: “‘Free. the endless expanse beyond the earth. in his dwarf incarnation (wherefore he is sometimes called Aditya). sovereign of this world. which shows that Kasyapa too is the name of Ali. On this statement Yaska remarks in the Nirukta: . ‘mother of the gods.origin of the legend. In the Yajur-veda. she approached the gods with seven but cast away the eighth. or.” In the Rig-veda she is frequently implored “for blessings on children and cattle.’ and is represented as being the mother of Daksha and the daughter of Daksha. She is wife of Kasyapa and daughter of Daksha. as well as in the Puranas. and she is called “the mother of the gods” and . she is said to be daughter of Daksha and wife of Kasyapa. which too confirm that she is Fatima.” but in the Mahabharata and Ramayana. unbounded. they may have been born from each other. have derived their substance form one another. “the visible infinite. beyond the sky.” These seven were the Adityas. according to M. In the Vishnu Purana. sustainer of the earth. the boundless heaven as compared with the finite earth. Marttanda (the sun).“How can this be possible? They may have had the same origin. Vishnu is called the son of Aditi. She is addressed as the supporter of the sky. according to the nature of the gods. visible by the naked eye. wife of Vishnu. Note in the description her names like ‘Deva-matri’ meaning mother of the devas. which also confirms her to be Fatima as there are 12 Adityas or Imams. Aditi is addressed as “Supporter of the sky.” Aditi is called Deva-matri. Muller. sustainer of the earth.

The name Devatas includes the gods in general. one was her husband. Also. after receiving the adoration of Aditi. because of being daughter of Daksha.” Indra acknowledged her as mother. And Indra was the chief of the devas or devatas. However. she is the mother of the 11 devas. If you see the list of appellations of Aditi. Of these one was her father. thereby suggesting that Daksha and Indra are one and the same person.” It is Indra’s heaven. Since we have said that 7 names were repeated among the 14 devas. Therefore. she is also described by Dowson as the wife of Vishnu. which would mean either that Vishnu is another name given to Ali or this is because of the same confusion which has prompted people to call her the wife of Brahma. do thou show favour unto me and grant me thy blessing. another is called Vishnu for the sake of identification. or. you will find that one of them is Indrayani. Curiously. as most frequently used. Her father was Indra (or Daksha or Mohammad) but one of the grandsons too has been called Indra. that is described as the Swarga or the world of the devas. 6 names were repeated in the 13 devas. one of which was this devi. who was the first of the 12 Adityas (Imams). also referred to in the Gita. She is clearly the first of the women’s light ever created.“the mother of the world. and the remaining 11 were her sons or grandsons. The names of the 12 Adityas are given at various places. Deva is described by Dowson as “a divine being or god. she is also the mother of Vishnu and Indra. goddess. In that way. addressed her in these words: “Mother. And 11 of her sons (or grandsons) too were . the whole body of inferior gods. the devi who is responsible for the birth of all women on this earth. which include Indra and Vishnu. And her husband was Kasyapa (or Vayu or Ali).” Aditi is also called Dakshayani. and Vishnu. she is the mother of the world. Likewise.

’ and as ‘having the thunder for his voice. Why would she not be seen in this manner. He is the suppliant.Adityas. Further. who is otherwise described as wife of Siva. comprise the 14 devas (Masooms) or the 14 guardians of the 14 quarters. Hence he appears as the prototype of the priests and priestly order. She is model of conjugal excellence. sustainer of the earth. Tara is described by Dowson as the wife of Brhaspati and since Tara is the name of the devi as per Matsya Purana. John Dowson has this to say about Brihaspati: “In the Rig-veda the names Brhaspati and Brahmanaspati alternate. is also the name of Vayu or Ali. and is also designated as the Purohita (family priest) of the divine community. we have already seen that she is wife of Rishi Vasishtha. Ekapatala as . Indra and herself. and hence this also confirms our viewpoint. we have concluded that Brhaspati or Brahmanaspati. He is also designated as ‘the shining’ and ‘the gold-coloured. Brhaspati is called at one place the ‘father of the gods (devas)’. He is called in one place ‘the father of the gods. the sacrificer. when she is the wife of Mahadeva and mother of 11 devas. who intercedes with gods on behalf of men and protects mankind against the wicked. the priest. which is true. which can only be understood through our explanation. thereby confirming that Rishi Vasishtha too is Ali. These 12 Adityas. sovereign of the world.” Coming back to the description of Arundhati. and are equivalent to each other. It is this devi (Fatima) who is the “supporter of the sky. Now see description of Eka-Parna.’ and a widely extended creative power is ascribed to him. Durga too is in the aforementioned list from Purana. They are names “of a deity in whom the action of the worshipper upon the gods (devas) is personified.’” The description confirms with that of Ali. who is also the father of devas.

Another name being Ganga. “Uma” – “O don’t.” . and Eka-patal only one patala (Bigaonia). and alarmed both worlds. and in the Atharva-veda the idea has become personified in females both of a lucky and unlucky character. who too is called the sister of Uma. He says that they too are perhaps names of Aparna who are called sisters of Aparna. Aparna took no sustenance at all and lived a-parna. Ekapatala. where Mohammad and his family members had to survive on little food for three years. The Taittiriya Sanhita. ‘without a leaf. Eka-parna took only one leaf for food.] Her mother being distressed at her abstinence. who is described by Dowson as an epithet of Sita. Khadija and Himavat is another name for Mohammad] Kumari is another name for Fatima. and daughter of Himavat and Mena. It is said. See how Dowson describes Lakshmi: “The word occurs in the Rig-veda with the sense of good fortune.described by Dowson in his dictionary. They performed austerities surpassing the powers of gods and Danavas. daughters of Himavat and Mena. Uma and Aparna are both mentioned in the list of names of Saraswati/Parvati. Now we come to the name Lakshmi. etc are all names of Fatima. with their sister Aparna were. exclaimed in her anxiety. also of Durga. [Note. Mena is Fatima’s mother and Mohammad’s wife. as explained by the commentator.’ [Myth seems to have emanated from certain description of days in Sheb-e-Abu Talib. and the Satapatha Brahmana describes Sri as issuing forth from Prajapati. Eka-patala). “these (Eka-parna. Eka-parna. makes Lakshmi and Sri to be two wives of Aditya. according to the Harivansa. the wife of Siva.” Through this she became manifest as the lovely goddess Uma. This word too occurs in Rig-Veda for Fatima. Uma is described as wife of Siva which again confirms that Uma.

’ From her connection with the lotus she is called Padma. and is not likely to . Prajapati and Aditya are often used in Upanishads and Vedas for the same two personalities. She is also daughter of Bhrigu and Khyati. but she is the type of beauty. and mother of Kama. Both these names. Lakshmi is said to have four arms. ‘daughter of the sea of milk. It was at a subsequent period that she was produced from the sea at the churning of the ocean. along with the fact that she is the mother of Kama. In one hand she holds a lotus. She is also called wife of Vishnu in another description of Satarupa that we have given before. According to this legend she sprang. “Her first birth was the daughter of Bhrigu by Khyati. “She has no temples. two more names of Fatima. which confirms our view. The Vishnu Purana says. we have seen that Jagad-dhatri (dhata) ‘sustainer of the world’ and devi. That she is described in legends as springing like Aphrodite from the froth of the ocean shows her relationship with the God Vishnu. from the froth of the ocean. The origin ascribed to her by the Ramayana is the one commonly believed. According to the Puranas. she continues to be assiduously courted. but being goddess of abundance and fortune. See how Dowson further describes Lakshmi or Sri. “Lakshmi or Sri in later times is the goddess of fortune.This description proves that Prajapati is another name for Mohammad and Aditya is reference to Ali. were described as mother of Kama. she was the daughter of Bhrigu and Khyati. Earlier. which again seem to be appellations for Mohammad. in full beauty with a lotus in her hand. With reference to this origin. viz. like Aphrodite. who is often represented as vast expanse of water. and is generally depicted as having only two. one of her names is Kshirabdhi-tanaya. wife of Vishnu. Another legend represents her as floating on the flower of a lotus at the creation. when it was churned by the gods and the Asuras.

thereby showing a relationship between Siva and Indra as well. and are represented as worshipping Siva and attending upon his son Kartikeya. From being Fatima. she is described as springing from froth (we know that Vishnu is associated with water). And once it is proved that Prisni is the devi. ‘ocean born. Vaishnavi of Vishnu. You will see this as you progress. The list of devi in the Matsya Purana cites Indrani and Maheswari as two of her names.’ Chanchala or Lola. thus we can say that Kartikeya is either Hasan or Husain.’” In Vedas.fall into neglect. there is no doubt that she is used for Fatima. They are connected with the Tantra worship. as Brahmani of Brahma. but in the later mythology they have increased out of number. there is no denying that . Maheswari of Siva. “These appear to have been originally the female energies of the great gods. The name is used in the Vedas also for a cow. Loka-mata. she is definitely the mother of Maruts (Imams).” Truth is that they are all names of the one and only female energy.” Since Devaki too is mentioned in the aforementioned list. What is important to note is that Kartikeya is her son. The number of them was seven or eight or sixteen. Jaladhija. Indira. we take Prisni as one her names. Dowson has described Prisni as follows: “In the Vedas and Puranas. Though Siva is her husband and Indra her father.’ as goddess of fortune. ‘the fickle.” Other names of Lakshmi are Hira. See how Dowson has given names of several energies of the great gods while describing the term Matris. The divine mothers. the earth. Indrani or Aindri of Indra. As per Dowson’s description. ‘mother of the world. and one of them is said to have been a new birth of Devaki. the mother of the Maruts. He says Matris means ‘Mothers’. & c. There were several females of this name.

and was to them. Another oft-repeated name of Fatima in Vedas is Saraswati. Saraswati is alluded for the fertilizing and purifying powers of her waters. elegant. The connection into which she was thus brought with sacred rites may have led to the further step of imagining her . the goddess of speech. Now see the description of Sandhya by Dowson. The name is also used for Parvati. considered as five elements by scholars till now. “When once the river has acquired a divine character. Dr. Saraswati is primarily a river. Her position as Vach. is another name of Siva or Ali. the home of the early Aryans. fatness. and wealth. the wife of Siva.” Again the same relationship is being described. Muir endeavours to account for her acquisition of this character. it was quite natural that she should be regarded as the patroness of the ceremonies which were celebrated on the margin of her holy waters. a sacred river. as the Ganges has long been to their descendants. finds no mention in the Rig-veda. and as the bestower of fertility. Riddhi means “’Prosperity’.] The Saraswati River was one boundary of Brahmavartta. He say. [Fact is that Saraswati is not celebrated as river in the Vedas but only as a deity. but is recognized by the Brahmanas and the Mahabharata. god of wealth. See how Dowson describes her.the earth in the list of five. but is celebrated in the hymns both as a river and a deity. is this devi.” It is evident from this that Kuvera – the Lord of wealth and prosperity. Another name of devi is Riddhi.’ In the Vedas. The wife of Kuvera. in all likelihood. See Dowson’s description: “‘Watery. and that her direction and blessing should be invoked as essential to their proper performance and success. It is personified as the daughter of Brahma and wife of Siva. Siva or Ali being her husband and Mohammad or Brahma being her father. Word means “‘Twilight’. As a river goddess.

Veda. and not unfrequently of a graceful figure. thereby confirming that Sati too is one of the names of the devi. Sarada. the goddess of speech and learning. The river is now called Sarsuti. inventress of the Sanskrit language and Deva-nagari letters. Putkari. wearing a slender crescent on her brow and sitting on a lotus. with different names was assigned to various deities. “She is represented as of a white colour. See Sapta-sindhava.v. which we . like the other prototype of learned ladies. and patroness of the arts and sciences. being something of a termagant. [Sapta meaning seven. Brahmi. (see Vach.” –Max Muller. The same authority states that “the Vaishnavas of Bengal have a popular legend that she was the wife of Vishnu. without any superfluity of limbs. She is also described as daughter of Himavat and Mena. Saraswati.]” This narration itself confirms why the same devi. Sati too is a daughter of Daksha (who is Mohammad) and wife of Rudra (Siva or Ali). the goddess of speech. The same devi in her various names has been assigned to have an influence on the composition of the hymns which formed so important a part of the proceedings. Minerva.). Brahma and Vishnu. In ancient times it flowed on to the sea.) Other names of Saraswati are Bharati. 45. and of identifying her with Vach. The ladies disagreed. It falls from the Himalayas and is lost in the sands of the desert. We have already shown the reason for this. as were also Lakshmi and Ganga. and Vishnu finding that one wife was as much as he could manage.” In later times Saraswati is the wife of Brahma.” -Wilson. transferred Saraswati to Brahma and Ganga to Siva. and Vagiswari. “She who goes on pure from the mountains as far as the sea. According to the Mahabharata it was dried up by the curse of the sage Utathya (q. A passage in the Rig-veda says of it. and contended himself with Lakshmi alone.

” Another name of the devi Fatima is Sinhika who is described as “A daughter of Daksha and wife of Kasyapa. we believe that she too is Fatima. substituted for herself when she fled. who is the wife of the sun. We know that Ali is known as Aditya that means the sun. whose name is mentioned at places that describe departure of Husain from Medina. as she is described as daughter of the ocean. In the Vishnu Purana.” The authorities generally agree that she died or killed herself in consequence of the quarrel between her husband and father. “The female of like appearance. Aparna. she is mother of several Imams. She then became the daughter of Himavat and Mena. Ekaparna and Eka-patala. when we were talking of Uma.” whom Saranyu. The Vishnu Purana states that she “abandoned her body in consequence of the anger of Daksha.” It is understood how she is daughter of Daksha and wife of Kasyapa. This is the version given in the Nirukta. and the divine Bhava again married Uma.” Next comes Savaran. Sati is described by Dowson as ”A daughter of Daksha and wife of Rudra. who was identical with his (Siva’s) former spouse. Savarana is daughter of the ocean. and the Kasi Khanda. and mother of the ten Prachetasas. She is the wife of Prachinabarhis as well as Vivaswat.. thus these too are names of Ali. who are referred as Prachetasas. wife of Vivaswat. but she is also daughter of Kasyapa and wife of Viprachitti. This is perhaps because a daughter of Fatima and Ali was Fatima Sughra (or the younger Fatima). Surely. Siva. also a daughter of Kasyapa and wife of Viprachitti. a modern work. That Bhava married her shows that Bhava is the name of Ali. i.e. .have shown above as the name of Mohammad and Khadija. See Dowson’s description: “Wife of the sun. Manu was the offspring of Savarna. represents that she entered the fire and became a Sati. wife of Prachinabarhis.

Again Sraddha too seems a name of Fatima. the god of love.” which are all true.” You have seen in the Vedas that Soma is not a person but is used for ‘martyrdom’. wife of the god Dharma. This word when used along with the name of devi was interpreted as a personality who carried off the wife of Brahaspati (Ali). are by-products of an ignorant mind that didn’t want to accept his ignorance. on the basis of RDS’s commentary. The word Soma has been used on countless occasions to describe the death of Ali and Husain. Soma has been wrongly used for Ali. but are not doing so as this would further elongate the subject. Tara or Taraka too is the name of devi above who is described as “Wife of Brihaspati. carried her of. and reputed mother of Kama-deva. she too is the name of . as we have said. a full-fledged character named Soma has come into being. These myths. Since Uma too is a consort of Siva. along with several myths around the name. and it was named Budha. We can give countless examples to show the link of various myths with the wrong understanding of Vedas. which led to a great war between the gods and the Asuras. This shows how gross errors have been committed in the study of the Vedas. Brahma put an end to the war and restored Tara. Therefore. It is similar to somebody saying that there were airplanes flying in the sky during the time of Rama. but she was delivered of a child which she declared to be the son of Soma. Ali incidentally is also referred to as Yagyapati (the Lord of the sacrificers). there is no truth in the devi being carried off by Soma and Buddha (used of Husain) being the son of Soma. She is described as “Daughter of the sage Daksha. and is also identified with Vach or speech. Unable to understand this. Soma. According to the Puranas. One thing that is clear is that Buddha is another name for Husain. the moon.

Usha too is Fatima as she is not only a devi but also a daughter of sky. she brings wealth. “All this. “may be simply allegorical language. ‘the illumer. Ushas is the friend of men. she thinks of the dwellings of men. This is one of the most beautiful myths of the Vedas. she goes to every house. Dyaus. she smiles like a young wife. the daughter of the sky assumes so readily the same personality which is given to the sky.] Shows that Dyaus is Mohammad. age cannot touch her. who “appears as a mediatrix between Brahma and the other gods.” adds Max Muller. According to the Bhagavata Purana she was the wife of Tarkshya or Garuda. immortal. ‘the bright’ to Devi. We have shown how the devi. and is enveloped in poetry. Dyaus. in every passage. she is the young goddess. of a natural vision or a visible deity.” ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Now we come to another observation.” Likewise. and mother of Garuda. and seems to be identified with Vach. divine. that we can only guess whether. she is always the same. she does not despise the small or the great. in the first of the five creations. the goddess. as she is again the daughter of Daksha and wife of Kasyapa. the poet is speaking of bright apparition or of a bright goddess. who was created along with 13 . Dowson describes her as: “She is the daughter of heaven and sister of the Adityas.” She is called Ahana and Dyotana. and he is also the Sky. But the transition from Devi.’ [Noor talked about by Mohammad too has similar meaning.Fatima. The dictionary by Dowson describes Vinata as follows: “A daughter of Daksha. she is the daughter of the sky. seen as five elements by scholars. one of the wives of Kasyapa. her father. Another name of the Devi is Vinata. That she is mother of Garuda shows that Garuda is either Hasan or Husain or both. is so easy. but she makes men grow old.

till eternity. where . There are several reasons why we came to this conclusion. One after another the prophets of Allah came with divine guidance at every stage of development in the human society. Budha is a Prophet and Buddha is also a name of Husain. Moreover. was not born as Fatima alone. more conclusive evidence is Mohammad’s own who says that it was his noor that was in Adam. Then said Vishnu to her: “Kansa shall take you and hold you up to dash you against a stone. Quran talks of a spirit that entered Isa at the time of his birth. Krishna is referred to as Vasu and Hasan too is referred to as Vasu. Not only he takes the name of various Prophets but also of some people in the progeny of Ishmael. by whom. gave them His wisdom. in every age and every clime. they tried their best to do so. and in the end the last messenger of Allah.” was ordered by Vishnu to incarnate her in the eighth conception of Devaki. even if they had to appear on earth in the form of normal human being or a Messenger of God. A passage in Vishnu Purana further substantiates this view: Goddess Yoganidra. the Holy Prophet. However. and then commissioned them to guide mankind. “the great illusory energy of Vishnu. Since devas had taken the task of leading the world towards God. but you shall escape from his grasp into the sky. Ibrahim. as utter ignorance. came with the final message. the whole world is beguilded. Ishmael and others and then came back to him. thoroughly purified them. after which the office of prophethood was terminated.devas at the beginning of the creation. verse 33 of al Ahzab when read with verses 77 to 79 of al Waqi-ah reveal that the creator Lord created a group of His chosen representatives.

This means that the same devi continued to take avatars in the shape of several illustrious women at various times and finally took birth as Fatima. through reverence forms. there would be no reason for sustenance of the world.the hundred eyed Indra shall meet you and do homage to you. their spirit survives. Vedagarbha. dawn. fortitude. and every other female (form or property). They who address you morning and afternoon with reverence and praise. and acknowledge you as his sister. no being would continue to live. and we know Indra is Muhammad from Rig Veda. once they are no more. Ambika. fame. And the sustenance of this .” Some of these names are the same as those described in the names of Sati. patience. and numerous other demons. modesty. The fact that her relationship to Indra is described even here. it shows that since they are those for whom this world was created. We argue that even when their bodies are being killed. but other devas too were working ceaselessly to lead the world towards One God. What does this suggest? Clearly. shows that not only her. And Indra or Muhammad was surely their leader – the King of the Devas. Durga. From Upanishads we have seen that they form an inherent part of our body. Bhadrakali. heaven and earth. and shall bow before you. Having slain Sumbha. and when the last of this spirit is departed. Nisumbha. Another argument that can be given is this: Shias believe that the world will be destroyed when the last remnant of the spirit of Allah or the last Imam is no more. Thou art wealth. and all they Arya. Hindus believe the same as regard to Kalki avatar. Kshemi or Kshemankari. Bhadra. progeny. nutrition. shall receive from bounty whatever they desire. you shall sanctify the earth in many places.

. Himavat. how did the world survive without the presence of this noor? Taking cue from Prophet’s Mohammad’s view that his noor was kept in Adam and it kept moving till it reached back to him. Dyaus and Daksha and is the Sky or Akash of the five elements. which surely is eternal. they kept moving in different people till it came back to unite with the bodies of Masooms in exactly the same procedure in which they were created. Khyati. Marut. Indra. Likewise. Likewise. The most interesting conclusion that we have derived from this study is that scholars had understood the same person for several persons. it is evident that there are so many names by which the devi Fatima is known that it is impossible to narrate all of them together. before accepting it as true. Prajapati. some of the names by which Vayu deva or Ali is known are Siva. Dharma. We are sure that the Muslims cannot easily digest this.D. Prachinabarhis. He is the Vayu of the five elements. Bhava. Bhrigu. Rudra. where was this noor when Mohammad had not taken birth on earth in 570 A.. we come to conclusion that all the noors were in Adam at that point and from there. Moreover. Vrihaspati. Atri. Brhaspati. We have shown to you how nearly 150 names exist for Fatima. who is the earth of the five elements. is related to their spirit or noor and not their bodies. Aditya. when they were unable to find any common link between two of the names present in the scriptures or didn’t care to find them. Mohammad is referred by the names Indra. Manu Swayambhuva. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ The Devas From this study. This is just a hypothesis that needs to be verified through various scriptures. Marut and perhaps Vivaswat. Kuvera. Kasyapa.

Sitansu. competent and intelligent and “this name generally carries with it the idea of a creative power. Ali and Husain. And Hasan is Ananda-Dundhubi. Mangala. He is water of the five elements. Maha-sena. Kumuda-pati. Sara-bhu. Navarchi. he is one of the Prajapatis and is sometimes regarded as their chiefs. Subrahmanya. Sasi. Ali. Aswins together are also called Abdhijau. Husain is also the Kamadeva. Pushkarasrajau and Badaveyau. Vasudeva. Sena-pati. In the Satapatha Brahmana. He is described by Dowson as “able. Skanda. or one was Dasra and the other Nasatya. Mriganka. Mars. Gangaputra. Siva-sekhara. Dwadasa-kara. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ As this description has already gone into several pages. Sakti-dhara. He is the Agni or Fire of the five elements. Siva-gharmaja. Bhauma. Agastya. Daksha is identified . Dwadasaksha. Bhumi-putra. Indu. Guha. Rinantaka. Agni-bhu. we give only a few examples to show how the description of various names matches with Mohammad. Nisakara. Nakshatranatha. Dasras and Nasatyas. So much so that mythologies narrate marriage of several daughters of Daksha to Kasyapa. Husain One of the names of Mohammad is Daksha. Yudha-ranga. Chara. Chandra. Sweta-vaji. Gaganolmuka. He is one of the two Aswins along with Agni. Siddha-sena. Rijukaya and Soma. Ganga-ja. Mahisuta. when in truth the same daughter was being referred to by various names. This has confused the scholars so much so that till now they attribute these names to different individuals.In the same manner. Vaiswanara. Gadagadau and Swar-vaidyau too are their names. Kumara. Karttikeya. and perhaps Varuna. Mohammad. Lohita. Taraka-jit. Sitamarichi. Hasan. Angaraka. Vibhandaka. Daksha is a son of Brahma.

and Ali is attributed with the creation of the world.with Prajapati. and being therefore appropriately wedded to the probable authors of the Hindu code of religion and morals. the creator. Kasyapa and Dharma are both names of Ali. fifty.” Dowson quotes from Wilson in describing Dharma as “an ancient sage. or the equally allegorical representation of that code.” He had. sometimes classed among the Prajapatis. who became the mother of gods (devas) and demons. He married thirteen (or ten) of the daughters of Daksha (Mohammad). men. [She actually died as a consequence of the burning door falling on abdomen and killing her child in the womb. being personifications of intelligences and virtues and religious rites. birds. the moon. They are . One of the daughters. and killed herself in consequence of a quarrel between her husband and father. [See how various names of one devi are seen as different daughters]. He is also reckoned among the Viswadevas. Not knowing this truly. named Sati. Dharma.” [The children of Daksha or the 11 Imams are described as wedded to the probable authors of the Hindu code of religion and morals. twenty-four. moral and religious duty. and had a numerous progeny.] Twenty-seven were given in marriage to Soma. [If you have noted. The Kasi Khanda represents that she became a sati and burnt herself. The Ramayana and Mahabharata agree in the large number. and according to Manu and the Mahabharata he gave ten of his daughters to Dharma and thirteen to Kasyapa. Dharma. married Siva [also used for Ali]. according to various statements. and all living things. moral and religious duty. serpents. and these became the twenty-seven Nakshatras or lunar mansions [We have shown earlier that Soma too has been wrongly understood as Ali]. or sixty daughters. or the equally allegorical representation of that code. but all his children “are manifestly allegorical. the story of devi burning herself up in fire emanated.

daughter of Daksha. And since the devas born out of their progeny too had various names like Budha. Vasu. But if we look in the list of various names of Parvati in The Matsya Purana. Agni. thirteen daughters of Daksha were given in marriage to Kasyapa. that was not because of any direct relationship to the Dharma mentioned above. which goes on to show that Himavat is another of the appellations of Daksha. twentyseven to Soma and ten to Dharma were given in marriage because of twenty-seven and ten names respectively that were seen mentioned. We have described the reason for this elsewhere in this book. and even Daksha. To give an example. virtues and religious rites.. Uma – the mountain-goddess – is described as the wife of Siva. there is a large account of their children.described as personifications of intelligences. which has been missed in the earlier account. etc. and since Daksha is . It is said that Uma was a second birth of Sati. It so happened that since there were so many names of the Devi and even much more appellations of Ali. it is said that this devi was the daughter of Himavat. Also.] The above description also lead us conclude that Soma too must be the appellation to Ali as he is called the chief of the sacrificers by a section of Muslims. all being created from the one Self or noor created by God. since they were all equal in virtues. This proves our point further. because of thirteen different names mentioned at various places. Therefore. Is there any dissimilarity from truth? Why won’t they be. Likewise. the writers of later age confused. If Yudhishthira is called Dharma-putra. Legends also tell Siva as the son-in-law of Daksha. They counted each name as a distinct individual. Parvati is definitely Fatima in the Rig-veda. Umadevi is one of the names of Sati or Parvati. just as there are several names of Mohammad.

by virtue of yoga. Not only this. there is an ancient Egyptian picture of a female deity. the first of males. in other words. According to his authority. Daksha or Mohammad is the first of males. Daksha is said to have formed numerous creatures. and formed numerous creatures. Vishnu himself became Daksha. by whom he had many fair daughters. How people’s imagination leads to creation of myths and legends can be understood from the stories associated with Siva’s association with phallus. or. in other words. he became the creator. Writing further. We have said earlier that these devas were not only introduced among the Vedic-Aryans but all over the world. Dowson says: “In the Hari-vansa Daksha appears in another variety of his character. Siva is one of the appellations of Ali.] Daksha.Mohammad. While Mohammad said that the entire creation was made because of him. with few children in her arms and the rest peeping from inside the womb. by the aforementioned accounts. whom he disposed of in marriage in the manner related by Manu and above stated. [We have already described the process of creation in our study of the Upanishads. he became the creator. or. Another ground for confusion is that since the 14 had seven names and each one of them .” God creating the noor of Mohammad is described as Vishnu becoming Daksha. and we have already said how the one daughter (having more than a hundred appellations) given in marriage to Siva or Kasyapa or Dharma or Soma or Ali led to several legends. himself took the form of a beautiful woman. That people the world over were unable to recognize their true worth can be understood from a myth prevalent in ancient Egypt that described a deity with a large-sized phallus in hand. Another proof of this is Siva’s association with phallus and Ali being the father of all the rest of Adityas or Imams and also been responsible for the entire creation.

with the exception of Mohammad. and very frequently referred to. somebody asked Ali the reason for his violent fighting. where it is related that the gods. Mahabharata and Puranas – all have merely mentioned the myths in circulation without attempting to into the real story. broke his teeth. Mahabharata and Puranas. the scholars are unable to come to conclusion. the broken teeth and Siva violently interrupting the sacrifice). Somebody announced that Mohammad has been killed (see Daksha’s sacrifice in the aforementioned description. This story is found with variations in Ramayana. and he said ‘I thought with Mohammad dead. Ali. It is likely that just as all the incidents of the Mohammad’s life. From there on. and that Pushan. when he took birth on earth. the bravest of the warriors in the battle. It so happened that the Muslims had won the battle but due to the mistake of some overzealous Muslims.” which was violently interrupted and broken up by Siva.had innumerable appellations. Mohammad was hit on the face as a consequence of which some of his front teeth were broken. having excluded Rudra from a sacrifice. We quote further from Dowson. we will have to look at the original source from where this myth evolved. “An important event in the life of Daksha. Since Ramayana. Ali and few others. The germ of this story is found in the Taittiriya Sanhita. there was no reason for me to live. the enemies attacked from behind and there was a point when nearly all the Muslims. the tide of the battle reversed and the Muslims emerged victorious. an account of the battle of Ohud too is given somewhere. attempting to eat a portion of the oblation. started fighting with a rage and killed or dispersed all those who had surrounded Mohammad. he pierced the sacrifice with an arrow. are described in the Vedas. is “Daksha’s sacrifice. At a later stage. which has been wrongly interpreted. had fled.’ .

he sends forth his lightnings and thunder. and to perform his other duties. he is described as the god of the firmament. and. Imam Mohammad Taqi. the demon of drought and inclement weather.We have seen in our study of Vedas that the sacrifice of life has been interpreted as ritual sacrifices. he takes enormous draughts of it. As deity of the atmosphere. and of the Dasyus or aborigines of India. In the Vedas he stands in the first rank among the gods. and he has also been compared to Jupiter Tonans.] Dowson writes: “The soma juice [used for sacrifice] is his especial delight. he governs the weather and dispenses the rain. and is represented as having a father and mother. he goes forth to war against his foes. which can be the name of the 9th Imam. stimulated by its exhilarating qualities. Strabo describes the Indians as worshipping Jupiter Pluvius. no doubt meaning Indra. We have already shown how the name of Mohammad was repeated four times among the fourteen. and is reckoned among the eighteen writers of Dharmashastras. This apart. and attended by his comrade Vishnu [God]. He is frequently represented as destroying the “stone-built cities” of the Asuras or atmospheric demons. More hymns are addressed to Indra than to any other deity in the Vedas. whom he overcomes with his thunderbolts. with the exception of Agni . Dowson writes. The name of the ninth Manu is given as Daksha Savaran. the personified atmosphere. and compels to pour down the rain. As regards to the name Indra. and he is continually at war with Vritra or Ahi. In his warfare he is sometimes represented as escorted by troops of Maruts [Marut is Ali]. Daksha is described as a lawgiver. Also. [This is so because Indra is the name given by the Vedas to the life of Mohammad when he would be living on earth. “the name of Daksha was borne by several other persons”. but he is not uncreated.

It is this will to die that he carries to war against his foes. and . he enjoys the first rank among gods (devas) in the Vedas.” It is universally acknowledged by Hindus that Indra is the ‘god of the firmament’. though nothing debasing is perceived in his sensuality. who escorts the troops. The stone-idols that Mohammad destroyed from Kaaba upon the conquest of Makkah have been called as destroying the stone built cities of the Asuras. Indra is not the object of direct worship. It is unfortunate that the believers of the Vedas knew nothing about Agni or Vayu and only a bit about Indra. ‘the raising of the standard of Indra. More than half of the hymns of the Vedas are dedicated to Agni. For he was reverenced in his beneficent character as the bestower of rain and the cause of fertility. that is the most sacred of Hindu scriptures. and to perform his other duties. who is none but the God. prior to this book. and there is a festival kept in his honour called Sakra-dhwajotthana. but he receives incidental adoration.[Husain]. Dowson has written that ‘his devotion to soma juice is dilated upon. when the person remembers God at all times and is willing to die for Him. In many places of the Rig-veda the highest divine functions and attributes are ascribed to him.’ Fact is that there could be nothing debasing. in which his name abounds. and cites Vishnu on his side. and he was feared as the awful ruler of the storm and director of the lightning and thunder. Also. Vayu and Indra. It is sad that the soma juice that was the drink of martyrdom or the will to die fighting for the right cause has been misinterpreted as an intoxicating drink. It is beyond comprehension why Indra is largely forgotten by those very people who regard Vedas as auspicious. Even these descriptions relate Indra with Maruts (Imams).

who gave a sanctified status to any scripture that talked of the past.yet they regarded Vedas as the most sacred of their scriptures. they being the highest manifested forms of God. And the rest too talks about the rest of the devas. yet removed them from the position of god. of late. All this while the statement of the Vishnu Purana keeps coming to our mind that says that Vyasa sat down to write Mahabharata. after he had completed the Puranas. though we will show in our commentary of Gita how Krishna has only elevated the position of Indra and others. Mahabharata and Purana have recorded all those myths where he is shown as obsessed with soma-juice. It was presumed that Krishna was against Indra. That means that more than 50% of the Vedas that talk about them were never understood. the greatest fault is that there was no serious attempt. This is proof of the fact that all the stories that seem to degrade Indra’s character are baseless and have been added either willfully or erroneously into the larger content of the so-called Hindu scriptures. which we have proved was between Krishna talking of worship of One God. many stories are told of Indra. than what it was previously believed to be. That they didn’t understand is not their fault. . including the Mahabharata written as a poem. in order to increase their bulk. and he appears especially in rivalry with Krishna. taken to mean an intoxicating drink. This notion must have developed among few because of the war of Mahabharata. and yet keeping intact the high position of Indra and other deities versus those who had wrongly begun to worship Indra and other devas as gods. when soma does not mean intoxicating drink at all. In Puranas in particular. as if the people had given up on it. regarded them as true. Stories that built around this have been recorded and the later period Hindus.

” However. “the grove of Indra. Puloman. and the king as well as the rest believed it. When such an army got defeated. in this modern age. the grazing ground belonging to Mohammad. another description by Dowson names Vaibhraja as “the celestial grove.” If you remember. finds mention. . divine intervention and help in order to terrorize the opposing armies. There is also a story of Draupadi saying that she was being protected by certain superhuman powers. We have shown how a time had come when people had started conning stories about divine arms. they were accepted as true and no doubt ever came to their minds that they could be a product of imagination. fail to exercise in religious matters. if only for their evil deeds.who came to earth as Divine Proofs of His teachings and commands. Krishna never removed the status of Indra and others but only asked these people to apply their reason. how stories about Pandavas or Kauravas going to Indra’s city or receiving armament from them were circulated. Coming back to the subject. that was confiscated by the first Caliph. Perhaps the first two Caliphs too have found a place in the scriptures. the grove of the gods [devas] on Mount Suparswa. west of Meru. it was taken as Indra’s forces being defeated at the hands of the asuras. We have also shown from Mahabharata. we find that Mahendra and Makhavat too are the names by which Indra (Mohammad) has been addressed. It is referred to as Nandana. With approval from the high priests. something that even we. the mountain situated at Makkah. Even Fadak. we have already expressed a view that Meru seems to be the name of Merwah. other kings too were using this ploy in their fights. lying to the north of Meru. upon the death of Mohammad. No doubt.

Dowson describes Pushan as follows: “A deity frequently mentioned in the Vedas. The word comes form the root push .is described as “a danava and father of Sachi. As a cowherd he carries an ox-goad. the danava Puloman is Umar. Prasuti is a daughter of Manu and wife of Daksha. he beholds the entire universe. Likewise. “When Prajapati formed living creatures Pushan nourished them. From this it seems that it is the name of Aamina.” The account given in Bohthink and Roth’s Dictionary. is as follows: . wife of Indra. married to Mohammad. This is unclear as no wife of Mohammad was daughter of Manu.” For those who are unaware. and he is drawn by goats. if that was because of the curse of Indra’s daughter (Fatima). Muir. He was killed by Indra when he wished to curse that deity for having ravished his daughter. Mohammad’s mother. had given their daughters in marriage to Mohammad. both Abu Bakr and Umar. Nishtigri has been used in the Rig-veda for the mother of Indra. who later became the first and second caliph respectively. What we know for sure is that he was actually killed. In the character of a solar deity. Sachi therefore seems to have been used Umar’s daughter. Umar was not killed in Mohammad’s lifetime and went on to become the Caliph. Therefore. Many hymns are addressed to him. . So the Taittiriya Brahmana says. and the primary idea is that of “nourisher” or Providence.“Pushan is a protector and multiplier of cattle and of human possessions in general. and adopted by Dr. and is a guide on roads and journeys and to the other world. Pushan too seems to be a name of either Mohammad or Ali. He is called the lover of his sister Surya. That they both were responsible for killing of Fatima too can be known from our account of her in Book-II. we do not know. He aids in the revolution of day and night. but he is not of a distinctly defined character. However.

and he is connected with the marriage ceremonial. and when she had done so.” Manu Swayambhu has been used for Brahma the creator . Fact is that after giving birth to the two Aswins. but most frequently with Indra and Bhaga. V. and Dasma-varchas.] Yama and Yami are said to be the sons of Saranyu viz. described in dictionary as ‘the necklace of Vishnu. Who else but Husain should be called the Lord of Death. He is also called the brother of Indra. Saranyu [Fatima] bore the two Aswins [used for Hasan and Husain in the Rig Veda].” He is a patron of conjurors.’ and Kapardin (q. ‘splendid.] He is invoked along with the most various deities. (See Muri’s Texts.or Mohammad prior to his birth as Indra. Twashtri too is another name of Indra (Mohammad) “whose daughter Saranyu [who has been identified with the Greek Erinnys] was married to Vivaswat [Ali]. and is enumerated among the twelve Adityas. [That is why the revolution was altered twice to make the sun come back to shine.171) In the Nirukta. composed of five precious gems. Pushan is called Aghrini.and shares with Soma the guardianship of living creatures. Panjetans or ‘the five bodies’ seem to have been referred to as Vaikayanti. . Two other names by which Indra is referred to are Sakra and Sahasraksha meaning the ‘thousand-eyed’. ‘of wonderful appearance or power.v. Sata-Kratu meaning the ‘deva of a hundred rites’ too is an epithet of Mohammad. she deserted the two twins.).” [Deserted has been taken as running off and an entire myth as been built around that.’ Sasra. she deserted them because of her untimely death. especially of those who discover stolen goods. Hasan and Husain. Pushan is identified with the sun. being besought to take the bride’s hand and bless her. Dasma. when it was already close to sunset. This reveals that Yama too is the name of Husain. and in works of later date.

] Even Siva. they who know that become immortal. as we know that Rudra has been used for Ali.1. No doubt remains that Rudra is not used for god but for a great seer. who rules with his ruling powers.2. who rules all these worlds with his ruling powers. who of old gave birth to the golden germ. sapphire and diamond.4. as “a name of Rudra or of one of his manifestations” seems to have been used for Ali. Rudra. Truly Rudra is one. who rules all the worlds with his ruling powers. Pasupati or ‘Lord of creatures’ defined by Dowson. Pavana meaning ‘wind’ or Vayu are also his epithets. He stands opposite creatures.pearls. who later came to be equated as Rudra or Ali. Since creation and sustenance of the world too was attributed to Rudra. Hasan and Husain has already been proved. See this description from Svetasvatara Upanishad: III. seems to be the name of five together. the great seer. Ali is also referred to as Vrihaspati and Brihaspati in the scriptures. meaning my devas). III. while arise and continue to exist. withdraws them at the end of time. Fatima. the ruler of all. Ali. he was regarded . He. emerald. the protector after creating all worlds. He who is the source and origin of the gods (word used is devanam. may He endow us with clear understanding. who remains one. there is no place for a second. it “is the aggregate of the five elemental rudiments. ruby.” [That the five elements are none but Mohammad. The one who spreads the net. Only our viewpoint gives a logical explanation to the name ‘five-faced’. III. This is due to his epithet Panchanana meaning ‘five-faced’.

9 devas were born successively from Husain. look upon us. this Rudra is further described in detail. make auspicious the arrow which thou holdest in thy hand to throw. Rudra. and is called occasionally Dyauspitri. It is even stated that he is standing in the battlefield and the writer of the Upanishad is invoking God to help. In one hymn it is asked. saying. not only of men but of gods (devas). Cf. It is he who rules all these worlds with his ruling powers. unterrifying. the heavenly father of Hasan and Husain . again. O Protector of the Highest.6. Dyaus too is perhaps the name of Mohammad. Consequently. Dyava-prithivi. but in other places they are spoken of as having been themselves created. III. Zeus.’ are represented as the universal parents. It was Rudra or Ali. and will withdraw them at the end of time. Dowson writes: “(It means) the sky. Jovis. the dawn [also used for Fatima]. He is the protector after creating all worlds. showing no evil – with that most benign body. there are speculations to their origin and priority. III. who married Fatima. and then.”” It is clear from this account that it is talking about Mohammad.5. In the Vedas he is a masculine deity. injure not man or beast. your body which is auspicious. “Which of these two was the first and which the last? How have they been produced? Who knows?” The Satapatha Brahmana declares in favour of the God. What we didn’t know was that God could bestow even the powers of creation and sustenance on some of his creations. to give birth to Hasan and Husain. He is father of Ushas. O dweller in the high places. ‘heaven and earth. ‘heavenly father. “This earth is the first of created beings. In the succeeding verses. heaven. Ju-piter.’ The earth [Fatima] being regarded as mother. O Dweller among the highest.

who intercedes with gods (devas) on behalf of men and protects mankind against the wicked. If you recall. the priest.’ and as ‘having the thunder for his voice. He is called in one place ‘the father of the gods. Hence he appears as the prototype of the priests and priestly order. established as Fatima in our previous account. Rishi Vasishtha has been used for Ali. He is also designated as ‘the shining’ and ‘the gold-coloured. which can only be understood through our explanation. we concluded that Brhaspati and Rishi Vasishtha are the same. as there was no creation before him yet speculations to his origin and priority are there on two accounts: 1. Nobody knew the details about their creation. He is the suppliant. the sacrificer. Brhaspati is described at a place as ‘father of the devas’. They are names “of a deity in whom the action of the worshipper upon the gods (devas) is personified.’ and a widely extended creative power is ascribed to him. as it was prior to all creation. .” The entire description. matches with that of Ali. and secondly. not only of men but of devas. Likewise.through his daughter Fatima and consequently the father of 11 Imams. Further. That is why he is described as the father. including that of having the thunder for his voice. he can be called to have been himself created. We concluded on this because Arundhati. John Dowson has this to say about Brihaspati: In the Rig-veda the names Brhaspati and Brahmanaspati alternate. Gita too has talked of the seven rishis (sages). and is also designated as the Purohita (family priest) of the divine community. it was a matter of speculation when and where would he take birth on the earth. Brhaspati and Brahmanaspait are one and the same. and are equivalent to each other. is said to be his wife. Tara is the wife of Brhaspati and since Tara is also the name of the same devi.

He was son of the Rishi Angiras. That people accepted these stories blindly can be seen from the Mahabharata’s account of Draupadi mentioning to the queen . and this gave rise to war called the Taraka-maya.” Why won’t they be. What is most amazing is that the queen as well as all the rest believed it to be true.that she was being guarded by certain celestial beings. Hara is another of his names. when Arjuna was still in their good books. It is possible to derive at the fictitious nature of several accounts in Mahabharata. and he bears the patronymic Angirasa. Ijya. Such was the blind faith. In all likelihood. is said to have been given by Soma to Varuna. sometimes classed among the Prajapatis. and being therefore appropriately wedded to the probable authors of the Hindu code of religion and morals. As preceptor of gods (devas) he is called Animishacharya. Chakshas. He married thirteen (or ten) of the daughters of Daksha. was carried off by the moon (soma). moral and religious duty. which was used to best advantage by the priests and kings. His wife. Dharma. We have already seen that Kasyapa and Dharma as well as Siva are all names of Ali. but all his children “are manifestly allegorical. For instance. . Dowson quotes from Wilson in describing Dharma as “an ancient sage. or the equally allegorical representation of that code. In this character his car is called Niti-ghosha and is drawn by eight pale horses. being personifications of intelligences and virtues and religious rites. He is also regent of the planet Jupiter. Tara. and by Agni to Arjuna. priests like Drona and Bhishma created these legends. by Varuna to Agni. and Indrejya.Dowson writes further: “In later times he is a Rishi. and the name is commonly used for the planet itself. We have shown in our accounts how there is no Soma.her employer . and had a numerous progeny. the bow of Arjuna.” We have already explained why this myth arose. Gandiva.

He married Anasuya. It is a shapeless mass of stone at Kadara-natha in the Himalayas. In the epic period he is considered as one of the ten Prajapatis or lords of creation engendered by Manu for the purpose of creating the universe. As a Rishi he is one of the stars of the Great Bear. Name of one of the twelve great lingas [12 great lingas. who in the Vedas occurs especially in the hymns composed for the praise of Agni. -Goldstucker. or of Vaivaswata. all being created from the one Self or noor of God? If Yudhishthira is called Dharma-putra. the first Manu. and Indra. Kedaresa or Kedara-natha is also a name of Siva and is the name of one of the twelve great Lingas. daughter of Daksha. or. and the ascetic Dattatreya by his wife Anasuya. Indra. represent the 12 Adityas]. no doubt Ali. that was not because of any direct relationship to the Dharma mentioned above. Meaning ‘Lord of the immortals’. it is described by Dowson as. He is sometimes . of Swarochisha. In the Ramayana an account is given of the visit paid by Rama and Sita to Atri and Anasuya in their hermitage south of Chitrakuta. Name of one of the Prajapatis. the seventh. Another oft-used name for Ali is Atri. the second. according to others. Dowson describes it as follows: “Chief of the Maruts. we are ashamed to say.’ A Rishi.since they were all equal in virtues. at a later period he appears as a mind-born son of Brahma. and their son was Durvasas. and as one of the seven Rishis who preside over the reign of Swayambhuva. Amareshwara too seems to be another epithet for Ali. Siva. “A Maharishi or great saint. In the Puranas he was also father of Soma. the moon. the Aswins.” Marichi is the chief of the Maruts. We have described the reason for this elsewhere in this book. and author of many Vedic hymns. See how Dowson describes this term: “‘An eater. ‘a title of Vishnu. and the Viswa-devas.

. Various origins are assigned to them. Rudra is also Siva and he is Ali of the Vedas while Parvati. who was a brother of Mohammad (Indra). It so happened that when Hasan and Husain were born. we have shown is none but the name of Fatima. sons and brothers of Indra. and we have also seen that Rudra too is the name of Ali. sons and brothers of Indra’ is correct. and one of the seven great Rishis. who is said to be reclining on water. they are called ‘sons of the ocean’. They are sons of Rudra. Marut are “sons of Rudra. etc. The second meaning of the term Marut ‘god of the wind. are not elements? It is said that they are said to have obtained their name from the words ma rodih.represented as springing direct from Brahma. ‘weep not.” Isn’t it another proof that earth. Due to wrong translation. We have seen how the devas were described as seven and seven in the Upanishads. vayu. He was father of Kashyapa. and also born at a time when there was nothing but water. they are the sons of earth as well. sons and brothers of Indra. sons of earth. Being born from the Vishnu.” Since Ali and the rest of the Imams are Maruts.’ which Indra addressed to them. and the regent of the north-west quarter’ is attributed to Ali and we have seen in the Vedas that through this Ali is meant. sons of the heaven. Dowson’s comment that ‘they are sons of Rudra. The term Marut too has been used for the 12 Imams. The fact that Rudra and Indra too are mentioned in the above description shows their relationship. Dowson says that Maruts “hold a very prominent place in the Vedas. and are represented as friends and allies of Indra. commentators have multiplied seven with seven instead of adding the two numbers and concluded that there are 49 Maruts. Since we have also proved that Fatima is also called earth.

he told that these sons of Ali (Rudra. and similarly accoutered’. Vayu) and Fatima (Parvati. which too matches with our description of Husain’s noor as one of the fourteen. one through poison and the other through swords. This is another perfect example how Vedic scholars have committed gross errors. ‘the water-born’.who is shown as reclining on the water.the god of justice with Sraddha . Kama-deva seems to have been used for Husain. Lakshmi and Sraddha. With little or nearly no information other than the content of the Vedas. A fourth view is that he was born from water. earth) would be killed. Mohammad (Indra) cried. Dowson and others have compared the account and description of this deva with Eros. or Ananyaja. Another account represents Kama-deva as springing from the heart of Brahma. is Fatima and Dharma is Ali. created from Vishnu .the goddess of faith being the mother. we have already shown.who in all accounts were of ‘like form. As Dowson says: “All these legends have manifestly been invented to explain those passages of the Vedas which make the Maruts the sons of Rudra. people created the legends to understand the meanings. Another account describes him as ‘self-existent’. This description is very much present in the Vedas and the people’s inability to understand it. meaning thirst. like age. Marut. Like other devas. When asked the reason. In the same manner. but according to Harivansa he is son of Lakshmi.” This also explains why so many legends came to be built around these personalities. Fact is that all the descriptions match that of Husain. Aja. He is described as the son of Dharma .’ He is said to have a daughter Trisha. who was one of the first five creations. wherefore he is called Ira-ja. This also shows why all these myths need to be discarded unless a proper study . has led to the growth of legends. he is called. ‘born of no other. ‘unborn’.

also Siva is Ali as per our view. We have already shown from Vedas that Parvati is Fatima. along with a narration about her. but its time to put an end to this description now. [All these will bear different meanings once fresh studies are undertaken]. [Fish on red ground symbolizes the condition of the fish that dies without water. the bowstring a line of bees. Don’t you agree that each and every scripture of ours need to be re-translated? He [Kama or Husain] is described as “lord of the Apsaras or heavenly nymphs. described as ‘god of love’ is Manmatha. already shown to be Ali. had to live without water. Likewise Riddhi meaning ‘prosperity ’ is the wife of Kuvera. For three consecutive days. red symbolizes the blood that was spilled. cries of ‘Thirst! Thirst!’ could be heard from children in Husain’s camp. or a fish on a red ground. and each arrow is tipped with a distinct flower. We can go on and on like this. Dowson says the name is also used for Parvati. including the young children. What is clear is that a fresh study of Vedas and Upanishads and a critical analysis of Puranas and poems like Ramayana and Mahabharata are sure to shed a great deal of light on the true relationship between these characters.]” Another name done in light of our discovery. one of whom bears his banner displaying the Makara. . the wife of Siva. everybody in Husain’s camp. ‘god of wealth’. He is usually represented as a handsome youth riding on a parrot and attended by nymphs. Husain was killed after water had been barred to reach his camp for several days. He is armed with a bow and arrows: the bow is of sugarcane. By the morning of 10th Muharram. That account of thirst or trishna too has been inferred wrongly and a daughter called Trishna is assigned to him.

all actions need to be . caste and creed. Unto him who has approached in due form.False Believes and Misunderstood Traditions We are sure it cannot be denied anymore that the devas are none but the Masooms.the Manus or the 14 devas. Unless and until we explore and inquire. from where we all have deviated irrespective of our beliefs. the true. Masooms may have lived and died during a particular period.2. Now is the time to return to the worship of One God alone. then it is courtesy the Masooms . if evil has not enveloped everything. All great religions of the world would not have come into existence without the Masooms. all rituals. All attempts to lead the mankind towards righteousness and worship could not have emanated without the consciousness generated through them. Now is the time to open our eyes. let the knowing teach in its very truth that knowledge about Brahman by which one knows the imperishable person. but their importance in the creation of this universe and their role in leading all beings towards the worship of One God has remained the same right from beginning of the creation. If we continue to have goodness around. we are not going to reach the truth. As Mundaka Upanishad says. Now is the time to shed our ignorance. all devas lead to the One God alone (I. All beliefs. It is a long time since we have blindly followed the religion. whose mind is tranquil and who has attained peace.13). Now is the time to give the devas their rightful place inside our souls.

more hardworking and more God-fearing than people of most other places However. But we will have to be on guard. Greece or the Indus Valley Civilization – all these major world . when devil and his henchmen have collectively befooled the humanity on the whole. Egypt. the best of the worshippers. Be it Mesopotamia. who even went on to gain victory in battle. All of them enumerated the importance of devas or Masooms. steadfastness and peace. when he would come. but let’s not allow reason to leave us. continue to remain more simple. For there is a chance that imposters would try to fit themselves in the shoes of Mahdi. but even now Indians. nothing should be accepted as truth and part of religion. India. Messengers of God kept coming with the teachings of One God in each and every civilization. and most righteous of men – something that devas always wanted from all of us. Let’s wait for him. This likelihood has already been foretold in various narrations. as there have been innumerable occasions already. This region has given the best of the thinkers. would bring along the Divine Signs. in each of the major communities. Even the Kalki avatar or Mahdi should not be accepted blindly. and regions populated by large masses of people. more truthful. Moreover. this does not mean that devas have not worked anywhere else. Mahdi.verified on the basis of reason and unless there is a specific injunction commending or negating an act. Some of the sheen may have got lost from these virtues lately. collectively. all these messengers kept verifying the teachings of previous messengers and kept identifying the messengers who would follow. we have seen. through which it won’t be difficult to recognize him. It is symbolic of truth. It is this region alone that saw huge armies stand up to fight on the side of Prophets of God. has always remained a favourite place of the devas.

And this is in spite of Divine Proofs among them. others have forsaken even the essential acts. it is evident that people digressed from his teachings as well. the most backward. Perhaps. but the Muslims are one of the most illiterate communities on earth. Prophet laid a great deal of stress on acquiring the form of Mohammad and rest of the Ahlebayts . Then came a time when there was no Messenger on earth for several hundred years.cultures were foretold the importance of the devas. Some have allowed rituals to envelope all their actions. The entire world went in darkness. Those who embraced his teachings with open hearts during that time are no longer sticking to his teachings. more messengers were sent to rectify the teachings. Then came the Spirit itself . Some. Today. All previous teachings got corrupted. considering them to be rectify the mistakes and bring the people back to the right path. We have already quoted from an Upanishad in Part-I that both the groups are ignorant. the most unreliable and so on. Even the Upanishads described the devas as Vidyadhars (the abode of knowledge). and in the dark. the most untruthful. but all of them deified them and started worshipping them. As digression grew. His teachings were for all. have forsaken God. Today. . the filthiest. Those who thought God and His book was sufficient have forsaken the Masooms. 1400 years have passed since Mohammad is no more on this earth. digressions and deviations have enveloped the Muslims as well. Muslims possess all the evils as the rest of the humanity. the most violent. However. As it has happened with all the previous messengers. also the most hated. This is in spite of contrary instructions in each of these areas. who held on to the 14 Masooms. if not more. which had not come in person to be saviours among any of the other communities. thereby getting digressed from their objective.

O Mahdi. Let us try to make this place fit for his arrival by turning our back to devil. we await you! . has continued to live behind a veil. Let him be on the run. Let no body give shelter to him. this does not mean that other communities are in a better position. During these 1400 years.However. They may be scientifically advanced. this is the time when his appearance is due. Imam Mohammad Mahdi. more knowledgeable and powerful. the last remnant of the Divine Spirit. Let One God be supplicated in the manner that He – the Master and Creator – deserves. invisible to our eye. Come. wealthier. However. but are more degraded in terms of spirituality and worship of God.

those who believed in the coming of Mahdi had to live with continuous assaults of criticism. they shy away from discussing the long life of Mahdi in front of others. They believe that as per the will of God. mostly due to fear of being mocked and criticized. the underprivileged and the downtrodden? Be it Judaism. So much so that while the subject is hotly discussed in their internal circles. Christianity. However. That this concept of final deliverance is universally acknowledged is itself a proof of its truthfulness as well as of the fact that all the Messengers who propagated it belonged to one common source. Not any more! Isn’t this enough of a proof that all major religions of the world. Hinduism and Islam – all believe that when the world would be full of vices and evil. carry this concept of final salvation. pertaining to their belief about his reappearance. there are several narrations pertaining to him in various scriptures. who would come towards the end as a messiah of the oppressed.Mahdi – The Final Coming The subject of Mahdi (the awaited) is such that it has since long perplexed the minds of even some of the most staunch believers of Ahlebayt. who came at different times and prospered in areas which were largely unconnected at that time. There is only one small group in the Muslims who claim to know his true identity and believe that the Mahdi has already taken birth about 1200 years ago. Mahdi disappeared . particularly due to the fact that it is on this belief that the foundations of their religion rest. Till now. Hindus call him the Kalki Avatar. who will make the world a better place to live. the weak. at a place called Samarrah in present Iraq. God will finally send a Divine Person. most of the accounts of his arrival are hazy and unclear.

For that reason. Moses. their beliefs and faith have common origin in that One Straight Path shown by God’s messengers. There is no reason for this small group. Jesus. This pattern is similar to that of Krishna. to lead the world towards God. majority of the believers . majority of these people have desisted from their teachings and might be disowned by the very Masooms. when the last proof of God on earth would arrive in person. Yet. when faced with relatively less hostile environment. Judaism or Islam. When God would will and when the time is appropriate. but the world deified them and elevated them higher or equal to God. and it is in this pursuit that they all were killed. he continues to live and work to guide all humanity towards the worship of One God. Mahdi is the last Divine Proof on earth. it is unfortunate that the same group. However. For this reason. Buddha and Moses – who all had strived to preach unity of God and righteousness. Christianity. is no longer the greatest worshipper of God. This alone had been the mission of all his 13 predecessors. who clung to the 14 names in the most adverse of circumstances. many in the aforementioned community of Muslims. regard him as Baqiatullah. Fact is that while the Masooms (devas) themselves continue to be revered at all their congregations. the remaining part of Allah. if not on paper. we strongly disagree with the view of those who claim that the Mahdi would convert all people to one religion. Yet. who claim to hold on to the Masooms. to feel proud because apart from keeping alive the traditions and incidents of some of the 14 Masooms. the lofty ideals that they lived and died for have been forgotten. whose very presence ensures that the world is surviving. in their hearts at least. Rama. All who claim to be following Hinduism. he would appear again.from public view when still a child. who collectively form the Divine Self.

But they have been confined to the sidelines in the face of dogmas and rituals. Rama or Krishna would disown the Hindus. So that none could ever say that he was not guided. Jesus would disown the Christians and Moses would disown the Jews. attributed to various religions. If they appear so different from each other. he would disown majority of the Muslims.the true representatives of all of these revered figures . . God wants to give one final opportunity to His subjects to choose their paths. Moses and Jesus. Mahdi’s appearance is not a distant reality anymore. if Mohammad were to come now. That is why. Considering the fact that all the Messengers and Masooms of God who lived as normal human beings died disillusioned when faced with tortures and hardships at the hands of man. Not that there are no more rightful believers of the God. and since matters of choosing between right and wrong has been left upon our consciousness. Likewise. This is why we claim that none of the revered figures. prior to coming of Mahdi. the coming of Mahdi would mean closing of the doors of acceptance of repentance. With deviations in all faiths. who are we to claim that Mahdi . Krishna.of these so-called different faiths have deviated from the straight-path. the blind adherents. we should not doubt the traditions that Mahdi would. In all likelihood. their officiating priests and most importantly.would convert people to our religion. that is our doing. Since God has never championed adherence to His path due to force or compulsion. would recognize the selfconfessed followers if they were to arrive in this age. There is no difference between the path shown by Mohammad. in each faith. use supernatural or Divine powers to assist him in his victories. Rama. Moral and spiritual degradation in society has reached the levels that the time of deliverance is not far. for the first time.

what have you to say about this blessed child?” He replied: “O aunt. Nargis. the year is 1425 A. Hakimah says: “Once again.H.’ Hakimah obeyed and took the child back to his mother.). ‘Fasl-ul-Khetab’ narrates: “When Hakimah’s looks fell on the child she took him in her arms and went towards Hazrat Hasan. Still another portion indicates that he is the twelfth Imam and leader and another indicates that he is the ninth from the progeny of Husain (the third Imam). take him to his mother. Imam Hasan Askari’s aged aunt. necessarily proves his birth because those tradition comprises several parts. 256 A. Thereafter he recited ‘Azan’ (call to prayer) in his right ear and ‘Eqamah’ (establishment of prayers) in his left ear and then said: ‘O aunt. One of the parts indicates that he is the twelfth successor while another shows that he is the twelfth legatee. (at present. I saw Hazrat carrying a child who was wearing a yellow dress and the baby’s face was beaming with light. Others . who had left the life of grandeur and opulence to live with the Imam Hasan Askari. his love superseded my heart and I said: “O my Master. All of a sudden. I threw myself on the ground and prostrated as an expression of thanksgiving.” Then. Hazrat embraced him and rubbed his blessed hands over his back and eyes and then placed his mouth over his mouth. amongst them being the learned and mystic traditionist Mohammad Khwaja Bukhari in his book ‘Fasl-ul-Khetab’ has narrated that Mahdi was born close to dawn of 15 th Shaban. was a Roman princess. Author says: “What we have narrated before and what we shall narrate later on. he is the same Expected one about whom we were given glad-tidings.H.” Then. I visited Hasan Askari’s house. Hakimah was alongside Nargis at the time of delivery. Her mother.Birth of Mahdi in the House of Hasan Askari – the Eleventh Imam A group of scholars.

Moreover this indication is so manifest and evident that no one has any doubt in it and none disputes. It is naught but revelation that is revealed. just as you were told before. we reject the afore-said traditions from the viewpoint of chain of transmission and weakness in indication and as a result deny the afore-mentioned claims. we are bound to accept one of the following: Firstly that. most of the scholars of Sunnis have clearly stipulated the successive transmission of these traditions and compendiously reckoned their issuance to be decisive. Thus. Thus man’s conscience itself bears testimony to this objection. Rather. has reckoned them to be correct. Another part indicates his occultation and the fact that he is concealed from the public-view and cannot be recognized. This obligation is an independent reasoning against the correct and explicit texts. Reply. Now we say: Based on this.reveal that he is the fourth from the offspring of Imam Raza (the eighth Imam) and yet others reveal that he is the son of Hazrat Hasan Askari. Secondly. Reply: Anyone who has reviewed the traditions and gone through the books of ‘Rijal’ (distinguished scholars) can never ever imagine such an affair because a number of partisans of traditions have confessed the authenticity of some of them and have given evidence of their credibility and acceptability. . Hakem who is the leader of this art has himself recorded some of them and as per the views of Bukhari and Muslim. These ‘Mustafiza’ and rather ‘Mustawatir’ traditions clearly stipulate and or necessarily indicate that Mahdi. renouncing and abandoning those traditions and not acting upon them. Rather. resorting to this obligation will amount to refutation of the Holy Prophet and rejection of what has come from him through successive transmission notwithstanding that which Allah says: Nor does he speak out of desire. the Expected one is the immediate son of Imam Hasan Askari.

Moreover. being bound over believing that Mohammad Mahdi has been born and is still living. Although Allah is having Power over all things and His Might cannot be denied yet. Reply: Here too. the same which we Shias believe. This is because if a decree on such a matter is permissible then there exists no difference between these two cases so that we may say that it is possible in the case of Imam Hasan Askari but not so for Mahdi. Reply: There is no proof which gives evidence to the truthfulness of this saying. as per the consensus of Shias and Sunnis. In addition. we cannot consider this saying to be correct because Shias and Sunnis are unanimous over this fact that Hasan Askari has already passed away in the year 260 A. Fifthly. he is being given sustenance and just like other people who seek means of livelihood he too seeks means of livelihood until the time when Allah wishes him to fill the earth with equity .H. why can’t we assume the same for Mahdi and compel ourselves in believing him to be still alive and living. However. the reason for the rejection of continuation of Mahdi’s life is because it is considered to be an improbable affair and contrary to the custom (as is in vogue amongst us) notwithstanding the fact that the chances of making someone alive after death and restoring him back to life after non-existence appears to be more remote and unusual than continuation of life. Taken for granted that Imam Hasan Askari has lived till now and is still alive. Fourthly. Imam Hasan Askari has passed away.Thirdly. being bound over the matter of nonexistence of Mahdi and the continuation of the life of Imam Hasan Askari until the end of time when Allah has foretold the birth of Mahdi. Allah (All Glory be to Him) with the Power that He possesses shall make him alive in the near future primarily for the birth of Mahdi. the restoration Hasan Askari’s life after his demise may be in reference to ‘Reja’t’ (return to life).

The author of ‘Nur-ul-Absar’. son of Musa. Thus.” This is exactly what Shias believe. The author of ‘Matalibus-Su’ool’. son of Husain. son of Ali. The most famous amongst them is Mahdi. son of Ali. son of Ali. whatever we have written about Mahdi and his characteristics. Abu Talib. his agnomen is Abul-Qasim and his titles are ‘Hujjat’ (Proof) and ‘Khalaf-Saleh’ (Virtuous successor). his name is Mohammad. after mentioning about Mahdi says: ‘His name is Mohammad and his agnomen Abul-Qasim. son of Jafar. The Shias have given him such titles as ‘Hujjat’. He shall be the last Imam. ‘Qaem’ and ‘Sahebuz-Zaman’. son of Ali b. . son of Mohammad. Ibn-Hajar in his book ‘Sawa’eq’. His agnomen is Abu-Abdullah and AbulQasim and he is the successor. However Allah granted him wisdom at that time and he has been called as ‘Qa’em’ and ‘Muntazar’. ‘Mahdi’. He shall command him to emerge and inspire him to bring about a complete reform. ‘Qa’em’ (Upholder) and ‘Muntazir’ (Awaited one). The proof of Mahdi being still alive would be given towards the end of this Chapter. after mentioning the place of birth of Hazrat Mahdi (may the blessing of Allah be upon him and his holy forefathers) says: ‘However. son of Mohammad.and Justice just as it had been filled with cruelty and oppression. The author of ‘Tazkerat-ul-Al while mentioning the children of Abu Mohammad Hasan Askari says: “Amongst them is Imam Mohammad son of Hasan. He has also been called as ‘Muntazar’ (Awaited one). after mentioning about Imam Hasan Askari writes: ‘He did not leave behind any successor but his son Abul-Qasim Mohammad Hujjat whose age at the time of his father’s demise was five years. ‘Hujjat’ (Proof) Master of the age. ‘Khalaf-Saleh’.” Messengership in Childhood and His Imamate We quote from a book on Mahdi: “So far.

we say: Research in this matter is related to theology and here it is out of place to discuss it in length. Messengers and their successors are bound to first reach adolescence and attain physical development or else! In this regard. However. reason accepts this that the Exalted Allah makes someone as His friend and then appoints him as His Prophet and Messenger or chooses him as a leader and Executor in his very childhood period. . Therefore. briefly we say: What has been verified is this that the matter of Messengership. This is because there exists no weakness in the Power of Allah and the story of Isa and Yahya’s Prophethood bear testimony in the truthfulness of what we say. this implication will be allowed for and with presence of proof. The author of Basa’erud-Darejat narrates from Ali-ibn-Esbaat as such: I saw Hazrat Abu Jafar (Imam Mohammad Baqar) approaching towards me.necessarily proves that he has been raised to the position of Imamate and he held this glorious position when he was only five and yet a Junior. Now we wish to see whether it is possible and permissible for one to hold the position of Imamate at the age of five or is it that the Prophets. Imamate and successorship lie in the Hands of the Exalted Allah and nobody else has any choice or authority in this regard. as per the intellect. there shall be no objection if an infant becomes a Prophet or a child becomes an Imam because the Glorious Allah can amass together all the qualifications of an Imam or a Prophet in the childhood period itself. Prophethood. Verily. Then he went into prostration and said: Verily Allah has set forth argumentation in the matter of Imamate just as He had done so in the case of Prophethood and has said: And We granted him wisdom while yet a child. When he came close to me I quickly cast my glance at him and looked at him from head to toe so that I could describe him to my friends in Egypt.

and We granted him wisdom while still a child. As. Also.‘He did not appoint anyone as his successor but Abul-Qasim Mohammad Hujjat whose age at the time of his father’s demise was five years.H.Also. Suyediin ‘Saba’ek-uz-Zahab’ (page 78) has mentioned his age . He has given me the Book and made me a Prophet. Also. (82) At the time of his father’s demise he was five years old and Allah granted him wisdom in his very childhood just as He made Prophet Yahya as an Imam in his infancy and appointed Isa as a Prophet in his childhood. Shabrawi in Al-Ettehaf (on page 179) mentions his successorship to have started at the age of five after his father’s demise and reckons his birth to have occurred in the night of 15th Shaban. The author of ‘ Yanabi-ul-Muwadda’ after mentioning the matter of Mahdi’s birth. However Allah granted him wisdom at that time. Ibn-Khallkan too (in Wafiyatul-A’ayan Vol. Ibn-Hajar in his ‘Sawa’eq’ (on page 114) after mentioning the incident of the demise of Imam Hasan Askari writes: . 451) has mentioned the birth of Hazrat to be on the 15th Shaban 255 A. 1 Pg. in his childhood and also made him a ‘Hujjat’ (Proof) for the people of the world. it has been said that the Exalted Allah granted him wisdom. narrates on page 452 from the book ‘Fasl-ul-Khetab’ as such: ‘About him. He says with regard to one of His Prophets: O Yahya! take hold of the Book with strength. He says: They said: How should we speak to one who was a child in the cradle? He said: Surely I am the servant of Allah. He has said: until when he attains his maturity and reaches the age of forty.

Caliph of the period naturally had reasons to be afraid. The story of the Virgin Mary proves that Jesus was born without father. as he knew in heart that he was usurper and unrighteous. the superior most creations of God on whom He has bestowed His own powers. Also Abul-Fidah Vol. Hindu traditions even narrate the young girl who replaced Krishna speaking to Kansa. This girl was surely not a Prophet. 45 mentions the birth of Hazrat to have occurred in the year 255. Moreover. the Imam himself was poisoned to death at the first opportunity. Jesus and Ali – all spoke at the time of birth. This was the abundance of traditions from the time of Prophet. After this.” Independent traditions reveal that Krishna. 2 Pg. why do we have to doubt that God could not bestow powers on a child who has already grown up to be five. there should be no doubt the time of his father’s demise to be five years. Simultaneously. and then spoke. As regard to Imam Hasan Askari – the eleventh Imam – there was yet another reason for spy’s hovering his house day and night. She is said to have flown in the sky. Such is the number of these traditions that they can only fit into an independent book. It is sorry that the same people who narrate the story of this girl flying in the sky need to invent airplanes for Hanuman to travel from Lanka to Himalayas and back. Ali and later Imams about Mahdi and the deliverance that he would bring about. Spies were appointed to keep a close watch if any child took birth in the house of the Imam. If all these are true events that actually happened. The Manner of His Occultation Conditions during the time of latter Imams were such that their lives were spent mostly in imprisonment or house arrest. . we have already narrated that the Masooms are the creators of the cosmos.

He called for several doctors and charged them with the responsibility of looking after Imam every morning and night. Two days later. whose father was the amir of Samarra and a close aid of the Caliph in keeping a watch on Imam’s house. They too remained at Imam’s service until he passed away. he called for the Chief Judge and ordered him to bring ten of his companions who were reliable from the viewpoint of faith. See: “When Imam Hasan Askari fell ill (due to the effect of poison given by the caliph’s men). Imam Mohammad Mahdi took birth in the wee hours of night without anybody coming to know. Afterwards.In spite of all these arrangements. so that they could keep watch on his activities and inform the king in case a child was due. He came back with five special and trusted men of Caliph who were all reliable to him and one of them was Nuhrair Khadem. My father rushed to visit him and commanded the doctors not to leave Imam alone. and a tumult took place in the . news came of Imam’s deteriorating condition. there was no stopping God’s will. The following narration from Ahmad ibn Obaidullah. The Chief Judge summoned those ten men to Imam’s house and ordered them to remain besides Imam day and night.H. Imam Hasan Askari passed away in the month of Rabi-ul-Awwal 260 A. tells how the state appointed doctors and guards had been forced upon the Eleventh Imam. He ordered these five men to protect Imam’s house and inquire of his health. the Caliph called for my father to inform him about Imam’s illness. My father immediately rushed for the Capital and soon returned back. The king got to know of the child’s birth when the latter had disappeared by the order of God. Imam Hasan Askari kept it such a well-guarded secret and only a few most trusted friends were allowed to meet the child. trustworthiness and piety.

After this. the commanders. he lifted the shroud and exposed his face to the Bani-Hashim. the Caliph sent forward Abu Isa Mutawakkil to recite prayers over Imam’s dead-body. Those people who were charged with the responsibility of keeping watch over the slave-girl . so and so trusted person and so and so just person had been present and they can all bear witness on this affair. By his commands. The Caliph charged Nurair Khadem. the Caliph and his companions engaged in seeking the whereabouts of his son (Imam of the Age). They also searched for Imam’s son (i. jurisprudents and the common people and then said: This man is Imam Hasan Askari who has died a natural death. writers and all the common people attended Hazrat’s funeral. they became busy in Imam’s funeral and the entire city came to a of Samarrah. Imam of the Age). The Bani-Hashim. When Abu Isa came close to Imam’s dead-body. (who were from the Alawites [descendents of Ali]) Abbassids. his companions and other women to keep watch over her. As soon as Imam’s body was given the ritual wash and was shrouded. he covered Imam’s face and recited prayers over his dead-body and in his prayers he recited five times ‘Takbeer’ (inaugural phrase). judges. commanders. The Caliph sent several of his men to Imam’s house and they in turn searched Imam’s rooms and sealed off everything they could find. so and so doctor. During the entire period of his illness. After Hazrat’s burial and the people’s dispersal. Thereafter. the city of Samarrah resembled the Day of Judgment. They desisted from distributing Hazrat’s inheritance.e. They brought midwives in order to examine the slave-girls (of Imam Hasan Askari). Imam’s dead-body was taken out from his house and was laid buried in his great grandfather’s house. On that day. writers. so and so judge. They properly searched various houses. One of the midwives said: ‘So and so slave-girl is pregnant’.

and passed away on the Friday the eighth of RabiulAwwal of the same year. Reason Behind Occultation We present here the views from a book on Imam Mahdi which says: “Discussion on Occultation is a vast topic and traditions in this regard are many. The Caliph of that time searched severely for Imam’s sons and strived to know about their affairs because belief on Mahdi had become widespread amongst the Shia Imamia and who were expecting him to come. the enemies never got the chance of recognizing his son.H. He was laid to rest in the same house. they distributed Hazrat’s inheritance between his mother and brother (Jafar-e-Khazzab). Imam Hasan Askari would keep secret the birth of his son and would conceal his affairs because situation of that time was unfavourable. which he had in Samarrah and where his great-father was buried and appointed his son for the establishment of the just government. Mahdi is the Imam. What is necessary for us to know is the following: Is there anyone to ask about the philosophy behind Occultation and is there anyone who can say: Since I do not know the reason behind Occultation.continued their task for two years until they realized that she had not been pregnant. Imam Hasan Askari was twenty-eight years old. Thereafter. At the time of his demise. During his life. then it is necessary for him to appear amongst the people and walk in the market-places! We say: Concerning the numerous ‘Mustafiza’ traditions which we previously . I do not believe as you do in the existence of Mahdi and I further say: If as per what you say. ‘ Several traditions tell that Imam Hasan Askari fell ill on the first day of Rabiul-Awwal in the year of 260 A. Imam Hasan Askari never disclosed his son in public and after his demise too.

the most important of them is the Occultation of Mahdi. Thus every action of God is in conformity with Prudent interests whether we realize those interests or not and whether we perceive those reasons or not.b. you will realize that denying any one of them will not be rationally and traditionally permissible. we have also mentioned to you the names of those learned scholars who have approved the above point. we have to deny one of the three afore-said affairs.Firstly that Mahdi is the same Muhammad-ibn-Hasan Askari. Since Allah is All-Wise. From the known affairs where not even a single person dispute is this that every voluntarily and in-voluntarily incidents and affairs which occur in this world should be as per the Divine prudence and rather as per the Divine Will. All that Prudent Knowledge is referred to those charged with a duty because. He would never Command nor Forbid any matter or action except out of prudent Knowledge. If you pay attention and deliberate over each of these three affairs. in the Holy presence of God. Amongst these affairs. Based on this principle. we are helpless in denying an affair for which we do not possess any reason of its denial .mentioned and few more of which we shall inform you about later on. there exists no want and His Holy Self is Needless and All-Sufficient. whether we perceive it or not and whether we understand its reason or not. Besides. Thirdly that his Occultation has taken place by the Will and Decree of Allah. the Occultation of Mahdi must be as per prudence and wisdom. Saduq in his book ‘Elalush - . Otherwise. Mahdi the Expected one is Abul-Qasim Muhammad. If we do not believe in what we have said. Secondly that he is hidden from the views. Hasan Askari who was born on 15th Shaban 256 A. The same is true for this particular matter.H. So we are bound to believe that the event of Mahdi’s Occultation is in accordance with Prudence.

very often a person seeks the reason and philosophy for some of the Divine Acts for the sake of gaining certainty and tranquility of his own self and not that he wishes to use his confirmation and rejection as a means for perceiving the reason of Divine actions or not. this secret is a divine secret and this concealment is a divine concealment.” This saying is the truth which should be confessed and certified by every Muslim.” I said: “May I be sacrificed for you.” I asked: “What is the reason for Hazrat’s Occultation?” He replied: “The reason for Hazrat’s Occultation is similar to the reason for concealment of the past Divine Proofs.” The reason of occultation was kept secret but now . This affair is a divine affair. For what reason?” He replied: “For a reason which we are not at liberty to divulge.] “The reason behind Mahdi’s Occultation will not be disclosed but after his emergence just as the reason of Hazrat Khizr’s actions (meaning the drilling of a hole in the boat. the killing of a lad and the repairing of the wall) was not divulged until Musa and Khizr decided to part company. Verily.” [This is evident that the Divine Proofs would be unearthed and known around the time of Mahdi’s coming.Sharayeh’ has narrated from Abdullah-ibn-Fazl Hashami as saying: “I heard Sadeq Aal-e-Muhammad (Imam Jafar Sadiq -the sixth Imam) saying (foretelling): “For the ‘Saheb-e-Amir (Master of the Affairs) there shall occur an occultation during which every men of vanity will fall into doubt and skepticism. O son of Fazl. We must accept that all His actions are based on Wisdom. even if the reason for them is not known to us.

it is out in the open. because of whom all creations took birth. Had Mahdi too been killed. It is because of them that all creatures breathe. Courtesy the Vedas and Upanishads! In spite of the knowledge of innumerable traditions from the Prophet as well as the mention of Mahdi in Quran. Deliverance is not far anymore! How People Benefit From the Hidden Imam Says the writer: “The benefits of Imam-e-Zaman’s existence from our view-point (i. the world would have remained no more. This simile is one of the most elegant and beautiful kinds of simile. Moreover. is as follows: Imam is like a sun hidden behind the clouds. The simile. the benefit which is derived from Hazrat’s occupation (of the earth) was previously reasoned that due to fear and insecurity it is not obligatory for Hazrat to carry out the second type.e. Nobody knew then that Imam’s were responsible for the sustenance of the world. Hazrat like other people is alive and the common people derive benefit from his existence whether present or absent and whether apparent or concealed. had to wait. Shia view-point) are of two types: Firstly. Their purpose was to lead mankind to God and that was not possible during the time. which has come in the tradition of Jabir-ibn-Abdullah Ansari. They would have done so in case of Mahdi as well if occultation had not happened. other benefits are derived from . Secondly. Therefore. the last of the 14 devas of God. Muslims who claimed to be the believers in Quran and Prophet killed all the preceding Imams. That wait is about to end as God has ordered him to prepare to come. However benefits of the first type will necessarily be derived from Hazrat’s existence. Various benefits and effects are derived from the sun’s existence even though it may be covered by a cloud.

e. On the contrary. However the Sunnis believe that the benefits and effects derived from Imam’s existence is confined to the second type (i. Imam too is the same. Deriving benefit from the sun and making use of it by the living and rather the non-living creatures is something prevalent whether it is manifest or concealed under the clouds. just as mentioned before. non-absence of Imam). the benefit derived is more than when it is covered and concealed. Rather. Thus. To this. However. Imam too is like the sun in these two afore-said cases. his occultation means that he cannot be individually recognized and seen. this comparison has been made from two aspects and there exists two reasons for this (one aspect when the sun is covered by clouds and the other aspect when the sun is not covered by any object and its light glimmers). we say: Who can dare say that during the . Rather.’ Verily Mahdi is absent (amongst us) but attends the gatherings and meetings. I believe. their reckoning is far from truth. Every creature derives its own pleasure and share from it with the difference that when it is manifest and glimmering. He wears the ‘Ehram’ (pilgrim’s garb). Thus Mahdi is present amongst the Islamic community but is not physically recognized. very often he presents himself during the Haj season. it has come down in some traditions that after Mahdi’s emergence people will say: .‘We used to see him before too.its rays if it is not covered by a cloud or rather anything else. we reply as such: Some of the Sunnis reckon Mahdi’s occultation to mean that he is invisible and cannot be seen. He also speaks to the travelers and other people. performs the ‘tawaaf ’ (circumbulation) and concludes his Haj by visiting his honoured grand-father and great fathers’ shrines especially at times of special ‘Ziarats’. This is the view of the Shias about Imam. recites the call of ‘Labbaik’.

gene and scholars of ‘Rijal’ and guides them to the true saying. very often Mahdi replies to matters having . writers and the learned people and discusses with them such topics as divine theology. Talks takes place with the preachers. It is possible that he acts upon his responsibility even though it may not be obligatory for him. maintenance of order and running of the affairs whether they follow his recommendation or not. truthfulness of the concerned matter. authenticity of relation (of narration) and their incorrectness irrespective of whether they approve his sayings or not. He sits with the Jurists. it is possible that Mahdi may come in contact with the Kings. This matter is not inconsistent with the tradition which says: ‘If anyone claims that he has seen Mahdi. historians. rulers. inviters (towards the Divine path). he guides them towards the truth and right way irrespective of whether they act upon his sayings or not. Mahdi strives for all these affairs without being recognized and he is never stingy in doing good to others. sick and afflicted people and fulfills the wishes of the needy and cures the sick. then reject his saying’. princes and ministers and make some recommendations to them about reforms. He visits the helpless. moral rectifications and literary matters.major occultation it is not possible to come in contact with Mahdi whereas historical and other books provide us with evidences that a section of people have received the honour of seeing and meeting him. Verily. In every field. So it’s absurd to say: How people benefit from the hidden Imam!? Verily. He meets the traditionists. This is because by context of the first part of the tradition it only means that anyone who claims the special deputyship should be denied. Rather we can say: Mahdi is one of the members of society and rather the most important member. scholars. clergymen and guides too and he reveals to them the way of reaching their objective in an easier way be it they act upon it or not. needy.

as believed by Shia scholars till now. Then he . Thereafter he said: ‘After him shall come his son Mohammad who will be known as Mahdi. This book and other books which have been written by reliable scholars (who were not recognizing each other and were living in different places and different times) contain such evidences which bear testimony to the truthfulness of what we have written. Both as deva or noor and as Mahdi in human form.Abdulla Ansari narrates a lengthy incident wherein a Jew approaches the Holy Prophet and asks him various questions which results in his converting to Islam. very often he solves the religious or worldly affairs. he is going to remain in occultation unless he is sure of his success. he has continued to guide in all times. how often he delivers the poor. Qa’em and Hujjat. He counted each one of them by name until he got to the name of Imam Muhammad Hasan Askari. after going through the particulars and contexts of these kind of evidences will gain certainty in the veracity of some of them. his role is to lead mankind towards God. owing to that he is the Divinely Appointed ruler of our organs of action and senses. very often he quenches the thirsty and very often he holds the hands of the disabled. Mahdi and His Coming Jabir-ibn. One of the questions which the convert had asked was about the successors to the Holy Prophet himself and the Prophet’s reply that they were twelve in number.” These are just a few benefits that people derive from do with principles and other secondary matters. very often he helps the helpless. as Mahdi. the noor of Mahdi even comprises the conscience inside each of us. As deva. very often he cures the sick. What none of the Islamic scholars knew till date was that as one of the fourteen devas. A person.

reappear again and when he does so he shall fill the earth with equity and justice.e. Thereafter Imam continued as such: “He is the one whose reappearance shall coincide with the call of a caller from the sky such that all the inhabitants of the land shall hear this cry: . the earth would be engulfed with the Divine Light. So follow him since the truth is in him and with him. Mahdi and his occultation Also. Since by then the earth would have been filled with cruelty and oppression.‘Know that the Hujjat (Proof) of Allah has appeared near the House of Allah.’ Once again I asked: ‘By what sign?’ He replied: ‘By recognizing the ‘ forbidden’ and ‘permissible’ affairs and the need of the people towards him and his own needlessness from others. those who believe in the unseen i. Know that the Party of Allah are the victorious ones. it is said: ‘Mahdi shall bring out from the cave of . They are those whom Allah has praised in His Book with such words: Quran is a guide to those who guard (against evil). Allah says: They are those who belong to the Party of Allah.” In the third chapter of ‘Eqdud-Durar’ its author narrates from Harith-ibn-Mughaira Ansari that he asked Abu Abdullah Husain-ibn-Ali as such: ‘By what sign should we recognize Mahdi?’ He replied: ‘By (his) calmness and (his) dignity.’ The word of Allah too refers to the same. Blessed are those who are patient during the period of his occultation and blessed are those who are steadfast in their love towards him. Hasan ibn Khalid has narrated from Imam Ali Raza about Mahdi where he mentions that he would be the fourth from his descendants and that when he reappears.will disappear temporarily.’ At another place.

‘Anthakia’ the books and shall bring out from the lake of ‘Tabariah’ the Zaboor which contains all that the family of Musa and Haroon have left behind and which was carried by the Angels and contains the Tablets (pieces of stone or wood on which divine matters have been written) and the cane of Musa.’ At another place. Another tradition from Prophet Mohammad goes like this: If there remains not more than a day from the life of the earth.’ Then he shall pour wealth unto him to the extent. which he can carry. At another occasion the Holy Prophet said: The rulers of the earth are four . Thereafter he said: ‘A person shall approach him and say: . He shall fill the earth with equity and Justice just as it had been filled with cruelty and oppression. There is another tradition cited from Ali.‘O Mahdi grant me something. which .two of them believers and two apostates.’ Another tradition mentions the generosity of Mahdi in following words of Prophet Mohammad: ‘Verily Mahdi shall be from my Ummah’.e. The two believers are (Prophets) Zul-Qarnain and Sulaiman while the two apostates are Bukht-un-Nasr (Nebuchadnezzar) and Nimrod. Soon a person from my progeny shall gain control over it (i. Moreover Mahdi is superior to all the people in knowledge and insight. Allah will appoint a person from my progeny.’ Kaab-ul Akhbar says: ‘I have found in the Books of Prophets about the characteristic of Mahdi and that his commands are not oppressive and violatary in nature. the earth). will execute Justice among the people and bring to a halt the altercations. his characteristic is defined in the following manner: ‘He shall distribute wealth equally.

who would confirm Mahdi’s high position. By our blessings. Therefore.says: ‘I asked the Messenger of Allah: Will Mahdi be from (our) progeny of Muhammad or will he be from some other progeny? He replied: No.) Allah will gather his Shias around him from everywhere and the earth shall roll up for them. he shall be from Us. all the three Prophets who are still arrive would be with him. says: ‘Mahdi shall emerge on the day of ‘Ashura’ (and that is the day when Husain was martyred perhaps on Saturday the tenth of Muharram) between ‘Rukn’ and ‘Maqam’ (at Makkah) and on his right will be Gibra’eel and on his left Mikail (Micha’eel. the fifth Imam. Another tradition from Imam Mohammad Baqar. whether Shias or Sunnis are unanimous and united over the evidence of Mahdi’s existence which means that except for the sayings . By our blessings Allah will unite their hearts after conspiratorial animosity just as He united their hearts after polytheistic animosity. A tradition from Prophet Mohammad says: ‘How be your position at that time when the son of Maryam shall descend amongst you and your Imam shall be from you.’ Mahdi’s position is more than Isa at the time of ‘Jehad’ (the holy war).’ The same tradition with similar reference has also been narrated by Sahih-e-Muslim.e. the people) shall be released from turbulences just as they got released from polytheism. Allah shall bring the religion to completion through his hands just as he expanded it through us. It is said that when Mahdi would come. they shall turn into brothers in faith after having become enemies to each other. This will include Jesus. At another occasion. all the Muslims. As far as the authenticity of these traditions is concerned they are resolute before the Sunnis and Shias too have narrated them in a similar manner. the Holy Prophet said: ‘From Us is the one behind whom shall pray Isa. By our blessings they (i.

the one who has taken precedence over the others in ‘Hijrat’ (migration) shall lead and if again they remain the same. the one with a handsome face shall lead. but we are sure that after this book. If it is equal amongst all. As regards to Isa praying behind Mahdi. the sayings of other sects is immaterial. hypocrisy and showingoff. the most learned shall lead. The proof of this is what the Holy Prophet has said: The one whose recitation of Quran is better (than others) shall lead the people. it is not permissible for him to allow Mahdi to follow him because. then the most wise shall lead and if still they are equal. Shaikh Abdul-Wahab Sha’rani in his book ‘Tabaqat-Urafa’ while . Similarly when Isa becomes certain that Mahdi is more learned than him he will allow Hazrat to take precedence and he himself will on the other hand. Similarly if Isa realizes that Mahdi is superior to him. no reasoning would be required to prove Imam’s authority over all the preceding prophets. Allah has protected him from pretension. We recount here only a few incidents. it is not permissible for Imam to take precedence over Isa in the ‘Shariat’ since Allah has kept Imam pure and clean from every abominable act. If yet they are equal.” People have given countless logics. Rather. when once Imam becomes sure that he is more learned than Isa it is permissible for him to take precedence over Isa.of Shias and Sunnis. Mahdi and Those Who Have Seen Him Several books are available on this subject alone. Muhammad’s Shariat has commanded as such. follow him. an argument is given which is as follows: “‘Imam’ (the leader) (who is Mahdi) is superior to ‘Mamoom’ (the one who follows) (who is Isa) because. Thus if Mahdi realizes that Isa is superior to him. This was regarding superiority in prayers. Firstly.

writing about Shaikh Hasan Araqi says: I went along with Sayed Abul-Abbas Harithi to meet Shaikh Hasan Araqi. By this. I gave up my usual activities and fled away from my companions. we used to occupy ourselves in playing. In one of the nights. He rubbed his hands over my back and said: ‘O my son. It was on one of those Fridays that I received some sort of an inspiration from Allah that: Have you been created for such deeds? Therefore. I am Mahdi. I entered the mosque of BaniUmayyah and saw a person on the pulpit who was speaking about Hazrat Mahdi. you may please narrate.’ I took him to a lonely place and he stayed there with me for seven days. I became eager in meeting Mahdi. The author of ‘Yanabi-ul-Muwadda’ narrates (an incident) from the book ‘Kashful-Ghumma’ of Shaikh Ali-ibn-Isa Arbali who in the view of Shias and Sunnis is a reliable person. the Compassionate Allah has granted your wish. The said author relates as such: People narrate stories and incidents about the miracles of Imam Mahdi which describing them would take a long time. I shall relate in such manner that as if you have been my intimate friend right from childhood.’ He said: ‘I was a youth amongst the craftsmen of Damascus.’ I said: ‘Will you come with me to my house?’ He replied: ‘Yes’. However I shall narrate two of them which are closer to our time and which have been narrated to me by a . The latter said: Should I narrate to you the story of my life right from its beginning until now. what do you want. drinking and gambling. There was not a single prostration which I used to perform and not ask Allah to fulfill my wish for meeting him. Then we went together and on the way he said: ‘Take me to some lonely place. I replied: ‘Yes. They pursued me but could not find me. On Fridays. while being engaged in the recommended prayers. I saw all of a sudden someone sitting behind me.

’ Ismail went close to of reliable brothers.’ He is your Imam. When he shall offer you something. the Caliph Mustansi Billah will forcibly summon you. The one holding the spear was coming from the right flank while the other two were coming from the left flank. There he beseeched the Compassionate Allah and sought help from Mahdi. Thereafter. He said: ‘Come close to me so that I can learn about your problem. Ismail replied: ‘I shall not part from you under any circumstances. Later he entered Sardab. He bent down and pressed his thigh with his blessed hand and then sat back on his saddle.’ The old man interrupted us and said: ‘Have you no shame! Your Imam has twice commanded you to go back and yet you are disobeying!’ Ismail stopped. This youth asked Ismail as such: ‘Will you go tomorrow to your family?’ Ismail replied: ‘Yes’. Imam said: ‘Return back’. Then. The youth who had put on colourful clothes was coming from the centre. he turned back towards Ismail and said: ‘When you will reach Baghdad. After Imam went forward a few steps. My brothers narrate from Ismail that there appeared a boil on his left thigh which was the size of the palm of one’s hand. Doctors who looked at his boil expressed their inability in curing it. you refuse to . Suddenly he saw four riders coming from the direction of the city of Samarrah. Imam said: ‘It is for your own good that you go back’. took the ritual wash and changed his clothes. he entered the Tigris river. Ismail replied: ‘I shall never separate from you’. Ismail left for Samarrah and visited the graves of Imam Ali Hadi and Imam Hasan Askari. One of them was an old man holding a spear in his hand while the other was a youth wearing colourful clothes. The old man who was holding a spear in his hand said: ‘You have been cured.’ The four riders left and Ismail too followed them. First: There lived a man named Ismail-ibn-Hasan between the two cities of Hilla and Furat.

The Caliph’s representative wrote a detailed report on this incident and dispatched it to Baghdad. The minister called in Sayed Raziuddin to inquire from him the authenticity of this incident. I will too beckon him to give you whatever you wish. When Raziuddin (who was one of Ismail’s companion and had been Ismail’s host before leaving for Samarrah) and some others saw . the Caliph’s representative came and inquired about this incident and asked his name.accept it. He sat on the ground for some time and started to weep because of his separation from them. People started tearing his clothes to get lucky charm and then took him to the treasure house so that others could not reach him. his background. The next morning after reciting his prayers Ismail left the city of Samarrah before a huge crowd.’ After this Hazrat left with his companions and Ismail’s eyes lay fixed at them until he could see them no more.’ They said: ‘Allow us to see for ourselves. they began to tear his clothes and took them away as blessings.’ When Ismail displayed his thigh to them there was not even a scar left to be seen. Later. Also tell our son Razi’uddin to write on your behalf to Ali-ibn-Awaz. his native place and the purpose his exit from Baghdad in the first week. He then went to Samarrah where the people surrounded him and said: ‘Why do we see you so much changed? What has happened?’ Ismail said: ‘Do you know who were these riders who had left the city and had gone towards the river?’ They said: ‘They were from the nobles and are the owners of cattles. On the way he reached one spot where people had gathered in great number and were inquiring about his name. genealogy and the place from where he came.’ Ismail said: ‘They were Imam and his companions. The one who had put on colourful clothes was Imam and it was he who rubbed his blessed hand over my wound spot. When they saw and recognized him by the afore-said signs.

the Caliph began to cry. Shamsuddin said: ‘I am Ismail’s son’.Mu*+Muhammad and Najm’uddin Haider-ibn-Amir too . I was only a child. they said: ‘This is the act of Messiah. he caught hold of Ismail’s hand and took him to the Minister. the latter said: ‘How dare I take even a little of this offer.’ The Minister inquired from Ismail about that particular incident and he in turn described it in length. Ali-ibn-Isa says: ‘I was once narrating this incident to a group of people who were around me. After gaining consciousness. Raziuddin remained fainted for almost an hour.’ The Minister took Ismail before the Caliph. Shamsuddin.’ The Caliph said: ‘Whom do you fear?’ He said: ‘From the one who cured me because he has forbidden me from accepting anything from you’. who was Ismail’s son was also present but I had then not recognized him. The Minister ordered the doctors who had previously seen Ismail’s thigh to come forward.’ Ali-ibn-Isa further says: ‘I inquired about this incident from Sayed Safi’uddin Muhammadibn. However I had heard this matter from my parents. The Caliph asked Ismail to give account and Ismail explained in detail all what had occurred for him. Raziuddin cried and said: ‘He is my brother and the most beloved of all men. When the Caliph presented Ismail with a sum of one thousand dinars.’ The Minister displayed Ismail’s thigh and when the doctors saw no trace of it. When they arrived he asked: ‘When did you last see his wound?’ They replied: ‘Ten days before.’ I said: ‘Had you seen the wound on your father’s thigh?’ He replied: ‘At that time.Ismail they descended down.’ The Minister said: ‘We know who has performed this act. I could not find any trace of the wound and hair had grown on that spot. On hearing this. When Ismail showed his thigh to them and they could not see any trace of the wound. relatives and neighbours and saw the place of wound after it had been cured.

Second: Sayed Baaqi Athwah Alawi Hasani related to me that his father Athwah did not acknowledge the existence of Mahdi. when people will cause their prayers to die and will follow their carnal desires. He stretched out his hand.’ We went in search for him but could not find anyone. he used to run like a deer and there was not a trace left. when they will follow their lusts and desire. went to Samarrah for forty times so that he would perhaps get the honour of visiting him once again. Once a person asked Imam Mohammad Baqar about the time when Mahdi would emerge. when they will make towering constructions. when trade and business of the people will be based on usury. when they will sever their relation (with others). Look out for him. when they will sell their religion for this world. when they will consider lie to be lawful. I will confirm the people’s saying’ (about Mahdi). He would often say: ‘Whenever Mahdi comes and cures me. when shedding of blood will become something insignificant. when women will ride on saddles. He said: ‘I am Mahdi. when they will accept bribes.and they informed me of this incident and said: ‘We had seen Ismail before and after his recovery’. Narrator says: After this incident. pressed my thing and then left. He replied: At the time when men will imitate the women and women will imitate the men. We went close to him and he said: ‘Imam passed from here at this very moment. I have come to cure you’. Ali-ibnIsa says: I inquired this incident from Sayed Baaqi’s son and he too admitted it. Moreover his son related to me that his father after his recovery. When we had all gathered for the ‘Isha’ (night) prayers. when they . when people will turn usurers. when people will openly commit adultery. we heard a shriek from our father. We returned back and then our father said: Someone approached me and said: ‘O Athwah!’ I replied: ‘At thy service’.

when cruelty and oppression will become manifest. Hazrat will emerge from behind the veil of Occultation and the hearts will be filled with joy. when the trustworthy amongst them will be traitors. when their rulers will be evil and their ministers liars. when women shall engage with women (indecent acts). Due to his emergence the desired dawn shall rise and the veil of darkness of the night will be set aside. Traditions about Mahdi’s emergence substantiate each other. when forced witness and lie will be accepted. when men will be mounted on. when people will consider ‘Zakat’ to be a booty and charity to be a loss. when people will engage in debauchery and libertinism. when a child from the progeny of Mohammad will be killed between ‘Rukn’ and ‘Maqaam’ and when a live voice will be heard from the heavens crying out that the truth is with Mahdi and his followers. when they will consider forbearance to be the sign of weakness and feebleness and injustice to be an honour. Traditions manifest the luminous of Hazrat’s light. when they will engage in drinking and gambling. will reach the horizons and the luminousness of his Justice will be more than luminousness of the luminous moon. when the reciters of Quran will be transgressors. Imam Ali is narrated as having said: Awaiting for the ‘Faraj’ (deliverance) is the best act of worship. His Justice. when the helpers amongst them will be unjust. when divorce will increase. when ‘Baidah’ which is between Makkah and Medina will sink. It will be then that our Qaem will emerge.will hold under obligation the one whom they feed. It will not be long when the gloomy day and night of his Occultation will turn into brightness and luminosity. The author of ‘Manaqib’ says: Awaiting for the . when they will fear from the tongues of the wicked people. when Sufyani shall revolt from Syria and Yemen.

Imam Ali said: ‘Mahdi is from us .. Ali said: Alas! and he repeated the word seven times and then said: Mahdi will emerge at the end of time when those who would call out the name of Allah would be killed. Imam Mohammad Baqar said: ‘Allah has set fear in the hearts of our friends and followers. Their number will be equal to the number of the companions of ‘Badr’. Allah will gather together the inhabitants of the East and West..’ When you see black flags coming from the direction of East. His companions will be from Kufa and the brave ones who would assist him would be from Syria.’ It is narrated from Prophet Mohammad: ‘A group of people will rise from the East and they will make preparations for Mahdi’s rule. one person from our followers will be more courageous than a fierce lion and more sharper than the point of a spear. When our ‘Qa’em’ who is Mahdi will emerge.the Ahlebayt. Allah will set right his affairs in one night.. Thereafter Allah will gather together a group whose sagacity and agility will be like a cloud and He will make their hearts intimate towards each other..‘Faraj’ means awaiting for Mahdi’s emergence.’ Also Ali has said: ‘When the ‘Qae’m’ from the progeny of Muhammad will emerge. Recounting the events. They will neither fear anyone nor will they flee. Imam Mohammad Baqar has mentioned some of the signs of Mahdi’s emergence: the revolt of Sufyani. Neither the people of the past took precedent over them nor the people of the future . hasten towards them even if you have to crawl over ice because Mahdi who is Allah’s representative will be amongst them. Mahdi’s escape from Medina to Makkah until he says: Allah will gather together for Mahdi 313 of his companions.

At another instance. an account stated: Idris is one . And he is not married.’ Treasures that are neither gold nor silver. Idris and Isa (Jesus).. If he puts the stick in the water. Yet another group will proceed from the East until they reach Makkah and swear allegiance to him.. As regards to Khizar.. Allah has given Prophet Khizar a gift. who have recognized Allah in the true sense and they will be Mahdi’s helpers at the end of time. Is Ali talking of the hidden treasures in Vedas and Upanishads? Mahdi’s Long Life As per the information available to us from Quran. it will become ship and if he puts it in the earth. As regards to Idris. According to the history. we present an account of him from a book: Nabi Khizar is still alive up to this day.. Allah has given him a stick with a lot of power. If he touches any dry stick or plat with his hands.will comprehend them. Prophet said: Courageous men from Syria will hasten towards Hazrat along with their followers while sober men from Egypt too will join him. And he has visited all the Imams and greeted them with salam. He also goes and visits our 12 th Imam – Hazrat Mahdi now and then. it is said that he will re-appear with our 12 th Imam. Rather they are those people. three Messengers of God are still alive. Their number will be equal to the number of the companions who crossed the river with the Saul. Nabi Khizar had come into the world 300 years before Prophet Isa (Jesus) and he is still alive today. it will turn into a tree and bear a lot of fruits. And Ali said: ‘Bravo! to the people of Thaleqan because Allah has hidden treasures amongst them which are neither gold nor silver. it at once turns green. These are: Khizar.

people saw him as Jesus while he kept saying that he was not Jesus. They are still living in a particular village and will reappear to be part of the family of Manu. who continue to live in this world since ages. from their great number. thinking him to be Jesus. which states that there are two people. God lifted him on the sky and instead people crucified a man named Yehuda who had lead the king’s party to Jesus’s hiding place. have passed away by thousands. It is said by the 6 th Imam that Prophet Idris used to live in a mosque in Sahlah where he used to stitch and pray to Allah. He was the first man to make weapons. It clearly says that the sons of Manu remain in the Kali age. Quran states that he was not crucified. residing at the village of Kalapa. He was called Idris because he used to teach about the wisdom of Allah. and becoming members of the family . It states that while people indeed put him on cross. men great souls. and Maru of the family of Ikshwaku. who is slated to appear in future. Kshatriyas.of the Prophets who is still alive. When he came out of the place. Their names are given as Devapi and Maru. It seems that they are the names of Khizar and Idris. Two persons. Now see the view maintained by Vishnu Purana. as Jesus was born after the time when this Purana was composed. they will return hither in the beginning of the Krita age. It has been stated that he introduced the art of tailoring (stitching). through the force of devotion continue alive throughout the whole four ages. as per the beliefs of the Christians. and the repetition of appellations it would involve. one each from the solar and lunar races. As regards to Jesus. after searching for Jesus inside. in same way as Devapi and Maru are still in existence. See the narration: “Thus age after age Brahmans. Vaisyas and Sudras. whose names and tribes and families I have not enumerated to you. excellent Brahmans. Devapi of the race of Puru.

” If common man knew this science. “ Another proof that a man. and should perform it with all his heart. by the sons of the Manu. Titled ‘Does man live in this world forever’. We present here experts from an article written in Al-Muqtaraf magazine about 65 years back. even a common man like us. The science of khechari is not easily attainable. both from knowing the meaning of books and practice. One who is subject to the pains of death. we have already proved from Upanishads that it is the Imams who created this world so that there are more things to worship the God. in the same way as Devapi and Maru are still in existence. the destroyer of old age and death. can be freed from old age and death in this world is mentioned in Chapter II of the YogakundaliUpanishad. and some remain in the Kali age. to serve as the rudiments of renewed generations. how can we say that Imam. who is the cause of letter ‘Aum’. give origin to the Kshatriya dynasties. Chapter II describes the “science called khechari which is such that one who knows it is freed from old age and death in this world. and Dwapara. Treta. Fact is that scientists too do not call it a mere theory that it is possible to live for a long time. in Whose worship they excelled and Who. as also its practice.of Manu. disease and old age should. on knowing this science make his mind firm and practice khechari. pleased with their worship. would not be aware? Moreover. the Krita. had granted them this power. O sage. who is the knower of all knowledge. it says: “What is life and what is . In this manner the earth is possessed through every series of the three first ages. One should regard that person as his guru on earth who knows khechari.

One of the surgeons was able to cut off a part of an animal and then keep it alive for many years more than the animal itself could have habitually lived. That cluster too is grown from another grain and that grain too comes into existence from another cluster and so on. the very existence of that cut-off part finds connection with the nourishment that is given to it. However. This opinion is not merely a conjecture. As such. That is to say. However all the parts die as though death has been destined for them. He conducted this experiment on one part of an embryo of a hen which that part grew and remained alive for more than eight years. reliable scholars say: The entire bodilytissue of an animal is so endurable that it has no end and it is possible for man to live for thousands of years provided no accident severs his age. Thus it is possible that that part may live forever if ample of nourishment is given to it. Centuries have passed since man has thought of relieving himself from the claws of death or at least increasing his lifespan. Rather it is something practical and has been confirmed by experiments. New York. This is especially true so at present when man wishes to fight the various diseases and plagues with medicines.death? Is it that death has been destined for every living being? Every grain of wheat is a living substance having a place in its own cluster. he may live for 100 years and the gastric particles remain alive and grow in order to preserve the generation. prying into the history of six thousand or more years becomes easy. The afore-said surgeon is Doctor Kas Carell who is occupied in Rockfeller. It has still not been ascertained that for example some one has lived for 100 years in recent times. The afore-said doctor and others like him have experimented on the human parts such as the . Sometimes it happens that a tree itself lives for 1000 or 2000 years but man does not live for more than 70 or 80 years. In rare cases.

Since this saying is based on scientific findings it is highly explicit and significant. Apparently. Later Doctor Wern Luis and his wife proved that it is possible to keep the parts of a bird’s foetus in saltwater and allowing them to live.organs. the first person who conducted this test on the body and part of an animal was Doctor Jack Lup who was one of the surgeons of Rockfeller Hospital in New York. heart. Rather the life span of these parts is more than the normal life span of the animal itself. Even Doctor Wimend Webrel who is amongst the Professors of ‘Society of Junes Hiknes’ says: It has been proved through experiments that the parts of a human body remain in working order due to nourishing power. muscles. Doctor Carell embarked on further tests and proved that these parts do not bring senility in an animal. The said doctor tested the way of birth of a frog from those eggs which were not inseminated and came to this conclusion that amongst the eggs some remain alive for a long period while some die very soon. skin and kidney and have come to this conclusion that the said parts develop and remain alive so long as they are given ample of nourishment. When some organic substance is added to it. However it is still not known whether those parts remain alive or not after turning old. This incident. Afterwards. induced Doctor Jack to conduct once again this test on a frog and consequently succeeded in keeping alive these parts too for a long time. the said parts tend to grow and multiply. The said doctor started his experiment in the year 1912 and on this path faced many problems until he and his assistants finally succeeded in proving the following points: (1) The afore-said parts remain alive constantly provided they do not encounter certain occurrences which destroys them like deficiency in food . Successive tests have revealed that it is possible for the parts of any animal which is kept in salt-water to remain alive and grow provided they are given food.

That is to say. All these internal things reveal that these parts grow and remain alive if proper care and food is provided to them. Similarly it is the microbes which reduces man’s age and restricts it to seventy or eighty years. What has ultimately been concluded from tests and experiments is as such: The reason why man dies is not because he has completed seventy. Not only this but the lives of some of them are dependent on the lives of others. Rather. (3) It is possible to know the measure of growth and increase of these parts and their relation with the nourishment given to them.and entry of some of the microbes. Thus. some of these parts turn weak and die. Moreover. there can be nothing which can stop man from living hundreds of years just . eighty or hundred years but because the external factors enter some of his (internal) parts and kill and destroy them and since there exists a relation between these and other parts. whenever medical science becomes powerful enough to destroy these external factors or at least prevent them from influencing the parts of our body. Thus. Therefore the main factor which causes death is inattentiveness and not senility. when due to some reason or another. So. these parts do not turn old and weak through the passage of time. the other parts too get destroyed. the slight effect of senility is not produced for them. (2) These parts not only remain alive but grow and multiply just as they grow and multiply inside an animal’s body. what is the cause of man’s death? Why is it that man does not live for more than hundred years and rather lives normally for only seventy or eighty years? We may reply as such: An animal’s body possesses numerous and diverse parts and these parts have strong connection with each other. the other parts too die. these parts grow and multiply in the current year in the same manner which they used to grow and multiply in the previous years. (4) Time has no effect on them.

as some species of trees live for these number of years. ‘O would that the parents deem it necessary upon themselves to follow such rules and regulations and as a result save themselves from such blame. How often we see a child dying during his infancy or childhood period because of his parents suffering from some disease and or their heedlessness in applying the means of a sound health and non-observance on their part of his (i.e. the period of his transition to his mother’s womb. That is to say when he is in the rear of his father. growth and development in his mother’s womb and the period of sucking milk when he is together with his mother. the child’s) hygienic principles. non-observance of the afore-said rules will result in reduction in ones life-span. Therefore. Thus the parents in such cases are the cause of this felony and they are responsible for depriving their child from living a natural and normal life. When keeping watch over the hygienic formulas and their rules ensures a persons health and prolongation of life it necessarily follows that the more the observance of hygienic rules the more longer will be a persons life. The principles of these means are of three types: First: Observance (during the primary stage) when man is merely a matter.” Our view is that if the hygienic rules and the religious and medical directives are observed it is not impracticable to live a lengthy life. The reverse is also true (i. Second: Observance of those things which are the basis of man’s . whenever the means of hygiene is kept at man’s disposal his age shall be prolonged to the extent which Allah wishes. This is because observance of the hygienic principles by parents during this stage is the first step for ensuring a child’s health. It is not far when medical science and hygienic mediums will attain this lofty achievement and consequently the number of people living an average life will increase or that they will live twice or thrice the normal age.e.

The reason for giving away one’s life. All these greatly influence a person’s health and life span. the clothes that he wears and the environment in which he lives. This is because observance of the means and rules of a sound health in each of these five affairs with respect to quantity. time and place are the most important channels having influence over the health and long life of man. Third: External occurrences and incidents and contact with natural phenomenons like uncustomary heat and cold. Rather the main cause has been the external factors which come into existence by not observing the rules of a sound health with regards to the aforementioned affairs. misfortunes and difficulties. Today. A number of physicians and doctors have emphasized that majority of the people who like the air that he breathes. age. If man observes the hygienic rules as per the afore-said three principles. we cannot find any objection and reason against this matter. then nothing can prevent him from living for hundreds and rather thousands of years in this world by the will of Allah! No matter how much we ponder over this point and probe into some of the appropriate books. grief and sorrow and actions and movements. do not die a natural death. medical science with all its advancement has not become cognizant with all those mysteries and has not perceived its realities the way it . which by nature. too often a person doing research into this matter has come across some facts forcing him to testify in the subject of longevity. The mysteries of life and the faculties which have been deposited in man’s existence is always hidden and unknown. How many a person have been overtaken by death and have died before dying naturally. quality. Rather. strength. the water that he drinks. pain and maladies. is loved by every living creature is the nonobservance of one of the afore-mentioned five affairs. weakness. the food that he eats.

When on the same day or the next day I visit him for the time. When you become fully conversant with what we have previously mentioned and become aware of the article written in the magazine ‘Al-Muqtataf ’ you will realize that God’s statement in Sura ‘Saffat’ with regards to the story of Yunus is something customary: But had it not been that he was of those who glorify (Us). I then leave him aside and lose hope in his recovery. I see him well and fine and the probability of his dying becomes one percent. However if those means are gathered together. Rather his chance of survival is one percent. He would certainly have carried in its belly to the day when they are raised. the problem lies in gathering together and making available the means (of a sound health) and not in the means of a lengthy life. Thus it is possible for man to live in the depth of the sea till the Day of Judgment. Why shouldn’t it be so when Allah has Power over all things? ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ A very interesting article by D. 2004 also stated . to live for hundreds of years is something unusual and uncustomary meaning that gathering together and obtaining the means of a sound health from all the aspects (which we previously pointed out) is earnestly a rare and scarce affair . I see him close to death. how often it has occurred that I come across another patient whose case is just the opposite of the first patient. Verily. So. it is possible for man’s life span to prolong habitually and naturally. Some of our friends who are doctors have confirmed this point. One of them says: Often it occurs that a patient is brought to me and as per the medical rules. Subramanian that appeared in The Hindu dated July 15.should have done so.and does not occur for majority of the people in most of the periods and places. On the other hand.

It changes the chemical structure and identity of . Damage and decay occur due to two main processes. He has sat down and listed out the various processes that lead to shortening of the life of our bodies. smoke) and eating practices (obesity. X rays or radioactivity. One is damage of cells due to the oxidation of the molecules within. the regeneration and survival of a given body is similar to that of any machine. “Misuse of the body through unhealthy habits (drugs.that some scientists are now claiming that through decoding the human genome. as scientists would point out. However. As per the article. If only we had the Methuselah formula! A computer scientist working in a biology laboratory at Cambridge. Damage is an ongoing process which is substantiated by the body’s repair machinery built-in. In effect. smoke and chemicals or also during the process of chromosomes’ inability to make exact copies of themselves as cells multiply. called Aubrey de Grey has some remarkable ideas on this issue. 5:27). And the Biblical patriarch (Methuselah) apparently lived 969 years (Book of Genesis.K. who was blessed by Siva to be sixteen years old forever. This could be due to environmental assaults like radiation. decreasing longevity. diabetes) promote damage and decay. Indeed oxidative damage is what occurs when we inhale smoke. it would be possible for human beings to live between 200 to 600 years. expose ourselves to excessive sunlight. all oxidation is burning or cooking.. The article gives example of Markandeya from Indian mythology. with time damage accumulates. But what is the best way to do the opposite and lengthen life is not all that clear. U. It is here that much advice and many formulae are offered.

The fourth is the problem of the built-in ‘inefficiency’ in the way DNA is packaged in our chromosomes. it gives energy as a byproduct. collects them and clears them out of the system. in the near future. One is to have a handy supply of molecules called antioxidants that counteract oxidative damage. C and E are examples. called the telomere. but it needs to be fine-tuned and controlled. dementia and Alzeimer’s. Many cells in our body have molecular machinery that identifies damaged molecules and their debris. The third factor is the policemen set-up that cells have in order to monitor and repair any damage that happens to the genetic tape. A second factor he invites our attention to is the presence of the garbage-clearing mechanism in cells. and finding ways and means of doing so over years would help lengthen the life span of an organism. Dr de Grey argues that modern biology may well have solutions to this problem if not today. de Grey suggests that regular antioxidant intake would control oxidative damage and reduce this lifethreatening risk factor. Vitamins A. Sure. The body has two protective mechanisms to control and overcome the ill effects here. . a tiny piece of DNA at the end of the chromosome. and tissues and organs kept in good order. It is not clear yet how we can keep this security system safe from timedependent loss of efficiency and to last forever.molecules and robs them of their once intended function. namely DNA. So are the substances present in many green vegetables and fruits. Not doing so leads to disorders and diseases such as senility. Dr. and the manner in which chromosomes make copies of themselves when cells are multiplied and turned over. Otherwise. Each time such copying is made. Keeping this machinery in good shape. it can lead to damage and disaster.

(2) means to keep the garbage-clearing machinery in order. telomerase) that can actually stop this telomere clipping. The Five-fold path towards Methuselah would involve (1) daily antioxidant intake. Substances that activate this enzyme will surely be toted as ‘Kayakalpa’ lost. the little powerhouses within cells that help the controlled oxidation of food using oxygen and generate energy for the cell. It does not seem to have any known function related to metabolism or reproduction – the two elements that together define life. If we can find a mechanism to reduce or get rid of this telomere-loss. The fifth factor that Dr. (4) find ways to keep telemores from clipping off and (5) have the mitochondria operate full-stream and fault-free. determining the life span of the individual. There is an enzyme (called. (3) repair damage to the DNA on a continuous basis. and offers a prize for those who can produce a ‘Methuselah Mouse’. a male laboratory mouse. Indeed. de Grey ’s belief is that if we focus research and find methods to realize these and other such lifeextending goals. This telomere loss is apparently a longevity clock. Dr. he has thrown a challenge to researchers to realize this first in experimental animal models. de Grey highlights is the action of the mitochondria. human longevity could be as much as 200 years. The coveted title is held by Yoda. Any defect or deficiency here would compromise cell efficiency. Indeed many disorders of the central nervous system and the brain are increasingly being identified as due to mitochondrial malfunction and keep the mitochondria operating full-throttle would help the body in full heath and hopefully extend life. perhaps we can lengthen life. which turned four in April . what else. It is vital therefore that mitochondria are kept in tiptop condition.

Suppose the person lives outside this realm of time. Won’t the Einstein’s theory of relativity hold good for him? Outside factors like environmental effects like those of radiation. Moreover. Siva and Imam Mahdi. This translates to 136 human years. as the Muslims believe in the case of Jesus. how can there be any doubt? Secondly. why can’t it happen to the one whose praise is even done by Siva on several occasions? You will find several quotes of Lord Siva in this book from various Upanishads that confirm this. smoke) and eating practices contribute to this. This shows that even life and death have been given under the control of these Masooms. Even if this is not the case. We have seen that one of the deva is called Mrtyu (death) and even Husain is known by the name Yama (Lord of death). structural biology is quoted to tell that damage accumulates in time. it is said that there is an angel deputed to retrieve spirit. something that Muslims never knew till now. . which eventually leads to death. Those who were sent by God to tell us the perfect way to lead life must surely be aware of this. If God decides to give life of 1200 odd years to one of His creations. which are also cited as reasons for degeneration won’t show their effect.last. Misuse of the body through unhealthy habits (drugs.” The first reason mentioned is divine intervention because of which Markandeya was blessed to be sixteen years old. Those who themselves control death can live for as long as they wish. smoke and chemicals. Gita has extensively dwelled on the importance of food and right living. If that can be the case of one blessed by Siva. both are responsible for the creation of this world. it is clear that they are the best creation of God. who has already given long lives to several ordinary beings in the past (Bible gives several examples).

Who else would know how to lead a perfect life than one who has knowledge and control of all things? Another factor is the policemen set-up that cells have in order to monitor and repair any damage that happens to the genetic tape. However. They were those who kept saying. in the case of Methuselah who lived 969 years. it can be presumed that there is no garbage at all. ‘Ask before I depart’ and if none asked significant questions. Only those who believe there’s no God would say that . If that is the case. The One Self who can create 14 as exact copies so much so that the Upanishads as well as Mohammad vouched for their exact similarity can also create the mechanism through which the copies are exactly similar. Degeneration occurs when a copy is Photostatted and then the Photostatted copy is Photostatted. It is no wonder that those who are given control over our organs of senses and action may also be policing this area. you are in possession of the original file and also the printer. Degeneration is also said to occur in recopying of the DNA. The writer has also talked of a longevity clock. set through loss of DNA part. can prolong life. thereby no fear of garbage-clearing mechanism to fail.Garbage-clearing mechanism in cells of our body is described in detail. it shows that perfect or near-perfect healthy living including the perfect diet in the way it has to be taken. no degeneration would occur. or scanned and copy printed. Even otherwise. it may well have solutions to this problem. various Upanishads are clearly describing that they were created from the pure essence of the Nature. each time during copying. Scientists believe that through further advancements in modern biology. In case. it was not the fault of one who had all the answers.

the Vishnu Purana gives an account of the future happenings. If a mouse can be made to live equivalent to 136 human years while put in human-made perfect conditions. as per which our sins are leading to the decay of the world. see what the Puranas have to say subsequently: that we are all heading towards destruction and the only way in which we can save ourselves is through going back to the Vedas. If you find it to be true. air. Krishna has called the knowledge of our self as the best of sciences. why do we find difficult to believe that those made as perfect by God or in other words. kept in Godly-perfect conditions can’t live 1360 years? This writer is of belief that the devas would have never died on this earth. thereby meaning the radioactivity and the X-rays. We do not know even a bit about this self at the moment. This book on the lines of the various religious scriptures is not for those who do not believe in God. sun and the moon. In the end. living and non-living beings are created because of them. all elements present in the earth. water. The Views of the Puranas In Chapter XXIV. all gases present in the air. we have all reasons to believe that changes brought out by outside forces or internal degenerative forces cannot have any effect on these persons. Is it that the self also plays a part in the longevity.this clock couldn’t be reset or set with a different life right at the beginning. What would all the wealth do. had their lives not been put unceremoniously to end by the evil forces. Read this account and see if it is a true description of our society. This is something that is even endorsed by Gita. and the one with the selfrealized soul lives more? We will have to confess that we know nothing about this science. Moreover. that we . as the earth.

and ever addicted to falsehood and wickedness. the people will perish. wealthy will be the only source of devotion. kings of churlish spirit. passion will be the sole bond of union between the sexes. falsehood will be the only means of success in litigation. Initial account seems to be mentioning the Muslim invaders. which have been fitted into the original account of the Puranas. reigning over the earth. children. when our children or grandchildren are no longer present to take benefit. simple ablution will be purification. we have no choice but to go back to the true path taught in Vedas and other scriptures. Wealth and piety will decrease day by day. Earth will be venerated but for its mineral treasures. they will seize upon the property of their subjects. their desires insatiable. and the barbarians being powerful in the patronage of the princes. if we want our children and grandchildren to live to enjoy the bounties of this world. weakness will be the cause of dependence. and cows. Then property alone will confer rank. Even if we do not believe in life after death. whilst purer tribes are neglected. menace and presumption will be substituted for learning. and women will be objects merely of sensual gratification. mutual assent will be marriage. They will inflict death on women. violent temper. dishonesty will be the universal means of subsistence. fine . The people of the various countries intermingling with them will follow their example.accumulate irrespective of means. and they will display but little piety. See what the Vishnu Purana says: “These will all be contemporary monarchs. their lives will be short. liberality will be devotion. external types (as the staff and red garb) will be the only distinctions of the several orders of life. they will be of limited power. and will for the most part rapidly rise and fall. the Brahmanical thread will constitute a Brahman. until the world will be wholly depreaved. (Now commences the account of our life of today).

unable to bear the heavy burdens imposed upon them by their avaricious sovereigns. and the close of the Kali age shall be nigh. until the human race approaches its annihilation. The account of the birth of this deva is different from the traditions of the Shias. It is clearly stated that he still exists of his own spiritual nature in the character of Brahma. will take refuge amongst the valleys of the mountain. Instead. and who comprehends all things. fruits. No man’s life will exceed three and twenty years. Mahdi or the Kalki avatar? He is the last of the fourteen devas about whom we have already given a detailed chapter from Shia sources. and they will be exposed to the cold. and rain.” See how clearly the coming of the last remaining portion of Brahma is described. their only covering will be the bark of trees. There is only one difference though. it is said that the Kalki avatar will take birth at Sambhala in Moradabad District in India. flowers. Thus in the Kali Age shall decay constantly proceed. and who is the beginning and the end. a portion of that divine being who exists of his own spiritual nature in the character of Brahma. herbs. Amidst all castes he who is the strongest will reign over a principality thus vitiated by many faults. and water afar off will be esteemed a holy spring. and wind. roots. and leaves. particularly in regard to the mention of the identity of these Divine Persons. It is possible that Meru and Makkah or something else was here which the pen of the editors changed. and sun. Shias are of the opinion that he was born about 1200 years back and then . The people. shall descend upon earth. When the practices taught by the Vedas and the institutes of law shall nearly have ceased. and he is the beginning and the end. as we have cited that they have been doing all through in Puranas.clothes will be dignity. Do we need to tell that this is the Imam or Aditya of this age. and will be glad to feed upon wild honey.

or age of purity. and the minds of those who live at the end of the Kali age shall be awakened. but we have chosen not to include that here. As long as his sacred feet touched the earth. before the last of the Imams will appear. He will then re-establish righteousness upon earth. endowed with the eight superhuman faculties. as Kalki. and shall give birth to race who shall follow the laws of the Krita age. an eminent Brahman of Sambhala village. and shall be as pellucid as crystal. At present. and all whose minds are devoted to iniquity. it was this itself that was in all likelihood mentioned here which has been changed to him taking birth in Sambhala in India. and the lunar asterism Tishya. and planet Jupiter are in one mansion. then the Kali age commenced. “It is also said that when the portion of Vishnu returned to heaven. and will make an appearance at Kaaba. As it is said: “When the sun and moon. We are not saying this without any reason and will give proof of our statement a short time afterwards. Actually. the Kali age could not affect it.” Now here is the proof of our statement that the .” Note that even the Shia traditions give some peculiar description about the solar and lunar eclipses. we give the subsequent description as it is given in the available copies of The Vishnu Purana. but still continues to live by the grace of God. As soon as the incarnation of the eternal Vishnu had departed … and thence forward the influence of the Kali will augment (which consists of 1200 years).disappeared from public view at a young age by the order of God. to show us the right path and rid the world of its evils. By his irresistible might he will destroy all the Mlechchhas and thieves. The men who are thus changed by virtue of that peculiar time shall be as the seeds of human beings. “He will be born in the family of Vishnuyasas. at an appropriate time. the Krita age shall return.

Whatever be the case. we do not know whether Vishnu Purana means exact 1200 years or ‘about 1200 years’ as per which 10-20 years more or less would be acceptable. Even if we believe that the avatar would take place in Sambhala in India. But with no such incident in our knowledge. Even if all this is not true. Also next line says that as soon as the incarnation of the eternal Vishnu had departed. say 50 years from now. which mention the names of devas or had apparent relationship to Islam. and will continue for 1200 years. as desired by the devas. we have little choice but to fall back on the Shia version. We have something to say to people like Khushwant . Life on this earth is too short in comparison to the life hereafter. It would be naive to think that the Kalki avatar is yet to take birth and then the Kali age would commence and continue for 1200 years. returned to heaven. why don’t we keep in mind that none of us enjoying this world would be alive. as per which 1169 years have already passed since the birth of Mahdi (1164 since his disappearance). as nearly all the conditions described in the aforementioned account are already applicable. Is it not reason enough to live a life of virtue and righteousness. the Kali age would augment. Just a few lines later. It is also stated that as long as his sacred feet touched the earth. That person didn’t bother to change the later lines as he was only hurriedly changing the passages. then we will have to believe that the avatar has already taken birth and now it is approaching the end of those 1200 years. the Kali age could not affect it. it is better that we start preparing for an eternal life in the heavens rather than reaping benefits in this world and living an eternal life in hell.text relating to the birth of the Kalki avatar in Moradabad was added by some mischievous person at a later date. it is clearly stated that the Kali age commenced when the portion of Vishnu (who will make a reappearance).

Singh. At least you won’t have to run for cover when a God suddenly surfaces at the moment of your death. due to the long period of his invisibility. You have already seen earlier that an Imam had predicted that people would start having doubts about Mahdi. and the close of the Kali age shall be nigh. just suppose for a moment that you are wrong in your assumption. even if your mind could not conceive the presence of a God. and there indeed is a God. would be hell! We deviated again! See how the following narration regarding the Kalki avatar in the Vishnu Purana and that of Shias we have told earlier. who are proud to say that they do not believe in God. What will you do then? Is it not better to pay obeisance to an invisible. shall descend upon earth.” If these are not enough proofs of our view. there is another. as we all were in our understanding of the Vedas till this date. unfathomable God. “When the practices taught by the Vedas and the institutes of law shall nearly have ceased. a portion of that divine being who exists of his own spiritual nature in the character of Brahma. and who comprehends all things. are exactly similar. If nothing. Perhaps the Purana also knew that people would start having doubts about the very .Singh. as you have seen on TV the case of people running from Tsunami waves. There are several psychological and physical advantages of worshipping God and social advantages of living a righteous life. if you wish to call it so. and who is the beginning and the end. Death would not occur then because you are already dead. this verily is proof that a God exists. no cover would be available then and all those running from him would be pulled back towards his power. Dear Mr. Remember. Vishnu Purana too states that 1200 years would be the time between the portion of Vishnu returning to heaven and his appearance again. and do good deeds. But the life.

Vishnu Purana starts talking of those who have been living for even a greater time. In this manner the earth is possessed through every series of the three first ages. Treta and Dwapara. Two persons.” . residing at the village of Kalapa: they will return hither in the beginning of the Krita age. Therefore. Vaisyas and Sudras. in the same way as Devapi and Maru are still in existence. excellent Brahmans. from several hundred years. including Jesus are alive since their birth but the Ashab-e-Kahf too continue to live since prior to Mohammad’s time. Devapi of the race of Puru. the Krita. See how the Vishnu Purana narrates the case of two persons who are still living. by the sons of the Manu. Kshatriyas.presence of Vishnu due to his long life. through the force of devotion continue alive throughout the whole four ages. that too from a period much prior to the time when this Kalki avatar disappeared. from their great number and the repetition of appellations it would involve. the Christian and Jew scriptures clearly states that certain people are still living. and Maru of the family of Ikshwaku. and becoming members of the family of the Manu. whose names and tribes and families I have not enumerated to you. Not only the Hindu. so as to give us a proof that this avatar would indeed live for 1200 years. give origin to the Kshatriya dynasties. We quote: “Thus age after age Brahmans. have passed away by thousands. to serve as the rudiments of renewed generations. and some remain in the Kali age. Muslims are of the opinion that non only three Apostles. immediately after talking about these 1200 years. Vishnu Purana refers to the two persons and says that even they would come and become part of this Manu’s family. men of great souls.

time has come to reveal their true meaning. Show us the straight path. they sometimes recognized it as God. the more the constituents of His Power united to reveal His truthfulness. This is the reason why. nor will He ever come. they tried to inflict pain on Him through the attack of their tongue. All praises are to God who is the sustainer and creator the worlds. . and bless us that we remain steadfast and do not digress. Theirs is the only path to bliss and salvation! God is the name of a Mighty Power. very much like your beloved devas. But the God was silent till now. remained steadfast against all kinds of tortures inflicted upon them. that had remained one path from the period of Adam. He Himself has never come in front. sometimes as son of God. upon seeing the functioning of this Self or Spirit. His Might and Power. Because he knew that no attempt has been left undone to guide. and sometimes as the lion of God. We worship You alone and seek assistance only from You. and all those words whose meaning He had kept hidden till now. who is forgiving and kind. in Quran and elsewhere. He was silent that He would talk face to face only near the time of Resurrection. The more they tried to harm Him. But as Ali had said and all Imams endorsed. the most merciful. and who is the master of the Day of Judgment. Thinking that He was alone and helpless. the most beneficent. so as to weaken Him. People of the world tried to pull down this Mighty Power. on whom you have bestowed all riches and save us from the path that mislead.Time to Arrive In the name of God. his messengers and torchbearers even tried to lead the way.

It was for Him that the Messengers and Imams faced all the hardships. the God wants to show the real meaning of Imamate. We are talking of removing the individuality to seek the Unity. They did not even cared for their lives and relations in His love and in attempt to prove His Unity. And the world will know His Power. If you join in you are welcome. How sad those who claim to be in love of them. from the point of view of the Creator. they too have not recognized them till date. or in the calamities that occur. then He is seen. now is the time to prove the truthfulness of those very beings. Through these. He was the One who is called God! After seeing how He is slowly revealing the truth about them. When would that day come? God alone knows the answer and none else! It was He who had sent the Messengers and Imams.if you look from the eyes of your heart. from the point of view of His Blessings. His Truthfulness. The day is not far when He will show the Spirit of God (Jesus) as witness to these Divine Powers. try to apprehend the Power of your Lord. those whose love some of us already claim to have in our heart. Their truthfulness. those who sit on lofty pulpits to shower praises on them. God wants to tell them that He is not going to send any new Messenger or Imam. but of revealing the truthfulness of . His Might! The truthfulness of His Message will be such that the world. be it in clouds. those whose praises are as it is being done by few. Now God is trying to prove their truthfulness in front of the world. in particular the pious and the truthful. trees. the truthfulness of His Imams. We are not talking of eulogizing a few personalities. the purpose of their sacrifices – all would be made known to man. plants. They had done all this to show the way to God. Those whom we already know. will have to accept it and the world will see.

Lest you are late! Lest the door gets close! ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ All praises are justified on the God of all the worlds. I have taken refuge in safety of the Almighty God where none can infiltrate. How did they forget that we have to return to the one whom we call God? How. by giving sacrifices. It can be the case of Imam Ali. Or it can be the case of Imam Hasan. Now is the time for the seekers of truth to take a step forward after realizing the power of your God. We are talking of identifying those who sacrificed themselves so as to make us understand the Oneness of the Almighty God. so as to demarcate a line between truth and evil! All Imams remained steadfast even when . The world will differentiate the difference between the truthful and the wayward. Nobody has ever challenged him nor anybody would ever be able to do so. This is the message for all of us! The role of the Messenger is to pass the message. whom none can bring dishonour.the institution of Imamate. The torchbearer leads by showing the example. who took back the compilation done by him when he saw opposition from the Companions of Prophet. are they planning to hold on to the trunk when the next Tsunami would come? God has decided that He will vindicate the truth. who remained steadfast in opting for peace against Muawiya in spite of all provocations. And nobody can subdue Him and I am in the army of one who cannot be defeated. I have given myself to seek protection from God that cannot be broken. Or the sacrifice of his life by Imam Husain. I have taken God to be my neighbour whom none can stop and I have sought shelter in the Honour of God. by remaining steadfast in spite of all calamities. when they have themselves weakened the roots. The truthful will forecast the truth while the untruthful will forecast the evil in order to suppress the truth.

Satan. Don’t look at your relationships. it is also time to destroy all the boundaries of religions. What had happened till now was the plan of Satan. Not against humanity. Think of the Power and Might of God and all else will become insignificant.they had to face tortures. for sacrifice. But instead of treating it as an example to guide them. now what would happen would be against the planning of Satan. they treated it as a storybook. too. it works at the instance of God. by initiating hatred and discord among . even if their lives were curtailed in the pursuit. who are no more among you to bring about a change in themselves. One who is considered as a common man. Allah is a greater planner. in their pursuit of truth. his soul is not that of common men. Gets his work done by instigating one against other. so that people discard all the previous differences. Try to stop thinking about the people of the world and think of the next world in a renewed manner. If the people of the world object to coming of angels among us in garb of men. The last Imam is now going to show the way. The 11 Imams have clearly shown their stance to the world. they do not waver. Now that the time has come to put an end to this world. when He desires. that was peace. for righteousness. don’t allow fear of the society to grip you. They did this because they wanted to elongate the life of this world. all discords. he make angels come in the form of man to get his work done from a common man like you or me. works in the same manner. then Quran is witness that that two angels had come in the past whose names were Harut and Marut. Krishna had already told that evil ways lead to decay of the world. at the beliefs of your forefathers. They tried their best to prolong the life of the world. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ They planned and in return Allah planned and verily.

as the true religion is the Message of God. they would weep and lament. Through this spirit. God never comes to desire anything from you. ever commit such atrocities on anybody. they would remember the atrocities of Yazid and the character of Husain. it would be this sacrifice that would unite all under one banner. Such was his faith in God that whatever would happen would happen from His wish and whatever is happening now too is happening from His wish. Yes! He indeed can send his wrath. even if somebody try to digress you from the path of truth through the lure of money or position. their spirits are trying their best to tell you that you didn’t follow the path shown by us. People would continue to remember God and his Messenger through this sacrifice. Whosoever gives that message? Be it the Messenger. who gave all his water to the army of the enemy. see it as a word from God. be it the Torchbearer! The love of that Message is your faith. Whatever they say. His message was that none of the followers of the Prophet of Allah. The sacrifice was given because wherever people would talk of the sacrifice.people. God had foretold the events of his sacrifice because the Prophet of God was alive at that time to announce his Imamat and to show that it would be this sacrifice that would continue to guide his followers for all time to come. like your Lord Husain – even if the lives of children are taken . your religion. then don’t budge from truth. without thinking what would happen of his children. none of the believers of Quran. on not believing in the message of his messengers. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ At the time of Imam Husain’s birth. Also.don’t leave the . Otherwise. you altered the purpose of such a great sacrifice – the sacrifice of Husain – instead of uniting. you used it as purpose to disunite. all the Messengers and Torchbearers who have passed.

it is God who can turn dishonour into honour. considering it to be the voice of all of God’s spirits together. Instead. You are not content over seeing the content of those who are close to you. and God alone can change the hatred among you with love and peace. God alone can bestow honour. in this world and the next. it is God who can turn hatred into love. Now the world will see what the God can do. This is the reason why each Messenger. and hatred. then alone can these spirits.path shown by God and His Prophet. can help and assist you. That time would come when the Day of Resurrection would be . The lovers of God can be recognized by their happiness in the happiness of others. by their sorrow in the sorrows of other. Or else you would be in loss. If you had treaded on the path shown by Husain. Listen to the voice of the last torchbearer. all men of all religions have left the rope of God and cling to each other for support. God alone can make you fall you ill. each Torchbearer led a life in fear of God and gave only one message – be afraid of His power. The true knowledge of his message in his scriptures had been kept hidden from you and only God knew when He would tell their meaning. then you should have kept in mind that it is God who gives life to the dead. this indeed is the path of Satan if you feel jealous over happiness of others. You feel God can do nothing. you treaded on the path shown by Satan. ill will. His name is only to instill fear in us! People of the world forget that Quran talks of patience and peace. When the people of this world would leave the path of truth and would seek more closeness to the path shown by Satan. You are so confident of powers at hand that you feel you can do anything. through the command of God. Leaving a few beloved people of God. God alone dishonour. if you keep evil. even our own lives are not in our control. It is He who alone can give child to the childless.

near. The world would decay to such an extent that blood relations would bear jealousy to each other, then the world would see how the power of that One God would crush the Satanic forces. Then they would realize its meaning, its significance! ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ That incident from life of Imam Ali has been repeated on countless occasions by those who claim to be in love with him, when needy kept coming continuously for three days at the time of breaking fast and Ali and each of the members of his family gave their food to them, and kept fast on fast for three consecutive days. Then we got to know from the word of God that it was Gabriel who was coming as per the wish of God to test the Jehad of their souls. Through this incident God wanted to give the message that we should not treat the poor badly. Through this incident the world should keep in mind that God’s power too can be working behind that poor. But all the words of Quran and Hadees have become mere stories. And those who claim to be in love of these spirits of God are engrossed in all evils. We forget that we are from God and have to return to Him after death. It is He through whom we get the progeny, it is He through whom we get our parents, and it is He through whom we get our spouses. God wants to show that you would always remain Mine and not even for a moment would you be able to tread out of His power. Even if you create your religions in the name of My creations, even if you divide his earth in the name of countries – you all are Mine and would return to Me. Then there would only be two religions – right and wrong, sinful and sinless, My criminal and innocent, in return for you good there is the bliss of heaven, in return to your wrong, there is the fire of hell. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ

Children are taught in theology that God is one. Secondly they are taught that He is Just. He does not do Injustice because doing Injustice is against His nature. Why did God raise the subject of Justice? This is so because this debate continues, particularly in India and Pakistan. Fight only upon the instructions of Messenger or Imam and seek peace upon their instructions. This is so because all their acts are in the hands of God alone. They act only as per instruction of God. And Allah’s Power is such that He is aware what is to happen in future. If God would know that the enemy would be defeated through a fight, He would ask for a fight. If He would think that the enemy would be defeated through peace, then He would go for peace. Those who are aware know that the teachings of Islam were saved by the sacrifices of the children and adult in Karbala. In order to gain victory for God’s teachings, the Imam gave away his life. In order to uphold truth and vanquish evil! God’s victory is even in the death of the Imam. God knows His way and nobody can bring dishonour on anybody nor can anybody bestow honour on the other person. We cannot wipe out anybody. What all happen, happens from God. Man is not in control of his own life, his own affairs. When he lives with this thought, each step is taken in the God’s way. If he fears God, how is it that God won’t send help? If he is ill, how is it that he won’t get treated? If he is sad, how is it that he won’t be made happy? One who is in discord, how is it that he won’t get love? How is it that he won’t come to the true path? Then God will solve the problems of all. That day verily is called the victory of God. That is why it is not allowed to take or give life without the presence of Prophet or Imam, even if you call yourself a true champion of your faith. What is the will of God at this moment, you are not aware. Neither the Spirits are with you, nor God! And you end up giving your life

needlessly! What you are calling Jehad is actually murder of the innocents. That is why such a derogatory name ‘terrorist’ has been labeled against you. You cannot even say with pride that your child has died in the way of God. Because you did not follow your parent either! Such disobedient subjects are you! That is why God raised this voice from Hindustan. People are lovers of God and His Prophets but they have no true knowledge. Because even when they read the scriptures, they do not understand its meaning. They offer prayers, supplicate, bow down, show respect, but are not aware of the meanings. With time, they deviated from the Path of God. This is the reason why the Spirits have decided to convey their message in Hindustan. This is the reason why Husain, when he was surrounded, had expressed wish to go to India. He could come himself, but by the Will of God, the Spirits came to this country. And miracles started happening. The greatest of love for God, He created among the Hindustanis. God wants to awake those very Hindustanis, including Hindustani Muslims, from their slumber. Days of the Satan’s kingdom are numbered. You are the creature of God but the God is angry of your deeds and Satan has reasons to be pleased. Satan has started feeling that he has emerged victorious and completed the pledge that he made to God. When he had refused to pay obeisance to Adam, and the God was displeased, he had asked for time till the Day of Resurrection. His mission is to mislead us from God. As true creatures of God, our mission should be to go back to Him with renewed vigour. The spirits wish to tell us to start living by the way of God, so that when we die, we are on the true path of God. Our lives are His, your lives are His. That is why suicide is prohibited. Taking some one’s life and

giving one’s own life has become a child’s play in this world. They are sitting in their houses. Neither are they fighting with anybody nor obstructing anybody from his way of worship. But the self-declared protectors of religion are torching the houses of the innocent. All in the name of religion! Is this the message of any messenger? Indeed, it is the will of God to fight alongside the Messenger when He would come. Then, if you refrain from doing so, and opt for love of your life or that of your relatives, then you would be on wrong. We have come back to the same point. Life has been given by God! If He wishes He can take it when you are sleeping amidst the safety of your house. When He has control over your lives, why don’t you give it when He demands it? But never with your own choice, as is happening all over the world. Never without the decree of a Prophet or His true messenger! Even if it is Rama! In order to save Sita, those who didn’t care for their lives, and fought on the side of Rama, are worthy of respect. Those who were with Ravana are subject of derision even today. Those who kept watching the incidents passively, they have gone in oblivion, buried under the sands of time. In all times, the true lovers of Messengers of God have continued to give sacrifices, either through the path of fighting against the evils of the self within, or through the path of fighting in an armed conflict. Even if they had to sacrifice their lives. They were on the true path. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ In the Name of God, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful It is being said in Dua-e-Sabasab that they couldn’t hold their head up who came against Me. “Verily, he failed. And one who held enmity with Me perished. Through the aid of God, I have become satisfied and successful. I have held on to the rope of God whose

strength gives me support. Now, forever, neither am I afraid of the uprisings and neither are their uprisings going to harm me. Neither can deceit of the deceitful nor jealousy of the jealous, none would look at me, none would find me.” When the Messengers of God got fed up with the people, then they used to ask for miracle as sign. God used to give them miracle at the same time send punishment for those people who rejected the Messengers of God. This is the distinction of the 14 Masooms that in spite of the fact that they had to bear extreme hardships, they never prayed against them. Instead they prayed to God to show them the way and in spite of all the injustice meted out to them, they also endeavoured to remove the beastliness and not the beasts so as to wake up the humanity from its slumber. Out of the Messengers, the people of Jesus were saved from the wrath of God because the spirit of Jesus had been lifted alive and he continues to live in order to show the way to his people. Fact is that Jesus was saved for today, so that a Prophet as well as an Imam testifies to the institutions of Prophethood and Imamate. It has been left on the Spirit of God (Jesus) to deny or accept these institutions. After all, he is accepted as the son of God. That time is about to come when Jesus will appear to deny or accept the Prophethood of Mohammad and the Imamate of Mahdi. Those who fear God would prepare themselves to face the Divine Messengers even prior to the time when they would come, so that they are not counted in the enemies of truth. Now is the time to put the house in order. When it is not possible to run or hide away from God, the best preparation is to prepare to face Him. O Shias, if you do not believe in the presence of four spirits, who would come to reveal the truth, who would testify each other prior to the end of the world,

then you should change your names. If you take the name of the Imam of our time, and your acts are such that do not befit the companions of the Imam, then it is better that you stop calling yourself one of his friends. Or else, get to the worship of the God, as this is what the Imam desire from you. The Imam has moved from Ghaybat-e-Kubra (longer period of occultation) to Ghaybat-e-Sughra (shorter period of preparing for arrival). Until you are not fully prepared for his arrival, he will continue to reach you through writing. Think coolly, this world is existing because that day is to come, that day is near, God’s promise of the Day of Resurrection is about to be fulfilled. Just ponder who is going to loose if you criticize them, if you do not accept them. It is God who will decide what is good and what is bad. You have pained the hearts of innocent on countless occasions. God Himself feels pain when any of his truthful or innocent feels pain. You criticized them, you inflicted injury on them, you laughed at them, you mocked at them – beware, lest God sends His wrath upon seeing the pain of His innocent creatures. If you don’t want to believe, don’t believe, but beware, don’t make others deviate from their path. After such clear examples, if the world still acts in that manner, how sad it is. Time is now to accept them, lest you want to feel disgraced a few days later. If God is happy, the world is happy, if He is angry, the world is useless. The Satan would try to show faults, he would try to lead you astray, and it is your job to stick to the path. Then that day is sure going to come, for which you had prepared or not prepared, it is up to you to decide, for tomorrow may be too late. It seems you have decided not to take lessons. Instead, you have tried to show them as fools or insane who accepted the message. Not for a moment you thought how much of pain are you inflicting on the Masooms,

neither did you think for yourself, nor for the well-being and happiness of your children, all these happiness has been given by God, but you never gave it a thought. The sole purpose of the Spirit is to show the world to the right path. The wrath of the God has to come, that has already been decided. Nobody would be able to run away from it. Where would he run from God? Satan himself is to be on run soon, where would his followers go? If some body makes fun of you, listen to them, if some body inflict pain on you, bear it, if somebody talks ill of you, don’t hit back. Leave everything on God. The more you will leave your affairs to Him, the more you will find Him involved in your affairs. Keep moving on the path of God, all would have the cause to be happy. Masooms, Prophets and God. Neither would you have reason to regret, that you will surely see. People say they hold the Masooms dear. Their acts show they don’t. How can somebody call himself to be one of their companions when his acts themselves betray. They want to associate themselves with the truthful; they themselves are far from truth! They want to hold on to the just; injustice has pervaded their affairs. They were the upholders of virtue, of love, of sacrifice, of peace while their affairs show their love is for the Satan. Don’t be like those who used to call themselves in love of the Ahlebayts, but did not come to their aid when the enemies had surrounded them. Even after death, their corpses kept lying in the open for 40 days, yet the lovers of the Masooms were nowhere to be seen. So many people cry for the Imams, lament that if they had been at Karbala, they would have helped the Imams, but their test is yet to be taken. Those who were in Kufa at the time of Husain failed the test; it remains to be seen whether the modern day followers would stand up

1400 years after Mohammad. Now that He has started the negative count. lets hope He still follows His practice. 2000 years after Jesus has passed. we are nobody to complain! ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ . Quran has even told what happened to the people of Loot or Samud or countless such tribes when they denied the truth in spite of repeated efforts to lead them to it. The path has been laid open before you. The time is now to act! It will pass before you would know their claim. If he doesn’t. God has refrained from sending his wrath on the followers of Jesus and Mohammad.

who had troubled Moses all through his life. man kept deviating from the true path. deviated so much so by the time of Jesus that they denied his prophethood tooth and nail. In Part-I. This was in spite of the fact that Jesus brought no new teachings and always claimed to be following the teachings of Moses. . and we have to be on our guard at all times.Deviations Among the Indo-Aryans It cannot be said precisely when. including food from heavens that continued to come for a long time. lest Satan finds his way inside us. rather opposition to them. It seems that deviations kept happening at all times. This shows that it is possible for seemingly the most righteous of men to deviate within a matter of days. time and again. we have shown the reasons that necessitated the coming of Krishna and his teachings. Quran has mentioned in detail how the followers of Moses kept asking for signs and benefits from God. in order to correct the false beliefs of the people and lead them back to the worship of One God. The same Jews. led to the war of Mahabharata. In fact. We have also seen that Krishna’s war was fought against those who claimed themselves to be the true champions of religion. This is very similar to the case of Moses. It required only a prolonged stay of about a week of Moses on top of the mountain for them to deviate. they tried their best to kill him. yet were found wanting when the time came to stand up to their convictions and beliefs. Yet. how and under what circumstances deviations occurred among the IndoAryans. who was disclaimed by the people amongst whom he was sent. Messengers and Prophets too kept coming.

Those out of adherents of the teachings of Moses accepted the teachings of Jesus were still the acceptors of truth. along with the links that he foretold to complete the chain. See. so much so that Christianity appeared an altogether different religion by the time Mohammad came to culminate the teachings of the true path. Out of them. But this too is a sad reality that paths for deviations are always open. when faced with adverse circumstances or lure of position and money. most left the side of Husain. A very small segment continued to remain loyal to the 12 Imams. in spite of all attempts by Quran and Mohammad to confirm his claim. Out of these. after Mohammad. In the same manner. Those who accepted Ali as the rightful successor were Shias. those who denied the caliphate to Ali. A section of those who continued to remain loyal to the first five Imams deviated when they broke the chain after 6 and hence sects like Ismailis. but those who denied Jesus after him were deviated. were deviated. how simple it is to get deviated! with the subject of Indo-Aryans and Krishna somewhere else. Not that there were no true adherents of these messengers. majority deviated on the other side when they continued to remain loyal to the Imams but belittled the worship of God and some more would deviate when false Mahdis would come prior to the coming of the last Proof of Allah. Those who accepted Moses as messenger were the seekers of truth. Agha Khanis and others originated. Thankfully we realized it have corrected it but didn’t do so for it to We started and ended and could remain an . some got into suspicion when the wait of the 12th Imam became endless. Seekers of truth had always remained in this world.Jesus departed and those who gave the name of Christianity to his teachings corrupted that true path shown by him. but those who denied Mohammad after him were deviated.

Fact of the matter is that prior to Vedas. Yet. At this point. we are tempted to say that if Mahdi comes to fight and kill those who claim to be following Quran as well as Mahdi. There were kings who wanted their mode of religion to be adhered by the subjects. and yet have deviated from the path they show.example for you. began to consume milk. it should not come as a surprise. corruption and all acts of evil and those forbidden by God. violence. A day was enough to reinforce our beliefs in idols when they. in the post Krishna period passing through Buddha and till this time. There was a period of about 1000 years when Buddhism reigned supreme and some of their rulers even tried forcefully to make the people follow their path. that was perhaps blind worship. even a Tsunami could have triggered worship of the sea. greed. In older times. with certain degree of spiritual powers. after Vedas and prior to Krishna. Likewise. Our beliefs are so fickle that keep changing with time. Krishna was the greatest champion of the teachings of the Vedas but fought those who claimed to be the followers of Vedas. People were largely ignorant and hence it . all across India. Merely two hundred years back. This is the same in matters related to religion. Rama waged a war against one who claimed to be a devotee of Siva and had worshipped Siva exceedingly in the past. injustice. Indo-Aryans surely must have passed through several hostile periods where it was not easy to remain on the true path. as Ravana failed to see that supplication to God can never by a physical exercise alone and true suppliant has to bade farewell to false ego. nobody would have ever thought people would be standing in queue to supplicate in front of the image of a fakir. lust. Our purpose was to express that Messengers of God came to correct those who had deviated from the true path.

that the person they had waited for. with no state patronage in Buddhist. In return the Prophet sent a companion of his to inform the people of India about Mohammad’s teachings. there were more chances of digression. History has also recounted an incident that an entire group went to Medina in the time of Prophet Mohammad himself.was easy to circulate myths and propaganda. and sung hymns in praise so that they come down on earth. Adherents of True Teachings in Medieval Times Those were the times when learning was limited to the Brahmans. This explains why it were the Brahmans who went all the way to Iraq to fight along side Husain in Karbala. the British closed all madrasas and pathshalas. for teachings that were considered related to Hinduism. Brahmans must have been the first to know its significance. and it is till this date that they call themselves Husaini Brahmans. Historical accounts of Muslims have even narrated a contingent of Jats from India in the city of Basra. Later. That means that within 50 years of Prophet announcing his Prophethood. for about 50 years or so. This was followed by a long period of rule by those who called themselves Muslims. when they tried to implement their own education system. Mughal and British rule. has actually arrived. One needs a bit of imagination to think of the situation wherein some must have accepted that he was . there must have been a few visits of groups of Brahmans to Arabia to ascertain and verify whether he was the same person whose praises they had sung as Indra. When visible signs came to be known. to ascertain his identity. They were in possession of all the books and scriptures. whom Ali trusted with the job of safeguarding the treasury from the marauding armies of Muawiya. Moreover.

Fact is that till the time of Kabir. such was the digression that had occurred among them during the several centuries that had elapsed from the time of Krishna and Buddha.” See the views of Kabir and Dawud to realize the nature of the society during those times. You have seen how Christians and Jews too faced the same problem. whose conscience was alive. how else can you prove the presence of contingent of Saraswat Brahmans in Karbala. If this is not true. There is little doubt that priests in India may not have faced the same situation. After all. It is explicitly mentioned that the last prophet before the Prophet Muhammad was Isa (Jesus). who upon reaching Karbala after Husain had been killed. were trying to cure those evils. something that we are proving here.the same Prophet described in religious scriptures while others would be discounting them as untrue. Kabir has even gone to the point of calling Mahadeva as Mohammad. accepted the teachings. how they. who was about 500-600 years prior to him. Says he: “Mahadeva is the same as Mohammad. As Mohammad’s teachings reached further. it became clear to the priests that they were far dissimilar to what they were adhering to in the name of religion. while others tried to deceive themselves and others by disbelieving these teachings. This means that world was without a Prophet for such a long time and all people had digressed extensively. it must have been difficult to digest that the secret place that was told to them of the awaited one would be as far as Arabia. there were at least some who knew of Mohammad’s relationship with the scriptures of Indo-Aryans. Even Kabir has talked of the link between devatas and Muhammad. Some. stayed there to take revenge of Husain’s killing and returned only after they had achieved their objective. . as reformers.

O Dawud! There is only one spirit in all beings. we have cheated ourselves. they have wasted their lives. Kabir says: “Both are simpletons. both are misled. Whether we are Hindus or whether we are Musalmans.Talking of Hindus and Muslims. calmness and sloth. There is no one who is a Hindu. to worship the One Ishwar. . Dawud describes the essence of religion in this manner: “To efface the self.” At another place Kabir says: “O Santu! Listen! There is no difference between Ram and Khuda. Hindus and Musalmans are brothers to one another. Vishnu and Mahesh were not different personalities as later period Hindus began to believe.” Not only this. The difference between the two is a false difference. One slaughters the goat. No one is alien to us. None of them has found God. to wish no ill-will of any living object – these.” Likewise. one and the same spirit dwells in all. No one is our enemy. Says he: “Brahma. In the pursuit of such vain differences. the cow. ‘Sant’. That person is alone held.” Later he says: “All must love the God of all. O Dawud! constitute the essence of religion.” At another point he says: “The idea also is vain that the Hindus and the Musalmans are two different peoples. But both the Hindus and Musalmans have gone astray. Kabir also knew that Brahma. By giving separate names to men and women. the other. to protect one’s body from evil activity and one’s mind from evil thought. We have found this out by careful search. They are all but one. no one who is a Musalman. who entertains no ill will towards any living object. Vishnu and Mahesh are the names of the three states of the same soul – animation.

the talk of otherness will end. nor does harm to any one. says Dawud: “The true devotee is he who sings the songs of the one Iswara. or Imam. This body is our Mosque or Mandir. we have to worship Allah. Within the human heart lies. Dawud said: “The Mandir which the Hindus raise with their own hands is looked after by them with great care. the same dwells in every one. but abstains from doing a wicked deed and does good to others. full to the brim. but contributes to other’s happiness and looks . It is an illusion. and who does not lie. In the mirror of suspicion only. We can freely purify ourselves in its water and perform our ablutions with it and offer Namaz. the two ears. The true Guru has pointed out to me that the body of a man alone is the Mosque or Mandir of God. the two feet. we look as but two beings. O Dawud: Against whom do you entertain ill will? Is there any one here beside yourself? The God who brought me into being. but they pull down the structure raised by God himself. In our own body we may bow before Allah and hail Him. who never looks upon any one as his enemy.” Referring to quarrels over temples and mosques. who does not show pride. Once this illusion is dispelled and suspicion rooted out.” Explaining what true religion is. Our five senses form the congregation therein. and the two eyes of the same body. the fountain of Ishwara’s Being. who looks on others even as he looks on himself. the Musalmans show respect to the Mosque raised by their own hands.They form the two hands. who keeps his mind under control. Living within that body. But the body of a man or an animal which is the Mandir raised by Ishwar himself they destroy. our mind is the leader in prayer. Similarly. There is no need for us to go out of it to worship Him.

On the other hand. The responsibility for the set back in the march forward does not rest on those who do not understand the truth. it is meant to spur us on to right action. who does not differentiate between with his interests and the interests of others. who always speaks truth and is immersed in his own thoughts. The study of the Gita and the Quran is not simply meant to provide food for the intellect. The reason for it is two fold. On the other hand. country. nation and sectarian creed which has kept us divided and which incite us to fight each other. both individual and collective. which can descend to manifest itself in actual terms.” Much later. legal or religious…” . Still. Sri Aurobindo in his writings often speaks of the supra-mental power. The other is that even those who appreciate the truth do not care to follow it. who unmindful of every danger engages himself in devotion to God and to no one else. who does not let his interests interfere his relations with others. the world of man is far off from the goal envisaged. The purpose of our study should be to invoke God to inspire in us the force which shall shatter all the chains of selfishness born of our attachment to one’s family. It is not enough to feel or think that we all are one.upon all with an equal eye. And Pandit Sunderlal said in ‘The Gita and the Quran’: The books on religion are replete with this type of teachings. village. whatever their nature – social. Our aim is to see that the two holy books should be read with this purpose in view. Dawud! Such people are but few in this world. The entire responsibility lies on those who knowingly do not follow it. One is that a good many people do not understand the truth offered. It is by action that resolutions or great changes have been wrought. the evil which has worked for division among us. and seeks in one and all the light of the One Holy Providence. what we need is the zest to eradicate from our life.

that courage and that strength which shall enable them to act upon the pure teachings which the two holy books offer for the guidance of man and help them to fashion afresh a new type of culture and a true religious outlook. so that a wave of love might spread across the entire country of ours.“We pray to God that He will inspire in the followers of the Gita and the Quran that clear thinking. There is no other way of salvation for us!” .

If we reflect now to see whether we have done any work that will enhance the quality of our life. in order to present before you this essay on Jehad. Another year from our short life has passed. creed. and it is time again for us to start expecting of Divine assistance. And we. irrespective of his birth. we have seen God sending His apostles and emissaries to get rid of evil and propagate the good. forgot the teachings. to be in pain. the world will not come out of the increasingly beastly living that we are getting used to living. man’s tendency to inflict pain on others is getting beyond the limits. we wish to admit that we have taken use of the views of Ayatullah Khomeini on this important subject of Jehad. who came one after another with the teachings. just like a mother cannot see the child in slight discomfort. the God. Whenever this has happened in the past. for whom the entire universe and all humans who reside in it. Unfortunately. elevated few of the personality traits to the level of worshipping them. and put them as . such a situation may not have emerged had we not forgotten the true essence of those sublime teachings that were imparted by Apostles. After all. and He does not like anybody. are part of His own creation. most of us have done nothing. religion or colour.The Greater Jehad Before we begin. known as we are for our hero-worshipping tendencies. There is a dire need now for the advancement of knowledge in the fields of moralistic and spiritualistic issues. However. Unless this happens. strived to work for the improvement of humanity and departed. caste.

soul and body so that they work either for God or the benefit of His creations. the society is sure to see much more violence. the stories of human cruelty. the role of humans in relation to their Creator. the world would surely be a better place to live. expectations of God from those whom He created. beastliness and lawlessness. Our children are growing up seeing these images in newspapers and on TV. are heard and seen. senses. despite the fact we all believe that we are increasingly becoming civilized. . in return to all that we have got from Him. much more bloodshed and lawlessness. meaning ‘the chief Jehad or ‘the grand Jehad’ by Muslims. God treats all his creations equal and we are nobody to create hierarchy or divisions! This attempt at training is called ‘Jehad-e-Akbar’. Remember. The chief responsibility is to learn to do all actions for God and train our intellect. unless we act now? We must remember that that God does not desire just a few ritualistic prayers. barbarity. at a demarked place and at a denoted time. and not distorted them to suit its own needs and interests. Had the society remembered those sublime ways of living. Frankly. thereafter returning to our previous days of living. and to whom they have to eventually return. With no proper teaching available about the desired way of life. our children will consider every act as right in order to meet their materialistic desires. who will either be perpetrators or victims. Aren’t we destined to see more bloodshed by our children. There are certain obligations that need to be fulfilled.revered Gods on high places. how many of us are concerned about imbibing any of these traits in the lives of children? If matters continue to remain the way they are. Every now and then. and we look the other way as if this is not our concern.

As Ali says: Allah taala ne ulama se jo ahad liya hai wo ye hai ke who zaalim kee shikam pari aur mazloom ke bhooke hone par khamosh aur mutmain nahin baithen ge. Imam Ali used to say to his followers: This is a clear call for action.the word ‘Muslim’ itself signifying ‘musallam iman’ or ‘complete faith in God and His teachings’. He will endeavour to gain rich attributes to his personality so as to enable him to gain wisdom. which is inevitable. KHUTBA-E-SHAQSHAQIA This talks of the promise that God has taken from the knowledgeable and says that the promise is this that they would not remain passive witness and satisfied upon seeing the injustice of the oppressor and the hunger of the oppressed. This is also to remind of death. thankfulness. will aspire to work for the good of others. NAHJUL BALAGHAH. He will pursue knowledge from wherever it comes. kind-heartedness. then you will not lead a life of carelessness. patience. A man who has successfully pursued this path of Jehad will have complete faith in God and will dedicate all his actions to please God. rather than doing acts that are good and for betterment of others. more centred towards worldly attractions. No doubt. even though one has to pass through ‘khatarnaak ghatiyan’ (dangerous valleys). piety. intellect. God has sent His Messengers to impart knowledge of these traits. without expecting rewards or favours in return. and they themselves were the chief torchbearers of this way of life. He will be able to train his self in such a manner that none of his action inflicts harm or suffering on innocent creatures. courage and loyalty. If you have faith in these. truthfulness. and . which has immense benefits.

it is the true human beings. and their benefits will get jeopardized.will deliver rich dividends hereafter. This is so because they are afraid that even if a single human being is born who cherish those lofty human values taught by the Messengers. it is the responsibility of each one of us that we endeavour to become true human beings. something that Gita and Quran do not tire of talking repeatedly. remember God in the way that he ought to be remembered and consider it your duty to stand up against all evils that our society is plagued with. outnumbered as his handful of followers were against the mighty army of Yazid. His supreme sacrifice reflects human values at their zenith. It is clear that Jehad was introduced because God wanted truthful and righteous men to contribute towards . As the world moves to anarchy. he will stand up and fight against their evil and selfish desires. Knowing fully well that he was bound to be looser in the world terms. So if you are follower of either of the two. Devote yourself to the God. throw out the love of this world from your heart. this is the path that Krishna taught all through the Gita. corruption and violence. because if there is anything that the evil forces are afraid of. then only will you be able to face the evils and wrongdoings of this world with courage and steadfastness and become a true human being. not for once did Husain think of abdicating his stand. This is Jehad-e-Akbar among Muslim. Study the life of Husain whose stand against the tyrannical rule of the monarch Yazid led to the slaughter of his entire family before finally getting killed in the cruelest of fashions. following the enlightened paths shown by revered Messengers like Krishna or Mohammad.

of this reason struggle against the self has been called in traditions as – “Greater Crusade: (Jehad-e-Akbar).upholding of truth and righteousness. 1. Because. Here we would quote few examples from the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali: Take over the possession of your self – through continuous struggle. VOL . -13 And said: Fight and dominate over self’s whims and passions. He wanted all of us to dwell in a vibrant society where struggle towards the right path continued ceaselessly. and what is required is a devastating blow making him (one’s own self) crippled permanently from plotting any further conspiracies. and because. Jehad-eAkbar was the fight against one’s self and Jehad-e-Asghar (or the smaller Jehad) was the attempt to improve the society. Therefore. VOL . otherwise if they succeeded in making you their prisoner – they will treat you in a most humiliating manner destroying you eventually. P. P-138 Be aware! That Paradise is purchased through selfstruggle. which is called Qitaal and about which we would read a bit later. 1. G HARAR And said: AL -H UKM . who is engaged in self-struggle will be victorious. Paradise (or self) is the greatest reward for some one who really appreciates their worth. compromise and piece settlement is not possible. VOL . G HARAR AL -H UKM . 1. Armed struggle was only in self-defense or to eliminate the fitna . G HARAR AL -H UKM . In a way. P-165 . In order to achieve happiness and salvation there is no other alternative except to follow this course. Writes Ayatullah Ibrahim Amini: “We must know while confronting self.

When the soldiers returned triumphant. Fight him the way one must fight with his worst enemy. The most powerful person is the one who is victorious over his self. thus. whatever it contains and its dwellers. G HARAR AL -H UKM . The Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali had narrated: That the prophet dispatched his soldiers to battle front to fight against the enemy. the prophet said: ‘Congratulations! For those who have successfully completed the “Minor-Struggle”. 1. but they have yet to engage themselves into Greater-Struggle (Jehad-e-Akbar)’. VOL .And said: By means of fighting against the self. Such a wise person is so must preoccupied in his self-refinement that is totally detached with the world. 1. P-237 This struggle against self is so important that even Prophet Mohammad called it the “Greater Struggle” and held it higher than a physical fight. G HARAR AL -H UKM . and dominate over him like the domination of victor over his opponent. Those who have tried would know how easy it is to kill the other than kill the passions that arise inside the body. incite him towards God’s worshipping. and in this manner subdues him ultimately taking over his possession. He was asked: ‘Oh Prophet of God! What is the Greater – Struggle?’ . VOL . (Jehad-e-Asghar). reforming and preventing him from indulging into passions and amusements. P-371 And said: A wise man keeps himself engaged in struggle against his self.

W ASAIL AL -S HIA. and with humility in front of God. VOL . There exists between the servants of God and Him nothing darker and horrible barrier than the imperious-self and his passions. which is considered as one of the most superior worship – the importance and worth of self-struggle becomes explicitly clear. allows the reason to control imperious-self would receive the greatest blessing. P-124 The Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali said: The best crusade is the struggle of some one. -124 In his death will the Prophet said to Imam Ali: Oh Ali! The best struggle is the struggle of some one who made his night into morning without thinking to oppress a single individual. Replied the Prophet. P. W ASAIL AL -S HIA. Considering the exalted position of crusade for the sake of God. VOL . who fights’ against his self located between his two sides. Whoever becomes victorious over the self ’s whims and passions has already achieved God’s-Pleasure. 11. G HARAR AL -H UKM . -123 Writes Ayatollah Amini: “In these traditions the importance of struggle against the self have been described as “Greater-Struggle” or Supreme Crusade – the crusade which is even superior than the crusade for the sake of God-Almighty (Jehad fi Sabi lillah).‘Struggle against the self’.” Imam Jafar Sadiq said: How good is a servant of God who struggles against the self and his passions for the sake of God’s Pleasure. and in order to . Whoever offers resistance. II. VOL . 11 P.

e. in response to people’s complaint. hunger. even if they cut off your body into several pieces. In accordance with Divine do’s and don’ts make a bridle for the self and like a master. Known that! If you could witness the sweetness of worshipping and other blessings and if your heart becomes illuminated with Divine Light – you will not be ready to discontinue it for an hour. replied: should not I be thankful to God-Almighty? By these serious endeavours in worship the prophet wanted to teach a lesson to his community. humility. Such a person if dies in this course leaves the world as a martyr.e. and remind him to be more careful and determined. Therefore. and if remains alive would ultimately attain the exalted position of God’s Nearness. and night awakening (i. God is with those who do right. fasting). then reprimand your self severely. there is no armament better than the realization to seek God. training his inexperienced and wanton slave. engaging in night prayers and having humming communications with GodAlmighty [remember chant of ‘Aum’]). one should never be negligent from endeavours. and ascetism. thirst during the day (i. God-Almighty has promised in the Holy Quran that those who strive in His cause will certainly be guided towards His path and verily. worship. The Prophet offered so much prayer that his feet become swelled. the negligence from worshipping shall never be possible except being deprived from advantages of . encourage your self towards virtuous deeds.destroy their roots forever. When you encounter another struggler endeavouring in self-refinement better than your own efforts. Therefore.

Quran (2:154) says: And do not speak of those who are slain in Allah’s way as dead. Those on Husain’s side too surely knew of the importance of prayers. Says Pooya/Ali Commentary: “Those.competing for achieving immunity against sins and attaining God’s – Blessings. As Husain supplicated himself to God – the Almighty – Shimr crawled on his back with a dagger and started severing Husain’s head from the body. Somebody asked him the reason for this and Ali said that he was seeing whether it was time for prayer. Two of his companions came forward to stop all the arrows being shot by the opponents on their chest as Husain and the rest of the companions offered the noon prayers on the day of 10 th Muharram. Husain’s head was severed from his body as his forehead lay on ground in the worship of God. are not dead. attached and closely connected with the everliving Allah. who die and give themselves fully for the sake and in the way of Allah. nay. but you do not perceive. Husain was the lone survivor fighting the enemy in the battlefield when it was time for the evening prayers. when the war was at peak. Husain kept his sword in shield to commence his prayers. Ali replied that it was for this alone that he was fighting. The questioner was surprised and asked whether the situation was right for prayer. Once. (they are) alive. They are alive. while fighting with the opponents. Enemy who called himself Muslim surrounded him. It was this reason why the Imams never forgot the worship of God in the most adverse of circumstances.“ . this was why he was fighting. Again. Ali was intermittently looking at the sky. in the battle of Siffin.

Those who have attained the highest spiritual maturity through personal virtues. like the disbelievers. It is their misfortune. personal virtues and ability to exercise patience. hardship and calamity of the utmost severity throughout their lives. and loss of possessions and children. ability to exercise patience. In those days the new converts to Islam. For the cause of truth. in the way of Allah. everyone is tried with something of fear. “The way of the devils” means “for the cause of falsehood” (Nisa: 76). There is no compulsion in religion (Baqarah: 256). Fisabilillah means “in the way of Allah” or “for the cause of truth”. have been happily and triumphantly endured and coped with by Imam Husain and his family and friends in the desert . face the trials successfully and reach the highest stations nearest to Allah.It is reported that verse 154 was revealed for the Muslims who were slain in the battle of Badr. therefore. thought that death means loss of life forever. (Ali Imran: 178). The exemption may be to let their infidelity or hypocrisy grow to its full scope for which there is a painful punishment. with faith and reliance upon Allah. Only once in the history of the world all kinds of trials to the maximum conceivable degree. they gladly suffered every kind of misery. All the created beings are given the opportunity to prove their potential. Some souls are not considered fit to be tried. therefore. Sale’s interpretation of fisabilillah (wars fought against non-Muslims to propagate Islam) is a deliberate distortion. hunger. Each individual occupies a different status according to the degree of faith and patience he employs to encounter the test and trial. the Holy Prophet went to war only when it was forced upon him. The Holy Prophet and the twelve holy Imams occupy the highest status near Allah with reference to the faith in and reliance upon Allah.

It is the summary of all that which Islam teaches. and the blessings in store for the believers in the life of hereafter. We unconditionally submit to His will. A poor Jew once asked Imam Hasan to tell him how could his poverty be a paradise and Imam’s plenty be a prison? The Imam replied: If you would know the miseries awaiting the disbelievers. Aqa Mahdi Puya says: This is the attitude of a faithful when a misfortune befalls him or he suffers a loss. We are His. No less was the situation of the other holy Imams under the tyrannical rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid rulers. The Holy Prophet who stands first and foremost in submission to Allah is the ideal model of this expression. Now see verses 2:155-156 of Quran: And We will most certainly try you with somewhat of fear and hunger and loss of property and lives and fruits. He is our destination. Whoso makes his life a true expression of this description becomes His prime favourite for His grace.of Karbala. The Holy Prophet has rightly observed: This world is a prison for the believer and a paradise for the disbeliever. We shall return to Him. and my affluence here is a prison for me as compared to the blessings that will be bestowed on me there. say: Surely we are Allah’s and to Him we shall surely return. and give good news to the patient. you will then agree that even your present plight is a paradise compared to those miseries. which has further been . when a misfortune befalls them. Who. blessings and guidance.

circumstances. But on the contrary. further it is not incumbent upon every one (Wajib-e-aini).” Also he says: “The struggle with self is harder than all the worships even the armed struggle in which a combatant risks his life by accepting martyrdom. must be continued till the very last moments of life. there is no denying the fact that Muslims have been enjoined to take up armed struggle. rather is a collective obligation (Wajie-kifai).elaborated in verse 163 of Ali-Imran. then the others are excused. elderly men.g. and without God’s Assistance it is not possible. Writes Ayatollah Amini: “Armed struggle becomes compulsory only under certain special times and circumstances. or is required to the extent of collective obligation. and no body under any condition except the impeccables (Masooms) will ever be free from this requirement. During certain periods armed struggle is not required at all. Because. Apart from this it is not incumbent upon women. It is because of this reason that we recite five times every day in daily prayers the sentence: (O God!) Show us the straight path. and some people are free from this obligation. and situations. self-struggle against self ’s whims and passions for the entire life. In fact. tolerance of pains and anguishes. and journeying towards the straight path of perfection is much more difficult than the fighting of valiant warrior with the enemy in the battle field for a moment and ultimately achieving martyrdom. self-struggle is so hard that except with continuous resistance. if required number of people had assumed this obligation. struggle against the self is incumbent upon everyone as an individual obligation (Wajib-e-aini) during all times. and sick people. if necessary. To follow up the straight path of perfection is so . However. absolute surrender before God-Almighty. handicapped. e.

persecution. and do not exceed the limits. transgression. It was only then that. order and harmony in the human society and keeps man on the right path. no recourse being left for the believers. When the enemies of Islam found that the light of this message was sweeping darkness from every corner. It is used as in verse 217 of this surah . See 2:190: And fight in the way of Allah with those who fight with you. Fitna can mean oppression. the God has made a promise: And those who strive in our cause – we will certainly guide them to our paths. Q URAN .difficult that the Prophet of Islam said to God-Almighty: Oh God! Don’t leave me at the disposal of my self even for the fraction of a second. . and in the face of persecution. the disbelievers vowed to annihilate it. the Muslims must fight. When there is no option.” Considering the difficulties in the path.all implying the “discord” that attachment with ghayrallah (other-than-Allah) brings about. Pooya/Ali Commentary says: “The message of Islam is universal. Verses 39 and 40 of al Hajj also give permission to fight when any people is wronged. seduction .war is detestable but fitna is worse than slaughter. The strength of Islam lies in its certainty of ultimate victory over aggression. 29:69 Quran explicitly states that fighting has to be in self-defense. and ascribing falsehood to Allah and His last prophet. Islam promotes peace. surely Allah does not love those who exceed the limits. oppressed and persecuted. From early times the Muslims were only permitted to fight in self-defense. they had to resolutely take up the sword in defense. For verily God is with those who do right. however.

They burnt all their cities. casting off thy fever. began to worship the gods of Moab the Lord God asked Moses to “take all the leaders of the people and hurl them down to their death before the Lord. 5:10 Yet. and carried off all their cattle. A passage in Gita referring to the negative state of the spirit of Arjuna which Krishna wants to correct (it is from the beginning of the second chapter): . Evil does not cleave to him. Whoso acts abandoning attachment. As water (does not cleave) to a lotus leaf. G ITA . when the situation demanded so. their flocks and their property. ‘Iswararpana’ is the term used to offer all deeds to God in Gita On Me all action Casting. in Shitim. and slew all the men.” And they made war on Midians as the Lord has commanded Moses. G ITA . with mind on the over-soul. Fight. Krishna made Arjuna to fight even when he was shirking from doing so. Moses asked them to kill every male child and every women who has had intercourse with a man. Gita too lays maximum stress on fight against the self. Likewise.If Numbers 25: 1 to 3 and 31: 7 to 18 in the Old Testament are read carefully one comes to the conclusion that when the Israelites. Being free from longing and from selfishness. The Israelites took captive the Madianite women and children. 3:30 Casting (all) actions upon Brahman.

there is an underlying message.Krishna says to Arjuna: What is the matter with you? Why have you lost courage? You are a great hero. neither meeting with death. G ITA E XPLAINED BY D NYANESWAR M AHARAJ P . If certain misguided Hindus take this statement of Krishna in the narrowest possible meaning and use it to plunder and kill innocent. Wake up. Live up to your reputation and get rid of these silly ideas. Kindness towards opponents in battle is misplaced… Did you know hither to that the Kauravas were your kinsmen? M. 59 Yet. Due to this. Islamic view of Jehad is exactly the same as the teachings of Gita. Krishna is the greatest upholder of peace and truth. S UBEDAR . It is unfortunate the face of Islam is distorted when certain misguided Muslims use Jehad for reasons other than what it had been meant for. Krishna and Arjuna both knew of the evils that had begun to plague the society in which they were living. upholding the worship of One Absolute God. a great cause. the frog swallowing the serpent. benefit of humanity and its lofty values and foremost of all. for their own personal or political gains. You are a sensible man. some writers have understood the teachings of Gita and . with not an iota of difference. wood absorbing fire. Take courage. Yet. That is why they have not been discussed. would you blame it on Krishna’s teachings. Ironical? No! Only the one with a conscious self can understand this subtle difference. salt dissolving water. they always remain in the background. War is not made with rose water. or the fox defying the lion. a model Khsatriya with an unsullied name… Your attitude at the call of battle is as incomprehensible as darkness covering the sun. When Krishna talks of fight.

Despite the imperative nature of fighting. This is exactly the concept of Jehad in Islam. then the man should fight in the way of God. one can reach union with God. Through realizing one’s self through recognizing the Self in it. Most of the Gita describes this unitive way to reach God. And once the mind and intelligence is surrendered to God. Through Unitive Contemplation (DhyanaYoga) that is discussed in detail in Chapter VI. by whom even the Self by the Self has been won. the Self is to be recognized: The Self is dear to one (possessed) of Self.the actual purpose of Mahabharata wrongly. Arjuna is first asked to stand firm in the unitive way (yoga) and then he is asked to stand up and fight (III. where the man is required to fight with his own self and only when he has incorporated all the teachings and reached a level where he truly recognizes the God. the Self would be in conflict with the very Self. Same is the case with Jehad. Call for armed conflict in few verses of Quran cannot be viewed independently as some self-centred or ignorant Muslim teachers and the detractors of Islam portray it to be. does his . as if an enemy. it is still made a secondary matter to the contemplation of the Absolute and realizing one’s self. for one not (possessed) of Self. The yearning for God’s happiness. willingness to be of help and die for a right cause and principles of upholding the truth and justice that Krishna showed is inherent in every verse of Gita. the height of spiritual attainment. (have) no doubt. 42). you shall come to Me. Therefore at all times remember Me (God) and fight: when your mind and intelligence are surrendered to Me.

duty begins of trying to put an end to the evils around him. They see white-collared crimes happening all around. Jehad in Islam is not possible. won’t allow human rights to be violated and would always take the side of the oppressed. the weak and the poor. a fight against injustice and oppression. is surely not going to commit injustice. they see accident victims dying on the roadside and look the other way. even if it is because the one who has to drive it decided to sleep for another few hours. Jehad will be more of deeds. If just 10 per cent of Muslims in India are to get up and say that they won’t allow any such act being perpetrated. even though he has to make sacrifices for upholding the truth. They see injustice on some. and they are least bothered. Just imagine. Without the realization and adherence of the Absolute. industries emitting pollution beyond permissible limits. Jehad can never be a fight for a piece of land or material benefits. What is the greatest evil plaguing the present society in India? Our view. Instead Jehad leads a person to the height where all divisions on the basis of caste. . but remain mute spectators. This evil has perpetrated so much so that they wait at railway stations for hours but the train do not come. Fear of loosing a bit of what they have make them do that. which we have formulated after talking to several people. They see corruption and remain mute witness. is that the greatest cause of all evil is that Indians have begun to accept everything as it is. And one who attains this realization and shows strict adherence to the teachings. cruelty or suppression of human rights of others. And more than armed combat (which is the last stage referred to as Qitaal). and they know of spurious drugs and products ruining their lives and those of their children. religion. and do nothing. Just ponder for a while. and so on. belief or creed lies shattered and the Muslim takes the side of truth. porn being shown on cable.

or who does not thank God for what He has provided for man. believe in the Unity of God. The term is used in one or other of these several senses. The term is also applied to the Jews of the Prophet’s time (Q. Now let us see whether the Muslims are justified in calling Hindus as ‘Kafars’. In Quran (Q. Generally it is used to mean one who did not listen to Prophet Mohammad in his time or did not recognize the Supreme Being who had provided one and all the good things of life. (2) to deny.Won’t the Indian society become a better place to live? The Subject of Kafar Muslims are often criticized for calling Hindus as kafars. ‘Kafar’ also means a peasant. In (Q.17:8) since they had neglected their scripture. 29:7) the term means to blot out. since he covers the seed. If we take Unbeliever as the meaning. or at least a greater percentage of them.4: 150-151). Carrying the same viewpoint further. it is pointed out that the real Kafars are those who recognize certain messengers of God and deny others. What is the meaning of this word? Are Hindus kafars? Let us see.21: 94). So ‘Kafar’ means he who hides a thing. to cover sins. In verses Q 14:32-34 & Q. In verse (Q. The same idea is conveyed in the Gita (2:40). the Torah. (3) to show ingratitude. or denies it. . to remit. or is ungrateful to God.17: 67 (as numbered in Pickthal’s Translation) the term ‘Kafar’ is used in the sense of ‘ungrateful’ and applied to all humanity. “The term ‘Kafar ’ (Unbeliever) is derived from the root ‘Kafara’ which means (1) to cover. the term is applied to God Himself since He recognizes our rewards or does not hide one’s good work.” You have seen the meaning of Kafar and its usage in Quran. then we cannot call Hindus as ‘Kafars’ as they.

In such a situation. However. Therefore. as per Islam. if one comes to conclusion that there is no God. who do not believe in idol-worship. yet denies them. Since the Kauravas had fallen away from the true Vedic teachings regarding God. In Q. In our view. since Muslims do not regard Christians and Jews as Kafars.36). and the Hindus would come in the fold of Kafar. Term Kafar seems to be synonymous with the term ‘atatayinah’ or those who have fallen from Dharma. then that would mean that before the finger is pointed at the Hindus. Kafar means one who knows the truth about God and His Apostles. Gita tells that there were . various sects of Islam would start pointing fingers at each other. then that person too would be rewarded.if the idol-worshippers are called ‘Kafars’. because various messengers of God have said that after sincere attempt to reach the truth. This has happened in the past and might still continue to happen in future. We all know that the subject of Caliphate is such where they deny each other’s Caliphs. the Kauravas are called ‘atatayinahs’ in Gita. If we take this meaning to be correct.4: 150-151. ‘Kafar’ will have to be applied on case-to-case basis and not to community on the whole. then that would mean that all. (I. the Arya Samajis. this means that this meaning is not applicable. What does Kafar mean then? Kafar is used in relation to God. including the Christians. then we must tell that there are a lot many Hindus. If Kafar is used for denying a tenet of Islam. does Kafar means one who denies the presence of God? Surely. Such people are Kafars and worthy of great punishment. the Jews. there are a lot many atheists in this world. This cannot be true. it is said that Kafars are those who recognize certain messengers of God and deny others.

poisoners. That Drona and Bhima were the priests of highest ranks. there surely must be several others on their side. murderers. In the Manusmriti and other books ‘atatayinah’ are described as those who are incendiary.” . plunderers and those who commit excesses and prescribed death penalty for them. Manusmriti enjoins: “Kill the atatayinah at sight.few on Kaurava’s side who knew that what Krishna was saying was truth but did not accept it for fear of loss of worldly position and benefits. Drona and Bhima were certainly such people.

One who was called ‘the father of chemistry’ was but a student . and never bracketed their claim with ifs and buts nor confined the inquirer to a subject or choice. ‘Wisdom is like the lights of a car which show the way. After all. dangerous and prone to casualties. before I depart’. it enjoins the adherents to accept nothing blindly. They knew. ‘what is the distance of sun from earth’ or ‘which animals give eggs and which don’t’. they gave responses that to this day amaze the contemporary scientific world.’ Each is nothing without the other. A vehicle without lights is blind love. It is an interesting chapter of history that while on one hand. They were those who used say. refrained people from the study of mathematics. unless it is put to vigorous tests on grounds of common sense whereas it carries the love for Ahlebayts to such an extent that martyrdom and sacrifice have become synonymous with Shias. the changed version of Islam that was presented as a solution. They wanted to talk of ‘iron-houses that would run’ or ‘illuminating the houses through waterfalls’ and all that the men of time could seek for them were questions like ‘how many hairs are there in my head’. Even to these questions.The Shias Shia belief rests on wisdom and love or faith as its two pillars! On one hand. there was no dearth of knowledge at the doorsteps of Imam. ‘Ask. Love is like the motor which makes it move. a large number of students who were coming to seek knowledge from Imams were encouraged to go deeper in subjects of their choice. the highest limits of man’s visions bend down in supplication at their feet. ‘how many stars shine at night’. In the words of Alexis Carrel. lest they develop a penchant for logic and reason.

without having any sort of security. the historians mentioned the progress that took place in the Umayyad and Abbasid period. etc. that is another matter! You must have seen how lightness shines in the darkness of night to illumine everything and is followed by even more darkness around. history and other sciences. history. slave girls. Arabic numerals. house-arrests and embargo on people visiting them. These Shias were faced with a bombardment of publicity. were in the forefront of the literary and knowledgeable activities taking place in the world. warbooties. theology. architecture. Arabia was a cradle of evil and darkness when Mohammad laid the foundations of his teachings. and reap the luxuries that came as a consequence. government. Those who have studied the history of Islam know that there was a time when there was a spark of knowledge and wisdom was seen. Did the caliphs had any more time than to send forces to annex territories. jurisprudence and . If we do not wish to acknowledge it.of their doorsteps. yet nothing could stop them from gaining mastery over accepted sciences. viz. interpretations. reached the West passing through the students associated with this house. terrorize them to accept Islam. During the 200 years or so after Islam. religion.? The entire Islamic world got reasons to feel proud in front of the whole world even when these 200-odd years of Ahlebayt’s presence included decades of confinements. Used to writing history with an eye on the rulers. culture. the same pagan Arabs who moved from place to place in search of greener pastures. Little did they know that the centre of all learning was a small house in the locality of Hashimides that was the source of all development. 25 long years of Ali’s confinement to house and the great tragedy of Karbala that vanquished nearly the members of this household and the best of their friends.

It is pure Islam – an Islam minus the Caliphate. Shiaism is the most traditional sect of Islam. Those willing to understand Shiaism and the remaining Islam can understand it through one example. Judaism. Vedantism. in Cairo. much against opposition by many. and fixed their gaze on the mud house of Ali and Fatima. for the Ahlebayts. ones which attempted at denigrating the Members of the Prophet’s Household. in order not to lose Mohammad. The descendants of the historical Caesars. It is to the credit of those worthy followers of Islam who dared to look beyond the green palaces of Damascus and the hanging noose of the fairy tale Caliph of 1001 Nights of Baghdad. yet there is a difference in what they stood for. If Shias developed a great love for the Imams. Pharoahs all spoke from Mohammad. Kings.traditions. Buddhism and Taoism. The . Shiaism does not take the two principles of justice and Imamate (religious leadership) and add them to Islam – Islam without justice and Imamat is the same as the religion of Islam minus Islam. Contrary to what both enemies and lovers today think. Shias have not added Imams to Mohammad. next only to worship of God and righteousness. We have taken Imams. Zoroastrianism. Whereas knowledge and wisdom was at the top. to discern true Islam. without the associated evils. The same is true for Christianity. it was but natural! Others blame Shiaism calling it ‘Islam in addition to other things’. pseudo Arabness and those who lived in luxury. Truth is that Shiaism is nothing other than Islam. the second Caliphs of Islam ordered the burning of one of the greatest libraries of time. while the Caliphs were mostly concerned with getting their own versions of traditions and jurisprudence circulated.

They accepted martyrdom and thereby negated the Caliph’s power. the champions of liberty. these were the tests that people had to give to become Shias of Imams. children killed and blood mixed regularly with earth or water – leave aside the Imams whose position was far higher.major difference stems principally from whether or not Ali and the real Shias tried consciously and correctly. the Abbasids. the seekers of death. and the majority of the worshippers of truth and the desirers of justice and the lovers of virtue had committed themselves to this way and to freedom. properties confiscated. Saladin the Turk and the Mongols bear witness to the fact that the great theologians. blood. a history where each . Says a poet: “To speak about Ali and Fatima in the history of Islam has not been easy. The way passed through the Caliphates of Damascus and Baghdad into the land of fire. Poets who have defended this family say. to remain traditional and retain the traditions. in opposition and innovations and heresy. Sordid truth of history is that during those black centuries. Tongues were taken out.’ This is the fact of all the men and women who have written the history of Shiaism. hands were chopped. Most difficult choices do not come easily! The cruel punishments enacted by the families of the Umayyads. nails uprooted from fingers. prison and punishment. legs amputated. the Islam of justice and imamate was drowned in the blood of martyrdom. from the beginning. while the world was awe-struck by the power of the government of an oppressive Islam and the Caliphate. which was as large as all of humanity. It was attached to that small house of Ali. The Shias had a choice between martyrdom and the world. ‘I have been carrying the rope of my execution on my back for 50 years.

Sometimes. Mohammad. Its believers are those who show perseverance. the Quran. has been written with the blood of a martyr.” Shiaism. warm with faith. each word. they draw their daggers and strike it upon their heads. They are enemies of a politics which reduces one to slavery. Contemporary Shias Shiaism is thus historically born and continues to exist. insane like. They are enemies of economic exploitation and spiritual despotism. its followers are enemies of anything that conceals the Truth. They are ready to be martyred out of their love for them. They are full of sorrow because they were not present on that bloody day of ‘Ashura’. pure blood flows. Their sorrow is real. strength and culture to society. the Companions and their histories are models of life. The mere mention of them makes blood boil in their veins. To see the issue from another point of view. give their love to this family. Ali Shariati describes Islam and Shias in the following manner: “Islam. who are inspired by freedom and justice. with more than a religious belief. Their name raises their spirits. They are an unacceptable fire for despots and for the prejudiced. They have submitted to the way. progress. the last historical. All year they commemorate the deaths of those . Linked to the anger of Truth. followers of Ali and his children. religious school of thought and the most perfect. our people. They cry in pain from their sorrow. melting with love. In their longing for sacrifice. Then bloodied tears run. with truth in thought. chastity and civilization. They bring law.line. They lament all year long. the religion of imamate and justice. Shiaism has had a history full of Jehad.

the Khans. Shariati who belonged to the same country. ‘Prophetic Traditions’. They rebelled against force and oppression. Full of praise for their positions and the description of their titles. dominating people who took away the rights of human beings. hidden behind useless curtains. They long with their whole being to sacrifice their lives. the weak. from one end to the other. Tazis and Mongols. who also proudly call themselves Aryans. Our people showed us discernment and deep thought. They did not allow themselves to become attached to or influenced by advertisements and religious leaders who had attached themselves to the institutions of the Caliphate.who died much prior to their existence. restlessness. They came to know deceit. We must distinguish between the people and the Iranians who are attached to their institutions under the name of ‘Islam’. They discovered unknown truths. anguish and it finally consumes them. lies and traitors. It is true that our people came to Islam through the various Caliphates. Turkish. Abbasids. ‘Quranic Government’. They found strong currents. ‘The Front of Truth’ and ‘The Truth of Religion’. They were the cause of this society withstanding all it does. They opened the fists of powerful men. in spite of the sorrow. Khaghanis. They sought out the strange. depression and difficulties which it suffered because of this choice. says: “The greatest honour. head to toe dressed in black. treacherous. drowned in tears and pain. but we must recognize their insurrections against both the Caliphs and their institutions including those of the Umayyads. in my opinion. they showed us how to oppose oppression and deceit. united as lovers. They opposed oppressive regimes. . They chose Ali.” Describing and praising the Iranians. Their love brings on thirst. which has been bestowed upon our Iranian society is bestowed when it chose Imam Ali.

The Caliphate. It held the strings to the huge religious capital of thoughts and the unlimited wealth . It was always the Caliphate that possessed the powerful military and political forces. This is the most difficult and wonderful choice on the part of our people. It reflects the greatness and firmness of their spirit. more than any other previous historical-political system. advertisements. poets. philosophies. their orations. Every single one of these groups was extensions of the Caliph or Sultan’s institutions. historians. It shows their worship of the Truth. whereas the people of Medina and the contemporary Arabs and the Companions of the Prophet did not see or did not want to see it. who had his home in a corner near the Prophet’s mosque and who was surrounded by the ignorance of his tribe. He lived amidst the great political sacrifices of the friends of the Prophet and the great thinkers of Islam. governed their institutions. the Truth belonged to a man who was alone. The Iranian people who entered and become acquainted with Islam through the sword of the Caliph.All the expressions of the beliefs and the new founded wisdom of Islam came from the Caliph’s institutions: their words from the pulpits and minarets. It reveals the spiritual courage of these people who rebelled against history and the worldly government of the Caliphate. warriors and even companions and associates of the Companions of the Prophet. The great schools and universities of Damascus and Baghdad were also ignorant of this truth. saw this truth and knew it to be a truth even in the midst of invitations from the religious leaders belonging to the official Islamic Caliphate. It manifests the birth of a thought and an awareness. which was contrary to any customs they had. men of letters. Rather. their books and commentaries upon the traditions.

it is not because of the water of its rivers. the greenness of wide plains or the majesty of the mountains. They deafened the ear of history and cause the earth to tremble under their feet. Ali!” This is the definition of Shiaism from the historical perspective. after his tongue had not tasted milk or water for three days. the destruction which took place. However. This was far earlier when the marauding Muslim armies came to annex territories.of culture. If India has always remained God’s preferred country. blood of a lot many of them was spilt. Had there been no sanctuary. their women filled the tiny kulhars with milk. Such lovers of truth need to be saluted again . their men started keeping tazias. knowledge and justice. it is still not complete here. far away and unknown. the constant building and clamour. heard and knew the cries of a lonely man. consoled and when the local inhabitants found pathos in their intense grief for Husain’s sacrifice. in remembrance of the six-month old Ali Asghar. Those who fled from Islamic caliphs were given sanctuary by the Hindu rulers. escaped to where. they would have never come? They were welcomed with open hearts. the defeats they suffered. knowledge and thought. When the Caliphs powerful arms reached the innocent people. to India. a lot many escaped. a man who was a ‘stranger’ in his own town’. These strangers. not physical beauty. whose slender neck was torn off. They never lost their fervour. in spite of the disputes which arose from conquests. culture and civilization. revolution and distractions full of cries of religion and the world. Unable to bear these. It is because of beauty of its people. but the beauty of their love for truth. literature and endowed knowledge. Our people negated the Caliphate in the midst of all of the confusion of war and Jehad (inner and outer spiritual struggle). in the pretext of punishing the wayward or creating unity in the society.

when all they did was to further alienate us from truth. women using sex to higher positions. How can something that’s accepted in the West be bad for society? Fact is that we have bid our reason off. Just ponder for a while by looking at the content of this book. Another fact is that truthfulness is still deep-rooted in our blood. the lone child who gets caught is produced to media by the police and demanded in judicial custody. Truth-loving by heart. all they get is darkness. call-girls can be seen roaming around on the streets of all posh-localities. It is unfortunate that today all Indians. whose champions are their page-3 socialites or whether it is the tag of terrorism on Khomeini. we sought for it . every second week one or the other newspaper carries stories on infidelity. most video-shops stock them aplenty. they try to look around. apart from the everyday activity of downloading pictures first and then the story behind it. have set their eyes to the West even for sun that rises in the East. including the Shias. Result is that when its day there. only to punish that particular child. Reason being shed as the sole dominion of either the West or the learned priests. not for one or two but several centuries? How commentators after commentators sought to gain name and fame by attempting to understand the scriptures in fresh perspective. when its night there. How is it that such a great mass of humanity can be misled collectively. and what’s worse.and again. Whether it’s the sleaze and porn. Therefore. all that comes from the West is considered true and accepted. But truthfulness without reason is seeking for light in India when its day in the US. they go to sleep. When the same porn enters the life of our school children. Yet. sex outside of marriage. we wake up from slumber. romance in offices. Endless number of cable-operators continues to show 3X porn every Saturday night.

in the family. This one cannot fend for his own self. First one had respect and would even be richer now. and then accepted the mirage that appeared closer to truth. Kapoor on the front page of a newspaper doing something that’s a taboo in society and if you see the same Ms. He knows he is old and poor. Naturally. What would happen to her when he is no more? Then the first husband returns! Socio-economics return to play its part. who sees young men hovering around his doorsteps. Short-term gains make people sell their daughters in their country. in the company of those who were his colleagues. She returns to her father. among the neighbours. He was accepted when none was accepting her because of the tag she carried of being once married. on the other side were youth and a comparative luxury. the wife has to bear the ignominy and insult. as she is labeled one who brought bad luck. then they became two. it is a . Likewise. where would you find for the truth? Start another meaningless debate on whether the printing of the picture is morally correct or not! Something that no media house worth repute would pay heed to if it really wants to print it. In slums. now they would become three. He is naturally worried. with perceived notions of one who is available. If you see a certain Ms.when all that was there was just a mirage. The husband’s face begins to haunt her. Moral: Perceived truth is never the truth. Kapoor saying its not her. On one side was poverty. albeit to one who had difficulty in meeting the ends meet. Khan gets missing from the army and is declared a deserter. He marries him off at the first instance. found a mirage there as well. a certain Mr. his pension has been stopped. make their children do petty jobs instead of teaching them. We looked elsewhere. Result: we gobbled sand thinking it to be water. He knows the daughter is young and beautiful.

that. when the other side says they are not there. even when you wish to go for it. loot. which may or may not be there. Wives of the colleagues who got killed were reaping in millions. Without bothering to check. this. while still in fetal stage. you accepted what came as truth. Truth. and warm clothes in winter. In this case. Without applying your reason. Circumstances are that either we don’t have the say or . Where is religion in this entire story? Where is the truth? All started when her husband was declared the deserter and his salary stopped. even the respected ones kill their daughters. anarchy. A lot many. deceit. is that at times truth gets subdued. no body bothered to check! Or wait! What was the truth? And what was it that you were fed with? Yet. rape. at least two square meals. lies. And you felt what you saw on TV was the truth. however. white-collared crime.usual story of women leaving one and living with the other. illegitimate sex. theft. Considering that it was coming from the knowledgeable. At the same time. No body cares for the children. They keep saying that they are in prison on the other side. She was going where there would at least be education for the one in her womb. Even those slightly wounded got good compensation. sometimes only because the other is better in bed. plunders. smuggling. thanks to the generous grants. terrorism. Without application of your reason. Corruption. infanticide. if only he had been killed. murder. Then it was socio-economics that governed matters. If only the corpse had been found. chances are you would not reach the truth. Families of those missing since 1971 war continue to get pension. somebody around her must have surely said. without using your own intelligence rather than banking on that of others. laundering of money.

Abu Talib’s faith and Husain’s tortures seem to be the only subjects. truthseeking society that the Ahlebayts wanted all of us to live in. Yet never allowed the truth to derail. Would there be untruth for long? All evils of Muslims have encroached their territory. Evils associated with Indians too fall in their domain. Religion on the whole is moving from a vibrant one to a ritualistic one. is increasingly being done in ritualistic way. so much so that you can even see their crying as if they have lost their near and dear ones getting replaced with festive .we are forced to have no say. Shias continued to follow these lofty ideals for a long time even when the Ahlebayts were not there. Same with Krishna! After all. if they cited their proximity and adherence to the Ahlebayts. This was called Jehad. they still have few evils of their own. Perhaps the peaceful life of the plains in India allowed complacency. So much so that even the remembrance of Karbala. This is also the Jehad of Gita. at times got killed. It was a vibrant. which has guided the entire world for centuries. they are not an inch on different paths. Why all this under the subject of Shias? This is so because it was their duty to oppose all these evils tooth and nail. Ali’s swordsmanship. where all actions are performed in a set-predefined manner. Or they were fed up with the hardships of the past? Just imagine! If even 10 per cent of the Shias in Lucknow are to start opposing all that’s not associated with truth. Lamenting and even crying seem to have become ritualistic. The zakirs. As Shias. the learned who narrate the events of Karbala to gatherings. refrain from addressing the core issues. It is for upholding these lofty principals that the Ahlebayts faced hardships. Tehelka is a case in point. when truth is trampled in front of us.

neither on how to lead the lives nor on how to supplicate to God. On Shias: Imam Ali said: Our shias are those people who follow forgiveness and charity in our vilayat. Satan surely must have tried hard initially making inroads into their citadels. yet the sorrow is such that even then the hands should fall together. the Ahlebayts whom they revere in such high esteem lived and died to uphold the worship of One God. or as if the purpose of his sacrifice was no longer needed. It seems it has succeeded! To end on positive note. if the need be. Yet. the day they decide to shed their sorrow. Shias claim to love Ahlebayts so much so that they would weep and injure themselves to show their grief at the sacrifices given by the Ahlebayts. Remember this if you do not want to come back disgusted. and the moment your sorrow exceeds to the extent that you start beating your chest faster. don’t go to them looking for traces of those lofty ideals that Ahlebayts or devas talked about. There are still some who can sacrifice their lives for them. who show love and kindness to others in our friendship. Just imagine. They call themselves to be beating their chests in sorrow of the deceased Imams. They have begun to neglect the worship of God as if it was meant for the Sunnis. in a systematic rhythm.celebrations within a matter of minutes on 8th of Rabiul-Awwal. never in those who claim to be following their legacy. we give a few quotes from Masooms. Seek the Ahlebayts in books. particularly Husain. yet show no inclination to take lessons from their lives. you would be expelled from the row of mourners. and falls out of the rhythm. as if Husain was no more. who come to visit and see . Their love for Ahlebayts is still tremendous.

VOL . who adhere to the instructions of God. speaking the truth. By God. is this enough that somebody claims to be a Shia and considers that he loves the Ahlebayt. who are full of virtues and good deeds. generosity. PAGE 74 Imam Jafar Sadiq said: They are those who offer 51 rakahs of Namaz in . 219 Prophet Mohammad said: No doubt. if they are very happy with someone they do not shower excessive favours on him. neighbors and orphans. they are not our Shias but those who fear God and adhere to His instructions. And (O Jabir) they are not recognized but due to their modest. reading of Quran and do not open their mouths but to talk good of others. V OL . roza. U SOOL -E -K AFI . namaz. for their neighbours they are always cause of goodness and prosperity and are the cause of peace and happiness among people. 67. who are content with less food. kindness to their parent. and also good conduct with the needy and handicapped. 2. our Shias are those who follow us in deeds and character. Imam Mohammad Baqar said: O Jabir. P AGE 155 On another occasion Ali said: Our Shias are those who are one with the God. thankful and generous. B IHAR AL -A NWAR . T OHFA -AL -UQOOL .us in order to continue our works. who always speak the truth. trustworthiness. who follow the middle path in choice of their clothes and are always modest. if they are angry with someone they do not commit injustice on him. intensity of worship.

388 Imam Hasan Askari said: Shias of Ali are those people who are not afraid or fearful on the path of God. 68. And Shias of Ali are those people who bear selflessness and sacrifice for their brothers in faith. P . 167 Imam Musa Kazim said: Shias of Ali are only those whose wordings should be in conformity and in accordance with their deeds. even if death falls on them or they (voluntarily) fall on death. Shias of Ali are those who follow the conduct of Imam Ali in their affairs with the brothers in faith. B IHAR AL -A NWAR . P . B IHAR AL -A NWAR VOL .UL-K HWATIR . they won’t be found there. They are such people that the places that have been forbidden by God.a day or night. 162 . even so their need is tremendous. and the places where He has asked to go you will definitely find them there. 68 P. they fast during the day and out of their money they take out zakat (the poor tax) and go for Hajj to the House of God and refrain from any act that has been prohibited as Haram (by God). T ANBEEH. VOL .

either because of their distaste of Islam or only because of the directions to create sensationalism. they all ended in portraying Islam in bad light. of Zee News or others. yes. We mention here a few more that are affecting the entire Muslim population in India at the moment.State of Muslims in Present Day India Some of the problems that ail the Muslims have already been mentioned in the previous chapter on Shias. but it is also happening in other situations like the population or literacy figures. make one fit to be called literate is debatable? Even if they can read Urdu a bit. Read this in the light of the story about Taufeeq. Arif and Guriya that had become the subject of a raging debate a few days back. This case was an extraordinary case. take the literacy figures. Be it Alka S. Does mere ability to read a few lines of Quran in Arabic. wherein they readily show or print Praveen Togadia’s comments on the subject without bothering to study the real truth or not coming out with it even so they are aware about it. However. can they do any meaningful employment because of it? Majority of Muslim families earn 20003000 rupees a month. no body tries to find how the literacy rate has come so close when most of the Muslims that are visible on road appear to be illiterate. For instance. in spite of the fact that it was glaring at the face. whose meanings are beyond comprehension. This is perhaps because there are no influential advertisers or lobbyists among the Muslims at present. The literacy rate of Muslims is shown as close to that of the Hindus. This is so because when the question is asked whether you can read anything and the answer is given. that person is taken to be literate. Why is it that nobody raises the . We have shown how not even one TV channel tried to dwell into the real truth. Quran.

while a Lalu Yadav with 10 or 11 remains as blameless as ever. and with just 20003000 rupees to earn for the whole family. it is their fault. over-population. etc. the percentage of Muslims in Government jobs is steadily declining? That more than half of their population continues to live in slums too is portrayed as negativity. You will find that the population growth is the same. we invite you to do a study of the number of children in the houses of Hindus and Muslims. not even 2% Muslims are found in the Corporate World and not even 2% Muslims are found in the Middle or Upper Middle class societies of the country. that too with certain vested interests. If you would ask this question.issue that not even 2% Muslims are found in Government Service. For instance. that too is their fault and the blame is passed on their dissimilar religious beliefs. a topic that the media never fails to raise. If insecurity persists so much so that they decide to live in ghettos. for that would fall in the category of ‘appeasement’. are bound to occur. Yet. take a slum or a rehabilitation colony. Why illiteracy when it has already been shown close to that of Hindus? Why does nobody asks that in spite of the surging literacy rate. as if they are living there out of choice. problems like unhygienic living. illiteracy is cited the reason. Conditions are such that a Muslim with 5 children is seen to be enhancing the population. If they have nothing but tattered clothes to wear. when . Muslims appear to be even more unclean because the segment that has become educated mixes with the population in such a manner that it is not easy to distinguish how many people traveling in a Shatabdi coach to Lucknow or dining in a McDonald’s are Muslims. If you are interested. When such a huge percentage of population lives in slums or lower class dwellings. don’t ever try to do anything for them. living in similar socio-economic conditions.

that too in a madrasa perhaps. deport them. Why harass those who are Indians. And you can easily point out that a Muslim is passing and since nearly all who move about in this uniform are from the lower middle class. comes out in full Muslim gear. Why is it that an officer says on TV that ration card is not being given to people because it is not easy to identify which of them is a Bangladeshi or not. If Bangladeshis are unwanted. So many Indians attempt to get into Europe and America illegally. including a long beard. And the rest. kabadiwalas or rickshaw pullers – all illiterate and dirty. perhaps also a lungi and a topi. If population is increasing. earning 2000-3000 rupees a month. or labourers. vendors. but the subtle meaning is that those who were being denied the ration cards were all Muslims. with lesser resources available at their disposal.there are bound to be many who pass your eyes without you even noticing that they were Muslims. that is due to failure of our institutions. petty shop-owners. as has been done with Pakistan. you conclude that Muslims are filthy and dirty. Who is he to deny the basic rights of a citizen if he is an Indian? If the Bangladeshis are coming into India. yet their ration card is not made in fear that a few of them might be Bangladeshis. who have grown on knowing to read only Quran. or drivers. What would happen if some corrupt policemen identify him as one without a ration-card? He too would end up . That does not mean that these countries stop providing basic rights to their own citizens who are or Indian origin. in the name of Bangladeshis! Majority of the population earns only a handful to sustain for the entire month. Those who do not sport traditional Muslim appearance are either mechanics. or put fences on the border there. it is partly due to these factors and partly due to insecurity about future. and escape without punishment? He may not have said clearly.

despite such negative conditions. Muslims are condemned for worshipping a place in foreign land (Kaaba) and keeping allegiance to it. will have to part with some of that. they are either too feeble or die out soon for want of patronage. it is the responsibility of the security forces. this country has huge number of Nepalese. And if a few stray voices come out in support of Muslims. whereas we take huge grants from Japanese to build roads and hotels at the Buddhist sites in India. that has not allowed the virus of terrorism to multiply in this country. It is fortunate . even if it is for the policeman’s bottle of bear or a hearty meal.paying the weekly hafta. The new slogan of Muslim-appeasement does not make them say anything. Or it is the responsibility of the Governments who could not give ration cards to all the families of India till date. Moreover. and subjected to more severe punishments. Bhutanese and Lankans but nobody complains. Why? It is only the deep-rooted love to traditional Indian culture and the fact that majority of Indian Muslims owe their origin to the Hindus whom we have praised elsewhere for their peace-loving nature. what appeasement are you talking in the face of all aforementioned negativities. And the man who has only earned a pittance while toiling all through the month. because of which there is this problem of identifying between Indians and Bangladeshis. It is only the Bangladeshis who are targeted. If the Bangladeshi immigrant problem is there. Consequently. he would shell out his hard earned money. but the bad thing is that they are not given access to this kind of information. unless he runs away from the dominion of that constable and start living somewhere else. Good thing is that the majority of Indian population is still secular in thinking. And nobody asks. or else the earning family member will be treated as Bangladeshi.

no increase in commentaries of books like Gita and Vedas written and read on a wide scale. Why punish the innocent? If that is the case. we agree that people like Babur and Aurangzeb erected those ‘structures’ on the foundations of Hindu temples. in positive light. or the descendants of his forefathers! . why not attack Lanka itself. and no interest in initiating serious dialogues on how to create Ram-Rajya. of an Indian origin. but we also are of the opinion that they were Muslims only for the namesake. All the revivalism is centred on erecting more temples. Indian Government even goes to the point of summoning the Fijian ambassador and people start talking about sanctions on Fiji when the President of that country. A new trend is the so-called Hindu-revival by the fundamentalist forces. A person of Indian origin. but no body points a finger at the Sikhs. is given a heroes welcome when he arrives to India. no attempt to go back to the lofty values and principles that Krishna and Rama symbolized. possibly at the site of existing ‘structures’ with Muslim linkage. Yes.that Muslims in India have no holy place of worship in Pakistan like the Sikhs. whose three preceding generations have not lived in India. and if an Indian Muslim is found supporting Shoaib Akhtar or a Muslim locality is named Karachi or Islamabad in India. that becomes a sin. how to propagate Sanskrit and so on. who come to support Indian cricket team. a far greater crime than demolishing a temple on the birthplace of Rama? Ravana is dead but there must be a lot many Lankans who could be his descendants. gets into domestic trouble. if he becomes President of a tiny country in the West Indies. whose ruler Ravana had the audacity to fight with Rama himself. What revivalism are they talking about when there is no increase in discussions on Hindu philosophy. And our great media shows the interviews of second or third generation British Indians.

Bangladeshi immigrants. illiteracy. customs. the character of the doctor himself was put to question and no serious enquiry ordered? On the other hand. did they burn their own shops and houses? Fact is that Muslims are afraid! Why is it that when a Hindu doctor complained that he had seen two people being brought in police custody and shot at in the parking of Ansal Plaza by the police. Take out the list of people who died in police firing in Hindu-Muslim riots and you will find majority of them are Muslims: because the police are more prone at firing at their side. Take out the list of the houses/ shops that are burnt and you will find that majority of them are of Muslims again.Fact is that Muslims in many localities dread elections the most. a high level enquiry should have been ordered. But the bitter truth is that even the secular among the Hindus have begun distancing themselves because of the stories of filthy living. we will reiterate that majority of the Hindus in India are secular in character. declaration of which is always preceded by renewed attacks on their believes. who were to be later termed as terrorists killed in an encounter. the ideal way of operating would have been that even if the doctor was lying. religion and at times on them as well with physical or psychological blows. even if it was to quench the doubts in the hearts of Muslims. You talk to Muslim Government employees and they will tell you that it has become difficult to work while keeping the tag of their religion on? Again. overpopulation. terrorism and a shariat that is portrayed in negative . Why is that a corporator was put in jail for months who claimed that the so-called terrorists of Lal-Quila shoot-out who were said to be killed in an encounter by the police were actually killed at their Jamia Nagar residence and then taken away? You go to Aligarh’s old city and several Muslims will tell horrifying tales of police firing from positions in Hindu homes. If Muslims were the hooligans.

you will realize that the problem is not of Shariat but socio-economic in nature. adultery and all the related sins. if the previous husband deserts and goes to undisclosed location. the Hindu religious scholars would have argued that the 25-year or so aged lady was not supposed to be married again and she was to live the rest of her life as a widow (thankfully sati is no longer prevalent). If you recall seeing that discussion or Zee TV is good enough to show it again. Is it not human rights violations if a women who has experienced sex. Matters are resolved even if he returns and no question of Hindu law or Indian law is ever raised. is made to go without it for her entire life or for a period of seven years until her husband is considered legally dead? Islam is the only religion . unless you want to create favourable circumstances for increase in illicit relationships. Just imagine what would have been the repercussions if a similar story had been enacted in a lower class Hindu family. similar to other women? Fact is that you will have to remarry her. You will say that it is the insecurity of the women or the physical urge that brings about this relationship. Lawyers would have said that the marriage was null and void because law did not allow considering the missing person to be dead for a period of seven years. Guriya and Taufeeq with which we began our discussion. you will argue? Take the example of Arif. the Muslims are harbouring negative views about the other community because of the insecurity that has developed.light. Moreover. How is shariat shown in bad light. This is out of context but if you have studied the lifestyle of people in lower middle class and particularly slums. Is not the 25-year old widow going to have the same physical urge (newspapers have given stories recently that women’s sexual urge peaks in the 30s). you will find that it is common even among Hindus to start living with somebody else. At the same time.

However. A woman whose husband goes missing at the age of 30 has a greater chance of finding another match at that age than at the age of 37. If the parent had not married her daughter. But since Islam does not want anarchy even in sexual relations.that has even acknowledged the rights of women to have sex. and marrying. completion of the period of iddat so as to ascertain that the woman is not carrying a child from her previous marriage. As it is difficult to marry a widow in India. and had they waited longer. It is here that that the Islamic right of women’s own decision to take talaq is better than the Indian law of waiting for 7 years before the husband is accepted as dead. Suppose Arif wouldn’t have come at all! . They had a young woman at home whose husband was missing for a long time. who would have married her after she was past her prime (this is a social problem and nothing to do with religion). Why did the parent of Gudiya marry her at the first place. a young girl exposed to enjoying a marital life. there is nothing that forces her to do so and she has the choice to continue waiting for the period of her entire life. when Arif was not traceable for 4 years? The causes were social and economical and had nothing to do with shariat. would know how the Indian men have the tendency to consider them as available (this is a social and not a religious problem). it wants a proper annulment of marriage. had to live for 4 years without a mate (a socio-psychological problem). Women who have experienced a situation where their husbands are posted in a different city or abroad. the other situation would have been that they had to keep her with them for her entire life (this is a social as well as economical problem and nothing to do with religion). A lady faced with a situation has the choice of taking talaq after completing the period of iddat. Gudiya. and then the woman is free to marry.

enjoyed respect because of his employment in the army (even Taufeeq’s father referred to him as fauji) and will get all benefits as a house at the place of his posting. when he was thinking of getting Gudiya married to Taufeeq at the first place? And particularly when the daughter is pregnant with the child of Taufeeq.000. Arif returned. The problems that ensued too are more socioeconomical than religious. raises with years in service and what not. With difficulty they must have found a man who was working as a computer operator (on salary around 2000-3000 and not more). Choosing a groom for a supposedly widow girl must not have been easy. . Yet. It is either this or the fact that Gudiya missed Arif even while living with Taufeeq. why did he not go there to seek how to get the marriage annulled. Taufeeq surely is not earning more than 3000 rupees a month.The fact that Arif ’s elder brother too agreed that Gudiya be married elsewhere is sufficient reason to believe that even they considered their brother dead. as a hero from a Pakistani jail as against the previous position of a deserter. That too the job is private and not permanent. Gudiya was married into a far poorer family. became pregnant. If Taufeeq’s family took a huge dowry as a condition to agree. and during the course of time. we are not aware. where she lived for a period of about a year. If this is not so then why is it that Gudiya’s father went running to the Deoband for a fatwa? If he followed Shariat to such an extent. Either of the two causes is against the Shariat. Arif must surely be getting more than 10. At this time. that are the real cause of attempts at reunion. retirement and medical benefits. something that nobody is saying. why is he again thinking of remarrying her to Arif? Arif himself gave the answer to the puzzle during the course of his discussion with Alka on Zee TV.

perhaps at the behest of Gudiya (either due to economical reason or the reason that Arif was more virile than Taufeeq). they cannot be demanded back at the time of talaq. as per the Shariat. economics. their stay. And Alka in the Zee TV studio was there to carry the discussion forward. for all. mehr (which is the agreed amount to be paid by husband to wife) is to be given at the time of talaq and also the things that belong to the wife. He said that he was ready to divorce Gudiya but her father insisted that he return the amount of 5 lakh spent on marriage and dowry. Does the father of Gudiya not know that dowry is against Islamic shariat and if there are provisions for certain gifts to be given to the daughter. social taboos and perhaps sexual urge came in the way and the blame was put on Shariat to meet out these objectives. This would have been a much better solution. the ideal way would have been to take talaq from Arif and remarry Gudiya to Taufeeq. they feel that they can demand back the money spent (an economic problem). Even if Gudiya and Taufeeq were not married as per Shariat due to Arif – the first husband – not giving talaq. but personal egos.something that went without discussion. Arif says he was agreeable to it but it was Gudiya’s father who brought the subject of returning the money (an economical problem). Question is why did Zee TV not organize a similar discussion as regards to why the army leadership declared Arif a deserter? Was it not because Arif was a Muslim and the fight was against . They being from the sarpanch’s family (a social problem). Shariat prefers simple weddings and in no case are they supposed to demand back the amount spent on marriage ceremony like food to guests. towards shariat being vilified! Not once did she raise the question of army being responsible for the entire situation. Yes. decoration. etc. and particularly for the unborn child.

India is still the best of place to live. Carriers of the true legacy of Rama and Krishna! Muslims can surely learn a lot many positive lessons from them. What if Arif had died at an unknown place or never relieved from Pakistani jail? No pension would have been given. They are hard working and seekers of learning. If only they try! . Insecurity and dearth of money being the reason for the entire problem! All caused by one order of the army. peace loving and truth seeking. ‘Arif is a deserter ’. At the same time Gudiya went through a turmoil that still continues to throw apart her world and that of two families and an unborn child. God knows. And Indian Hindus the best of the cohabitants! Majority of them is God-fearing. One who wrote this order would perhaps never get the punishment that he deserves in the court of Men. nothing! Most of the families of the Kargil war victims have today become richer than before because of generous grants of petrol pumps and gas agencies to their next of kin. why Zee would never debate this subject! In spite of all this criticism that we have done. Gudiya was not getting the pension that she was supposed to get? Therefore. while Arif was declared a deserter immediately after he went missing? Is there any proof that those missing in the ‘71 wars actually went missing? Is not the army responsible for the entire situation? As Arif was acknowledged a deserter.Pakistan? Otherwise why is it that there are innumerable people from army who got missing in ‘65 and ‘71 wars and they have not been termed deserters even though Pakistan repeatedly denies that they are in their prison. No Vir Chakras. she was a burden both on her parent as well as her husband’s family. No next of kin recruited because of death on duty.

not to speak of the foul language that comes out from their mouths. Islam says ‘you are not a Muslim if people fear you or your tongue’ and terrorists and mafia kingpins emerge from them. Islam says ‘you are not a Muslim if you see injustice . considered the farthest place from Arabia during the time of Prophet. On the contrary. Islam is the best of religion and Muslims are the worst followers! It is evident that a majority do not take refuge in One Almighty God from the petty crimes that they commit. This message was so vigorously denied by Islam that they couldn’t created other Gods. a language that they don’t understand. Fact is that they are themselves more to be blamed than anybody else. Islam says ‘you are not a Muslim if your neighbour up to 40 houses on all sides goes to sleep without food. where they would have got all types of knowledge but never of Islamic scriptures. lies that they utter. thereby meaning that they do not even fully know what’s written in the Quran. marital and family discords that have found roots in their community. and they usurp the food of others and eat it. and endless other vices that are present. filth that they live in. Islam says ‘Acquire knowledge even if you had to go to China for it’. Entry into Islam’s fold starts with saying ‘There is no God. but fact is that they do not worship that one God in the manner that He wants them to worship. their madrasas confine themselves to teaching Quran in Arabic. but Allah’ because Islam taught Muslims to take refuge only in Him and none else.Muslims Too Are to Be Blamed Muslims cannot pass the blame on a section of the other community and move on. As said. corruption that they indulge in. violence that they commit.

Islam talks of righteous living. not to speak of wounding or murdering other human beings. so vigorously following them that they go to the extent of attacking and killing the members of the other sect. oppression. good conduct. and Muslims themselves are divided into so many sects and sub-sects that it is even difficult to count them. hands and feet five times a day. How sad indeed that Muslims are seen as dirty by others? Islam talks of all under the banner of One God. or touched a corpse or on similar other occasions. crime against humanity. Imagine if all the Muslims of India were to say that they wont tolerate injustice. who said that even plucking a leaf from a tree without reason was not allowed. like in Arabia where there is dearth of water or in Britain where people don’t bath for months due to cold season.being committed and don’t raise your voice of dissent’ and they themselves commit all kinds of injustices. Consider it keeping in mind not the Indian situation where water is in plenty. women and children. bribery. and you will find that Islam gives the best of rules for cleanliness. Won’t India be a better place to live then? Islam is the only religion that made it mandatory to wash face. just and humane treatment to all. if it is in the form of corruption. abstention from materialistic desires. . or whatever form of injustice that one can think of. How sad indeed that this was to happen to the followers of Mohammad. even in the name of Islam. but on more universal terms. having love with spouse. dealing with fellow human beings. It is also recommended to take bath on every Friday. truthfulness. Islam talks of saving lives of others even if you have to forego your obligatory prayers and they are bent on taking the lives of innocent men. and leading the entire life – be it doing business. piety. It is mandatory to have a bath every time you had sex or even masturbated. seeking refuge in God for all actions.

whereas their acts reflect nothing but irreligious and immoral behaviour. If some sections of the Muslims continue to have views contrary to it. And the only one who have tried to check family planning. if they are practicing family planning. Islam is not to be blamed. They forget that Islam is the only religion that has talked on the subject. as in the case of Gudiya and others. In fact. what we find in The Puranas is description of people . this subject was too immaterial when loftier subjects like attaining salvation. are doing so not because of religious consent but because of realizing its need. However. without bringing their reasoning faculties into picture. even after reading this view of ours or articles saying so. or those maintained by Jews of the period. There are some who point an accusing finger at Islam for failing to check family planning. Such is the intensity of their attempt to create hatred against Islam. Fact is that even the Hindus. they are found wanting in adhering to it. In fact. and realizing the importance of the Self and the devatas that comprise it. building a relationship with God. And where Islam makes it obligatory to follow certain rules. Contrary to this. those who want to denigrate Islam would continue to do so. There is nothing in the Hindu scriptures that talk of this subject. no other religion has laid stress on reason and knowledge more than Islam.and all other acts of life – while remembering God. were being discussed. in the name of Shariat and Islam. who were doing what they wanted. published at various places. Fact is that Islam is not against family planning but in fact supports it. on the lines of how their fathers and forefathers followed it. and they follow their religions blind-foldly. citing various reasons for their acts.

this too would have become a subject of criticism. If that had been the history of Islam. .with 50 or 100 sons. or even more. it is written. had more than 100000 sons. Blaming Islam for all faults of the Muslims is wrong. Krishna. that some sections of the society are hellbent on doing. The number of daughters was not found worthwhile to discuss.

Imam Ali Raza. It is He alone who is to be remembered in all acts. the eighth Imam said: Engraved on the ring of Jesus. Lest none say that such a path cannot be followed. are made for worldly gains including wealth and fame. who is also the creator of the Prophet and Imams.One God Ultimate aim in Islam is to recognize that One God.’ B IHAR AL . and I am one (Ahad) and single (Mutafarrid) in creating all things.ANWAR . Salvation. without seeking any material rewards in return. We have to perform our duty towards God and if the rewards are to come. As Imam Jafar Sadiq said: Among things with which God. It is to Him that we are to return for a life that is eternal. My Name is the One (al-Wahid). were two sentences from the Gospel: ‘Blessed is the servant who remembers God for His sake. the ultimate aim of Gita too is the ultimate aim of Islam. Peace be upon him. the Blessed and Exalted. The Prophets and Imams showed through their own conduct how the Almighty God is to be worshipped. it is better that they come in the next world. All things are My handiwork. exhorted Jesus (‘a) was: ‘O Jesus! I am your Lord. and woe unto the servant who forgets God for his own . This is in stark contrast to our present state in which prayers. if ever they are addressed. and all My creations shall return to Me. and the Lord of your fathers. XIV. In no way should the man desist from worship of Allah. 289 Talking of the importance of remembrance of God.

a complete submission of mind and heart to the ghaybul mutlaq and ends with yaqin . Writes Aga Mahdi Puya: “The structure of man’s individual characteristics is the combination of physical . an unshakeable firm conviction and certainty that the ultimate purpose of life in this world lies in the life after death in the direction unto the absolute.” And Quran says (2:22): Who made the earth a resting place for you and the heaven a canopy and (Who) sends down rain from the cloud then brings forth with it subsistence for you of the fruits. The description of muttaqin begins with iman bil ghayb . Then verily when you call upon Me thus I will answer you. XIV. in an animated and not in an impassive manner. and know that My pleasure is in your fawning over Me. A L -K AFI .ANWAR . O Jesus! Soften your heart for Me and remember Me much in solitude. and remember Me publicly and I will remember you publicly in a public better than that of men. 247 Al-Kafi narrates another quote from God to Jesus: O Jesus! Remember Me within yourself and I will remember you within Myself.’ B IHAR AL .sake. II. therefore do not set up rivals to Allah while you know. B IHAR AL . 290 Says Aga Mahdi Puya: “ Yaqin is the state of conviction and certainty acquired through an unshakeable evidence or proof. XIV.ANWAR . 502 Among things that were revealed by God to Jesus is: Do not call upon Me except by praying humbly to Me and with all your heart.

obeyed and looked after in health and sickness. the spiritual aspects take man towards the absolute and the physical aspects divert him away from it. One is born into this world through parents. devoted to Him.and spiritual influences. to shout in their presence. the equal of whom is inconceivable. Parents should be loved.“ And Quran says: Call upon Him with sincere (and exclusive) obedience. In a wider sense. Q URAN . the infinite. teachers . and therefore he who is on the path of guidance cannot but do good to parents (Luqman: 13). instead of diverting his attention to the material world. In relation to human vision.the up and down or the heaven and the earth. The spiritual aspect is heavenly and the physical aspect is worldly . particularly when the just idea of “an equal to Him is inconceivable” appeals to him. or even to look at them with displeasure is unworthy of a true believer. IYYAKA NA-BUDU WA IYYAKA NASTA-IN (Show us the true path) (QURAN . ARAF : 29 Turning to a ghayrallah (other than God) is as bad as surrendering to Shaytan who is an open enemy of man. The ultimate aim of the Quran is to convince man that all his needs and expectations receive fulfillment if he directs his attention towards the heavenly direction. So. F ATIHAH : 4 For this reason recitation of Surah Fatihah has been made obligatory in every salat (namaz). The spiritual journey terminates in the absolute. man must translate His will into practical life. respected. to lose temper on account of any of their actions. To walk ahead of them.

E XODUS 20: 3 Worship the Lord your God. if persons. and that besides Allah you have no guardian or helper? This shows that the whole universe is Allah’s kingdom. If the commandments of this verse are carried out how peaceful and pleasant would life on earth be!” Verse 2:107 from Quran further talks Allah: Do you not know that Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth.and guardians are also parents . In the Old Testament the covenant made with the Bani Israel has been referred to as under: He announced the terms of His covenant to you. He is the owner. D EUT 4: 13 You shall have no other god to set against Me. . and widows in your settlements may come and eat their fill. E XODUS 23: 25 At the end of every third year you shall bring out all the tithe of your produce for that year and leave it in your settlements so that the Levites. orphans. serving no purpose. The Holy Prophet said: I and Ali are the fathers of the ummah. binding you observe the ten words. the sovereign. Islam.the spiritual source of guidance.e. and the aliens. it is a waste of time and energy. i. D EUT 14: 28 AND 29 Says Pooya/Ali commentary: “In this verse the significance of the religion of Allah. If you do this the Lord your God will bless you in everything to which you set your hand. Therefore. has been pointed out. who have no holding or patrimony among you.

or in any sense whatsoever. chemically. nor in the sense of the oneness of a genus or a species. The “unity of God” is the main and single fundamental upon which the whole structure of the religion of Islam rests.” Aqa Mahdi Puya says: “The word wahid (one) is not used in any numerical sense. Says Pooya/Ali commentary: “There is no god but Allah. His main attribute is an all-encompassing beneficence and mercy. but it is used in the sense that He is indivisible. But Ali b. does not correspond to any limitation. logically. And verse 2:163 says: And your Allah is one Allah! There is no god but He. and all attributes belong to Him. nor in any other general term. or an opposite to Him is not conceivable. a second. geometrically. mentally or physically. the Merciful. unanalysable organically. because what he asks is the very object of this battle. Since He is unlimited. This unity. Ibne Babwah writes in the book of Tawhid: In the battle of Jamal a Bedouin asked Ali: “Do you say that God is One?” Some companions did not like the idea of asking such a question at a time when Ali was fighting a war. in essence. He is the Beneficent.” Then Ali gave the abovenoted description of Tawhid. .polytheists and idol-worshippers. through which all guidance and enlightenment emerge. We are demanding the true answer to this question (same faith in the unity of Allah) from our enemy. There is only One God. worship imaginary gods or deities. and they rebuked him. Abu Talib said: “Do not disapprove his question. nor in the sense of order (the first of any second). an equal.

to explore the meaning behind them. there are signs for a people who understand. dryness and wetness. Nature’s diversity is caused by one source and it will revert to the same source. the creation and its duality is described. and proved His rububiyat with His signs. and the water that Allah sends down from the cloud. day and night. and the changing of the winds and the clouds made subservient between the heaven and the earth. who is the highest form of creation. There are heavens and earth. is given the consciousness to experience all of these. Pooya/Ali Commentary says: “Having said that there is only one God. Man is asked to reflect over this creation and realize the divine unity in the midst of diversity and amongst the various forces of nature that work in perfect harmony. As has been pointed out by Imam Musa bin Kazim to his disciple. and man.Verse 2:164 says: Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day. then gives life with it to the earth after its death and spreads in it all (kinds of) animals. Aqa Mahdi Puya says: “The harmony in the working of the universe is referred to in the Quran as a sign of the unity of the maker. will reach the conclusion that it is one divine power that activates and enlivens all the diverse manifestations. and the ships that run in the sea with that which profits men. land and sea. Imam Jafar Sadiq has explained the part reasoning . Hisham bin Hakam: Verily Allah perfected His arguments with reasoning. assisted His messengers with miracles. Whoever contemplates on the nature of creation. life and death.

was sent to expose and explain the ultimate truth. the medium between him and the absolute becomes the divine revelation. have unshakeable faith in Allah. who understand. the brightest light. (Dua-e-Mashlul) And verse 3:2 of Quran says: Allah. nor where He is. the Everliving. (there is) no god but He. to enlighten the human mind and heart with the knowledge through which man can become aware of the Lord God. There is no use of the external proof (the prophet) if the heart and mind are not convinced through the internal proof (the reasoning).” Prophet after prophet came and awakened man step-by-step and degree-by-degree. but comprehends only what his power of contemplation can bear. except He. There may be religious doctrines beyond the grasp of limited human intellect but there should be no religious assertion contradictory to rational thinking. Finally the Holy Prophet. After reaching the final stage of the realization of His existence and unity. . the Self-subsisting by Whom all things subsist. nor in what respect He is. as promised by Allah.plays in determining the relationship between man and God and its limitations. Imam Ali says: O He! O He whom none knows what He is. This shows that the only medium for understanding the absolute and securing nearness to Allah is sound logical reasoning. Reasoning (the internal) and the prophet (the external) are the two proofs Allah puts forward to let the people. nor how He is.

and qayyum . the ever living. is put forward by the Christians in support of their claim. are the two attributes of Allah which break up and blot out the absurd doctrine of the divinity of Jesus Christ. He. there is no consensus among their theologians. the ever living is He who knows and acts freely without any limitations. he was crucified. the everliving. in order to let them work in harmony. according to the Christians. or a trinity in unity-God is a spiritual organism.Pooya/Ali Commentary comments on this in the following manner: “Allah! There is no god save He. the self-subsisting. the self-subsisting. The most popular belief is triune. was brought into being by Allah. cannot be hayy . Moreover. having living components which can be called organs only so long as they remain united and interrelated to each other in the whole. Jesus has a mysterious double nature which makes him a member of the trinity. A great deal of metaphysical nonsense. God is one but has components which perform separate functions. There must be an omnipotent will or a primal cause to keep the diverse components together. which they take as true without examination or proof. without being disunited. To function in a harmonious whole the components must be interdependent. like any other mortal. yet they themselves do not understand the doctrine of divinity of Jesus. None of the components or their whole can be God because they obey and follow the will of the primal cause. All organisms are finite. therefore. therefore. who did not have an existence before his creation. and also he cannot be qayyum . based on conjecture and speculation. Hayy. three in one. the ever-living. The primal cause is God. the self-subsisting. because.” Hayy . The idea of trinity or the doctrine of divinity of Jesus was not given by prophet Isa. Any organism whose .

Following Mohammad has been related with love for Allah in 3:31. Our Lord! make not our hearts to deviate after Thou hast guided us aright. and that which needs reason or cause to be effective or sufficient cannot be self-subsisting. the self-subsisting. then follow me. We started criticizing the Christian believes not knowing that our own Masooms formed that triune. and grant us from Thee mercy. and God has created them as self-subsisting. Anything. though our concept is definitely different from that of Christians. Qayyum.” We have presented before you the view maintained by Pooya/Ali commentary.components are finite and dependent cannot be an ever living infinite. surely Thou art the most liberal Giver. Say: If you love Allah. (a magnified form of the adjective qayam-standing and enduring) is He who stands (subsists) by Himself and all other stand (are subsisted) by His eternal endurance. Allah will . surely Allah will not fail (His) promise.” means that to be effective or sufficient He does not need a reason or cause because He Himself is the prime cause. as regards to the subject of triune. “Allah is the selfsubsisting. Now it becomes clear that the hypothesis of the scholars and the theologians of the Christian church not only fail to convince the seekers of truth but also create chaos and confusion. Our Lord! surely Thou art the Gatherer of men on a day about which there is no doubt. is governed by the law of cause and effect. However. composed of components with separate functions. we have already expressed earlier that we too are in favour of this concept. And verse 3:8-9 is again a prayer for guidance.

devoid of love for His grace. In fact those who do not love the Ahlebayt are not the believers. comes in the category of idol worshippers who worship the false deities to appease their anger. because one who worships Him and obeys His commands out of fear. reveres and worships. One who loves his beloved also loves those whom his beloved loves. It is made clear in this verse that he who loves Allah must follow the Holy Prophet. kindness and compassion by the religion of Allah. MercifuL Pooya/Ali Commentary says: “Love of Allah is the basis and essence of Islam. and in verse 23 of al Shura love of the Ahlebayt has been enjoined on all the true believers. Man must refrain from thinking or acting in a way which may hurt the feelings of the beloved whom he intensely loves. Fatima. and Allah is Forgiving. otherwise it is an empty claim. Sincere following of the Holy Prophet in the day-to-day life is the only proof of the love of Allah. therefore. There are several authentic traditions reported in the books of history written by Muslim scholars. Islam. Hasan and Husain and their children. referred to in the commentary of many verses in this book. See the commentary of rahman and rahim in surah al Fatihah and know that the heathen syndrome has been destroyed and replaced with love. The phrase “God-fearing” actually means guarding oneself against evil with awareness of the boundaries laid down by Allah. Allah loves the true followers of the Holy Prophet and forgives their sins. the doctrine . therefore. Fear is not the motivating you and forgive you your faults. according to which the Holy Prophet had openly declared his exclusive love for Ali. every sincere follower of Islam (Allah’s lover) must love the Holy Prophet and those whom he loves.

were the truest demonstration of the divine . the doctrine of tabarra is also one of the fundamentals of the true faith. Those who oppose them and follow their enemies go against Allah and His commandments. Shiaism. and mindful of the life after death. Abu Talib has said: The words and deeds of the Holy Prophet. he remains attached with the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt and refrains from going near their ungodly enemies. Any deviation from his word or deed means the deviator not only loses Allah’s love but also earns His displeasure. Ali b. the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt.of tawalla is one of the fundamentals of the true faith. his true love activates him to always do that which pleases Allah. Yunus: 15. following in his footsteps is the only proof of the love of Allah. Araf: 203. in fact. which. it is the duty of every Muslim to avoid and dislike the enemies and the allies and friends of the enemies of the Holy Prophet. since the Holy Prophet only followed the divine will. therefore. and refrain from acts of wickedness which certainly displease them. in the light of verse 28 of this surah. because a believer cannot be a friend of those who hated and opposed the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt. The love of the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt makes man follow in their footsteps. Ahqaf: 9 and Najm: 3 and 4. moreover. from the beginning to the end of his stay in this world. be they his own kith and kin.” Aqa Mahdi Puya says: According to Chapters An-am: 50. A true lover of Allah becomes a devotee of the Holy Prophet and his Ahlebayt. which alone entitles man to receive Allah’s love. Islam original or Shiaism. Therefore. is the love of Allah. Likewise.

one of the elders of the Jews of Najran. Therefore. as a prophet. Ali was the beloved of Allah and His prophet because he loved Allah and His prophet. subordinate to His will and command. but rather (he would say): Be worshippers of the Lord because of your teaching the Book and your reading (it yourselves). and I did not follow any save him. . then he should say to men: Be my servants rather than Allah’s. Rabbaniyyina (root is rabb) means those highly learned holy men who are wholly devoted to the Lord. “I take refuge with Allah.” Verse 3:79 further narrates the relationship between the One God and his messengers: It is not meet for a mortal that Allah should give him the Book and the wisdom and prophethood. Aqa Mahdi Puya says: “Allah had made some of the prophets to excel others (Baqarah: 253). Says Pooya/Ali Commentary: “Isa. neither I worship any god save Allah. It is a false accusation and slander to say that any of the prophets had asked people to deify them. nor I ask any one to worship any god save Allah”. and possess the wisdom of the Lord. Every prophet of Allah invited people to follow him to obey Allah. Abu Rafi. and surely not to worship his self.revelations (nothing but a revelation revealed). but all of them were the obedient servants of Allah because they were created beings. did not teach people to worship him or to make him as co-equal with Allah in any sense of the word. According to Minhaj al Sadiqin and Umdatul Bayan when the Holy Prophet completed his reply this verse was revealed. asked the Holy Prophet: “Do you invite us to worship you?” The Holy Prophet answered.

you must believe in him. He said: Do you affirm and accept My compact in this (matter)? They said: We do affirm. Then you turned back except a few of you and (now too) you turn aside. He said: Then bear witness. submission to the will of Allah. Describing this. in their deeds. Verses 3:80-81 too talks of a covenant between God and His Prophets. and reflect the lessons they taught. and to the near of kin and to the orphans and the needy. and you shall speak to men good words and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate. See: And neither would he enjoin you that you should take the angels and the prophets for lords. in letter and spirit. Quran (2:83) says: And when We made a covenant with the children of Israel: You shall not serve any but Allah and (you shall do) good to (your) parents. This worship of God is the covenant that has been made with God by each one of us. Aqa Mahdi Puya writes: “Mithaq (covenant) in this verse refers to an individual’s .People are advised to put into practice the divine commands mentioned in the book that the prophets of Allah used to preach. and you must aid him. so it is a warning to the followers of the Holy Prophet also. and I (too) am of the bearers of witness with you. That which has been said in these two verses is fully incorporated in Islam. what! Would he enjoin you with unbelief after you are Muslims? And when Allah made a covenant through the prophets: Certainly what I have given you of Book and wisdom— then a messenger comes to you verifying that which is with you.

this assumption will be discussed when ruh (soul) and nafs (self) are dealt with.” . likewise a true follower of Isa should fulfill the covenant Isa made with his Lord by believing in Mohammad. and the prophets in particular. you shall surely believe in him and help him. not Musa and Isa. as an individual and as the leader of his respective followers (saying)-that which I have given you of the book and wisdom. who fulfilled their promise in letter and spirit. they render the covenant. Whatever is the grammatical implication (whether the phrase lima or lama is relative or conditional) the meaning remains as under: Allah had made a covenant with each of His prophets. All the prophets accepted the conditions of the covenant and promised and witnessed that their followers will carry out the terms of the covenant. Musa and Isa made with the Lord of worlds.accountability for his actions. reference is made to the era prior to the existence of man in general. If the Jews and the Christians do not believe in the last prophet of Allah. They will be punished for breaking the covenant. It is argued by some commentators that wherever mithaq is used in the Quran. As there is no possibility of retaining any kind of conscious state prior to the physical birth of man. A true follower of Musa should fulfill the covenant Musa made with his Lord by believing in Isa. null and void. so all the prophets and their followers have to believe in the last prophet and listen to him. This promise was fulfilled by every prophet concerning his succeeding prophet (and every succeeding prophet confirmed his predecessor). (and) when a prophet will come to you confirming that which is with you.

Surely. finding time to remember God five times a day may start as a mere act with certain chants in a person’s initial years of adulthood. but there is all likelihood that it would lead him to a habit of devoting all his actions in this worldly life to God. through ahankara. nothing less. odours. This is perhaps the reason why the Prophet said: Namaz momin kee meraj hai. then it is not a fact. as a man acts and speaks so he becomes. Through the identification with the house (the body). (Namaz is a faithful’s meeting with his God). the buddhi perceives objects. This is truly the purpose of namaz. like a householder. Through the abhimana of . Brahma states: “The functions of the fourteen organs. no prayer is approved by Islam save that which has been prescribed by Allah. he thinks. the leg walks. the vocal organs speaks. the purpose of prayer is to please Allah. eye and others mutually dependent are the following: The eyes perceive forms.Yoga. the skin feels. through buddhi. becomes a jiva thinking that the body is itself… (Therefore) one should always utter ‘I am Brahman alone. he says ‘I’. as man has no right to add. he understands. the anus excretes. nothing more. the hand lifts. and nothing pleases Allah but that which is the most beneficial to His creatures. sounds. he. the tongue perceives taste. the sexual organ enjoys.” In Naradaparivrajaka-Upanishad. the ears. through chitta. being under the control of the organs. All these should be abandoned. the nose. Worship and Namaz William James once said.’ …It is said that the jiva is not so (concerned with egoism). Aga Mehdi Puya says: “In Islam. omit or alter the prescribed prayer. Therefore.

the jiva. avidya and the rest are destroyed. and jnana is the thorough inquiry into them. to him where then is grief? Where then is delusion?” Likewise.” A namazi remembers all these modes of action when he stands up in the midst of prayers.) the enjoyer. wherein he says: It is through the energy given by that One God that I get up and sit and bend down.. and enjoyment are nothing but Brahman. not attain the state of jiva). All Atmic knowledge is through tapas (only).. then he does not identify himself with the body (i. And (conversely) through the abhimana of the body. and are of the nature of his own Self. Through the mediation of that Parameshvara. O prince of sages! Yoga is the (forcible) repression of the modifications of the mind. Through knowing the Lord. the enjoyed. It is to Him that I supplicate. there is the abhimana of the jiva… Having known thus. there is freedom from birth and death. “The illusion of the universe disappears through meditation on union (or absorption) and sattva-bhava of Parameshvara always. “For the destruction of the chitta. Brahman contains in itself all excellence. Through the removal of such pains. That. Having known thus. and he attains whatever should be attained. whoever meditates upon the (Atma-) svarupa. Isn’t it true that these sentences repeated several times a day during the fivetime prayers enough to kill the abhiman or false ego? Brahman says the same in NaradaparvrajakaUpanishad when he describes the result of meditation or remembering God continuously.e. there is the abhimana of the body. It is to Him that I pray. He should know with certitude that all the three things (viz. Atharvan says in Sandilya-Upanishad. all wealth is enjoyed. if he should give up the identification with the body. There is none but It to be known. When the modification . there are two ways – yoga and jnana. the third body is acquired after this (physical) body.

from the time one gets up till one goes to sleep. but should always worship Him. while prostrating and bending down several times. He is remembered all through. through this obligatory practice.of the mind are repressed. or even cohabiting with his wife. One should not worship Vishnu during the day alone. mentions . the various actions that are component of the namaz serve as yoga and the praise of God and prayer to Him serve the purpose of leading him to think and inquire. most Muslims in India who offer namaz offer it without knowing what they have said. about his relationship with the Creator and his role on earth.” By making obligatory the five times prayers. doing business. in Surahs like al-Hamd and Qulhowallah as well as through utterance of ‘Allaho Akbar’ ‘God is Great’ several times and saying: “What to say and what praises should I speak of Allah (Brahman) who is the Greatest and the only one worthy of All Praise”. the condition is that one must understand what he is saying.” This may also be the reason why namaz has been made obligatory. having food. However. Therefore. it (the mind) verily obtains peace. One should not worship Vishnu during the night alone. while describing several postures of yoga that are good for us. and should not worship Him merely during day and night. Moreover. Sandilya-Upanishad later says: “The mind should not be allowed by a clever man to rest on any other thing. Unfortunately. when the person is interacting with others. Sandilya Upanishad. the groundwork has been readied to remember Vishnu during the remaining time as well. Namaz is the practice to become absorbed in Brahman (Allah). their mind wanders elsewhere even when they narrate the Quranic verses like a parrot with food in front of him.

opening your mouth and carefully fixing your gaze on the tip of your nose. resting the body upon the ground with both palms. by centering it at the toes [when bending down in ruku]. lower part of the seed) and binding the knees firmly with the hands. if properly performed. sitting at ease with the body erect (Padma). seeing all bodies . pressing the two ankles of the two feet firmly together against the Sivini (viz. he obtains mastery over the element of air. asana (posture).actions like grasping the feet. Yama (forbearance). or at all times. See a devout namazi performing prayers and notice whether all these are not done. and other modes of yoga. as said by Sandilya Upanishad: “Inhaling the prana from outside and filling the stomach with it. tyaga (renunciation). spreading out the fingers. (Thus) the yogin is freed from all disease and fatigue. concentrating the mind between the two eyebrows. By centring his prana at the tip of his nose [when standing erect]. at the tip of the nose and at the toes during the sandhyas (sunset and sunrise) [namazi offers prayers at both times]. his body becomes light. which is the Atma of the universe. centre the prana with the mind in the middle of the navel. mulabandha. resting your hands on the knees. mouna (silence) according to time and place. by centring it at the middle of his navel [while prostrating in sijdah]. Also see what Tejobindu-Upanishad of Krishna-Yajur Veda says on this subject in Chapter I: “Param-Dhyana (the supreme meditation) should be upon tejo-bind. all diseases are destroyed. moving the tongue and the chitta (mind) both in the akash. placing the hollow of the left foot under the side of the right posteriors and the hollow of the right foot under the side of the left posteriors resembling Gomukha (cow’s face) – several of these asanas pertaining to Siddha. inhaling the air through the nostrils. too are taken care of. stretching out the leg. niyama (religious observance)..

Finding time for prayer in one’s hectic schedule or when one wants to sleep some more time or is tired not to do any more physical labour during the night teaches tyaga or renunciation. dharana. in which there is the supreme bliss enjoyed through the flowing (or inclination) of the mind towards things of the same (spiritual) kind. That is called yama in which one controls all his organs (of sense and actions) through the vijnana that all is Brahman. those performed at noon and afternoon. Scholars even describe where should one’s position of eye be. atma-dhyana and samadhi – these are spoken of as the parts (of yoga) in order. Remembering the time for prayer teaches religious niyama or religious observance. Brahman) and the abandoning of things differing from one another is practiced by the sages as a rule. (viz. Niyama. Getting up early in the morning when the bed beckons you to spend some more time. while equal. All parts of the body are brought to play while performing the prayers. . thus enables a man to see each as equal. prayer to God to lead us to the right path and not using the senses for any purpose but for remembrance of God for a few minutes. Two of the five prayers. the position of the eye. surely helps one in subjugating his senses. The wordings in praise of God. pratyahara (subjugation of the senses). This is practiced by the great and is the giver of immediate salvation. one abandons the manifestations (or objects) of the universe through the cognition of Atma that is Sat and Chit. Various kinds of asanas (postures) that one adopts have already been described before. In tyaga (renunciation). performing wuzu with water even in the coldest of mornings when you would not allow water to touch your face until sun comes up teaches forbearance. Mouna (silence) has to be according to time and place. this should be practiced often and often. five times a day. are offered silently. prana-samyamana (control of breath).

through which one sees Atma (even) in the objects of sense. in which there is the control of the modifications (of mind) through the cognition of Brahman in all the states of chitta. Then like a dry tree. namaz is a practice that. there is straightness (or uniformity throughout). That should be known as pratyahara. This dhyana is the giver of supreme bliss. That is called pranayama (the control of breath). The checking of (the conception of the reality of) the universe is said to be expiration. Such is the practice of the enlightened. By dharana is meant that state where one indulges in the good thought. and sight will take place. The holding on (long) to this conception without agitation is cessation of breath. The ignorant close their nose. and others. That vision is very noble. one should look upon the world as full of Brahman. Through seeing Brahman wherever the mind goes.” and is without any support. and not towards the tip of the nose. Dharana is thought of highly by the wise. and then thoroughly forgetting (even) that state owing to the cognition of the (true) nature of Brahman – this is . the dharana of the mind is obtained. there is not that equality (attained). Making one’s vision full of spiritual wisdom. Being first in a state of changelessness. if performed properly. but it should be directed towards that seat (of Brahman) wherein the cessation of seer.No doubt. It is (generally) aimed at the tip of the nose. It should be practiced often and often. Now see how Tejobindu-Upanishad describes the yoga and compare it with the namaz of a supplicant. “I am Brahman alone. if not. could facilitate one’s progress on the path of selfrealization. the seen. Tejobindu-Upanishad says: “One after having known the equality of the angas (or parts of yoga) point to one and the same Brahman. should be absorbed in that equal (or uniform) Brahman. The conception of “I am Brahman” is inspiration. and pleases chitta through manas.

Then that substance (or principle) which is beyond the scope of words. there arises a firm certitude. He who abandons this vrtti of Brahman. even for half a moment – without the vrtti of Brahman. sweat. Then he will attain a state. the following obstacles arise with great force – absence of right inquiry. This kind of bliss should be practiced (or enjoyed) by a wise person till his cognition itself united in a moment with the state of pratyag (Atma). the effect perishes through right discrimination. When samadhi is practiced. it (as an effect) must also have its cause. through meditation with transcendental energy. After that. and who are greatly attached to the world – those certainly are born again and again (in this world) through their ajnana. etc. Through bhavavrttis (worldly thoughts). remains pure. vrtti jnana arises in their purified mind. But through the vrttis of Brahman. Sanaka. distraction. like Brahma and others. Those who are greatly developed through the ripening (of their past karmas) attain the state of Brahman. but are without the action pertaining to Brahman. tamas. one gets fullness. and absentmindedness. deserving to be worshipped by the three worlds. Suka and others. and is without any aid (outside himself).. Then this King of Yogins becomes a Siddha. Therefore one should develop fullness through this means (of Brahman). becomes a good and blessed person. Those who are clever in arguments about Brahman. But he who understands this vrtti (of Brahman). absorption (in material object). . inclination to enjoyment. impatience. one gets into them. laziness. (the former) never remain. and having understood it makes advances in it. When the cause ceases to exist in truth. When a cause is subject to changes.called samadhi. All these obstacles should be overcome by inquirers into Brahman. others are simply reciters of word. inexpressible and unthinkable. which is very purifying and supreme – that man lives in vain like a beast.

Salat has been made obligatory for all believers because. III. man gets rid of pride and arrogance. These injunctions make . to keep their involvement with the material gains and enjoyment at a reasonable level and give sufficient time to the worship of Allah in order to reach the heights of spiritual glory.” Islam too upholds the importance of prayers in highest esteem. Islam. Thus ends the first chapter of Tejobindu. Al-Kafi narrates from Imam Jafar Sadiq when he was asked about the best thing by which the servant may draw near to his Lord and what is most beloved by Allah. only a very few could adopt the life of piety and devotion (essential for a human being to be initiated into the realm of spiritual bliss). which in fact is the purpose of existence in this world. Do you not see that the good servant Jesus the son of Mary (‘a) said: ‘And He enjoined on me the ritual prayer (salat) and the alms tax (zakat) for as long as I live. He said: “I know of nothing. Says Pooya/Ali commentary: “Due to the system of optional asceticism among the Jews and the Christians. Zakat. And Quran (verse 2:43) says: And keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and bow down with those who bow down.’?” A L -K AFI . through salat (namaz). 264 Imam’s answer shows there was a ritual prayer even in Christianity. after knowledge (ma’rifah). one should see everything as Brahman. educates every human being. giving in the way of Allah. has also been dealt with in detail therein.After reducing the visible into the invisible state. on the other hand. better than the ritual prayer (salat). on account of its style and substance. leaving the rest of the majority of the people to sink deep into hypocritical ritual practices. The wise should ever stay in bliss with their understanding full of the essence of Chit.

or Bibi Fatima faced any difficulty. poise. Bibi Fatima. his daughter and the Holy Imams is a brilliant light which throws light on the path to be followed by the sincere faithful who seek assistance (wasta-inu) to build up the balanced character mentioned above. and ability to continue.” A little later. Pooya/Ali commentary says: “Wasta-inu (seek help) applies to worldly as well as spiritual matters. they prayed salat and sought Allah’s help. otherwise mere formal rituals and recitation of chants and charms do not help man to rise above the level of animal life. pride and self-indulgence and lead to humility. as has been shown by Ali b. spiritual achievements. Abu Talib. it is said in Quran (2:45): And seek assistance through patience and prayer. The lives of the Holy Prophet.every man join the stream of worshippers and seekers of nearness to the ultimate truth. It is reported that whenever the Holy Prophet or any of the holy Imams. The Arabic word sabr has many shades of implied suggestions . self-control. submission. Salat too is essential part. a refined discipline has to be built through subordinating the body to the control of the spiritual energy. The whole world bears witness to the fact that in wisdom. The importance of salat (namaz) is also held in high esteem in verse 2:3 of Quran: .willingness to endure. Sabr (patience) and salat (prayer) curb vain desires. acceptance and obedience. He stands high and above in the select company of the most devoted servants of Allah. and most surely it is a hard thing except for the humble ones. and referred to in this verse. To liberate the human ego from the clutches of the excessive attachment to bodily wants and material success. serenity. and bodily strength there is no one who can be compared with him.

Those who believe in the unseen and keep up prayer and spend out of what We have given them.
Aqa Mahdi Puya says: The literal meaning of salat is the middle of the backbone. When used as a verb, it means the bending and unbending of the backbone. It is particularly employed when an animal is curved at the time of delivery. Figuratively, it was used for a bending posture at the time of giving or taking something. From this, it was adopted for prayer, to signify a submissive attitude. The Quran has drawn on this word to describe man’s praying attitude towards Allah, as well as Allah’s turning towards His creatures. The natural religious tendency of man, as the result of self-love, makes him bend before the absolute, in prayer, to express his wants and needs in order to obtain fulfillment. The bending of the absolute means His turning towards the supplicant to give that which he deserves. Now see verse 2:114:

And who is more unjust than he who prevents (men) from the masjids of Allah, that His name should be remembered in them, and strives to ruin them? (As for) these, it was not proper for them that they should have entered them except in fear; they shall meet with disgrace in this world, and they shall have great chastisement in the hereafter.
As regards to the religious beliefs of the Indo-Aryans, we have seen in our study of the Vedas how actions of Imams when they were offering their namaz were seen as the best of yajnas. This shows that even the God of Vedas knows that the actions being performed by Imams are highly desirable. On the other hand, we see that a concept of daily prayers in the form of Sandhyavandana was there, which were performed at the rising or setting

sun. Further, we have mentioned in Part-III how fiveoblations too were considered essential for a Brahman. Chapter XVI of Matsya Purana says:

The sraddhas are of three kinds, viz.: Nitya (daily), Naumittika (occasional) and Kamya (optional).
The fact that there is an optional sraddha proves that the other two are mandatory. Matsya Purana also states that the Karma Yoga as taught by Vishnu means one has to perform the five sacrifices every day viz. (i) worshipping the Devas, (2) the Pitris, (3) feeding men (4) and the lower creatures, (5) and honouring the Rishis. Five sacrifices every day have continued from time immemorial, which can still be seen in the five times offering of prayers by the Muslims. The presence of honouring the Rishis, among the five is an indicator that the five sacrifices have been added as an afterthought. Even if the five are true, one thing is certain, that the sacrifices were never ritual worship as taken to mean during a later period. Even The Vishnu Purana confirms that there were certain morning rites of devotion that were performed by the men in general when it says:

Maittreya, having saluted him reverentially, thus addressed Parasara, the excellent sage, the grandson of Vasishtha, who was versed in traditional history, and the Puranas; who was acquainted with the Vedas, and the branches of science dependent upon them; and skilled in law and philosophy; and who had performed the morning rites of devotion.
The Components of Prayer

We invite you to see what all is said in the prayers that is so important that the Prophet said:

Namaz is a faithful’s meeting with his God.
And Quran said that the prayer restrains from shameful and unjust deeds. (Verse 29:45) We present before you the meanings of various verses recited during Namaz.

The Azaan and the Eqamah
It is strongly recommended to say the azaan (the call to prayer) and the eqamah (the declaration of standing for prayer) before every daily prayer. This is the translation of phrases that make up the azaan : (1) God is greater (4 times) (2) I bear witness that there is no god by Allah (2 times) (3) I bear witness that Mohammad is the Messenger of God (2 times) (4) I bear witness that Ali is God’s favoured one (2 times) (not obligatory but recommended) (5) Make haste to the prayer (2 times) (6) Make haste to salvation (2 times) (7) Make haste to the best of actions (2 times) (8) God is greater (2 times) (9) There is no god but Allah (2 times) Eqamah is more or less similar to azaan , with very little difference.

What is offered in the prayers?
Standing position
Sura al-Fatiha of Quran, which means:

In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate Praise belongs to God, Lord of the World, the

Merciful, the Compassionate, Master of the Day of Judgment; We worship only You, and from You alone do we seek help. Lead us on the straight path, the path of those whom You have blessed, not of those on whom is (Your) wrath, nor of those who have gone astray.
Sura al-Ikhlas of Quran, which means:

In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Say: ‘He is God, the One, God the Eternal and Besought of all, Neither begetting nor begot, Nor is there anything comparable or equal to Him.
In ruku, when the hands are kept on the knees while standing:

Glory be to my Lord, the Great, and praise belongs to Him.
And while standing:

God hears the one who praises Him.
While in the position of sujud, when the head is on the ground:

Glory be to my Exalted Lord, and praise belongs to Him.
When is sitting in kneeling posture, with the hands placed on the knees:

I ask forgiveness of God, my Lord, and turn towards him.
In between this process, several time one says:

Allaho Akbar, God is Greater.
The same process is repeated in the second rakah . This rakah also contains qunut , where hands are lifted up in sky for supplication. Any dua can now be recited. Translation of some of the common ones is as follows:

There is no god apart from Allah, the Forgiving, the Merciful. There is no god apart form Allah, the Exalted, the Magnificent. Glory to the Lord of the seven heavens and the seven earths, the Lord of all that is contained therein, the Lord of the Exalted Throne. All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the World.
Or it is said:

O God, grant pardon to us and have mercy on us, protect us, save us (from hardship) in this world and the next. Indeed, You are Powerful above all things.
In the second rakah , when one performs the sujud , tashahud is said while sitting in kneeling position.

I bear witness that is no god apart from Allah, Who is unique and without partners. I also bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Prophet. O God, bless Mohammad and the progeny of Mohammad.
Then Taslim is recited which says:

Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and God’s mercy and blessing. Peace be upon us, and upon the righteous servants of God. Peace be upon you (all), and God’s mercy and blessing.
The prayer finishes with three times saying:

God is Greater.
If it is a three or four rakah prayer, it is said thrice while standing, in each of the 3 rd and 4rh rakahs:

Glory be to God, and praise be to God; there is no god but Allah, and Allah is greater.

Supplication to God
Supplication to God and looking at Him for everything even in this world is the teaching of all Messengers of God, be it Krishna and Ram or Mohammad and divinely appointed successors. The fact that we have created masters for ourselves in this world is the root cause of all problems. We give here some of the oft-used duas or supplications that the Muslims often resort to, in order to seek wishes from God. Before doing so, we wish to narrate before you how Ali narrated the importance of seeking one’s wishes from God (as mentioned in Bihar al-Anwar).

Whoever puts his hope in some one other than Me, I will cut off his hope, will dress him in the robe of disgrace and wretchedness, will deprive him from My Nearness, will cut off communication with him and will hide his memory. Woe be upon him, who takes shelter in other than Me during difficulties, while the solution of difficulties rests with Me. Does he hope in others while I remain Living and Eternal? Does he go to the homes of human beings for solutions of his problems while the gates of their houses are closed? Does he leave the door of My house while its gate remains always open? Was there any one who trusted Me and was betrayed? The hopes of My servants are tied to Me, and I take care of their hopes. ‘I have filled the sky with those who never tired of My praise, and have ordered the angels never to close the door between Me and My servants. Does not, the one who face the problem, know that no one

can solve it except with My permission? Why does not the servant approach Me for his needs, while I had already blessed him with favour without his being asked for them?” Why does not he ask me instead of asking others? Does he imagine that in the beginning I bestow My favours upon the servant and will now deprive him after his request? Am I miser that My servants regard me as miserly? Do not the world and Hereafter belong to me? Do not the mercy and benevolence are my characteristics? Do not the blessings and favours rest in My hand? Do not all the desires end with Me? Who has the power to terminate them? I swear with My majesty and splendour that if all the needs of all of the world’s habitants are summed up, and if I bestow upon them in accordance to their wants, not equivalent even to the weight of a tiny particle will be decreased from My kingdom. Whatever is bestowed by Me, how could be a susceptible to loss or reduction? Hoe destitute and wretched is the one who is hopeless of My Blessings? How helpless is the one disobeys me, indulges into forbidden deeds, disregards My limits and transgresses?”
After saying this Ali told how he prayed to God.

Oh God! If I adore you – it is because of Your Mercy and Compassion; if Glorify you – it is because of Your commandments; if I sanctify and attribute inviolability to you – it is because of your energy; if I chant the world of Monotheism with my tongue – it is because of Your Power; if I raise my eyes – see Your Blessings all over; if I practice thriftiness – it is because to save Your

and may receive an exalted position therein. Like a friend You pay attention towards them. and communicate with them. and humility engage themselves in Your invocations. tranquility. please do not deprive me . oh Lord! Whoever. Whoever puts his trust in other than you is like sitting upon an unstable base. Your Majesty and Splendour has overwhelmed their hearts. mysteries of their hearts became manifested and their wants are granted.Bounties. You do not engage in Your invocation. they breath the breeze of Your Blessings. Oh Lord! Those who are able to see – look towards You with their esoteric eyes. Indeed You have the absolute power over all things. and death becomes for him a regret. Please bestow upon me similar position as attained by them. repentence. Whoever. the veils of ignorance have been removed between You and them. let the veils of ignorance be uplifted so that my soul could see the Divine illumination of Your Celestial Kingdom. and disaster. and bestow upon him the grace of journeying towards Your countenance – life becomes for him like death. listen to their words. chooses a shelter of other than you – would certainly be disappointed. there souls have reached near Your Sacred Throne and with dignity. grant their wants. Oh God! Who had induced hope within the hearts of all the hopeless ones and have removed their pains and sufferings. they witness the signs of Your Absolute Power every where. Oh God! How fearsome and terrible is journeying on the road which does not terminate in you. your Divine illumination has enlightened their hearts.

who put their trust in Your Mercy could be inflicted with deprivation? While you remain absolutely free from the need of inflicting loss upon sinners. Oh God! My request to you is like the request of a confused beggar who does not have any shelter or support and except from you does not seek the help of any other helper. to bestow upon me all the blessings which are worthy of a believer. How come those. so that I may admit the reality of Your Divinity and Godhood. please bestow upon me too the learning to comprehend Your Holy Essence. Indeed You have absolute power over all things. Oh God! My heart is looking towards You with plenty of desires. And protect me from all sort of evils and calamities the way You protect all Your favourite servants.from the grace of performing righteous deeds and preserve me – the shelterless and destitute – in your shelter. and worshipped You with sincerity indeed. I beg You. I request by the name. and do not include me among them who worship Your Name only without paying attention to its meanings. which became manifested for Your favourite saints. enabling them to become enlightened about Your Holy Essence. thus. In deed You have absolute power over all things. please let my heart taste the sweetness of seeing those desires granted. Oh God! As some one who has reached near the enlightenment of Your Essence. comprehended You as One. Oh God! All sweetness and pleasures eventually get terminated except the pleasure of faith which increases every day. .

to ask. etc. Dua-e-Mashlul is most effective against illness. glimpse of which can only be seen in description of God in the words of Siva and others in the Upanishads. BIHAR AL -A NWAR. mishaps.And allocate at least a certain moments (among various moments) to pay attention towards me thus. from the One and Only Master of ours. What these supplications also do further is that they tell us the way to supplicate. disease. Dua-e-Mashlul (The Supplication of the Lame Man) In the Name of God. if you find the highest form of narration. enlightening my heart about Your Sacred Essence as well as the essence of your favourite saints. P-94 ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ We are giving here few of the duas (supplications) given to the Shias by their worthy Imams. the AllCompassionate . Indeed you have absolute power over all things. VOL . never remain unanswered. In spite of this. Dua-e-Sabah is for betterment in this world and the next. The One God and his praise are vividly described here. and prevents against accidents. etc. to pray. it speaks of the greatness and high position of the Ahlebayt. One thing that we wish to specify is that translation never has the power to reveal the greatness of the original work. 94. and Dua-e-Kumayl is for those who wish God to cleanse all the past sins as well as for benefits in this world. the All-Merciful. It has been seen that the prayer sought with servitude and devotion and if it is in the human interest seeking the prayer.

Oh Inaccessible! Oh all-hearing! Oh All-knowing! Oh All-clement! Oh all-generous! Oh All-wise! Oh Eternal! 12. Oh King! Oh All-holy! Oh All-pervader! Oh Allfaithful! Oh All-preserver! Oh All-Mighty! Oh All-compeller! Oh All-sublime! 8. Oh Living! Oh Self-subsistent! Oh Living! 4. Oh All-high! Oh All-tremendous! Oh All-commiserating! Oh All-gracious! Oh Condemner! Oh Recourse! 13. Oh Originator! Oh Returner! Oh Destroyer! Oh All-loving! Oh All-praiseworthy! Oh All-worshipful! 10. nor where He is. Oh God. Oh Far! Oh Near! Oh Responder! Oh Watcher! Oh Reckoner! Oh Innovator! Oh Exalter! 11. Oh Possessor majesty and splendor! 3. Oh Creator! Oh Maker! Oh Shaper! Oh Benefiter! Oh Director! Oh Severe! 9. nor in what respect He is but He! 6. nor how He is. There is no god but Thou! 5. Oh Possessor of the dominion and the kingdom! Oh Possessor of might and invincibility! 7. Oh He! Oh He whom none knows what He is.1. Oh All-majestic! Oh All-beautiful! Oh Guardian! Oh Surety! . verily I ask Thee by Thy Name 2.

and equal to whom is none (CXII 3-4) 18. nor has He taken any adviser. Oh Pure! Oh Purifier! Oh All-Powerful! Oh All-able! Oh All-great! Oh All-sublime! 17. Oh One! Oh Unique! Oh Everlasting Refuge! Oh He who begets not and was not begotten. With Him is no vizier. Oh Guide! Oh All-apparent! Oh First! Oh Last! Oh Outward! Oh Inward! 15. 19. Oh Victorious! Oh Comprehender! Oh Destroyer! Oh Avenger! Oh Upraiser! Oh Inheritor! . there is no god but Thou. nor with Him is any god but He 21. Oh All-high! Oh All-lofty! Oh All-towering! Oh All-opener! Oh All-diffuser! Oh All-restful! Oh Bestower of relief! Oh Helper! 23. and who has no consort (VI 101). so exalted art Thou above what the evildoers say.Oh Annuller! Oh Obtainer! Oh All-noble! Oh Leader! 14. Oh All-steadfast! Oh Everlasting! Oh Knower! Oh Decider! Oh Judge! Oh Just! Oh Separator! Oh Joiner! 16. nor needs He any assistant. 20. a great exaltation! 22.

Oh He who answers wherever He is called upon! 27. Oh Alone! Oh Solitary! Oh Eternity without end! Oh Support! Oh Everlasting Refuge! Oh All-Sufficient! Oh All-healing! Oh All-fulfilling! Oh All-relieving! 30. Oh He who is exalted and dominates! Oh He who is master and exercises power! Oh He who is inward and aware! 32.24. nor perceived by vision and from whom no trace remains hidden! Oh Provider of mankind! . 33. Oh All-relenting ! Oh All-forbearing! Oh Allbestower! Oh Originator of all means! Oh Opener of all doors! 26. Oh All-pure! Oh All-thankful! Oh Exempter! Oh Forgiver! Oh Light of light! Of Director of affairs! 28. Oh He who is worshipped and thankful! Oh He who is disobeyed and forgives! Oh He who is not encompassed by thoughts. Oh Seeker! Oh Vanquisher! Oh He from whom no fugitive can escape! 25. Oh All-subtle! Oh All-aware! Oh Protector! Oh Illuminator! Oh All-seeing! Oh All-aiding! Oh All-great! 29. Oh All-kindly! Oh All-gracious! Oh All-benevolent! Oh All-bountiful! Oh All-beneficent! Oh All-Solitary! 31.

Oh He who exalts in rank! Oh He who bestows requests! Oh He who gives life to the dead! 44. Oh Possessor of might and force! Oh All-compassionate! Oh All-merciful! 37. Oh Transformer of Time! Oh Accepter of sacrifices! Oh Possessor of graciousness and benevolence! 36. Oh He who sends down blessings! Oh He who has mercy upon tears! 42.34. Oh He who is every day upon some labour (LV 29)! 38. Oh He who answers all supplications! Oh He who fulfills all entreaties! Oh He who provides all needs! 41. Oh Determiner of every lot! Oh Lofty of place! Oh Firm in supports! 35. nor covered by shadows! . Oh He for whom sounds are never indistinct! Oh He who never becomes annoyed at requests 46. Oh He who gathers all scattered things! Oh He who is aware of all intentions! Oh He who brings back what has passed away! 45. Oh He who annuls slips! Oh He who removes troubles! Oh He who sponsors good things! 43. Oh He who is in every place! Oh He who hears all sound! 40. Oh He who is not distracted from one labour by another! Oh Tremendous in rank! 39.

Oh Helper of those who seek aid! Oh Goal of the seekers! 54.Oh Light of the earth and the heavens! 47. Oh Most Hearing of the hearers! Oh Most Seeing of the viewers! Oh Protector of those who seek protection! 52. Oh He who enriches the miserable pauper! . Oh He who gathers together the nations! Oh Healer of illnesses! Oh Creator of light and darkness! 49. O He who sets broken bones! Oh He who releases every prisoner! 58. Oh He who is merciful to old men! Oh He who provides for small infants! 57. Oh Amble in blessings! Oh Repeller of adversities! Oh Maker of the breaths of life! 48. Oh Shelter of every wanderer! Oh Custodian of everyone astray! 56. Oh Sanctuary of the fearful! Oh Asylum of the refugees! Oh Sponsor of the believers! 53. Oh Companion of every stranger! Oh Intimate of everyone alone! Oh Refuge of every outcast! 55. Oh Most Munificent of the most munificent! Oh Most Generous of the most generous! 51. Oh Possessor of munificence and generosity! Oh He upon whose Throne no foot treads! 50.

)! Oh He who is aware of everything! 62. when relatives deliver me up 68. Oh Sanctuary of him who has no sanctuary! Oh Cave of him who has no cave! . Oh He who safeguards the fearful seeker of protection! Oh He who governs and determines! 60. Oh He who is powerful over everything (V 120 et al. Oh He in whose hands is every key! Oh He who hears every sound! Oh He who takes precedence over everything that passes away! 65. Oh Support of him who has no support! Oh Store of him who has no store! 70. Oh my Cave when the ways make me weary. Oh my Maintainer in my exile! Oh my intimate in my lonesomeness! Oh my Sponsor in my blessings! 67. Oh He who sees everything! Oh Sender of the winds! 63. Oh He who gives life to every soul after death! Oh my Provision in my hardship! 66.59. Oh He for whom the difficult is simple and easy! Oh He who never needs an explanation! 61. and when every companion forsakes me! Oh Backing of him who has no backing! 69. Oh Cleaver of the dawn! Oh Dispatcher of the spirits! Oh He who possesses munificence and forbearance! 64.

Oh He who caused Jesus son of Mary to ascend and delivered him from the hands of the Jews! 80.71. and al-Mutafikah He also overthrew. Deliver me from the chains of strictures. Oh He who answered Jonah’s call in the darkness! Oh He who chose Moses by spoken words! 81. the ancient. Oh He who forgave the sin of David! 79. 76. Oh He who destroyed Ad. 84. grief and distress. Oh He who forgave Adam his slip and raised Idris to a high place through His mercy! 82. and did not spare them. (LIII 503) . and the people of Noah beforecertainly they were more unjust and more rebellious– 85. Oh He who returned Joseph to Jacob! Oh He who removed the affliction of Job! 79. Oh Treasure of him who has no treasure! Oh Pillar of him who has no pillar! 72. turn away from me every care. protect me from the evil of that which I cannot bear and help me in that which I am able to bear! 77. Oh Help of him who has no help! Oh Neighbour of him who has no neighbour! 73. And Thamud. Oh my adjacent Neighbour! Oh my sturdy Pillar! Oh my God in truth! 74. Oh Lord of the Ancient House! Oh All-affectionate! Oh Friend! 75. Oh He who saved Noah from drowning! 83.

Oh He who strengthened the heart of Moses’ mother 95. the household of Mohammad. and guarded the virginity of Mary. and placed a curse upon Cain! 101. . Oh He who took Moses for an object of His words 88. Oh He who fortified John son of Zakaria against sins 97 and calmed the anger of Moses! Oh He who gave Zakaria the good tidings of John! 98. Bless Mohammad. and took Mohammad – God bless him and all his household – for a beloved! 89. and returned the sun of Joshua son of Noon after its setting! 94. Oh He who routed the parties for Mohammad– God bless him and his household! 102.Oh He who destroyed the people of Lot 86. Oh He who ransomed Ishmael from the sacrifice with a mighty sacrifice! (XXXVII 107) 99. all the messengers. Oh he who gave Zulqarnain victory over the tyrannical kings! 92. Oh He who gave Khizar Life 93. daughter of Imran! 96. and crushed the people of Shuayb! Oh He who took Abraham for a friend! (IV 125) 87. Oh He who accepted the sacrifice of Abel 100. Oh He who gave Loqman wisdom 90 and bestowed upon Solomon a kingdom such as may not befit anyone after hi! (XXXVIII 35) 91.

110 by the junctures of might for Thy Throne. An I ask Thee with every asking with which any of those that have passed Thee has asked Thee. yet would the words of God not be spent. By Him! By Him! By Him! By Him! By Him! By Him! By Him! 109. 113. God is All-might. 105. And I ask Thee by the Names most beautiful that Thou hast described in Thy book. and by the fact that. Thy angels brought nigh and all those who obey Thee! 104. 111. Oh All-merciful! Oh All-merciful! Oh Allmerciful! Oh All-compassionate! Oh all-compassionate! Oh All-compassionate! 107. I ask Thee by every Name with which Thou hast named Thyself or which Thou has sent down in one of Thy scriptures or kept for Thyself in the knowledge of the Unseen with Thee.103. All-wise. for Thou said: . Oh God! Oh God! Oh God! 106. Oh Possessor of majesty and splendour! Oh Possessor of majesty and splendour! Oh Possessor of majesty and splendour! 108. though all the trees in the earth were pens and the sea – seven seas after it to replenish it. such that Thou has decreed for him compliance. (XXXI 27) 112. by the utmost limit of mercy from Thy Book.

ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ . Surely God forgives all sins. 120. oh Allgenerous! 121. And Thou said: Oh my people you have been prodigal against yourselves. my Master. So do with me what is worthy of Thee. I have hope in Thee.To God belong the Names most beautiful. just as Thou hast promised me 119. do not despair of God’s mercy. Verily I am near. And I ask Thee. (XL 60) And Thou said: And when My servants ask thee about Me. the All-compassionate. and I desire for Thee to comply with me. So call Him by them! (VII 180) 114. the Lord of all the world’s inhabitants! 122. for I have called Thee just as Thou hast commanded me. I call Thee. my Lord. 116. Surely He is the All-forgiving. I comply with the call of the caller when He calls Me. And Thou said: Call upon Me and I will answer you. And God bless Mohammad and all his household. (XXXIX 53) 117. 118. Praise belongs to God. my Protector. my God. (II 186) 115.

the All-Compassionate 1. and is exalted beyond conformity with His qualities! 7. him whose glory is evident at the summit of stout . awakened me to the favours and kindness that He has bestowed upon me 11. Oh God. and beamed forth the brightness of the sun through the light of its blazing! 5. Oh He who is near to the passing thoughts of opinions. Oh He who demonstrates His Essence by His Essence. and knows what will be fore it comes to be! 9. 13. Transcends congeniality with His creatures 6. far from the regards of eyes 8. clings to the cord of the longest nobility 14. Oh He who extended the morning’s tongue in the speech of its dawning. of Thy ropes. made firm the structure of the turning spheres in the measures of its display 4. dispatched the fragments of the dark night into the gloom of its stammering.Dua as-Sabah (The Suplication for the Morning) In the Name of God. Oh He who has put me at ease in the cradle of His security and sanctuary. the guide to Thee in the darkest night. The All-Merciful. him who. 2. oh God. 10. 3. and held back form the claws of evil with His hand and His force! 12. Bless.

25.shoulders 15. tears of moaning from the corners of my eyes! 21. and whose feet were entrenched in spite of slippery places in ancient time. 16. dost Thou see that I have only come to Thee from the direction of hopes 26. if mercy from Thee does not begin with fair success for me. And chastise. 17. of God. the chosen. the springs of humility in the watering place of my heart 20. because of Thy awesomeness. the recklessness of my clumsiness with the reins of contentment! 22. Then who will annul my slips from the stumbles of caprice? 23. oh God. and (bless) his household. and open for us. My God. My God. Then who can take me to Thee upon the evident path? If Thy deliberateness should turn me over to the guide of hope and wishes. Cause to flow.or clung to the ends of Thy cords when my sins have driven me from the house of union? . then They forsaking will have entrusted me to where there is hardship and deprivation. the pious. the leaves of morning’s door with the keys of mercy and prosperity! 18. Plant. Oh God. If Thy help should forsake me in the battle with the soul and Satan. the good. with the most excellent robes of guidance and righteousness! 19. oh God. Clothe me. 24. through Thy tremendousness. oh God.

and fixed the fingers of my love to the ends of Thy cords. 41. fleeing? 38. Or how could Thou disappoint one seeking guidance Who repairs to Thy threshold.27.its caprice! 28. and Thou art the object of my search and my desire in my ultimate end and stable abode. Or how couldst Thou reject a thirsty man who comes to Thy pools to drink? 40. my Support and my Hope 36. fled to Thee seeking refuge form my excessive caprice 32. 31. And destruction be upon it for its audacity toward its Master and Protector! 30. Never! For Thy pools are full in the hardship of drought. I have knocked upon the door of Thy mercy with the hand of my hope. oh God. 33. My God. Thy door is open for seeking and penetration . running? 39. how couldst Thou drive away a poor beggar who seeks refuge in Thee form sins. 37. Woe upon it for being seduced by its own opinions and wishes! 29. the slips and errors I have committed 34. and release me from the foot-tangling of my robe. So pardon. my Protector. 35. So what an evil mount upon which my soul has mounted. For Thou art my Master. My God.

54. oh God. Who knows Thy measure without fearing Thee? . 53. Thou art powerful over all things. and with safety in religion and this world! And (make) my evening a shield against the deception of enemies 48. Thou makest the night to enter the day. these are the reins of my soul –I have bound them with the ties of Thy will. oh God. 51. Thou bringest forth the living from the dead. and Thou art the goal of requests and the object of hopes. and thou makest the day to enter into the night. 46.42. and Thou seized the kingdom form whom Thou wilt. and Thine is the praise! 57. There is no god but Thou! Glory be to Thee. And Thou bringest forth the dead from the living. So make this morning of mine. in Thy hand is the good. These are the burdens of my sins – I have averted them with Thy pardon and mercy. 52. 55. Thou givest the kingdom from who Thou wilt. And these are my caprices that lead astray – I have entrusted them to the threshold of Thy gentleness and kindliness. and Thou providest whomsoever Thou wilt without reckoning. descend upon me with the radiance of guidance. 44. and a protection against the destructive blows of caprice! 49. My God. (III. 26-7) 56. 47. 45. Verily Thou art able over what Thou wilt! 50. 43.

sweet and salt. Oh best of those who is called to remove affliction and object of hope in every difficulty and ease I have stated my need. Oh All-generous! Oh All-generous! Oh Allgenerous! By Thy mercy. and appointed the sun and moon a blazing lamp for the creatures. through Thy gentleness Thou hast cleaved apart the daybreak and through Thy generosity Thou hast illumined the dark shrouds of night. So. despairing of Thy exalted gifts. oh He who is alone in might and subsistence and dominates His slaves with death and annihilation. the god fearing. Thou hast made waters. 67. sent down out of rain-clouds water cascading (LXXVIII 14) 61. without experiencing in that which Thou originate wither weariness or effort. 59. so do not reject me. 64. 62. Who knows what Thou art without awe of Thee? Through Thy power Thou hast joined disparate things. Bless Mohammad and his household. 63. 66. And God bless the best of His creatures. answer my supplication hear my call. and actualize through Thy bounty my hope and desire.58. Muhammad. 68. oh my master. 60. oh Most Merciful of the merciful! 69. flow forth from hard shining stones. and all his household! Then he should prostrate himself and say: . destroy my enemies 65.

. by Thy force. by Thy invincibility. my obedience little.70. 77. my soul is deficient. which has filled all things. my intelligence defeated. through which Thou overwhelmest all things. 2. 75. my disobedience much 76. 3. and my tongue acknowledges sins. 71. by the sacredness of Mohammad and the household of Mohammad! 82. by Thy strength. which towers over all things. Oh he who knows the unseen things! 79. 81. which embraces all things (VII 156). through which Thou dominatest all things. which nothing can resist. 72. Oh All-forgiver! Oh All-forgiver! Oh All-forgiver! 83. my heart is veiled. 73. by Thy might. So what am I to do? Oh He who covers defects! 78. I ask Thee by Thy mercy. by Thy tremendousness. Oh God. By Thy Mercy. 5. Forgive my sins. 4. all of them. oh Most Merciful of the merciful! ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Dua-e-Kumayl (The Supplication of Kumayl ibn Ziyad) 1. toward which all things are humble and before which all things are lowly. 74. My God. my caprice triumphant. Oh He who removes troubles! 80.

. forgive me those sins which hold back supplications! 13. Oh God. and I ask Thee through Thy munificence to bring me near to Thy proximity. Oh God. which subsists after the annihilation of all things. which have filled the foundations of all things. which encompasses all things. by Thy knowledge. and by the light of Thy face. by Thy Names. Oh God. Oh God. forgive me those sins which draw down adversities! 11. I seek intercession from Thee with Thy face. and to inspire me with Thy remembrance. Oh God. Oh God. forgive me every sin I have committed and every mistake I have made! 16. forgive me those sins which alter blessings! 12. 6. verily I seek nearness to Thee through remembrance of Thee. to provide me with gratitude toward Thee 18. 7. forgive me those sins which draw down tribulation! 15. Oh God. forgive me those sins which cut down the hopes! 14. through which all things are illumined! 8. 17. Oh Light! Oh All-holy! Oh First of those who are first and Last of those who are last! 9. forgive me those sins which tear apart safeguards! 10. Oh God.

Oh God. and Thine is the praise! I have wronged myself.19. I have been audacious in my ignorance 28. Thy command is manifest. and whose desire for what is with Thee has become great. Thy power is unhindered and escape from Thy governance is impossible 25. How many stumbles Thou hast prevented! . I ask Thee with the asking of one whose indigence is extreme. Oh Go. 24. abased and lowly man To show me forbearance. and to make me satisfied and content with Thy apportionment and humble in every state. 23. Glory be to Thee. There is no god but Thou! 27. and I have depended upon Thy ancient remembrance of me and Thy favour toward me. 29. Oh God. Who has stated to Thee in difficulties his need 22. no transformer of any of my ugly acts into good acts but Thee. Oh God. verily I ask Thee with the asking of a submissive. Thy domination is overwhelming. to have mercy on me 20. Thy deception is hidden. Oh God. Thy place is lofty. Oh my Protector! How many ugly things Thou hast concealed! How many burdensome tribulations Thou hast abolished! 30. Thy force is tremendous. I find no forgiver of my sins. no concealer of my ugly acts. 26. 21.

My God and my Lord! Have I any but Thee from whom to ask removal of my affliction and regard for my affairs? 43. 36.How many ordeals Thou hast repelled! 31. and not to hasten me to punishment for what I have done in private: 39. my continuous negligence. 37. and did not remain wary of adorning my enemy. for which I was unworthy. And how much beautiful praise. 41. Oh my Master! So I ask Thee by Thy might not to let my evil works and acts veil my supplication from Thee. 34. my fetters have tied me down. my tribulation is tremendous. And by Thy might. Thou hast spread abroad! 32. 33. my acts are inadequate. my ignorance. my evil acts in secrecy. Oh God. 40. . 46. be kind to me in all states and gracious to me in all affairs! 42. Thou put into effect through me a decree in which I followed the caprice of my own soul 45. my bad state is excessive. oh God. My God and my Protector! 44. So he deluded me through my soul’s caprice and therein destiny favoured him. my misdeeds. my manifold passions and my forgetfulness. my farfetched hopes have held me back from my gain and this world with its delusions. 35. my own soul with its offences and my delay have deceived me. not to disgrace me through the hidden things Thou knowest of my secrets 38.

to the nurture of me. my Master and my Lord! . submissive. Now I have come to Thee. my God. nor in what Thy decree and Thy tribulation imposed upon me. proffering my excuse. and disobeyed some of Thy commands. after my shortcoming and my immoderation toward myself.47. to the goodness toward me and to nourishment of me. 59. asking forgiveness. have mercy upon the severity of my affliction and release me from the tightness of my fetters. repenting. Oh God. 58. acknowledging. My God. and Thy entering me into the compass of Thy mercy. the thinness of my skin and the frailty of my bones. I find no place to flee from what occurred through me. apologizing. 53. My Lord. 52. have mercy upon the weakness of my body. 50. 54. So Thine is the argument against. confessing. so accept my excuse. 57. to the remembrance of me. 51. bestow upon me for the sake of Thy having given rise (to me) with generosity and Thy previous goodness to me! 61. Oh Thou who gave rise to my creation. nor any place to escape to which I may turn in my affairs. 56. me in all of that 49. other than Thy acceptance of my excuse 55. and I have no argument in what Thy destiny put into effect through me therein. regretful. 60. broken. So in what was put into effect through me in that situation I transgressed some of Thy statutes 48.

69. 71. my Go and my Protector. drive away him whom Thou hast given an abode 67. my Master. 68. Would that I knew. 63.Canst Thou see Thyself tormenting me with Thy fire after I have professed Thy Unity? 62. After the knowledge of Thee my heart has embraced. 75. the remembrance of Thee my tongue has constantly mentioned and to love of Thee to which my mind has clung? 64. hearts acknowledging Thy Divinity through verification. 72. minds encompassing knowledge of Thee until they have become humble 73. humble before Thy lordship? 65. or submit to tribulation him whom Thou hast spared and shown mercy. 70. and bodily members speeding to the places of Thy worship in obedience 74. and beckoning for Thy forgiveness in submission. whether Thou wilt give the Fire dominion over faces fallen down prostrate before Thy Tremendousness. After the sincerity of my confession and my supplication. 66. Far be it from Thee! Thou art more generous than that Thou shouldst squander him whom Thou hast nurtured. tongues voicing sincerely the profession of Thy Unity and giving thanks to Thee in praise. No such opinion is held of Thee! 76. Nor has such been reported – thanks to Thy . banish him whom Thou hast brought nigh.

So if Thou takest me to the punishments with Thy enemies. For which things would I complain to Thee and for which of them would I lament and weep? 87. Thy vengeance and Thy anger. lowly. 85. 83. So how can I endure the tribulation of the next world and the great ordeals that occur within it? 81. whose subsistence is but little and whose period is but fleeting. For it is a tribulation whose period is long. 92. my Protector and my Lord. whose station endures 82. and before those ordeals which befall its inhabitants. My Master. and Thou knowest my weakness before a little of this world’s tribulations and punishments 78. base. 84. oh All-generous! 77. then suppose. and separatest me from Thy friends and saints. that I am able to endure Thy chastisement.bounty – concerning Thee. since it only occurs as a result of Thy wrath. even though it is a tribulation and ordeal whose stay is short. 91. . so what about me? For I am Thy weak. my Master. 80. My God! My Lord! My Master! My Protector! 86. 89. and these cannot be withstood by the heavens and the earth. 79. wretched and miserable slave. For the pain and severity of chastisement? Or for the length and period of tribulation? 88. and whose sufferers are given no respite. gatherest me with the people of Thy tribulation 90. My Lord. my God.

97. 98. 96. my Master and my Protector. Or how can I dwell in the Fire while my hope is Thy pardon? 95. I will weep to Thee with the weeping of the bereft. I swear sincerely. and oh God of all the world’s inhabitants!” Canst Thou see Thyself – Glory be to Thee my god. if Thou leavest me with speech. hearing within the Fire the voice of a slave surrendered to Thee. imprisoned there because of his violations. How can I endure not gazing upon Thy generosity? 94. Oh Aid of those who seek assistance. calls to Thee with the tongue of those who profess Thy Unity and entreats Thee by Thy lordship? . Oh Friend of the hearts of the sincere 100. I will lament to Thee from the midst of the Fire’s inhabitants with the lamentation of the hopeful. 104. while he laments to Thee with the lament of one hopeful for Thy mercy. So by Thy might. and confined within its levels because of his sin and crime. tasting the flavour of its torment because of his disobedience 103. And suppose that I am able to endure the heat of Thy fire.How can I endure separation from Thee? 93. and Thine is the praise – 101. 99. I will cry to Thee with the cry of those crying for help. 102. I will cry to Thee with the cry of those crying for help. I will weep to Thee with the weeping of the bereft.

Or how should he be convulsed among its levels while Thou knowest his sincerity? 109. But Thou – holy are Thy names – hast sworn that Thou wilt fill it with the unbelievers. Or how should its groaning encompass him while Thou knowest his weakness? 108. coolness and safety. So I declare with certainty that were it not for what Thou hast decreed concerning the chastisement of Thy deniers and what Thou hast foreordained concerning the everlasting home of those who stubbornly resist. 113. nor is it similar to the goodness and kindness Thou hast shown to those who profess Thy Unity. My protector. Far be it from Thee! That is not what is expected of Thee. 112. 114. all of it. and no one would have a place of rest or abode within it. Or how should its flames burn him while Thou hearest his voice and seest his place? 107. “Oh Lord”? Or how should he have hope of Thy bounty in freeing him form it while Thou abandonest him within it? 110. both jinn and men. nor what I swell-known of Thy bounty. and that Thou wilt place those who stubbornly . Thou wouldst make the Fire. so how should he remain in the chastisement while he has hope for Thy previous clemency? Or how should the Fire cause him pain While he expects Thy bounty and mercy? 106. Or how should its keepers torture him while he callest out to Thee.105. 111. 115.

123.resist therein forever. 125. and through which Thou hast overcome him toward whom it has been put into effect. My God and my Master! So I ask Thee by the power Thou hast apportioned 118. and the decision which Thou hast determined and imposed 119. And Thou – majestic is Thy eulogy – said at the beginning and wert gracious through kindness as a favour. every folly I have enacted – whether I have hidden it or announced it. What? Is he who has been a believer like unto him who has been ungodly? They are not equal.18) 116. those whom Thou hast appointed to watch over what appears from me and whom Thou hast made. witness against me. along with my bodily members. every sin I have performed. 120. My God and My Master! So I ask Thee by the power Thou hast apportioned 117. whether I have concealed it or manifested it – 122. And Thou wast Thyself the Watcher (V 117) over me from behind them. but through Thy bounty Thou concealed it and through Thy bounty Thou veiled it. (XXXII. every ugly thing I have concealed. that Thou forgivest me in this night and at this hour every offence I have committed. and every evil act which Thou hast commanded the Noble Writers to record. (And I ask Thee) that Thou bestowest upon . 126. and the Witness of what is hidden from them. 124. 121.

so that my works and my litanies may all be a single litany 135. My Lord! My Lord! My Lord! 131. 138. kindest Thou conferrest. 140. and continuity in my being joined to Thy service. Oh He in whose hand is my forelock! Oh He who knows my affliction and my misery! 129. hurry to Thee among the prominent. 134. sin Thou forgivest or error Thou coverest. 136. that Thou makest my times in the night and the day inhabited by Thy remembrance 133. 141. Thy Holiness and the greatest of Thy Attributes and Names. My Lord! My Lord! My Lord! Strengthen my bodily members in Thy service. desire fervently Thy proximity among the fervently . fortify my ribs in determination and bestow upon me earnestness in my fear of Thee 139. I ask Thee by Thy Truth. My Master! Oh He upon whom I depend! Oh He to whom I complain about my states! 137. 127. and joined to Thy service and my works acceptable to Thee. goodness Thou unfoldest. an abundant share of every good Thou sendest down. so that I may move easily toward Thee in the battlefields of the foremost. My Lord! My Lord! My Lord! My God! My Master! My Protector! Owner of my bondage! 128. provision Thou spreadest out. Oh He who is aware of my poverty and indigence! 130. and my occupation with Thy service everlasting.

Make my tongue remember Thee without ceasing 149. 146. For Thou hast decreed Thy worship for Thy servants. nullify my slips and forgive my lapses! 150. and toward Thee. So toward Thee. 147. For that cannot be attained except by Thy bounty. and make me attain my desires! . commanded them to supplicate Thee and assured them that they would be answered. 145. my Lord. fear thee with the fear of those who have certitude 143. I have extended my hand. I have turned my face. and gather with the believers in Thy vicinity. incline toward me with Thy splendour and protect me with Thy mercy! 148. 142. whoever desires evil for me – desire (it) for him! And whoever deceives me – deceive him! 144. Oh God. the nearest of them in station to Thee and the most elect of them in proximity to Thee. my Lord. 151.desirous. Grant generously to me through Thy munificence. and my heart enthralled by Thy love! Be gracious to me by answering me favourably. And make me one of the most excellent of Thy slaves in portion from Thee. So by Thy might. comply with my supplication 153. move near to Thee with the nearness of the sincere. 152.

I ask Thee and I turn toward Thee through Thy Prophet. the All-merciful. and give them abundant peace! ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Dua-e-Tawassul (About which it is said that it never happens that it is recited concerning any problem without soon seeing the effect of God’s answer .) answer. and whose weapon is tears! Oh Ample in blessings! Oh Repeller of adversities! 159. Mohammad – God Bless him and his household and give them . the Prophet of Mercy. the Allcompassionate O God.) In the Name of God. Whose remembrance is a cure 157. 156. Bless Mohammad and Mohammad’s household and do with me what is worthy of Thee! 161. Oh He whose pleasure is quickly achieved! Forgive him who owns nothing but supplication.Do not. 154. Oh Light of those who are lonely in the darkness! Oh Knower who was never taught! 160. and spare me the evil of my enemies from among the jinn and men! 155. for Thou dost what Thou wilt Oh He whose Name is a remedy. if it pleases Thee. and whose obedience is hope 158. sever my hopes. And God bless His messenger and the holy Imams of his household 162.

ask thy intercession. We turn to thee. and seek access through thee to God. Oh our lord and master. Oh light of the Messenger’s eye. Oh Proof of God over His creatures. Oh our lord and master. We place thee ahead of our needs. Oh Ali ibn Abi Talib. ask thy intercession. Oh thou who hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Fatima the Radiant. We place thee ahead of our needs. Oh thou who hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Abul Hasan. Oh Hasan ibn Ali. Oh Messenger of God Oh Imam of Mercy. Oh thou who hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Abu Mohammad. Oh our lady and patroness. We turn to thee. We place thee ahead of our needs. and see access through thee to God. Oh Commander of the Faithful. ask thy intercession. and seek access through thee to God. Oh chosen of God. . Oh daughter of Mohammad.peace! Oh Abul-Qasim. We turn to thee.

We turn to thee. Oh son of God’s Messenger. and seek access through thee to God. ask thy intercession. We turn to thee. Oh Proof of God over His creatures. ask thy intercession. We place thee ahead of our needs. Oh Proof of God over His creatures. Oh Proof of God over His creatures. We place thee ahead of our needs. We place thee ahead of our needs. Oh Husain ibn Ali. Oh our lord and master.Oh son of God’s Messenger. . Oh son of God’s Messenger. Oh thou who hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Abu Abdullah. We turn to thee. Oh our lord and master. Oh Ali ibn al-Husain. and seek access through thee to God. Oh thou hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Abu Jafar. Oh thou who hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Abul-Hasan. Oh martyr. Oh our lord and master. ask thy intercession and seek access through thee to God.

ask thy intercession and seek access through thee to God. Oh son of God’s Messenger. We place thee ahead of our needs. Oh our lord and master. ask thy intercession and seek access through thee to God. Oh Jafar ibn Mohammad. Oh Proof of God over His creatures. We place thee ahead of our needs. Oh al-Kazim. Oh son of God’s Messenger. . Oh Proof of God over His creatures. ask thy intercession and seek access through thee to God. Oh thou hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Abul Hasan. Oh al-Sadiq. Oh our lord and master. Oh Musa ibn Jafar.Oh Mohammad ibn Ali. We turn to thee. Oh son of God’s Messenger. Oh Proof of God over His creatures. Oh our lord and master. Oh thou hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Abu Abdullah. Oh al-Baqar. We turn to thee. We turn to thee. We place thee ahead of our needs.

Oh our lord and master. Oh our lord and master. Oh son of God’s Messenger. Oh son of God’s Messenger. We turn to thee. Oh Proof of God over His creatures. Oh our lord and master. Oh Ali ibn Musa.Oh thou hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Abul Hasan. Oh al-Hadi al-Naqi. Oh Mohammad ibn Ali. . We place thee ahead of our needs. Oh son of God’s Messenger. Oh Proof of God over His creatures. We place thee ahead of our needs. ask thy intercession and seek access through thee to God. We turn to thee. Oh a-Reza. Oh Proof of God over His creatures. Oh Ali ibn Mohammad. ask thy intercession and seek access through thee to God. Oh thou hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Abu Jafar. Oh thou hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Abul Hasan. Oh al-Taqi al-Jawad.

) . ask thy intercession and seek access through thee to God. We place thee ahead of our needs. Oh thou hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! [Then the supplicant should mention his needs. Oh thou hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Abu Mohammad. Oh Hasan ibn Ali. ask thy intercession and seek access through thee to God. they will be taken care of God willing. Oh son of God’s Messenger. Oh Proof of God over His creatures. Oh our lord and master. Oh al-Zaki al-Askari. We place thee ahead of our needs. Proof. Oh thou hast standing with God! Intercede for us with God! Oh Inheritor of al-Hasan. ask thy intercession and seek access through thee to God. Oh our lord and master. al-Mahdi. We turn to thee. We turn to thee.We turn to thee. Oh awaited Qaim. Successor. We place thee ahead of our needs. Oh Proof of God over His creatures. Oh son of God’s Messenger.

In the name of Allah Who is light above light. All praise is due to Allah. the Beneficent. . And Who deserves thanks both in happiness and sorrow. In the name of Allah.Dua-e Noor Saghir In the name of Allah. and on Him. In the name of Allah. who created light from light. In the name of Allah. who created light form light. the Merciful. who is spoken of with respect and who is famous for His Honour. the Light. All praise is due to Allah. And sent down light on Tur. who directs and controls all affairs. the Light of light. mentioned in the broad leaves of the guarded tablet. And may Allah bless our leader Mohammad and all his holy descendants. In the name of Allah.

and to follow what he has commanded in His Book (Quran) out of His obligatory and elective commands. because Allah whose name is Sublime takes the responsibility for helping him who helps Him.) Written for Malik-e-Ashtar. He has ordered him to fear Allah. to prefer obedience to Him. . and for protecting him who gives Him support. nor (can one) be evil save by opposing them and ignoring them. seeking the good of its people and making its cities prosperous. Amir al-Muminin.H. when the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib had appointed Malik-e-Ashtar as the Governor of Egypt (38 A. fighting against the enemies. it is the longest document and contains the greatest number of beautiful sayings. without following which one cannot achieve virtue. which is regarded as one of the greatest charters on good governance. hand and tongue. In the Name of Allah. has ordered Malik ibn al-Harith al-Ashtar in his instrument (of appointment) for him when he made him Governor of Egypt for the collection of its revenues. He also orders him to break his heart off from passions. and to restrain it at the time of their increase.Document of Instruction (English translation from Arabic text of the letter sent by Imam Ali to his newly appointed Governor to Egypt. because the heart leads towards evil unless Allah has mercy. the Merciful This is what Allah’s servant Ali. the Compassionate. and to help Allah the Glorified.) and the surrounding areas. with his heart.

Do not say: “I have been given authority. So. Do not repent of forgiving or be merciful in punishing. that I have sent you to an area where there have been governments before you. O Malik. willfully or by neglect. He (Allah) has sought you to manage their affairs and has tried you through them. Habituate your heart to mercy for the subjects and to affection and kindness for them. extend to them your forgiveness and pardon to you. the best collection with you should be the collection of good deeds. They may act wrongly.The qualifications of a governor and his responsibilities Know. I should be obeyed when order. to control your passions and check your heart from doing what is not lawful for you. Do not act hastily during anger if you can find way out of it. If the authority in which you are placed produces pride or vanity in you then look at the greatness of the realm of Allah over you and His . the virtuous are known by the reputation that Allah circulates for them through the tongues of His creatures. Surely.” because it engenders confusion in the heart. Do not stand over them like greedy beasts who feel it is enough to devour them. either your brother in religion or one like you in creation. weakens the religion and take one near ruin. because checking the heart means detaining it just half way between what it likes and dislikes. since they are of two kind. Therefore. because you are over them and your responsible Commander (Imam) is over you while Allah is over him who has appointed you. Do not set yourself to fight Allah because you have no power before His and you cannot do without His pardon and mercy. both just as well as oppressive. People will now watch your dealings as you used to watch the dealings of the rulers before you. They will commit slips and encounter mistakes. and they (people) will criticize you as you criticized them (rulers).

Nothing is more inductive of the reversal of Allah’s bounty or for the hastening of His retribution than continuance in oppression. more tricky in asking favours. Beware of comparing yourself to Allah in His greatness or likening yourself to him in his power. Do justice for Allah and do justice towards the people. cure you of your high temper and bring back to you your wisdom which had gone away from you. Ruling should be in favour of the people as a whole The way most coveted by you should be that which is the most equitable for the right. No one among those under you is more burdensome to the ruler in the comfort of life. This will curb your haughtiness. less appreciative of reasons at the time of refusal and weaker in endurance at time of the discomforts of life than the . and when a person oppresses the creatures of Allah then. and when Allah is the opponent of a person He tramples his plea. because the disagreement among the common people sweeps away the arguments of the chiefs can be disregarded when compared with the agreement of the common people. because if you do not do so you will be oppressive. Allah becomes his opponent. your near ones and those of your subjects for whom you have a liking. less thankful at the time of giving. instead of His creatures. more disliking of equitable treatment. as against yourself. less helpful in distress. because Allah hears the prayer of the oppressed and is on the look out for the oppressors. and we will remain in the position of being at war with Allah until he gives it up and repents. and the most comprehensive with regard to the agreement among those under you.might the like of which might you do not even possess over yourself. the most universal by way of justice. for Allah humiliates every claimant of power and disgraces every one who is haughty.

Therefore. cover shortcomings so far as you can. because a backbiter is a cheat although he looks like those who wish well. Feign ignorance from what is not clear to you. About counselors Do not include among those who consult a miser who would keep you back from being generous and caution you against destitution. Do not disclose whatever of it is hidden from you because your obligation is to correct what is manifest to you. while Allah will deal with whatever is hidden from you. he should not be your chief man. This is because although miserliness. and who joined them in sins. Allah would cover those of your shortcomings which you would like to remain under cover from your subjects. Unfasten every knot of hatred in the people and cut away from yourself the cause of every enmity. The worst minister for you is he who has been a minister for mischievous persons before you. It is the common people of the community who are the pillars of the religion. Do not hasten to second a backbiter. The one among the people under you who is furthest from you and the worst of them in your view should be he who is the most inquisitive of the shortcomings of the people. the power of the Muslims and the defense against the enemies.chiefs. because people do not have shortcomings and the ruler is the most appropriate person to cover them. because they are abettors of sinners and . Your leanings should therefore be towards them and your inclination with them. Therefore. cowardice and greed are different qualities yet they are common in having an incorrect idea about Allah. nor a coward who would make you feel too weak for your affairs nor a greedy person who would make beautiful to you the collection of wealth by evil ways.

while not being like them in their sins and vices. make them your chief companions in privacy as well as in public. They have never assisted an oppressor in his oppression or a sinner in his sin. They will be most considerate towards you and the least inclined towards others. . and avoid putting them to unbearable troubles. You should know that the most conducive thing for the good impression of the ruler on his subjects is that he should extend good behaviour towards them. so that they should not praise you or please you by reason of an action you did not perform. while not being like them in their views and influence. Then. You can find good substitutes for them who will be like them in their views and influence. You should therefore. in this way follow a course by which you will leave good impression with your subjects. Certainly. Associate yourself with God fearing and truthful people. The virtuous and the vicious should not be in equal position before you because this means dissuasion of the virtuous form the virtue and persuasion of the vicious to vice. then educate them. more preferable among them for you should be those who openly speak better truths before you and who support you least in those of your actions which Allah does not approve in His friends. Therefore. lighten their hardships. Keep everyone in the position which is his. because and excess of praise produces pride and drive you near haughtiness. even though they may be according to your wishes. They will give you the least trouble and the best supporter.brothers of the oppressors. the most appropriate for good impression of the you is he to whom your behaviour has not been good. because such good ideas will relieve you of great worries.

Now the army is. the fortress of the subjects. These two classes cannot exist without the third class namely the judges. then the dispenser of justice. and with which they meet their needs. on which they depend for their prosperity. Keep on increasing your conversations with the scholars and discussions with the wise to stabilize the prosperity of the areas under you. by virtue of which there was general unity and through which subjects prospered. then the payers of head tax (jizyah) and land tax (kharaj) from the protected unbelievers and the common Muslims.Do not discontinue the good lives in which the earlier people of this community had been acting. and they are not independent of one another. Among them are the army of the Allah. and to continue with that in which the earlier people had remained steadfast. Allah has fixed of them and laid down His precepts about the limits of each in His Book (Quran) and the sunnah of His Prophet by way of a settlement which is preserved with us. the executives and the secretaries who pass the judgments . then those engaged in law and order. Do not innovate any line of action which injures these earlier ways because (in that case) the reward for those who had established those ways will continue but the burden for discontinuing them will be on you. The different classes of people Know that the people consist of classes who prosper only with the help of one another. the strength of the religion and the means of peace. then the secretarial workers of the common people and the chiefs. The subjects cannot exist without them while the army can be maintained only the funds fixed by Allah in the revenues through which they acquire the strength to fight the enemies. by the will of Allah. the ornament of the ruler. then there are traders and the men of industry and then the lowest class of the needy and the destitute.

then people of courage. Also associate with considerate people from high families. establish markets and make it possible for others not to do all this with their own hands. because they are repositories of honour and springs of virtues. valour. Do not regard anything that you do not do to strengthen them as big nor consider anything that you have agreed to do for them as little (so as to give up). virtuous houses and decent traditions. accepts excuses. And these classes cannot exist except with the traders and men of industry. Then is the lowest class of the needy and the destitute support of and help for whom is an obligation. Every one of them has a right on the ruler according to what is needed for his prosperity. violence should not raise his temper and weakness should not keep him sitting. Do not neglect to attend to their small matters. The ruler cannot acquit himself of the obligations laid on him by Allah in this matter except by striving and seeking help from Allah and by training himself to adhere to the right and by enduring on that account all that is light or hard. even though it may be small. who provide necessities for the. generosity and benevolence. confining yourself to their important matters. The Army Put in command of your forces the man who in your view is the best well wisher of Allah. The chastest of them in heart and the highest of them in endurance is he who is slow in getting enraged. is kind to the weak and is strict with the strong. collect revenues and are depended upon in special and general matters. and every one of them has (a share in) livelihood in the name of Allah. because this will make them your well-wishers and create a good impression of you. 1. His Prophet and your Imam.about contracts. because . Strive for their matters as the parents strive for their child.

Their good wishes prove correct only when they surround their commanders (to protect them). and do not minimize the reward below the level of the performance. because the mention of good action shakes the brave and rouses the weak. He said: O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Prophet and those vested with authority from among you. Do not regard their positions to be a burden over them and do not keep watching for the end of their tenure. addressing the people whom Allah the Sublime.your small favours will also be of benefit to them while the important ones are such that they cannot ignore them. and then if you quarrel about anything refer it to . The high position of a man should not lead you to regard his small deeds as big. The most pleasant thing for the rulers is the establishment of justice in their areas and the manifestation of the love of their subjects. Appreciate the performance of every one of them. do not attribute the performance of one to the other. nor should the low position of a man make you regard his big deeds as small. Therefore. Refer to Allah and His Prophet the affairs which worry you matters which appear confusing to you. if Allah so wills. continue praising them and recounting the good deeds of those who have shown such deeds. be broad-minded in regard to their desires. but the subjects’ love manifests itself only when their hearts are clean. The commander of the army should have such a position before you that he renders help to them equitably and spend from his money on them and on those of their families who remain behind so that all their worries converge on the one worry for fighting the enemy. Your kindness to them will turn their hearts to you. because. wishes to guide.

disputation should not enrage him.Allah and Prophet if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day (of Judgment). so that he remains safe form the harm of those around you. and should not grudge accepting the truth when he perceives it. The cases (coming before him) should not vex him. He should most ready to stop (to ponder) on doubtful points. Praise should not make him vain and elation should not make him lean (to any side). Such people are few. 2. he should not insist on any wrong point. most regardful of arguments. 4:59) Referring to Allah means to act according to what is clear in His Book and referring to the Prophet means to follow his unanimously agreed sunnah in regard to which there are no differences. (Quran. You should have a piercing eye in this matter because this religion has formerly been a prisoner in the hands of vicious persons when action was taken according to passion. he should not lean towards greed and should not content himself with a cursory understanding (of a matter) without going thoroughly into it. Then. most patient at probing into matters and most fearless at the time of passing judgment. The Chief Judge For the settlement of disputes among people select him who is the most distinguish of your subjects in your view. very often check his decisions and allow him so much money (as remuneration) that he has no excuse worth hearing (for not being honest) and there remains no occasion for him to go to others for his needs. . least disgusted at the quarrel of litigants. and worldly wealth was sought. Give him that rank in your audience for which no one else among your chiefs aspires.

look into the affairs of your executives. hailing from virtuous houses. Give them an abundant livelihood (by way of salary) because this gives them the strength to maintain themselves in order and not to have an eye upon the funds in their custody. If any one of them extends his hands towards misappropriation and the reports of your reporters reaching you confirm it. They are the least inclined towards greed and always have their eyes on the ends of matters. Be careful of assistants. You should put him in a place of disgrace. Select among them those who are people of experience and modesty. The Administration of Revenue Look after the revenues (kharaj or land tax) affairs in such a way that those engaged in it remain prosperous because in their prosperity lies the prosperity of all others. because your watching their actions secretly will urge them to preserve trust with and to be kind to the people.3. and it would be an argument against them if they disobeyed your orders or misappropriated your trust. having been previously in Islam. You should also check their activities and have people who report on them who should be truthful and faithful. blacklist him with (the charge of) misappropriation and make him wear the necklace of shame for his offence. You should then inflict corporal punishment on him and recover what he has misappropriated. because such persons possess high manners and untarnished honour. Give them appointment after tests and do not appoint them according to partiality or favouritism. because these two things constitute sources of injustice and unfairness. that should be regarded enough evidence. Executive Officers Thereafter. 4. The others cannot prosper without them. because all .

you should remit the revenue to the extent that you hope will improve their position. You should also keep an eye on the cultivation of the land more than on the collection of revenue because revenue cannot be had without cultivation and whoever asks for revenue without cultivation. while the cultivators become poor when the officers concentrate on collection (of money). If they complain of the heaviness (of the revenue) or of diseases. and can have confidence in them because of the justice extended to them by being kind to them. having little hope for continuance (in their posts) and deriving no benefit from objects of warning. who is not elated by honours. least he dares speak against . The Clerical Establishment Then you should take care of your secretariat workers. ruins the area and brings death to the people. Entrust those of your letters which contain your policies and secrets to him who possess the best character. The ruin of the land is caused by the poverty of the cultivators. or dearth of water. Put the best of them incharge of your affairs. You can depend on their strength because of the investment made by you in them through catering to their convenience. 5. for prosperity is capable of bearing whatever you load on it. because it is an investment which they will return to you in the shape of the prosperity of your country and the progress of your domain in addition to earning their praise and happiness for meeting out justice to them. After that circumstances may so turn that you may have to ask for their assistance. or excess of water or of a change in the condition of the land either due to flood or drought. when they will bear it happily.people are dependent on revenue and its payers. The remission granted to you for the removal of distress from them should not be grudged by you. His rule will not last only a moment.

you in common audiences. He should also not be negligent in presenting the communications of your officers before you and issuing correct replies to them on your behalf and in matters of your receipts and payments. He should not make any damaging agreements on your behalf and should not fail in repudiating an agreement against you. He should not be ignorant of the extent of his own position in matters because he who is ignorant of his position is (even) more ignorant of the position of others. Your selection of these people should not be on the basis of your understanding (of them), confidence and your good impression, because people catch the ideas of the officers through affectation and personal service and there is nothing in it which is like well-wishing or trustfulness. You should rather test them by what they did under the virtuous people before you. Take a decision in favour of one who has a good name among the common people and is the most renowned in trustworthiness, because this will be a proof of your regard for Allah and for him on whose behalf you have been appointed to this position (namely your Imam). Establish one chief for every department of work. He should not be incapable of big matters, and rush of work should not perplex him. Whenever there is a defect in your secretaries which you overlook, then you will be held responsible for it.


Traders and Industrialists

Now take some advice about traders and industrialists. Give them good counsel whether they be settled (shopkeepers) or traders or physical labourers because they are sources of profit and the means of the provision of useful articles. They bring them from distant and far-flung areas throughout the land and sea, plane or mountains, from where people can not come

and where they do not dare to go, for they are peaceful and there is no fear of revolt from them, and they are quite without fear of treason. Look after the affairs before yourself or what ever they may be in your area. Know, along with this, that most of them are very narrow minded, and awfully avaricious. They hold goods for profiteering and fix high prices for goods. This is source of harm to the people and the blot on the officers incharge. Stop people from hoarding because Messenger of Allah has prohibited. The sale should be smooth, correct weights and prices, not harmful to either party, the seller or the purchaser, whoever commits hoarding after you prohibited it, give him exemplary but not excessive punishment.


The Lowest Class

(Fear) Allah and keep Allah in view in respect of the lowest class, consisting of those who have few means: the poor, the destitute, the penniless and the disable; because in this class are both the discontented and those who beg. Take care for the sake of Allah of his obligations towards them for which He has made you responsible. Fix for them a share from the public fund and a share from the crops of land taken over as booty for Islam in every area, because in it the remote ones have the same share as the near ones. All these people are those whose rights have been placed in your charge. Therefore, a luxurious life should not keep you away fro them. You cannot be excused for ignoring small matters because you were deciding big problems. Consequently do not be unmindful of them, nor turn your face from them out of vanity. Take care of the affairs of those of them who do not approach you because they are of unsightly appearance or those whom people regard as low. Appoint for them some trusted people who are God fearing and

humble. They should inform you of these people’s conditions. Then deal with the sense of responsibility to Allah on the day you will meet Him, because of all the subjects these people are the most deserving of equitable treatment, while for others also you should fulfill their right so as to render account to Allah. Take care of the orphans and the aged who have no means (for livelihood) nor are they ready for begging, this is heavy on the officers; in fact, every right is heavy. Allah listens it for those who seek the next world and so they endure (hardships) upon themselves and trust on the truthfulness of Allah’s promise to them. And fix a time for complainants where in you make yourself free for them, and sit for them in common audience and feel humble therein for the sake of Allah who created you. (On that occasion) you should keep away your army and your assistants such as the guards and the police so that anyone who like to speak may speak to you without fear, because I have heard the Messenger of Allah say in more than one place. “The people among whom the right of the weak is not secured from the strong without fear will never achieve purity.” Tolerate their awkwardness and inability to speak. Keep away from you narrowness and haughtiness; Allah would, on this account, spread over you the skirts of His mercy and assign the reward of His obedience for you. Whatever you give, give it joyfully, but when you refuse, do it handsomely and with excuses. Then there are certain matters which you cannot avoid performing yourself. For example, replying to your officers when your secretaries are unable to do so, or disposing of the complaints of the people when your assistants shirk them. Finish every day the work meant of it, because every day has its own work. Keep for yourself the better and greater portion of these periods for the worship of Allah, although all these items are

for Allah provided the intention is pure and the subjects prosper thereby.
Communion with Allah

The particular thing by which you should purify your religion for Allah should be the fulfillment of those obligations which are especially for Him. Therefore, devote to Allah some of your physical activity during the night and day, and whatever (worship) you perform for seeking nearness to Allah should be complete, without defect or deficiency, whatsoever physical exertion it may involve. When you lead the prayers for the people it should be neither (too long as to be) boring nor (too short as to be) wasteful, because among the people there are the sick as well as those who have needs of their own. When the Messenger of Allah sent me to Yemen I enquired how I should offer prayers with them and he replied, “Say the prayers as the weakest of them would say, and be considerate of the believers.”
On the behaviour and action of a Ruler

Then, do not keep yourself secluded from the people for a long time, because the seclusion of those in authority from the subjects is a kind of narrow-sightedness and causes ignorance about their affairs. Seclusion from them also prevents them from the knowledge of those things which they do not know and as a result they begin to regard big matters as small and small matters as big, good matters as bad and bad matters as good, while the truth becomes confused with falsehood. After all, a governor is a human being and cannot have knowledge of things which people keep hidden from him. No writ is big on the face of truth to differentiate its various expressions from falsehood. Then you can be one of two kinds of men. Either you may be generous

in granting rights; and then why this hiding in spite of (your) discharging the obligations and good acts that you perform? Or you are a victim of stinginess; in that case people will soon give up asking you since they will lose hope of generous treatment from you. In spite of that there are many needs of the people towards you which do not involve any hardship on you, such as the complaint against oppression or the request for justice in a matter. Further, a governor has favourites and people of easy assess to him. They misappropriate things, are highhanded and do not observe justice in matters. You should destroy the root of evil in the people by cutting away the causes of these defects. Do not make any land grants to your hangers on or supporters. They should not expect from you the possession of land which may cause harm to adjoining people over the question of irrigation or common services whose burden the grantees place on others. In this way, the benefit will be rather theirs than yours, and the blame will lie on you in this world and the next. Allow rights to whom so ever it is due, whether near you or far from you. In this matter, you should be enduring and watchful even though it may involve your relations and favourites, and keep in view the rewards of that which appears burdensome on you because its reward is handsome. If the subjects suspect you of high-handedness, explain to them your position openly and remove their suspicion with your explanation, because this would mean exercise for your soul and consideration to the subjects while this explanation will secure your aim of keeping them firm in truth. Do not reject peace to which your enemy may call you and wherein there is the pleasure of Allah,

because peace brings rest to your army and relief from your worries and safety for your country. But after peace there is great apprehension from the enemy because often the enemy offers peace to benefit by your negligence. Thereafter, be cautious and do not act by a wishfulness in this matter. If you conclude an agreement between yourself and your enemy or enter into a pledge with him then fulfill your agreement and discharge your pledge faithfully. Place yourself as a shield against whatever you have pledged because among the obligations of Allah there is nothing on which people are more strongly united despite the difference of their ideas and variations of their views than respect for fulfilling pledges. Besides Muslims, even unbelievers have abided by agreements because they realized the dangers which would come in the wake of violation (thereof). Therefore, do not deceive your enemy, because no one can offend Allah save the ignorant and the wicked. Allah made His agreement and pledged the sign of security which He has spread over His creatures through His mercy and an asylum in which they stay in His protection and seek the benefit of nearness to Him. Therefore, there should be not deceit, cunning or duplicity in it. Do not enter into an agreement which may admit of different interpretations and do not change the interpretation of vague words after the conclusion and confirmation (of the agreement). If an agreement of Allah involves you in hardship do not seek its repudiation without justification, because the bearing of hardships through which you except relief and a handsome result is better than a violation whose consequence you fear, and that you fear that you will be called upon by Allah to account for it and you will not be able to seek forgiveness for it in this world or the next.

You should avoid shedding blood without justification, because nothing is more inviting of Divine retribution, greater in (evil) consequence, and more effective in the decline of life prosperity and cutting short of life then the shedding of blood without justification. On the Day of Judgment Allah the Glorified, would commence giving his judgment among the people with the cases of bloodshed committed by them. Therefore, do not strengthen your authority by shedding prohibited blood because this will weaken and lower your authority, moreover destroy it and shift it. You cannot offer any excuse before Allah or before me for willful killing because there must be the question or revenge in it if you are involved in it by error and you exceed in the use of your whip or sword, or are hard in inflicting punishment, as sometimes even a blow by the fist or a smaller stroke causes death then the haughtiness of your authority should not prevent you from paying the blood price to the successor of the killed person. You should avoid self-admiration, having reliance in what appears good in your self and love of the exaggerated praise because this is one of the most reliable opportunities for Satan to obliterate the good deeds of a virtuous. Avoid showing (the existence of) obligation on your subjects for having done good to them or praising your own actions or making promises and then breaking them, because showing (the existence of) obligation destroys good, self praise takes away the light of truth and breaking promises earns the hatred of Allah and of the people. Allah the Glorified, says Most hateful is it unto Allah that you say what you (yourselves) do (it) not. (Quran. 61:3) Avoid haste in matters before time, slowness at their proper time, insistence on them when the proprietary of action is not known or weakens when it becomes

Assign every matter its proper place and do every job at the appropriate time. nor be regardless of matters which have come to light with the excuse that you are accountable for others. and that is an end on the matter. and that he may allow me and you to die a death of virtue and martyrdom. You cannot withhold yourself from this unless you bear in mind that you have to return to Allah. the might of your arm and the sharpness of your tongue. Peace be on the Messenger of Allah – may Allah show His blessings and plentiful salutation on him and his pure and chaste descendents. so that if your heart advances towards its passions you may have no plea in its support. the curtains of render redress to be oppressed. Have control over (your) sense of prestige. . we have to return to Him. Guard against all this by avoiding haste and by delaying severe action till your anger subsides and you gain your self-control. be it a government or a great tradition or a precedent of our Prophet (may Allah bless him and descendants) or the obligatory commands contained in the Book of Allah. It is necessary for to recall how matters went with those who preceded you. good effect in the country. any outburst of anger. Shortly. I ask Allah through the extent of His mercy and the greatness of His power of giving a good inclination that he may prompt me and you to advance a clear plea before Him and His creatures in a manner that may attract His pleasure along with handsome praise among the people. Do not appropriate to yourself that in which the people have an equal share.clear. Surely. Then you should follow them as you have seen us acting upon them and should exert yourself in following that I have enjoined upon you in this document in which I have exhausted my pleas on you. an increase in prosperity and heightening of honour.

moreover. but by time-honoured customs and civic virtues which allowed it to achieve a good measure of social and economic stability. . well-balanced and just economic system. These customs. Mahmoud M. but also in resisting oppression and wrongdoing whatever it may be. Professor of Islamic Studies. embodied moral values of kindness.Imam Ali and the Quest for Economic Justice (The following article by Prof. patience. The rapid spread of Islam which began during the Prophet’s life greatly accelerated after his death. It called for patience and steadfastness not only in times of adversity. Department of Religion. the needy and the wayfarer. But in its broad sense of unspecified charitable giving (sadaqah). The Quran and the tradition (sunnah) of the Prophet and the Imams together offer a well-constructed. Islam transformed these values into principles of faith and social responsibility and endowed them with deep religious meaning. hospitality and reliability. Temple University. Philadelphia (USA) talks of attempts by Imam Ali to create a system of economic justice) Introductory Remarks Makkan society before Islam was governed not by a religious and moral value system. It enjoined kindness not only to one’s next-of-kin but to the orphan. Through the obligatory alms (zakat) Islam made social responsibility a religious duty and an act of worship and purification. it is an act of devotion and drawing near to God. the zakat is an act of worship (ibadah). In its narrow application. Ayoub. This led to an even more rapid growth of Muslim power.

peace be upon him and his family. “So you have done it.which in turn led to an unparalleled expansion of the Muslim state. for them. Umar b. and the Quraish aristocracy of Makkah. or leader. This point is clearly brought out in an argument ascribed by Hubab b. The first manifestation of this deep crisis of authority in the Muslim ummah was the conflict between the Ansar. namely Imam Ali’s economic policies and their consequences for his own political authority and for Muslim history in general. The consequences of this growth of Islam and its power were deep economic and political conflicts. Abu Bakr. whose prophetic authority represented God’s authority in His earth. They also disagreed as to the extent of the authority of the would be successor to Mohammad. The Crisis of Succession and Its Economic Consequences Muslim historians and traditionists have differed sharply over the question of succession to the Prophet. both they and the Ansar went against the Prophet’s designation of Imam Ali as the Imam of the Muslims after him. Hubab exclaimed. O men of the Ansar! By God. Seeing the division of the Ansar along tribal lines. In this. al-Jarrah hastened to the meeting and succeeded in securing the allegiance of most of the assembled men to Abu Bakr. al-Mundhi of the Aus tribe. with Imam Ali alone at his bedside. Historians have generally presented the conflict between the Quraish and the Ansar as one of political authority and economic power. the Ansar met to choose an Amir. As the Prophet lay dying. al-Khattab and Abu Ubaydah b. or Helpers of Medina. as the first successor (khalifah) to the Messenger of God. We shall discuss briefly this struggle for economic and political power only as background for the main concern of this study. I can see your sons standing .

I have acted with regard to God’s wealth and the affairs of the Muslims as would a guardian over the wealth of an orphan: if he enjoys riches he retrains himself. in order to forestall the conflicts that may arise in choosing a new caliph to succeed him. Describing his attitude towards wealth and worldly possessions. Abu Bakr is said to have predicted the expansion of the Muslim state and the wealth it will bring. Abu Bakr addressed the Muslims on his deathbed saying: “You anticipate great worldly wealth and prosperity. Abu Bakr directed that a date palm orchard he owned be sold to pay his debt to the public treasury. Abu Bakr declared: I have acquired nothing of your world. We are told that before his death. Indeed it shall come. at least in part. He may have appointed Umar as his successor. so that you shall sleep on cushions of silk brocade . although prosperity has not yet come. He divided wealth equally among all the people and allowed himself and his family the sum of three dirhams a day. Abu Bakr was able to avoid economic problems by observing strict equality in the distribution of wealth and booty. This is because neither he nor the other men of the Quraish aristocracy would favour Imam Ali. and if he suffers want he observes decency and moderation (maruf) in what he consumes of it. This he justified on the grounds he could no longer make his living by trade and farming. and the Helpers (Ansar) of the Prophet of Islam and his protectors were humiliated and killed by Muawiyah’s mercenaries as we shall see below. One of the problems which Abu Bakr and his successors had to face was the management of the treasury (bayt al-mal) and distribution of its their doors begging with outstretched hands – but they are not even given water to drink”! Hubab’s prediction soon came true.” Before his death.

He is reported to have consulted two of the Companions on this matter.).D. without keeping anything in the treasury. than to be swept up in the pleasures of this world! You shall be the first among the people to go astray and to hinder others from the straight way. . it is better for a man to have his head cut off. they describe well the life-style of the Muslim aristocracy after him. As state revenues increased due to conquests. Nevertheless. By God.” It cannot be ascertained whether these prophetic words were actually uttered by Abu Bakr or more likely ascribed to him by later tradition. They express as well the negative feelings of many pious Muslims towards all political authority. and that the treasury be not left empty. Umar’s first significant administrative achievement was to fix the Islamic calendar for the purpose of dating state records and important events and documents. Umar turned his attention to the thorny problem of allotment (ata) of this vast wealth. Ali and Usman. al-Khattab. Usman counseled that records be kept of what everyone was to receive. the real founder of the Muslim state was Umar b./634-44 A. which left him little time for state affairs. Abu Bakr’s brief rule was occupied with internal problems. including that of the caliphal office. made richer by lucrative posts in an everexpanding state. and established financial state registers (diwans) and recruited a professional army of paid soldiers. (13-23 A. without it being a punishment (hadd) for a transgression. Umar accepted Usman’s advice. In this he followed the pattern of state administration which he observed in Syria.behind silk curtains. Therefore. Ali proposed that whatever wealth is accumulated be equally divided among all the Muslims. who ruled for ten years.H. there being enough wealth for all.

which implied the superiority of some men of the Quraish over others. I will follow the example of the Messengers of God and Abu Bakr. He insisted. Umar likewise preferred the daughters of the men of Quraish over others. and will not prefer any person over another. Nor did he give himself or his family any priority on the ground of his status as the Commander of the Faithful. however on placing himself and his family farthest removed from the Prophet. as did his two predecessors the Prophet and Abu Bakr. the Muhajirun of the Quraish over other immigrants. He preferred those who had priority in accepting Islam over other Muslims.Umar did not.” Umar died before he could implement this important measure of social and economic reform. He thus declared: “I had sought to placate people by preferring some of them over others. and the Aus of the Ansar over the Khazraj. This fact was t have far-reaching consequences as it set a precedent for later and far more flagrant violations of the Quranic principle of strict equality among Muslims regardless of ethnic or genealogical considerations. In the end Umar realized the inequity which this principle of social stratification entailed. distribute the wealth of the Muslims equally among them. But if I live this year. of the Quraish over all the Arabs and of Arabs over non-Arabs. Umar’s general principle was to begin with the nearest blood or marriage relatives to the Prophet in the allotment of wealth. Among the Prophet’s wives. He also preferred the Mudar of the Arabs over those of Rabiah and Yaman. Arabs over non-Arabs and freemen over their slaves or clients (mawali). took precedence over the Quranic principle of the equality . I will observe equality among all people. Umar generally followed a graded approach of preference in the allotment of wealth. all the Muhajirun over all the Ansar. Thus his principle of preference.

” By way of illustrating this point. and perhaps the first man of wealth and prestige to accept Islam. a principle which the Prophet had used to distinguish between the Jahiliyah. Others. however. and Islam. or time of folly and wrongdoing. rapidly lost his grip on power and thus was manipulated by his scheming relatives.of all the people of faith. Umar did not pay heed to Ali’s advice to distribute all the wealth among Muslims. This transformation began in reality during Usman’s rule. “We were extravagant on this journey. Abu Bakr. Masudi contrasts this new state of affairs with the austere and harsh rule of Usman’s precessor: “This was not the case during the time of Umar b. Umar. Usman saw himself as a king rather than a caliph. many Companions became exceedingly wealthy. we are told. Rather it was then a clear and straight way. Also. Imam Ali rejected this process and sacrificed his life in his effort to stop it. however. He. During his reign. but as a commitment to the service of Gods and his servants. Although he was a man of pious and general disposition. Thus the office of the representative (khalifah) of the Messenger of God was transformed into an autocratic power. God’s wealth as their wealth and God’s servants as their subservient subjects. the concept of . Khattab. Masudi reports that Umar and his son Abd Allah spent sixteen dinars on their hajj pilgrimage. Umar reproachfully observed. Ali and others of the Prophet’s companions regarded the caliphate not as an office for material gain and social status. these very accumulated riches would be turned into personal wealth by a few conniving and corrupt. Ali perhaps had the foresight to note that in future.” [Fact is that deviation had started right after Prophet’s death. regarded the caliphate as kingship (mulk). owned numerous slaves and livestock and amassed great wealth. They built large and luxurious mansions.

Seeking to justify some of his serious departures from the conduct of the first who caliphs.] Perhaps to compensate for the gradual loss of the moral and religious character of the caliphal office. He continued: “Fear God your Lord. while the rulers lived a lavish life.professional paid army mitigated the entire concept of Jehad in Islam. Islam was defaced across the world. and know that the prerogative of the caliphate is a grave matter. of the caliph. Fact is that the paid army became an investment whose job was to bring back war booties.” In his effort to forestall any criticism of this policy. This army was utilized by latter successors to the caliphate (read throne) to conquer territories. 4:59). therefore.” Historians present a long list of grievances which the people held against Usman. Usman reminded a disaffected assembly of the men of Medina of their duty to obey “those who are in authority” over them (see Quran. all the time taking God’s name. rather than the moral persuasion. If all this happened to the extent that even Husain and his followers as well as several Companions of the Prophets were killed or tortured at the hands of the oppressors. But I have decided to be generous towards my next-of-kin. Usman asserted: “Abu Bakr and Umar decided with regard to this public wealth to observe frugality towards themselves and their families. Moreover. it was truly because the rights of the one Divinely appointed were usurped right at beginning. far greater than you think. but seldom obeying to His commands. Usman increasingly stressed the power. and which indicate a serious break with the moral and social tradition of the . as much as possible. and the duty of the people to render him absolute obedience. the army’s services were utilized to kill anybody that was opposed to the rulers. even so they were Prophet’s companions or righteous men who were opposing the rulers over flaunting of principles laid down in Islam.

Abuzar asserted. we favour you with any thing. of all the revenues of the province of Africa. Usman was faulted for rehabilitating his uncle al-Hakam b. Moreover. (Quran: 8:48. therefore. as well as the palaces which Marwan built with his ill-gained African wealth. Usman reprimanded him saying: “You are only our treasurer. Usman ordered his collector of the alms of the merchants of the market of Medina to turn over the accumulated wealth to al-Hakam.” He then angrily threw the keys of the treasury to the assembled Muslims while Usman was delivering the Friday prayer sermon. This act was criticized on the ground that the Quran clearly stipulates that the fifth of any kind of booty belongs to “God. a man well known for his insistence on social and economic justice. I am the treasurer of the Muslims. then keep silent. then accept it gratefully. the next-of-kin. This imprudent behaviour. and whom neither Abu Bakr nor Umar would pardon. gifts which he justified on their being surplus wealth. was predicted and denounced by the Prophet. Abi al-As who was banished by the Prophet from Medina. Usman made large monitory gifts to his Umayyad relatives. Among the most vocal critics of Usman’s economic policies was Abuzar Ghaffari. His Messenger.” The man objected: “I am not your or your family ’s treasurer.)” The elders of the Immigrants and Helpers also objected to Usman’s lavish mansions of which he built seven for his wives and daughters. as well as his unwavering support for Imam Ali’s right to the caliphate. Marwan the fifth. the orphans and the destitute. but the man refused.Prophet’s Companions. Usman also granted al-Hakam’s son. He argued: “Do you not have his rightful share of the wealth? . but if we leave you alone. Abuzar is reported to have accused Usman and his Umayyad kinsmen of usurping God’s wealth and authority. If.

Usman’s . al-As over the Sawad. he feared sedition and was willing to sacrifice anything. no share that any of you shall have of it will ever exceed that of any of us. By God. I would fill the city with horses and men against you. including the principles of justice and moral integrity for unity and order.” [And proclaim myself as Caliph and rule over you. a Yemenite resident of Kufa and close confident of Ali. This attitude is well typified in a provocative remark which Saad b. Al-As. Like many other Companions. representing the moral. if his killed among you. challenged him saying: “You mean that this Sawad which God has granted us through our own swords is a garden for you and your people? By God. but as feudal landlords and rulers in their own right.” Incensed by this remark.” Following the sharp encounter between the men of Kufa and Saad b. something that Muawiya obviously meant by didn’t say. Usman’s governor of Kufa. why am I the leader (Imam)?” Usman’s threat was reinforced by Muawiya’s warning to the Companions to beware the might of his Syrian armies. political and economic interests of the Muslim community. but of weak and indecisive personality.] Muawiya as well as Usman’s other kinsmen regarded themselves not as functionaries of a state. Malik Ashtar.Why then can I not do with the surplus whatever I wish? Otherwise. He said: “I commend my elder (shaykh) to you that you treat him well. Abu Musa was a respected man. the people rebelled and Usman was forced to dismiss him and appoint instead Abu Musa al-Ashari. a well-known Companion of the tribe of Qays of the Yemen. made in the presence of some of Imam Ali’s supporters: “Certainly this Sawad (that is the rich agricultural lands of the two Rivers) is a garden for the people of the Quraish.

He addressed the angry mob saying: “O men. whose identity remains a matter of debate among historians. and particularly economic equity the sole condition for assuming caliphal responsibilities. who was even trying to identify who that Imam would be. hold your peace! I heard the messenger of God say: ‘Anyone who rises up in rebellion when the people have an imam’ – and by God. This was in fact the sentiment of the Kufans whom Abu Musa attempted to mollify. he did not say a just imam – ‘seeking thereby to create sedition and disunity. dignified and pious old man who fell victim to the intrigues of his greedy kinsmen. rather it was an integral part of Imam’s philosophy of leadership. however. but with little success. An important facto in the sedition (fitnah) which led to the death of Usman and the civil strife which ensued was his nepotistic and unjust economic policies. you must kill him’.” [See how anybody who occupied the Caliphate had begun to be called Imam. he was in the end murdered by unknown men. Usman was generous.] In spite of the efforts of Imam Ali and other Companions to defend Usman who was besieged in his house by an angry mob. Imam Ali’s Quest for Economic Justice and its Consequences It should be clear from our discussion thus far that social justice and economic equity were among the first priorities for Imam Ali. that the quest for economic justice was not an isolated principle. in clear contrast to Prophet’s words.inequitable and nepotistic policies were widely discussed and calls for his deposition were openly voiced. Historians are unanimous in reporting that Ali was . It should be observed. This important principle will be further demonstrated in the remaining pages of this study. Imam Ali in fact made justice.

A number of the notables of the Quraish. but you would not have it otherwise. But I will not take even a small coin (dirham) from it above you share. As a precondition for accepting the caliphal office he declared: “I have no desire to rule over you. It was this reason why Husain accepted the invitation of the Kufans. Thus Ali was the first and only popularly elected caliph in Muslim history. Historians have widely differed as to who of the remaining members of Umar’s (shura) council actually witnessed Ali’s bayat. Do you consent? “Yes. But when the meaning of the Caliphate itself had been brought to ground till the time of the death of Usman. Ali said. and was thus determined to be just and equitable in all his dealings. It was this reason because of which Ali used to go with Fatima in attempt to convince people to accept his caliphate. He insisted that his bayat take place in the mosque publicly and with the consent of all the men present.” they replied. their lives and dealings. left Medina as the rebellion against Usman intensified. I hold no special authority over you. and that is why Ali refused to . Imam Ali was not simply a political successor (khalifah) to the Prophet. This Divine Caliphate had been reduced to a level where the Caliph’s chief responsibility was that he merely had the keys to the public treasury.chosen by public acclamation. The Upanishads have clearly said that the Imam’s chief objective was to lead men on the true path to God. bear witness over them!” [The chief reason why Ali was not willing to accept the Caliphate after the demise of the third Caliph has been given by him here. The position of Caliphate was a Divine Authority and exercised complete control over men. He considered his caliphal responsibility a divine trust. except that I keep the keys to your public treasury. “O God. however. And it is this which they endeavoured for all their lives. but also his heir (wasi) as the spiritual head (imam) of the community.

but also to assign government posts not on the basis of noble lineage or social prestige. His motto was.” He then wrote an appointment deed for Talha as governor over the Yemen and for Zubayr as governor over the districts of Yamamah and Bahrain. They demanded therefore that Ali make them partners in his authority. They are reported to have been among the first Companions to pledge allegiance to Ali. “You are indeed my partners in strength and uprightness and my helpers in times of weakness and incapacity. and fewer still agreed with his seemingly unwise reform policies. But they demanded rich gifts from the central treasury as an expression of . embraces our religion and faces our qiblah (direction of prayer) is entitled to the rights of Islam. and thus accepts our faith. and is subject to its religious and legal punishments (hudud). He not only wished to distribute wealth equally. Yaqubi reports that they complained to Ali that they suffered deprivation after the Prophet.accept the Caliphate until he was compelled by the people. But they also were the first to revoke it. The case of Talha and Zubayr is both typical and highly instructive.” With regard to those who saw their lineage or priority in Islam as a source of power and high status. Ali replied. his view was: “Anyone who answers the call of God and the Messenger.] Ali wanted to abolish the social stratification which Umar had established and which Usman used to the advantage of his own kinsmen. He thus planned to dismiss Usman’s governors and to reclaim for the central treasury all the wealth which some had illicitly accumulated during Usman’s rule.” Few among Ali’s fellow Companions shared his idealism. “You are all God’s servants and all wealth is God’s wealth which will be equally divided among you. but on the basis of personal piety and administrative honesty.

however. Zubayr and Ayesha. But after the vast conquests which these motivations achieved and the rich revenues they brought. yet it claimed the lives of many pious Muslims. lasting about four hours. The Battle of Camel against Imam Ali was led by Talha. pursued and killed by a man of the tribe of Tamim at . This bloody battle was brief. daughter of Abu Bakr.” The Battle of the Camel Having failed to achieve their objective by peaceful means. “But I have shown kindness to you by appointing you trustees over the affairs of the Muslims. wife of the Prophet and ‘mother of the faithful’. Talha and Zubayr asked permission of Ali to go to Makkah for the lesser pilgrimage (umrah). including the political life of their own society. Among the men who lost their lives in this conflict were its two main protagonists. but in fact they went to organize an insurrection against him. Ali angrily revoked their appointment saying. hence designation ‘Battle of the Camel’. Talha was killed by an arrow shot by Marwan b.kindness to a near relative. The conflict known as ‘the Battle of the Camel’ which ensued soon after Imam Ali took office demonstrates the sharp deterioration of the moral and religious basis of the caliphate and marks the beginning of the triumph of real politics over the values on which the Prophet Mohammad established the first Islamic commonwealth in Medina. which the Quran calls “an ephemeral pleasure”. It was fought outside the city of Basra in the southern Iran around Ayesha’s camel. Talha and Zubayr. Seeing Talha’s fate. tempted many away from their faith and turned others away form the world. al-Hakam who held him responsible for Usman’s death. Muslims were then motivated by their faith and the promise of Paradise. He was. the life of this world. Zubayr left the battlefield.

It put into serious question the integrity. became the basis of Muawiya’s bid for the caliphate. But Ali revoked their appointments precisely because of their attachment to them. but to no avail. It stirred as well the old blood feuds which devasted pre-Islamic Arab society. Muawiya’s Opposition The conflict between Ali and Muawiya rested on Ali’s conviction of the unquestionable legitimacy of his caliphal authority and Muawiya’s increasing insistence on his right to be the heir (wali) of Usman in demanding retaliation for his blood. Qays. As Imam Ali continued to relentlessly pursue his policy of economic and political reforms. The Battle of Camel precipitated a moral and religious crisis for pious Muslims. . a notable of the Ansar and one of Ali’s devoted supporters. Al-Ahnaf was angry with Talha and Zubayr for bringing Ayesha out of her seclusion in the Prophet’ house. This claim.the instigation of al-Ahnaf b. simply to assuage their love of power and material wealth. moreover. tensions between him and the political establishment which he inherited from Usman intensified. Ibn Abbas advised the Imam to grant Talha and Zubayr lucrative posts. Ibn Abbas discerned the dangers inherent in the Imam’s uncompromising idealism and counseled political realism. of some of the Prophet’s closest and most venerated companions. Ibn Qutaybah reports that Muawiya received the allegiance of the people of Syria as Usman’s successor soon after Ali had assumed the caliphal office. Before the Battle of the Camel. and hence leadership role. It raised anew the old issue of religious verses tribal loyalty which bedeviled the caliph office from its inception. and which Islam came to eradicate.

D. for he would have followed not the way of the people of faith. they must bring him back.” Ali then recounted the fate of Talha and Zubayr after they had revoked their bayat. including some of his own relatives . and hence the Battle of the Camel was their desire for wealth and prestige. moreover. they must fight him. hence he had no legitimate claim to the caliphate. Umar and Usman. Muzahim (d. Ali argued: “My bayat (oath of allegiance) from the people of Medina is binding upon you even though you are in Syria.These points of contention are clearly set forth in a long letter which Ali wrote to Muawiya. If he resists. Once they had agreed on a man as the imam and declared him by name. as reported by Nasr b. 213 A. their decision must be accepted. Ali concluded by reminding Muawiya that he was one of those who were pardoned by the Prophet on the day of the conquest of Makkah. for the prerogative of consultation (shura) belongs only to the muhajirun and Ansar. As for the murderers of Usman. or neutralize opposition. We also saw that Imam Ali was uncompromising in his refusal to grant any favours either to buy loyalty. anyone deviates from their decision either by denouncing it or coveting (the caliphate for himself). It was observed above that one of the primary causes of the insurrection of Talha and Zubayr.). If. and those who were far away had no right to object. Thus others who were present had no choice in this matter. the Imam counseled Muawiya to join the Muslims in their pledge of fealty to him and promised to judge among them in accordance with the Book of God. one of the earliest historians of the civil war of Siffin./828 A.H. This is because they are the people who gave the same oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr. His strict egalitarian justice with regard to the distribution of wealth made many of the elders of the Quraish.

generally lukewarm in his loyalty to the Imam.” Aqeel replied. Abu Talib who went to him in Kufa requesting financial help to support his large family. Qays. Muawiya made him a generous gift of hundred and seventy thousand dirhams. The Imam asked his brother to stay with him till the following Friday. which al-Ashath had illicitly absconded during his tenure as governor of that province under Usman. saying “Your administrative post is not a private source of wealth for you to devour but a trust.” Al-Ashath was a pragmatic old man. I will not be the worst of your masters if you act uprightly. He then asked. but Aqeel insisted on large sums from the central treasury. He was troubled by Ali’s letter because he feared that he would bring him to account for large sums of the revenues of Azarbaijan. “But you are asking me to defraud them all by granting you illicit wealth. but his close associates rebuked him and compelled him to remain loyal to Imam Ali instead.and strong supporters turn against him.” Aqeel angrily left his brother and went to Muawiya. and you are one of its treasurers until you surrender it to me. Perhaps in anticipation of a direct confrontation with Muawiya. Far more instructive is the case of Ali’s own brother Aqeel b. You have in your hands some of God’s wealth. Ali retorted. one of Usman’s governors whom he confirmed in their posts. On the day of his arrival. Ali is reported to have written to his governors calling on them for support against him. He thus contemplated going over to Muawiya. “What would you say about a man who betrays the trust of all these people?” “Evil indeed is such a man. Ali offered to give his own stipend (ata) when he receives it. who was. and after the prayers he asked. Ali admonished al-Ashath b. “O Abu Yazid (Aqeel’s kunya) who is better for .

“I found Ali more concerned with his soul than with me. Abd Allah asked for financial help from the central treasury. I will never do that so long as the sun rises and stars appear in the sky. As to be his close collaborator in the fight against Ali. I would distribute it equally among them. I have nothing to give you. they argued. Ali replied. “No. Jafar b. The first was a brief exchange between him and his nephew Abd Allah b. This clash during Ali’s caliphate is graphically portrayed in two anecdotes. The account of Amr’s acceptance of Muawiya’s invitation may be largely apocryphal. and Imam Ali’s refusal to “seek victory through oppression. for he was forced to sell the fodder of his animals to feed his children. and particularly those of the Quraish over non-Arab clients (mawali) in the allotment of stipends.” From the start of caliphal rule we witness a growing clash between economic and political interests and the fundamentals of Islam. unless you command your uncle to steal and give you. had this wealth belonged to me. For. but I found you more concerned with me than with your own soul.” This is because for him the unjust distribution. as Muawiya. and unlawful acquisition of . But Ali answered: “Do you wish me to seek victory through oppression? By God. by God. Ali would secure the loyalty of the Arabs and strengthen his own authority. nonetheless. I or Ali?” Aqeel answered. In this way.” Muawiya strengthened his chances of success in his bid for power by enticing Amr Abu Talib. a clear demonstration of the way Muawiya and all his successors used the wealth of the Muslims to buy power.” The second was Ali’s reply to the advice of some of his followers to favour the notables of the Arabs. It is. How much more is this imperative when these revenues are theirs by right. by God.

nor should you yourself choose to be one of Muawiya’s retinue for a meager portion of this world. Furthermore. you advised me to do that which is best for me in this world.] Mohammad. for you will never be chosen for the caliphate. a pious and perceptive servant of his. power and wealth had become the means to acquire it.” Still unable to make up his mind. Amr observed” “As for you. politics. said: “I see that the Prophet of God died and was still pleased with you. Therefore.wealth is a form of oppression of zulm. a pious Companion and respected traditionist. Amr’s younger and worldly-minded son. which is a great sin. first to . stay in your house.” [See how Caliphate had become something that all and sundry wanted to acquire. as were the two caliphs (Abu Bakr and Umar) after him. Abd Allah. But you. Usman was killed while you were away from him. and if Islam has become a pariah religion in the eyes of few. the world history would have surely been written differently. Just like in various countries today. Had the institution of Muslim’s leadership remained in the hands of the Divinely appointed successors to Prophet. if the Muslim world is giving up tyrants like Saddam or Sauds. Amr is reported to have asked his two sons for advice. it is because of errors committed right after Prophet’s death. Amr ordered Wardan. which may be the cause of your wretchedness and perdition. Our view is that even now. Abd Allah. so that he may be “a head rather than a tail” in any effort to resolve this important matter. advised his father to join the people of Syria in demanding vengeance for the blood of Usman. Mohammad. you have advised me to do that which is best for me in the hereafter. Unable to make up his mind as to whether he should accept Muawiya’s invitation or not.

You say with Ali is the hereafter but not this world. More blatantly than in the battle of the Camel. but this world is no substitute for the world to come. power and wealth were the primary motives behind the . Perceiving his master’s perplexity. “For.” he said. that of Siffin had far more reaching consequences and claimed many more lives. while the two conflicts arose from similar motives and circumstances.” Wardan advised his master not to go.set out and then to stop and unload. they will surely seek your advice. you would live in the clemency of their faith.” Muawiya answered. The Battle of Siffin. Thus he asked Muawiya. in contrast. having himself conquered it during Umar ’s caliphate. yet the hereafter has much to compensate for the loss of the goods of this world. involved the populations of Syria and Iraq and was a protracted and bloody conflict which dragged on for weeks. The Battle of Siffin The battle of the Camel was a serious but brief encounter largely between Ali’s Kufan supporters and his Basran opponents. the Siffin civil war irreparably deepened the split of the Muslim community and changed the face of its history. “if the people of religion prevail. Wardan commented: “This world and the world to come are fighting over your heart and you stand confused between the two. In fact. on the other hand. But if the people of this world prevail. With Muawiya. “What would you give me if I collaborate with you in your fight against Ali?” “I shall give you Egypt. as a tasty morsel for you to devour.” Amr saw his venture with Muawiya purely as an opportunity to regain authority over Egypt and its fabulous wealth. is this world. Furthermore.

Your right over him is that he should act justly among you and refrain from usurping your lawfully gained booty (fay). If he does that. it was a way to gain power and wealth. It must. Imam Ali is reported to have written to the leaders of the army which he dispatched ahead of him to Siffin. however. Be. your are God’s defenders in the land.first civil war in Islam.” The Imam concluded with the Quranic injunction. therefore. the black and the red of you (that is everyone regardless of ethnicity and lineage). This contrast in the motives of the Imam and his opponents may be clearly discerned in the conduct of the two parties. For. He said: “God has made you all equal before the truth. He likewise made your relationship to the ruler (wali) like that of a father to a child. “Do not spread corruption in the earth after it has been set right. or a child to the father. or to ask for a guide in case they lose their way. They should not disturb them except when in dire need of food. be observed that Ali engaged in the war of Siffin because he could not shirk his responsibility to preserve the Islamic ideal of justice. and that you defend God’s authority. It is beyond the scope and purpose of this study to go into the details of this tragic conflict. then it is incumbent upon you to obey and support him in whatever is consonant with the truth. while for Muawiya and Amr b. but also from the radical and often aggressive individualism of the tribesmen in . enjoining them not to transgress against people in their towns and villages.” The Imam’s problems at Siffin did not arise only from Muawiya’s lavish bribes with which he bought the hearts and consciences of men. for God loves not those who spread corruption. As. as well as Islam’s polity intact. commonly referred to as the Battle of Siffin. God’s helpers and supporters of His religion.

“for there were among them the (innocent) slave.” [Note that the weapon being used by the proponents of evil was still people’s emotional attachment to religion and Islam. Amr b. was an important component of the clash of narrow tribal politics with religious morality in early Islam. Muawiya’s soldiers preceded Ali and his fighters to the water and vowed to block their way to it at all cost. “May God not allow me and Abu Sufyan to drink from the Spring (hauz) of the Messenger of God if they ever drink of this water. Muawiyah’s men were greatly alarmed. They used it to their advantage so much so that even in Karbala. As. even if it meant falsely implicating Ali of the murder of Usman. handmaid and hired-hand. Uqbah who vowed: “I shall deny them water as they did deny it Usman b. may God kill them. They besieged him for forty days and denied him the taste of cool water and good food. there were some who wanted to kill Husain in the name of Islam. This radical individualism.” But he insisted.” But when Ali’s fighters quickly drove them away from the riverbank. Affan. This was the result of the continued propaganda drive against Ali and his family and vigorous attack on their personality. Muawiya’s own men pleaded with him not to let the people die of thirst. which often expressed itself in spontaneous and hasty emotional actions. by those who themselves were suspicious of being involved in the crime.his camp and the obedience of the more urbanized Syrian army to Muawiya’s every command. Their determination was expressed by al-Walid b. This clash was clearly illustrated by an event which occurred at the banks of the Euphrates prior to the encounter of the two armies at Siffin.] Yaqubi’s report of this event demonstrates more sharply the point under discussion. I shall kill them with thirst. who strongly objected to this unseemly .

despite being on the Muawiya’s side. As. .” [It is clear that Amr b. represented by Muawiya. Ibn Muzahim observes. he opened up his lower garment and Ali turned away in disgust. The shift towards this new and unfamiliar form of government was initiated by Usman and developed into an autocratic authority by his Umayyad and Abbasid successors. Despite this. but a clash between two religious. represented by Ali. social and political ideologies. but violent interlude in this inevitable development. It was a conflict between the caliphate as an old Arab and Islamic institution. “Ali would not deem it lawful to do to you and your men what you and your men did to them. “they steadfastly stood their ground. Tribal affiliations and interests [that had resurfaced during the time of the previous three Caliphs. if they wanted to go for their desired benefits in this world. As even knew Ali to such an extent that when he fell down in an armed conflict with Ali and was about to be killed. or by wealth and boot. Driven by this tribal zeal. Many of the fighters on both sides were motivated wither by the pre-Islamic zeal (hamiyah) to preserve tribal honour at any cost. he did everything in his power to weaken Ali and was even instrumental in killing the governor appointed by Ali to Egypt. Ali’s caliphate may therefore be regarded as a brief. saying. and an oligarchical rule. another great evil that the first three Caliphs could be held accountable for] greatly influenced both the course and outcome of the conflict of Siffin.] The Siffin civil war did not represent a conflict among the different Arab tribes. Men from both sides would meet between the two lines of battle to recite pre-Islamic panegyrics boasting of the high prestige and noble lineage of their tribal ancestors. knew the true nature of Ali.behaviour. Amr b. Yet they opposed Ali because politics demanded that they opposed him. reassured Muawiya.

being so ashamed of running away that war nearly consumed them. If Sankaracharya’s of today may be said to have involved in gross crimes in order to protect their control over wealth and power.] The war of Siffin ended inconclusively through Amr’s clever stratagem by having Muawiya’s soldiers lift copies of the Quran on the tips of their spears and call on the Book of God to judge between the two armies. I will distribute wealth so abundantly among them that my world shall overcome their hereafter. He resorted to this plot just when Imam Ali’s men were about to win the war. Others argued for an immediate end to hostilities at any cost. The majority argued for answering the call to let “the Book of God” judge between the two opposing parties. Ali would not violate his principle of equity in the distribution of wealth. All this accounts are also important because they can give an indication how the true teachings of Krishna as well as the sages of post-Vedic period could have been hijacked by those aspiring for this world. Amr’s scheme succeeded because the fighters on both sides wanted an end to the bloodshed. Sensing this. Muawiya and his men wanted the war to end because there were losing it. and therefore greedily turned their gaze towards Muawiya. were equally God-fearing. This is because. even in times of war.” Ibn Muzahim relates that Muawiya gave generous stipends to the men of the Yemenite tribe of Akk for which alone they agreed to fight. as they were convinced .” [Note that those fighting for revenge of Usman’s murder in the name of Islam paid no heed or respect to the life after death. “By God. including the likes of Bhishma and Drona. isn’t it naïve to think that all the so-called sages of the previous times. Muawiya vowed to buy Ali’s most trusted men saying. Imam Ali’s fighters were divided into several factions. The men of Iraq coveted such rich gifts.

By God. Hence. answer the call of the people to the Book of God. . Affan. As as his representative. something that is the hallmark of Wahabism. At last Muawiya appointed Amr b. “It is a word of truth (they utter). that is of Ali’s camp. They constituted a cohesive opposition not only to Ali. In desperation he concluded: “… I have indeed been fighting them in order that they abide by the judgment of the Quran… I have informed you that that they have deceived you. He said. They were not. they seceded from the Muslim ummah altogether. The Khawarij then insisted on the appointment of two arbiters to consider the matter in light of the Quran and judge between Imam Ali and Muawiya.that the war threatened the very existence of the Arabs and their Arabo-Islamic state. for it is not abiding by the Quran that they desire. they came to be known as khawarij. just a few hardheaded men. was combined with intractable individualism and strict egalitarianism. we shall do it if you do not heed their call. but thousands of brave and persuasive warriors.] These dissenters were pious men who spent their nights in prayers and the recitation of the Quran. They threatened “O Ali. but intend only falsehood by it.” He begged them to fight on for only another hour. however. but to no avail. moreover. but they absolutely refused. those who went out.” Ali cautioned them not be to deceived by this seemingly pious act. A large number of Ali’s soldiers demanded that he accept the call of Muawiya and his men to let the Book of God judge between them. But in reality. Again the Imam tried in vain to dissuade them. as victory was so near at hand. or we shall kill you as we killed Usman b.” [Note what blind faith can do to one’s reasoning faculties. but to the whole caliphal establishment. Their uncompromising piety.

Ali in fact compromised his position by accepting arbitration in the first place. and Abd Allah is not such a man. In contrast with Amr b. As the two arbiters could reach no mutually acceptable verdict. because he stayed out of the conflict altogether. his companionship (suhabah) with the Prophet and the fact that he was the brother of Umm Habibah. the latter would reward him with the governorship of any province he wished. who was the choice of the Imam. even before the start of the arbitration process. He continued.” Amr then promised Abu Musa that if he were to side with Muawiya. of course. but between two contending amirs. This is because the arbitration was not between a legitimate Imam of the Muslims and a rebellious governor. “This office requires a man with a strong tooth who knows how to eat himself and how to feed others. who was unreservedly committed to Muawiya’s cause [because of the promise for control of Egypt]. He suggested instead that they depose both Ali and Muawiya and appoint as caliph called Abd Allah b. He first tried to convince Abu Musa to nominate Muawiya for the caliphate on the grounds of his honoured status in the Quraish. But Abu Musa argued that the caliphal office should be conferred on the basis not of honour but of righteous conduct and moral probity. but Abu Musa refused. Amr again resorted to clever subterfuge.but the Imam’s Yemenite men insisted on Abu Musa alAshari instead of Ibn Abbas. As. “Were I to confer the caliphate on the most highly honoured man in the Quraish. placed the Imam at a definite disadvantage. the Prophet’s wife. I would grant it to Ali Ibn Abu Talib. regardless of its outcome. Abu Musa was an unwilling arbiter who cared little for either Ali or Muawiya.” Finally the two men agreed to depose Ali and . But Amr objected. Umar. Their argument was that they would not accept two Mudarite men to lord over them. This.

62:5). This is because he is Usman’s heir and requiter of his blood. The two men then came before a large gathering who anxiously awaited their verdict. if you scold him he pants and if you leave him he pants’ (Quran. you are ‘like a dog.” After a brief outbreak of general chaos. may God not aid you! You have acted wickedly and treacherously. let Amr speak first. Take charge of this matter yourselves and bestow the caliphate on whomever you deem worthy of it. Following the war of Siffin.” Abu Musa retorted angrily. Abu Musa announced that he and Amr have come to a decision which. however. ended in Muawiya’s favour. which Imam Ali was about to win. 7:176). I too depose him as he did and confirm my companion Muawiya in the caliphate. I therefore depose both Ali and Muawiya. “You are like a donkey loaded with scrolls (Quran.” Amr sarcastically retorted. stepped forward and said: “My companion and I have agreed to remove both Ali and Muawiya and face anew this matter through general consultation among the Muslims. the Imam’s authority was challenged first by the disaffection of many of his . Amr assented and called on him to speak. and therefore most worthy of his station. “What is the matter with you. and that he had deposed his companion.” Amr then arose and said: “You have all heard what this man has said. so that they appoint anyone they choose to manage their affairs. Ibn Abbas cautioned. the men on both sides dispersed and the war of Siffin.Muawiya and call for the election of a new caliph through general consultation. If they have actually come to an agreement. they hoped would bring peace and concord to the Ummah. But Ibn Abbas warned Abu Musa that Amr means to trick him. Abu Musa.

for it deprived him of a faithful friend and a brave warrior. as he was on his way to Egypt and provided him with food and fodder for his animals. After considering restoring Qays to his old post. To this end. Abu Bakr and took charge of Egypt. I shall inflict upon you such a reprisal as would comfort the hearts of the people of faith and of the family of . as well as false rumours. promises of lucrative posts and large bribes. Busr threatened and insulted the Ansar of the Prophet’s City saying: “You company of Jews and sons of slaves. Sad through a mixture of threats. the Imam decided to send Malik Ashtar to deal with Egypt’s thorny problem. Muawiya had sent Amr b.supporters and then by the loss of a number of important regions to Muawiya’s marauding armies and political deceptions. Abu Bakr as governor of Egypt. The death of al-Ashtar was a great loss to the Imam. The Imam dismissed Qays and sent Mohammad b. he dispatched his trusted commander Busr b. Muawiya likewise sent military contingents to different regions to intimidate the people and coerce them into pledging allegiance to him. Qays b. In the meantime. The loss of the important province of Egypt along with two of his closest supporters left the Imam virtually alone. But Muawiya sent one of his men who befriended al-Ashtar. As as the head of a large army. including fighters of his own private police force to secure that province for him. by God. Abi Artah alAmiri at the head of a considerable force to the region of Yemen by way of the Hijaz. Muawiya succeeded in turning Ali against his faithful governor of Egypt. Amr defeated Mohammad b. The man then treacherously offered al-Ashtar a poisoned honey drink which killed him. He then had the son of his fellow Companion killed and burnt in the skin of a dead donkey.

yet. Another source of trouble for the Imam was The Kharijite uprising. I shall make of you tales like those of bygone nations.” Their third objection was to his refusal to repent as they did and return to God’s judgment. which involved him in yet another bloody battle. majority wanted to lead Ali as per their own view.” until they return to God’s command. when his lineation towards this world as against the God’s world is evident.” Busr then forced the people of the holy City including its venerable governor Abu Ayyub al-Ansari to choose between death or giving bayat to Muawiya. He then dismissed Abu Ayyub and installed the well-known hadees transmitter Abu Hurayrah as Muawiya’s governor in his place. regardless of its size and complexity.Usman.] .] Thus the prediction of Hubab’s of the humiliation of the Ansar at the hands of Abu Bakr’s successors came true. [It is unfortunate that a section of Muslims consider the narrations coming from sources like Abu Hurayrah as true. who were patronized by Muawiya or his successors. they were all blind worshippers. Needless to say. [See instead of being led by Ali. The first was his consent to delete the title of Commander of the Faithful from the truce document with Muawiya. several narrators like Abu Hurayrah emerged. and who chiefly coined narrations to denigrate the Ahlebayt. Under Umayyad rule. The Kharijites based their opposition to Imam Ali on three points. household of the Prophet. these and other problems impeded the Imam’s efforts to reestablish the just economic framework which the Prophet had legislated for any Islamic state. The city of Makkah also suffered a similar humiliation. The second was his failure to strike them with the sword when they rebelled against him and demanded arbitration. By God. in truth.

Their first point of contention was that they fought with him the people of Basra in the Battle of the Camel. they were a large multitude. speak and tell me the reasons for your indignant opposition to me. I am Ali ibn Abu Talib. he did not strike them with the sword. marks the beginning of Kharijite opposition not only to Ali’s rule. as “God enjoined the arbitration of just men even in the case of a rabbit.As for the first objection. But before the start of battle. he faced them and cried out. Ali argued that he only followed the example of the Prophet in the truce of Hudaibiya. He . which took place on 9th Safar. he continued. that arbitration was necessary.” The Kharijites were angry with Ali on three counts. he allowed the fighters only to pillage what the enemies had in their camp and forbade them to take their women and children captive.” The opposition of the Kharijites appears to have been primarily not to the way the Imam dealt with arbitration. because. and God says. “O people. (17 July. 658). This battle. He did not take the women and children captive because the women did not fight and the children were born in the faith of Islam.H. just before the battle of Nahrwan. worth no more than a quarter dirham. namely his refusal to abjure arbitration. 40 A. while he and the men of his household were few. but to the Quraishite caliphate altogether. but when his fighters defeated them. This is demonstrated by the following exchange between them and the Imam. “Cast not yourselves with your own hands into perdition (Quran. 1:195). but again to his quest for economic justice in Muslim society. The Imam answered that the people of Basra started the fighting. Secondly.” With regard to the third objection. Ali advanced against them with a large army. Ali argued. thus when he defeated them he divided the booty of those who fought.

it is evident that Ali. They contended. and that Muawiya may be more worthy than you. Moreover.added that since the Prophet pardoned the people of Makkah on the day of conquest. while they were still associators (mushrikun) of other things with God. who was first of all opposed to arbitration itself. The second point was their objection to Ali’s deleting his title from the truce document. if he allowed the name to be deleted? Such trifle issues have always been blown up by the misguided and continue to plague the Islamic world till today. they should not fault him on showing the same clemency towards Muslims. “If you are not the Commander of the Faithful. accepted for deletion due to preserve the unity in the ranks of Muslims. “If ”. Since we are people of faith.” [However. “you have doubt concerning yourself. when the Makkans had objected to it. then they should confirm him instead. then you must be the commander of the rejecters of faith. for had he simply told the arbitrators to judge in his favour.” Ali argued that he did this in order to play fair with Muawiya. Our doubt in you is even greater.] They finally objected to Ali’s instructions to the two arbitrators to search the Book of God and. But if they find Muawiya to be more worthy than him. “Come let us pray and lay God’s . you cannot be our commander. confirm him in the caliphate if they deem him more worthy than Muawiya. in accordance with its precepts.’ Why did they not object at the prophethood of Mohammad. where the Prophet did not say. as has already been observed. there was a precedence in front of him when the Prophet had removed the title ‘Prophet of God’ from his name at the time of the Peace treaty of Hudaibiya. they argued. Ali then invoked in support of his argument the mubahila encounter between the Prophet and the Christians of Najran. Muawiya would not consent.

Then he would wash its floor with water to purify it and perform two cycles (rakahs) of prayer in it and say. and were inclined towards Muawiya. Even the men who were with him. This was because Ali did not give anymore than his rightful share of the state revenues (fay). and Abu Bakr did likewise.” Conclusion Imam Ali spent the last months of his life frustrated and virtually deserted. Day after day. as he said: “My intimate friend (khalil) the Messenger of God never withheld any wealth for the morrow. Ali used to distribute the contents of the house of the central treasury (bayt al-mal) every Friday.” Nahrwan’s was Imam Ali’s last battle. he would call upon the men of Kufa to rise up against Muawiya. Ibn Hilal al-Thaqafi reports that most of the notables of Kufa were insincere towards Ali. in that he established state registers and withheld wealth from one year to the next. Ali encamped in Nukhaylah. while Muawiya allocated an extra sum of two thousand dirhams as preferential gifts to those of noble lineage. On his way back from Nahrwan. and sent his son Imam Hasan to convince the men of the City to join him in a decisive battle against Muawiya.” This he did in emulation of the Prophet and Abu Bakr. but to no avail. surreptitiously deserted him and stole away to their homes in Kufa. but upon the liars. In vain he tried to enlist support for an army to stop Muawiya’s excursions into the regions of the Islamic domains.curse upon you. a suburb of Kufa. whose soldiers continued to intimidate the people and coerce . As for me. which he carried out with increasing impunity. “these will testify for me on the day of Resurrection. Furthermore. I shall do what the Messenger of God did. But Umar had a different opinion.

He too had to face the ingratitude of them. all died for the quest for economic justice. The Imam’s appeals and exhortations have been preserved in moving orations. which continued getting distorted till it reached its intensity on the day of Karbala.” ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ [Is any more proof needed that the political happenings at Saqifa on the day of Prophet’s death distorted the face to Islam. people recognized Hasan as caliph. it is evident that Ali lived and died for God even in the midst of those who only had this world to seek.them into pledging allegiance to him. Usman and Ali. which remain among the great gems of Arabic literature. Saddams and Sauds. But while Umar’s well-intentioned inequity in the distribution of wealth and Usman’s irrational adherence to the principle of kindness to the next-of-kin (silat al-rahim) were the immediate causes of their death. but no would listen. Finally. Therefore. Gita describes such persons . Ali died in the Jehad to undo the mistakes of his two predecessors. Imam Ali was martyred as this final effort to oppose wrongdoing and establish justice in Mohammad’s community was going on. the manifestations of which can still be seen in the Islamic world in the form of modern day Osamas. Qudama to restrain Busr’s incursions against the peoples of the Yemen and the Hijaz with a force of over two thousand horsemen. he convinced his long-time devotee Jariyah b. After Ali’s death. and not indulge in sacrifices. as they wanted to be part of worldly gains. He died in the struggle to return to the practice of “his intimate friend the Messenger of God. Umar. But they were the same people who had disenchanted Ali and Hasan was no different than Ali in character.

and the Eid of the progeny of Mohammad. Who placed us among those who steadfast in accepting the accepting the leadership of Ali and his successors.” Also it is recited: “All praise is due to Allah Who perfected His religion and showered His blessings by appointing Leader of the faithful. peace be on him as our guardian. The name of this Eid in heavens is.perfectly and also the Absolute Man that Ali and Hasan were. On earth it is called.” ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ . as his successor. puranas and Vedas till Gita as equally sacred. by the command of Allah. People congratulate each other by saying: All praise is due to Allah. So much so that the greater percentage of Muslims accept Muawiya as caliph right till this day. This is the Eid of Allah the Almighty. Eid-e-Meesaq.] ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ Shias celebrate the Day of Ghadir Khum as Eid. right from smritis. The traitor of Islam and the one who had rebelled against the Caliph became the Caliph of Islam. Several historians even showered praises of Muawiya’s conduct and wrote narrations extolling his virtues. Ali bin Abu Talib. There are clear lessons in this for those who regard all the literature that they possess. This was the day when. it being far older and there is no way to ascertain the facts but through giving it a test of reason. the latter became the Caliph of the entire Muslim world. the Holy Prophet appointed Imam Ali. as a result of a treaty between Hasan and Muawiya. This is a day of Eid (rejoicing) and it has out-standing merit over all other eids. Consequently. Eid-e-Mahood.

However. the Russian youths secretly admired the Americans and their way of life. the truth is that today. were never attracted as much to the lifestyle of the people of USSR as they are to that of the US. it certainly was not so widespread during those times. life and actions. Our youth wish to live like their Western counterparts.Ah Woman! Aha Woman! Whether you agree to it or not. who till today follow a communist form of Government. Even when USSR was a communist country. that they view everything that comes from the West with respect. Economy or wealth is also never the reason as a lot many countries that have higher per capita income than the US too are not bereft of this problem. Though traces of it were evident during the period of British occupation. eat like their Western counterparts. There are those like Iranians who publicly show their hate for the West and particularly the US yet you will find that most of the Iranian youths retain a secret desire for American lifestyle. the entire world is enamored by the West. we are forced to believe that there is surely some other reason for it. What is it that the US and the West Europe offer that we do not have? Spirituality of the West is certainly not the reason. Such is the influence of the West on our thinking. which have never been ruled by the British or the Americans but are enamoured by the Western culture. as we find that more and more . And the youths of countries like Cuba. There are some who call it as a psychological problem due to our remaining occupied by them for such a long period. dress like their Western counterparts and are so much in awe of their lifestyle. when we find that there are those countries. Fact is that this is a recent phenomenon.

perceived to be equally powerful and such hysteria for Russian lifestyle has never been witnessed. We find that there is nothing great in the West that others don’t have. nor a philosophy. Perhaps the people are themselves so overawed by the Western culture that they are unable to come to any conclusion. It is extremely unfortunate that nobody has tried to solve this mystery as well.Westerners are today getting attracted towards Indian spirituality. the Communists and the pro-West – nobody has written on the subject. Nor is power the criteria. is not the criteria as countries like Sweden have higher per capita income. salty skins of the people of the Indian sub-continent. and neither it has more beautiful people than the tanned. Iranian ladies would any day beat the Americans. neither the art nor a 5000-year-old culture like us. And the only reason why the West attracts so much of attention. even the Indian newspapers have started giving sexy pictures as a rule. with its variety of thinkers ranging from religious to leftists. If you want your beauties to be fairer and matching American standards. we have said. and you will find that all the attraction of the West would diminish. Neither in India. Reading that psyche. and create stories around it (it is noteworthy that a few . Remove the perceived notion that the West is synonymous of a lifestyle where sex is easy to get. Money. Take the US as the case? Neither does it have a richer history than us. even if it means that they would have to download sexy pictures from the net. Fact is that we all possess a love of sex. at least to our knowledge. Or perhaps the all-powerful Western media is responsible which throttle all such thoughts and never allow them to propagate. it is because of sex or at least the perceived notion that following all that is associated with them makes availability of sex easier. as till recently there were two superpowers.

However. 2004) in an article lifted from the The Sunday Times. London: “As Sharapova sank to her knees at winning the Wimbledon title four months ago. Writes Times of India ( The Hindu are an exception even now). She is attractive and talented. she provided the perfect solution for the people who market women’s tennis. women themselves have fallen prey so much so that several of them consider this as their ticket to fame and money. inbuilt sex to add to its attraction. Crowds at this event featuring the top eight ranked female players are usually dismal. and something needed to be done . Not only that. Osho too realized it during his stay in the US and knowing well that his religion had otherwise no great thought to make it appealing. So much so that people started finding extraordinary depth in his philosophy. You talk to the marketing guy in one of these newspapers and he would confirm that even the elderly stop at those pictures for a while. Just seeing the splurge of sex scenes in our movies and you will know that most of the directors agree to his view. 16.” It seems certain attributes are more important and that she can win titles is an added advantage. Further it writes: “Which tournament director wouldn’t use her image to promote an event? Those attempting to increase interest in the season finale WTA Tour Championships were no different. There is an Indian movie director who is on record saying that there is lot of sex in his movies because the people wish to see sex. whereas a lot many youths read the paper only because of these pictures. So much so that the tennis star Sharapova is chosen as a sex-symbol to market women’s tennis. unlike another fairhaired Russian who maximized her attributes. There is a leading Hindi daily whose sale nearly gets doubled on those days when it prints the sexy pictures on cover. she can also win titles. that too on glossy paper.

” If we say that the Governments too gain from this image. the nearby Convention Centre will soon stage the United States’ annual trade fair for adult entertainment. Once this got established. I hate it but sex sells. the West began to be perceived as a haven for sex. Somebody somewhere understood the truth in Freud’s logic and decided to put it into practice. all cultures.) Very much like Mumbai which used to draw people in hordes to avert swathes of empty seats at the Staples Centre. people belonging to all faiths. the more was their hegemony over the rest of the world was established. He went on to say that all our lives. till the mass media and easy mode of conveyance shattered those myths. But it’s unfortunate that if you’re a female actress or singer. The intellectuals have puzzled it after much thought. Unfortunately women too are part of this menace. And as for political correctness. you should give this a serious thinking. home of basketball’s LA Lakers.” It was long back that Freud had revealed the importance of sex. all societies realized that the best options for sex were available in the West. so much so that if it had not been taboo due to social restrictions. the more they were sold. and all across the world. very much for . with or without their choice. it was easier to sell their products. Serena Williams says: “It’s a wonderful picture. it’s the sexiest ones that sell more tickets. we would be having sex with the closest of our relatives. all our relations were governed by sex. At this stage we are reminded of the Urdu verse: Badi mushkil hai ke halaat kee guthee suljhe Ahle daanish ne bohut soch ke uljhaai hai. (It is very difficult that the mystery of the things get solved. Soon.

And since everything with their tag is accepted blindly. protects Rushdi who only tried to add sex to the life of the Prophet and comments on the US policies and elections. and very much like those who found lofty thoughts in Osho’s religion. their own colonies and their own country is free from this menace. their views of the world and the interpretations of major happenings all across the globe reach the tables of editors in other countries. We are told that the Jews control the leading media in the US. However. their language. who are also propagating sex the best they can. Their mode of economy. even among people who otherwise harness a deep-rooted hatred to the US and its policies. is accepted as the only course. keeping the Jewish interests in mind. Based on this perceived view of sex. and simultaneously. since this writer is yet to ascertain this. their fashion and more importantly their products are accepted. . consequent to being drawn because of sex people started finding all the positive things in the West and its people. The inbound tourism increases leaps and bounds and even the educational institutions get students in hordes not to speak of the job-seekers. their culture. about which we have written later that it is bound to fail in Indian circumstances. it should not be accepted as true unless put to a proper check. who use them in their respective papers in the same manner as they download the readily available pictures and use them in the newspapers. also labels Khomeini as a terrorist. But one thing is certain! The same American media that sells sex so extensively. Somebody even told this writer that it was the Jews who started it all and the proof of this claim is that despite the fact that they control the media in the US.the reason why American movies are popular even when they are devoid of a proper theme or subject. their newspapers sell. which led to the phenomena of brain-drain.

of those who had sex with many. and of those who possess the biggest this and the sexiest that or the best this and the voluptuous that. of those who have featured on the cover of a leading sex magazine. hidden behind reams of material on all other sciences and subjects. Of a society where children take real guns to schools! Where psychiatrists are reaping rewards to the best possible and where obesity. No doubt American citizens are suffering because of the selfish interests of their own rulers. of those who were clicked with a long-distance camera while they were holidaying somewhere. of those whose only reason for fame is the availability of nude pictures on the net. rape. of those who were spotted kissing. homosexuality. extra-marital relations. diabetes. in public. etc. So much so that what they couldn’t show through magazines and TV is now easily available on the Internet. heart-ailments. of those who are eyeing someone else while still married to another. where divorce. etc. including the views related to major happenings around the world. and there is no way out for them. . are more common than us. lesbianism and crime are common.Did we ever realize what is it that we are serving our near and dear ones along with the breakfast every morning? Semi-nude pictures of those whose reason for being there is that they have worked in a porn movie. after being fed up of Western culture and after first-hand experiencing its ill effects. We also do not realize what are we giving to our children? A legacy of a society where father’s name is least important. of those whose breast popped out. of those who were wearing the most revealing dress. Internet has now given them much more easier access to the living rooms of the people. We forget that those whom we marvel and look upon in such esteem – the Westerners – are getting attracted towards us.

They too got enamoured by the evils and vices because of the astute planning of leading men of their own society and fell for materialism. A man governed by lust or desire has no other cause to concern about but to satisfy his list or quench his desire. objective of the life seem to be to have more sex. Today they are fed up and want to get out but have few choices. We have the choice to say no. falling hemlines. Is there any doubt that the US too is doing it for similar purposes? American citizens got these ailments and vices because of the selfish interests of their policy planners and certain leading men of their own society. lured by nothing else but sex. And our people gladly take to them. one chief reason behind propagating sex extensively is its potency as a tool to corrupt the faith of others. our youths have become wayside Romeos. Women too have fallen victim. All the cosmetics are sold in the name of enhancing their sexuality. Subject of discussion revolve around sex. who take pride in passing lewd comments or eyeing lustfully at the women of other households. for the Green Card that would give them entry to the world full of sex. If breasts or thighs or legs are arguably the woman’s sexiest parts. This led them to a state that unlike India were our soldiers fight for the honour of the country. some becoming their most passionate brand ambassadors. not to speak of legs or backs are common. the man has only his sexual organ to . People in the West may be forsaking their way of life and looking for religions with more spirituality. half their forces fight for money and the remaining half. yet we are still drifting towards them. Corrupting the Faith Over and above the reasons mentioned above. The fashion houses of the West design clothes only to enhance their sexuality – revealing butt. visible navel.

Women wear garments which reveal the shape and size of their organs explicitly without realizing that they have fallen victim to the male design. the sister. If we take recourse to Freud’s theory about sex being the greatest mover. then how can we expect that all the sex visible around them won’t have affect on the poor men. Why is it that no garment is ever stitched to reveal or enhance the size of that part? Why is it that no garments are stitched or no accessories designed for it? On the contrary. the breasts are shown as much as possible. Likewise. the friend’s friend. courtesy the nature. legs or thighs of a man. Instead of being proud of their assets. the other’s wife. So women willingly reveal the breasts because men can reveal their chests. that too in the name of feminism and equality. Sex is being used as a weapon for achieving certain motives and women have become an easy tool in the hands of the propagandists. their legs or thighs are having on their counterpart is different from the effect they would have upon seeing the breast. All are bound to be effected. And even a pseudo-feminist drive initiated which makes the women believe that they are doing so in the name of equality. The end result too is disastrous for them.compete. Those with faith or deeprooted social customs try to look the other way. but how can it be guaranteed of the distant cousin. the friend. they show their thighs and legs because men can do that. those . perhaps the mother. Woman is the greatest creature that reveals the beauty of nature. They never give it a thought that they are being taken for granted in the name of feminism. And without giving a thought that the impact that their breasts. all to the delight of the man. the impact of seeing the contours of the body would be adverse in the case of men. they are degrading themselves by being puppets in the hands of men. the aunt would be spared.

So much so that the women. November 22. Diana may be right in her assumption but since this quote was mentioned along with a glamorous picture of Diana. Imam Jafar Sadiq once said: For a human being there is nothing worst than sin because it wages war against heart until taking over its control. 2004. made perhaps to justify her way of life: “every second Indian male has been leading an adulterous life since time immemorial”. who out of their love for material benefits readily show their material parts. This condition of heart is called inverted or upside down heart. One chief reason for jeopardized marital relationships is the sex that we are being subjected to. but . and in most cases. don’t realize of the harm that they are giving to the society. The relation get more strained also when our women are called traditional and backward and the so-called progressive ladies are praised for accepting the concept propagated by the West. Take the quote of former Miss World Diana Hayden in Outlook. Neither they seem to have any guilt left in their mind. BIHAR AL -A NWAR . are themselves preys. and also several extra-marital affairs and cases of adultery. numbed all rational thinking so that none gave it a thought at least one readily available woman is required to lead an adulterous life. is married to another woman like her. P-312 It seems sex too is that sin which corrupts human beings ability for rational thinking. VOL . with whom she is having sex. To whom they fall prey. the woman knows that the man. 73.loose on these fall easy prey. The attack is far more vigorous on those who still cling to burqa or chadar. if not to speak of rape. End result: not only the safety and security. It is this that is the cause of several divorces.

who are far more ‘advanced’ than the West in this arena. It is shameful that the women don’t realize that it is shameful for them? Men are using them and they .also the religious believes and faiths are not secure. Not even the women felt that it was disgraceful. when sex is the weapon. selfish people all over the world grabbed this opportunity to reap benefits. too are now realizing the importance of sex. None realized the harmful effects of it. instead of drawing a parallel of such American women with the inhabitants of our own Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Consequently. The condition is so acute and has made inroads into our thinking to such an extent that the greater amount of body parts the women of a particular country reveals. if they want to sell their products to the people and put a stop to the attraction that the West generates among its people. the entire society. Sex was introduced in to various cultures to such an extent that sex alone is culture. Businessmen started selling their products. And those countries that were lagging behind in this arena. our women too have started their journey towards a more naked external self. newspapers and TV channels too realized the importance of sex and based their marketing programs around it. What they don’t realize that the women of the West have sold their conscience to such an extent that boob-popping too is becoming part of that ‘great’ culture? Unfortunately. one of the important aspects of this was directly related to their vanity – it aimed at making them glam-dolls. started drifting towards freer sex. like in India. The World Knows that Sex Sells Taking cue from the West. like China. courtesy the modern developments in the field of cosmetics. After all. the more is that country considered progressive.

men would even like the boob-popping habit in their own mothers. the very next day to the earlier one. I had to give him a big hug to calm him down. presumably lifted from the internet. In the words . This proves nothing. According to sources. Titled ‘As bare as it gets’. After all. you may say. in which Angelina had lent her voice. the US actress Angelina Jolie says that ‘My son is scared to see me on screen’. Nov. Angelina lays claim to being the only Hollywood actress to have maximum fans wanting to watch her as she makes love to any actor – on the sets. She said: “He was terrified seeing his mom in the movie. It goes on to say that the actress had to comfort her young son when they watched her movie Alexander because he was frightened seeing her on the screen. It further says: “TheTomb Raider star admitted she had to keep hold of adopted son Maddox when he watched her latest film because he got scared watching his mother on the screen. But we can give innumerable examples to prove that the dreaded culture has already begun. perhaps also lifted from the same source as the one earlier. you may say. It is possible some of you won’t fully agree with our view. 2004.” A clear reason for this is not given and the news-item even says that the threeyear old Maddox was ‘upset’ and ‘confused’ also when he heard the voice of his mother in the movie Shark Tale. and the Western man is fast removing the taboos attached with that. everyone wants to be there. 2. If we bring Freud here.are being used. and published in the Hindustan Times. The problem is not so severe. those were the boobs they first saw when they arrived in this world. Now we invite you to read another news item appeared in The Times of India. An example: In a news item. it says: “Ever wondered how stars handle being naked on the sets? If crewmembers get a shooting schedule and a date as to when Angelina Jolie is going to play nude.

according to the State Administration for Industry and Commerce… More than 700m Chinese listen to 1000 radio stations. while watching the movie in a theatre. we are sure. Enhancing or guaranteeing sales is another reason why this culture is being imposed on a naïve society. the contestants are men and the judges are women (perhaps scantily dressed and oozing sex). China Central Television (CCTV). whistles and chooses the hottest looker. China has over 2000 newspapers. in fact. justice and universal equality. But even more surprising is that. something rather new: a cheesy Chinese TV gameshow. while 200 TV stations broadcast 2900 channels. The overhaul is badly needed.of a close friend. Psychiatrists. Times of India dated November 20. in a land of propaganda films and bland melodramas. 2004 gives a story titled ‘Chinese media turns a new leaf ’. spirituality. concerned with China. In Women in Control.”” This is proof that the sex culture is still not embedded in the West and people are being offered that so as to desist them from thinking other serious issues like God. And that is not the only thing new about the show. We give you excerpts: Scantily clad models strut their stuff as the audience leers. This week. We just give one example here. some 9000 magazines and 568 publishing houses. “there have been moments when people are seen pushing each other just to see how Angelina kisses. on screen. the . would also relate this to Maddox’s unusual behaviour upon seeing the naked mother (due to the demands of the script). What sounds like just another cheesy American TV game-show is. the Chinese government was due to announce more details about its loosening of the rules. the censors are allowing it to be aired at all.

(And it found only one way to do so. Women We Cannot Know Just look at the picture of Virgin Mary (Maryam). It is unfortunate that many of her followers do so in the name of equality. It knows that sex is more appealing to a lot of them than the charm . Doesn’t she portray far more grace than all the Western women together? Doesn’t the picture itself reveal inner beauty.state broadcaster. the Church sees this entire happening and do not muster the courage to speak. If all these characteristics are revealed out of an artificial picture. but it is a long way from being open (as the Western media or the likes of Times of India in our country have become in terms of freely using sex to sell themselves). composure. just imagine the forcefulness of personality that Mary must have possessed. Just think for a while whether Mary would have commanded the same respect in clothes that you have taken to wear. (From now on) China’s media may be increasingly vibrant (read have more sex). claims an audience of over 1 billion people… Yet Chinese media has long been loss making due to their propaganda role… The government is determined to eliminate losses by attracting more advertising and more paying users. strength and dignity? We must remember that the picture is a recreated image out of an artist’s brush. Policymakers now recognize that unless Chinese media can win and hold viewers and readers they will ultimately be unable to influence public opinion. Who else but Isa is the greatest proponent of equality? Yet. Her picture reveals all this because it does not show any trace of evident sexuality. as per this article).

death and wild tribes. When she grew old. magazines. So much so today when we have to refer to the European woman. telling why the woman of today is accepting the male dictated version of their lifestyle with a vengeance: “We have no right to know the European girl who at the age of 16 went to the deserts of Nubi. At the university she said. Why is it that we love Aishwarya Rai more than Arundhati Roy? Why is it that the likes of Medha Patkar or Sheila Dikshit. She spent all of her life in wild places. Mulla Sadra and Haji Mulla Hadi Sabzevari in Greek philosophy and many of the works of Aristotle . Ela Bhat or even Sonia Gandhi cannot sell products? The same is described by Ali Shariati in the following narration. her daughter carried on her work. Church too has been made a puppet in the hands of these propagators of sexuality. ‘I discovered the language of the ants and I learned some of their sings of communication. It has no choice but to silently watch all the evils happening. She lived with the threat of sickness. Throughout her youth and old age she studied the waves emitted from the antennae of ants and the antennae which receives them. so much so that it is being forced to accept priests known for their homosexual leanings. the deserts of Algeria and Australia.of church. it is the one introduced through films. They are introduced to us as a universal type of European woman. Africa. Men in Europe and America hijacked woman’s cause when she was waking up and raising her voice as equal citizens of society. ibn Rushd.’ We have no right to come to know Madame Guashan who spent her whole life studying and finding the roots of philosophical ideas and the wisdom of Avicenna. The second generation of this European woman returned to France at the age of 50. television and sexy movies by writers who have given them sex.

she felt his anger. Form the beginning of her youth. and along with her. We only have the right to know Mme.B. We have no right to know the Italian Mme. fear and needs. De la Vida. and caught in traps laid by hypocrites and embellished by poetic praises and meaningless friends. brokenness. She showed what our philosophers received from them. Badr and Honein. the depth of his feelings and his highest leaps in ideas. Twiggy! And as the final level of the ideal manifestation of Western civilization. She discovered his nights and his complaining around the wells of Medina. One of her works was to edit and complete the ‘Science of the Soul’ of Avicenna from the ancient Greek manuscript of Aristotle on the soul. She followed a man who had been covered over by the hatred of his enemies. She was distant from Shiite behaviour and beliefs. and the Queen of Monaco and all of . Jacqueline Onassis. pain. Not only did she show Ali in the Battles of Ohud. Curie who discovered quantum and radioactivity or Resass Du La Chappelle who knew more about the sanctity of Ali than all the Islamic scientists and even all the Shiites who claim today to be aware of Ali and the Alavis. the Queen of ’71. She corrected that which they had badly translated and incorrectly understood for the 1000 years of Islamic civilization. free Swedish girl. loneliness. She discovered the most correct manuscripts about Ali. who uses her money as a means of exchange for everything. she devoted her life to knowing that spirit which had remained unknown in the structure of Islam.and then compared them. born far from Islamic culture. She gathered together the Nahjul Balagha. but she found Ali praying in the mihrab of the mosque in Kufa. She was a young. the highest form of European woman. B. beautiful. We have no right to know Mme. She came to know the most subtle waves of his spirit. For the first time.

They are the toys and wind-up dolls of the wealthy and the slaves of the new civilization for the houses of the new merchants. even if the woman is his wife. Because if the man is not related and he enters the house where there is a woman.’ In other words. misguided women and cursed and enslaved them. She is reacting to the inhuman treatment and fanaticism of the priests of the Middle Ages. they asked the priest: If there is a woman in a house. who. never having touched a woman. This very European woman whom we have come to know is a woman of today. should a man. There were the activators of corruption. They are the sacrifices of the departments of the production of Europe. ‘If God should see the love for a woman upon a man’s face. still he has sinned.the 7 female guards around James Bond. even if he does not see the woman. We should only join with God through Jesus Christ because two loves do not fit into one heart. Only those who remain unmarried can carry the Holy Ghost. She delivered herself but she is the progeny of the Middle Ages. enter? They said. ‘Never. She was the main cause of Adam’s fall from Paradise to the earth! In the Middle Ages.’ In Christianity. if an unrelated man goes to the second floor of the house and a woman is in the basement. he becomes angry because no love. This is why Christian brothers and spiritual fathers and even Christian sisters never marry. other than the love of God. should sit upon his heart. who is not related. . St. in the name of Christianity and religion. the first sin was the sin of woman. Christ lived without a wife and a man can be a Christian. because marriage is a tie which arouses God’s anger. sin occurs. It seems that the sins of women spread through the air. They even showed her to be hated by God. Tomas Dakin said.

She lives with her first owner. her passport. The sin and disobedience of Adam is renewed in the memory of God! Thus one must do something so that God will forget Adam and his sin! This is why a woman in the thoughts of the people of the Middle Ages is so hated. This tradition has also influenced our country because it is a European tradition. as Eve was the wife of Adam. Their traditions are better than ours. Her ownership was of itself transferred to her husband. weakened and held back from the ownership of anything. owning property. She has no essential existence. which is completely unacceptable to us. a detested and ugly action. ‘Name?’ Secondly. her new owner. Even if it is tradition from the slave age. She does not possess sufficient value or credit to have a name. went to her husband’s house. she uses her father’s name. her identification. It even extended to the point that when a woman. The effects of this can still be found in European civilization. primordial sin. even if it is nonsense. This is not just for use in her home or unofficially. the two people to be married are asked. the name of another woman.Every man. everything is replaced from carrying her father’s name to her husband’s name. if a woman marries. Her education certificates. repeats the first. even if that woman be his wife. When she goes to her husband’s home. she lost the rights to her own property. distinguishes her. the very fact that it has a foreign mark upon it. is sufficient for our modernists. A name is significant. as the child of Adam. A woman had no legal status. who turns towards a woman. In her parent’s home. Even today. . This means that a woman herself is nothing. characterized by their impotent imitation. In the official European marriage forms. she changes her name. A creature who lacks significance stands through others.

form the very beginning. The memory and thought of it ha remained with her. she can independently and directly put her capital into effect. She has the most economic independence of any member of society. the name of her father. she could not continue to own it because she is a woman. In answer to the second question. when a woman separates from her husband. In Italy and Spain where religion is still strong. her unmarried family name. she has absolutely no right to her children. She can even seek payment from her husband for nursing her child. All of the anti-human and pseudo-religious pressures committed against women in the name of religion have caused a reaction among European women. the purest form of Islam. This is why we say pseudo-foreigners have been born into our modern society who do not resemble foreigners and pseudo-Europeans have come into existence for which no example in Europe exists. Even if a house had originally belonged to her. In answering the first question. Our so-called modernists ridiculously.girl’s family name. it was his name and in her husband’s house. unconsciously act and think like a foreigner because they cannot distinguish. In other words. In her father’s house. not the present composite form of Islam. Whereas in Islam. that is. This reaction by women is directed against the Middle Ages. According to the present divorce law in France. She can work. the family name which will be taken after marriage. This is why she officially changes her name through marriage. As to production. the family name of the husband-to-be is recorded. a woman belongs to the owner of the house. she is completely independent in respect to woman’s rights. women . it is his name which is used. She can carry on her own businesses without any interference from her husband. is recorded.

All means of communication and advertisement. technical. rubber gum. literature and. These things are all other than freedoms and the rights of man! Sexual freedoms are deceiving. In return for the second world’s (the previous third world) oil. culture. causes both the East and West innocently and of itself to reach out towards it until it gets to the point that the influence of Western people and the influenced Eastern countries find a secure and safe environment for themselves and find continuity. sex. not sexual freedom and sexual rights. diamonds. promotion and distribution. based upon rebellion. At any moment it is possible that. a type of limitless deception. plundered world – freely and with generosity. We are talking about human freedom and social rights. Europe exports freedom. they take up a notion contrary to their interests and as a result put their heads into an inexpensive foreign lovers cesspool and become so drowned and giddy in the artificial freedom as presented by capitalists . We see with what speed the latter becomes prevalent. It is part of a new exploitation. art. copper. techniques. which the impure system of Western capitalism in today’s world. The young generation. social. to this hungry. in particular. coffee and uranium which inexpensively enters Europe. artistic and educational possibilities of an underdeveloped country come into the service of propaganda. in particular.are denied many of their human rights in spite of the signs of freedom and emphasis upon human rights and other such grand jokes. ethics. those who contain both the elements of rebellion and audacity and those who lack patience as well as those who are not stupefied by religious stipulations and have released the hereditary chains of traditions which crimp their thoughts because they find they do not related to their sensitivities.

They were club wielders whom on one feared. they simply cried out. an ethical conscience. a blessed temple is built. colonialization and despotism. Compared to these people who at least give reasons and examples. from lust. From sexuality. they cannot even stick to their earlier stand. It is emphasized and strengthened so that the groundwork is laid for its daily increase. They make Freud a prophet of lies. come to know what is behind these attractive forms of the thunder struck. seriousness and insistence upon the rights and freedom of sex by the Western capitalists. ‘Religion is dying!’ They issued unreasonable cannon laws. With industrialization in full motion. sexuality which is none other than the denial of the modern world. This is why we see to what extent the internal conditions of despotism in Asia.that they no longer know what the world is about. Africa and Latin America result in an insanelike emphasis.” ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ The priests in the middle ages had nothing to offer than ‘excommunication’. The first sacrifice recorded in the threshold of this temple is woman. A woman had no identity but at least she was part of a family. We can. We have to come to know these great idols and the three faces of the contemporary religious trinity: exploitation. They so completely saturate themselves with it that they no longer sense their poverty and slavery. Today. From Freudism they build a scientific and human religion. Nearly the entire society has rebelled and excommunicating all would be at their own peril. she . a real institution and finally. They constantly threw the fire of hell into the faces of their parishioners but to no avail. with a little bit of caution and discernment. They build this place of worship and create a powerful servanthood.

At the same time. It is . tradition. Her humanness has suffered (and has left her lonely). Her tender heart weeps for the oppressed. Because she has developed intellectually and logically. however. sacrifice. encounters things. Make her only a sex object so that she does not put her positive characteristics to good effect. seeking the self. gratitude. loyalty. It is she who shapes the intellect of a child. Her hereditary feelings. the evil designs of man were working to chain her again. It is no longer based on sensitive feelings or instinctive attractions or deep. contracts. a plot was hatched to chain her in the name of freedom itself. intelligence and happiness. she has individual independence. many of her deep feelings have been taken away from her. While all these positive developments were taking place. her lover. finding her own interests and individual profits and spending for herself. unconscious. love. This also made her socially independent. It is she who takes the side of humanity and justice more than men. which are other than the intellectual. family and religious chains through her accountant’s vision of the situation. But it has made her independent. have been removed. She is now capable of seeing reality being able to analyze and intellectualize. and use her to their own likings. spiritual efforts by rather upon the policy of intellectual accounting and detailed calculation. are her virtues. She authentically seeks pleasure. Patience. her father and with her family. ethics. This woman loved freedom. It was not possible to put her back in the house again. Therefore. She has been freed from many social. and looks for tranquility. She is the free woman. pledges. before marriage and setting up a household. this has of itself altered her relationship with others – a man.was pulled out from home and went to work. Today. It is she who is by nature more prone to speak against evil and injustice. generosity.

our figure and private parts. Show yourself to be worthy of it. began to show her breasts as a case of her equality. What would have been the shape of world if she had taken the other decision? You have taken full use of these precious possessions of mine while denying me the right to equality and free living. who was supposed to take up the cause of the entire world in the name of freedom and equality. one who is worthy of seeing them. old systems. This is the message of Islam. spiritual values and consumption pattern. Unfortunately. devoid of a proper direction and guided more by a vicious male mind working to lead her on a desired path.she who is capable of bringing about revolutions. to the full enjoyment of other dogs around. but you will be denied the sight of our sexuality. Now I have wakened up. ethics. It is she who alone can change the traditions. and the love for free living. So the free woman. which has potential to make ordinary men of today fall at the feet of women. This is true freedom and equality for woman of the modern times. you will aspire and perspire. The anger. These priced possessions would only be available to the one who shows respect. I won’t act like the bitch that makes sex on the street side. Now onward. she began to sleep with another and then another. courtesy those who hijacked its teachings immediately after Prophet’s death by retaining the purdah on the . She began to wear figure-hugging and flesh-revealing garments in the name of freedom. the hatred. And detesting one man for his animal instincts. the message of the true Islam has not been understood by the Muslims. and it is all yours. from being the puppet in the hands of men. Corrode her! Corrupt her! It is she who can become the greatest hurdle in the path of pursuing the evil designs. she became a puppet in their hands again. Consequently. social relationships. led her astray.

Situation in India Like in all other areas. that has been designed to capture her as a consumer and further her movement towards revealing her sexuality. but has been given no choice but the so-called modern approach to life. From sex being a taboo. A lot many publications have done researches that reveal that the age of experiencing the first sexual encounter is now the mid-teens. Unmindful of the disaster that they are leading her through. Brothels are no longer in demarcated areas. Neither the old-fashioned way that she had no choice but to live nor the imported way that she is being forced to accept in the name of modernity. would give her true equality and freedom. realist as well as idealist. it is best to study it. She rightfully wants to shed that traditional way of life. and even women from respectful societies are falling prey to the evil of prostitution. the mainline Indian media is only working to fasten her movement towards this direction. But since it is the so-called progressive elites who give shape to others’ view. The woman is educated. She is traditional as well as modern. it has come to sex being illicit and illegitimate. It is unfortunate that while women considered the earlier form as traditional. she is accepting this imported form as modern. while rejecting all those teachings that gave her freedom and equality. the first sexual . like her Western companions. She has made swift strides from the traditional mould that she has only recently rejected. intelligent and acceptable to change. Marriage with the cousins was forbidden but the surveys show that in most cases.lines of Christians and Jews of the period. Consequences have already begun to show. backward as well as progressive. is being led in one direction only. she too. Unfortunately. woman in India depict various extremes.

are some of the solutions that are given to face this problem. even of widows. Meanwhile. politicians. and bear no concept of divorce or polygamy. the situation is too rampant for the priests to excommunicate such person. Few give a thought that they are no solutions! A recent story in a leading newspaper said that nearly 3/4 th of aspiring models have to please innumerable men. The most they can do is to close their eyes and wait for deliverance. the sanctity of pheras? The religion that had forbidden second marriage. All know that several leading socialites. Leading industrialists. Very much like what happened in the West. so none complains. and have to bear harassment at all places. are making fast money through a refined version of prostitution. is mute witness to society where each individual is progressing towards having several sexual encounters with a lot many partners. A recent court decision asked compensation to be given to a woman because the man promised to marry her and didn’t. Even otherwise. Woman who have accepted the Western mode of dressing. in the name of equality. are finding that an increasingly large number of them are becoming victims of rape. Money has become more important than all the age-old values. are reaping the rewards. bureaucrats. Sex is so easy for the moneyed. Another aspiring actress blamed the same condition as rampant in Bollywood. Internet and mobile phones have facilitated their working. yet the duality is such that if a Hindu . Where is the sanctity of fire. models and actors. while commuting or shopping.encounter is with a cousin. en route their way to success. media-gurus. the woman had conceived the man’s child. Teaching them judo or having the streets lighted. It is no longer a taboo to have sex prior to marriage so much so that the courts have started giving verdicts in this regard. celebrities. they have to hear loose talks and passing comments.

All places of public dealings have to necessarily have few smart women. he has to either divorce his first wife or embrace Islam. All those who are part of the aforementioned culture have no reasons to celebrate Diwali. all types of men and their problems. the truth was that Islam had included all situations. Yet. even if it is on paper. we spend millions of rupees on firing crackers on the eve of Diwali. This is consequence of the fact that the Hindu religion. However. All marketing and sales companies do so to make you buy the products. in dresses that leave little to imagination. It is clear to everybody that woman’s sexuality is being used as a marketing commodity to sell TV soaps. All PR agencies need to appoint women so as to lure media to write on their clients. . we would not be able to face him.a materialistic concept imported from the Capitalist West. outdoor hoardings and even on the back of a scooter’s spare tyre. when the same maryadapurushottam Ram would ask us to prove our fidelity. She is as it is doing the same through TV. through a realistic approach. newspapers. It is believed that this corruption is a small price to pay in the pursuit of money . Yet. consumer items and even newspapers. Islam was criticized for its liberal attitude even in regard to sex and marriage. as this has been shown as the modern way to Dharmendra has to marry another woman. every time a Ram would seek it from them. And our own Sitas would fail the agni-parikshas. like Christianity was accepted as an idealist religion. Women are happy. Unmindful that her role is still the same – that of a sex object to please and gratify men. Why do we forget that all the celebrations are meaningless and ritualistic if we forget the values for which Ram lived and died? We proclaim that we are willing to die for the cause of getting Ram his due piece of land.

Instead. In the defeat of a society. Writes Shariati: “Not only is oppression a result of corruption. They have placed her in the same category as a washing machine and her human values have been lowered to ‘mother of a child’. have been taken away from them in the name of Islam. Even the rights and possibilities which Islam itself has given to women. . ethics. she was made to lead a sheltered. social relationships. it is not just the victor who breaks it.The Present Muslim Woman Woman in Islam had been given power whereby she could have changed the traditions. An oppressor cannot perform oppression in the air. Oppressors and the Oppressed Hazrat Ali said two parties are required in order to bring about oppression. literacy. One is the oppressor and the other is the one who accepts the oppression. They are presently denied learning. but it requires two sides working together to come into being. old systems. It is the co-operation of these two which brings about oppression. The creation of superstitions and the spreading of ignorant backward beliefs of family traditions. spiritual values and most important of all. the inherited faulty systems of order along with servitude. many of the human rights. Oppression is like a piece of iron which is formed by the striking of the hammer of the oppressor upon the anvil of the oppressed. They are not able to explore and nourish the spirit of their thoughts. deviation and misery. consumption (in the same way that they held a power to preserve them). Oppression cannot be one-sided. society must also be broken. social possibilities and freedom to develop. backward life and suffer form social rules presented to them in the name of religion and tradition like the present day Islam.

civilization and social manners could possibly be worthy of being the nourisher of tomorrow’s generation. culture. in the name of religion. she strikes the fear of an older brother or the father within the child. Thus we see the fate of women in our traditional. What can this weak creature of the house. in the name of ‘similarity to Fatima’. If none of these have any effect. Most probably they mean fattening their bodies when they say nourishing their children. discipline. All of this occurs in the name of Islam. in the name of tradition and worst of all. If this doesn’t work. thought. books. She goes to her husband’s . born to sit behind a curtain without thought or culture. who is missing a part of her brain and who is excluded from literacy. the lack of psychology. She becomes known as ‘someone who is behind the curtain’. I don’t know how a person who is herself incomplete and useless. do for the development of her child? How can she develop her child’s sense of completeness? Can she awaken the depths of the spirit within the person? How can she learn to accept the complicated ideas and feelings of her child? What can she do other than nurse her child and change her baby ’s diaper? In disciplining her child she can only swear at it or use lewd language or cry or scream or curse her fate. conservative society which has had false undertones of religion added to it. who has not been educated. all weave themselves together like a spider’s web. It is explained to her in terms of chastity and the necessity to nourish her children. education. And it is this very web which impoverishes the woman within itself. She grows up in her father’s home without breathing any free air. she calls upon the jinn and the angel of death or threatens the basement or the well.the tradition of ‘father power’ in the community.

She is a household laborer and a nurse but because she works without any wages. she is called a lady. Because she does the work of a servant in the name of common law. She is transferred to her husband’s house where the marriage license or ownership papers shows both her role and her price. She cooks food. and as she could not be a servant. She manages the inside of the house. are most worthy of praise. she is working for herself. established centers of learning and wrote important texts on science and ethics. She is uneducated. Because her lord is her husband. She is an expert at her work even though the level of work she does is equivalent to the work of a servant or a nurse. At any rate. Such a girl is the woman of the tribe or the farm who helps her . she is also called mother. ritual or civil law. she is called wife. They keep her from an education and from self-completion in the name of religion and inclination towards faith. As she acted as a nurse to the children. watches the children and sees to the cleaning and ordering of the house. She becomes a respectable servant. she has no rights. There are many women in Islam who reached the level of being authorized theologians. A married man means someone who has a servant who works in his house.home (her second lord and master) in accordance with an agreement which is made between a buyer and a seller. We must point out here that our objection is to the well-established fathers and wealthy husbands who condemn their daughters or wives and who do so cautiously because they are women. But girls who do not have the economic means to pursue education and who work hard in their father’s or husband’s house. It is no more than this because she has not been trained to do more than this. nurses babies.

She beats cotton and wool. She is a wife. she cleans the house. She gives water to the animals and milks them. yogurt or cheese for her family ’s consumption or for selling at the market. she weaves cloth. At the same time. We confined our daughters to the house lest they learn foreign values that were leading the women of other communities toward becoming innocent victims to the economics of exploitations. grapes and cotton. gathers fruit. Had we not taken recourse to this escapist view. a mother. she nurses her child. When assuming she could learn. either by taking care of the animals or by helping in the fields. All are in the dark. those who have the means are least bothered. culture and religion. we thought that if she had a beautiful handwriting. Often she produces handicrafts within the home as well. she cooks food. We did this because we had forgotten Ali’s saying which asks each of us to fight the oppression and exploitation. all have forgotten the true personality of Fatima. who feels the weaknesses of his personality. a worker. He would he safe to the end of his life. who brings in an income as well as doing the household work.” Truth is that those who are poor lack resources. she sews clothes. she would write to her lover. Mr. (With this type of thinking it would have been better if we had blinded her so she would never see a ‘forbidden’ person). who shares in production. both men and women’. we would have prepared our women to fight the onslaught of these material forces that are eating away the pillars of our society. We forgot Prophet Mohammad who said: ‘Education is necessary for Muslims. In this way. and an artist. a nurse.husband. spades the earth. She then makes butter. Jealous. thinking . would not have to worry about the disloyalty of his wife. gathers greens. she spins thread. She weeds.

It tames them. Unlike realists. which are also serving as media for propagation of materialistic ideas propagated by the West. It carries realities along with its ideals. We didn’t notice that the channels of modern communication. but rather. they became incapable of solving the doubts that emerge in the minds of their children or to give proper upbringing to the children. Be yourself. our women were bound to face insecurity. Through this means. “It changes their essence in a revolutionary way. Islam uses that which hinders the idealists as a composite for its own ideals. “But as opposed ot realism. the need for divorce. ignorance. oppression and suppression (realities according to realists. ideology and ideas which they ignore). Consequence is in front of our eyes. Islam does not accept the status quo but changes the realities. Do not be intimidated by external forms and eye-catching colours. and faced with the onslaught of attack of alien thoughts on television.” Islam admits to all realities – hunger.that confining women to the inner quarters of the house would ensure safety of their chastity and belief. It seeks them out. Islam does not turn away from realities as idealists do.” . the weakening of the weak by the strong. which are non-existent by themselves. it causes the realities to submit to it. Islam does not submit to realities.” Shariate continues. ŠŠŠŠŠŠŠ The greatest advice that Ali Shariati gives to women in “Fatima is Fatima” is this: “Search for the Truth. Seek out the Truth. its real desires. It uses realities as a means to reach its idealistic goals. Unaware of the lofty Islamic teachings. Coupled with illiteracy. have entered those very quarters of even the poor Muslim houses. must be translated into real forms so they have no problem with imagination. that which you really are and not that which have become. drug addiction.

“two parties are required in order to bring about oppression. Face up your realities. In Islam it is not sufficient to tell one’s self. must branch out from that society’s historical roots.” Shariati tells us in the words of Hazrat Ali.” For there is a commitment by which each individual is bound by and that is to be an active participant in society social ills.With this approach. One is the oppressor and the other is the one who accepts oppression. It is here that Shariati develops the concept of Islamic social justice. “Thou shalt help the oppressed. our coming to know Fatima brings about a responsibility and a commitment to those who first ask. an independence of thinking develops which. Oppression is like a piece of iron which is formed by the striking of the hammer of the oppressor upon the anvil of the oppressed. “Thou shalt not be an oppressor. That is. in order to succeed as an answer and not to cause deviation. thereby being essentially irrelevant to her. Work through them to reach your ideals. With the awareness which Shariati brings to us. Tame them. one should say to one’s self. “Who am I” . Oppression cannot be one sided.” Thus. “Thou shalt not … this or that.” but one is equally obliged to say to one’s self. women themselves participated in the attack upon their values by allowing themselves to be oppressed and by not searching out their roots. there are many women whom we cannot see – women who are independent and who rely on their own accomplishments and related these to their own cultural background.” As Shariati points out. An oppressor cannot perform oppression in the air. It is for a woman to awaken so that she will not live her life unconsciously imitating borrowed forms and ideas – forms and ideas which neither she nor her ancestors participated in the creation of.

and then search out the answer in the authenticity and genuineness of their own culture. Read for yourself! “Women who have remained in the ‘traditional mould’ do not face the problem of identity and women who have accepted the ‘new imported mould’ have solved the problem for themselves. we learn to fight injustice and oppression. kindly keep in mind that there would still be a few words or passages that may be in Iranian context. The responsibility and commitment grows through love and faith. an ideal example. culled from one of his speech in 1971. The tyranny of our times and the influences of institutions take her from ‘what she is’. What should they do? They want to decide for themselves. there are those who can neither accept their hereditary. the problem of ‘Who am I? How do I become?’ is urgent. They want to develop themselves. ‘they build’. Though we have removed the portion that was not in Indian context. In our society. traditional form nor surrender to this imposed new form. Fatima.” We present here the views of Shariati on the subject. through her own ‘being’. our heroine. But in the midst of these two types of ‘moulded women’. a heroine. women change rapidly. answers their questions. With Fatima as our model. For them. They need a model. We turn from ourself to others. Moreover. and we see . We become actively involved in society’s ills because she as she really was. our model. is our symbol. Our knowledge becomes illuminated because Shariati has awakened this responsibility within us. All her traditional characteristics and values are taken away from her until they make her into a creature ‘they want’. it is possible that some situations described may have changed for good or worse during these 35 years.

European like. she does not want the modern masks to replace the traditional ones. Another is the visage of the new woman.that ‘they have built’! This is why the most important and relevant question for the awakened woman at this time is. She wants to be reborn. is as far away from the face of Fatima as Fatima’s face is from the modern woman. religion and society which received its spirit and origins from Islam. The visage of the traditional woman which has taken form in the minds of those loyal to religion in our society. They thoroughly ornament themselves. they do not know how. They consciously decorate their personalities with awareness and independence. They do not know the design of the real human aspect of their personality which is neither a reflection of their heritage nor their artificially imposed imitative masks. A woman who is in this society wants to be herself. She neither wants to be a product of her heritage nor have a superficial façade. In this re-birth. who has just begun to grow and introduce herself. Which of these do they identify with? The second question which arises from amidst this. She cannot remain heedless of Islam and she cannot remain indifferent to it. She wants to build herself. knowing full well that she cannot remain what she is. women of a society who wish to make decisions through reason and choice and related them to a history. They reflect a sketch. They manifest a design. The third is the visage of Fatima which has no resemblance whatsoever to that of the traditional woman. One is the visage of the traditional woman. We are Muslims. . she wants to be her own midwife. She wants to decide for herself. stems from the following reasoning. culture. In Iranian and other Islamic societies there are three visages of women. Her contemporaries choose for themselves. ‘herself ’. but. ‘Who am I?’. Actually.

type of consumption. They are wasting their efforts. type of religious publicity. Rather. This contradiction had to come into being. his thoughts. Face to face with his reality (whether it be the truth or an erroneous reality. art. That is not within the scope of this discussion. the change in the dress of man. comes from the breaking down of human qualities. Women also follow this change. in an Islamic and Iranian society. literature. It is not possible that she remain in her traditional mould. social relationships. In a period of 100. government. the contradiction which has appeared. The work has been done. and all other things were the same during a father’s and a grandfather’s lifetime as in the time of their children and grandchildren. the changing human form has produced a particular type of intellectually educated man or woman. (Today). society was permanent. While these observers of change in society are just beginning to touch upon these issues. it is certain).The reality which we are facing in the world today. It comes form the creation of a very strong agitation which affects the way a society behaves and its way of thinking. just hit the tip of the issue. the forms of production and distribution. the change from the traditional type of ‘mother’ to the new type of ‘daughter’ is inevitable. beginners who think and begin to write about this phenomenon of change. negative and positive values. Principally. his lifestyle and his direction in life. There was no one potent enough to stop it. 300 years. and in particular. language. we refer to the change in society. nothing changed. in the East. The foundation of society. Yesterday. created things. 200. religious ceremonies. and predict them. It was a compulsion which no power could have prevented. the crises. This is not to conform this change or to deny it. they occur. Values and social characteristics were incapable of change. the change. As the change is .

must also remain as she is today because. They say. simply enough. Everything changes. They mistakenly believe that the spiritual source and the belief in submission (Islam) can only be preserved through the worship oftradition and anything which is old. from any change and from any rebirth. They try to preserve old traditions and habits. ‘fables of the ancients’. and are referred to in the Quran as ‘tales of the ancients’. Woman. ‘father of old’. It may be 19 th century. ‘legends of the ancients’. In general terms. in their view. It should remain like this until Judgment Day. They try to remain the same and hold onto things of the past forever. Those who act as guides. 17th century or even pre-Islamic.’ ‘legends of the ancients’. therefore it must be preserved.’ They see old as being synonymous with tradition. they call every change. and suppositions in the name of faith.’ But the world changes. ‘the ancients. belief. X and his son change. They accept this view because it has become part of their way of life or because it suits their interests. Mr. including even change in dress or hair-do. (her . ‘stories of yore. her form exists in the past and has become part of social traditions. But woman must retain her permanent form. They turn away from anything new. ‘infidelity ’. As a result. who give explanations. but it is considered to be religious and Islamic. ‘Islam wanted it to be this way. their point of view is that the Prophet sealed women into this form and she must retain the inclinations which make Haji Agha. The opposition’s front is strengthened. religion and charity are also mistaken in trying to save each type of form which has been inherited from the past.swift. Religion has taken this form. their results are less than zero.

We mistake cultural and historical phenomena with inherited. it changes habits. It admits to the existence of both. which have come into being through habit. They deny realities and dig out the roots of anger. Anger. It cannot listen because these are mortal customs. If we wish to keep the forms because of own inexperience. it would mean that religion is mortal. we make Islam the guardian of declining forms of life and society. We must realize that destruction is also a reality. superstitious beliefs. He has moulded her.e. cultural signs. They have no patience. When we equate religion and social traditions. Each and every reality is categorically rejected if it does not suit them. happy. the inconsiderate speed of time itself will run us over. and as it moves in haste. in religious terms. This type of thinking tends to keep us astray. We mistakenly believe the Islamic religion to be these social traditions. Aren’t these great errors being committed today? Aren’t we seeing them with our own eyes? Realism: A Means of Serving Idealism One of the peculiarities of Islam is that it accepts both beliefs which are identical to it as well as coersive beliefs of society. Christianity) ignores them and denies their existence. historical phenomena and ancient. Here the perception of Islam is special. Ancient customs cannot be retained by the force of religion for if this were so. . social relationships. indigenous. The insistence upon keeping these forms will bear no fruit because society will never listen. the absolute and most desirable ideologies. The idealistic schools of thought lean upon the highest values. Moral idealism or religious idealism (i. violence. forms of life. the seeking of pleasure and lovers of wealth are realities which exist. They try to explain social traditions.husband). Time comes along.

Statistics show it. They live together like two pitiful people. it is the ties of the law. adultery. On the other hand. They each live for years separated from each other with another man or woman. Concubines Social realities are such that if we do not open doors to them. a man who cannot live with his legal wife. without being able to get a divorce. That is. But reality is other than this. exists in the present and will exist in the future. It so often happens that human beings grow apart during their lifetime. For instance. She cannot get a divorce but she lives separately. corruption. The same is true for a woman. they will spring out from the windows. sodomy is accepted in England or in Christianity. Civilized and uncivilized people. Forbidding divorce brings about a type of concubinage. They force a family to stay together even when there is a real hell behind the doors and the family has become a centre of murder. not reality. schools of thought which are based on realism accept all things as the basis of reality. divorce is prohibited because of not wanting to destroy family order and believing that marriage is an ideal. but Christianity denies the reality.They are condemned in any form. sacred link. due to religious idealism. That which has joined them is not love. actually separates from her. They become strangers. The door of divorce has been closed but thousands of windows of swindle and illegality have been opened. They are two inflicted people. sacred marriage and remain loyal to each other. the religions and the non-religious have felt it and continue to feel it. Some human beings cannot preserve the first. They bind marriage to the sacred. The children . They might even become lucky with someone else. This is a reality which has existed in the past.

Its materials have all been used to make another house. and the pull of sex. no one. The man leaves the household and goes looking for the type of woman he always wanted. They close their eyes so as not to see it. They do not have a share in the kindness of the family nor the purity of society. in legal terms. Christianity. The wife’s life takes exactly the same pattern and the same fate. It cannot continue. Here we see the distance between common law. It is the former house which they know as official an they deny these tow natural families.which are born out of this situation are natural but illegal. they are criminals and murderers. it accepts. two incompatible types who are replaced by another two. Their spirit is anti-social. It is natural that they separate. Society looks upon them as sinners. including that man and woman. The children which are born out of this union of concubinage are also illegal. the need for a family life. we see that nature and reality builds two new families. Their relationship of husband and wife is not just sleeping together. Complexes . helps him to find a natural tie. They begin opposing each other. They become frightening murderers. They reach the same conclusion. realities and oppositions arise. by denying this reality. Therefore. They find a place and live together. They cannot even live as neighbours. From the point of view of a religious society. Love. But Christian ideology does not accept this reality. As a result. As a result. families. do not actually exist and families which are real and natural are considered to be corrupt and sinful. They have sick beliefs and complexes. is responsible. As a result. civil law and religious law and how natural forces. a decomposed house which has no external existence. causes the family which comes into being to be illegal. A woman and her legal husband become strangers. which are religious or Christian. one way or the other.

He closed his eyes and tried to pass through. When a society becomes Marxist. in particular. in America. but a samavar. attach their hearts to it and find faith. there is also something born into this generation which fills up their beliefs and makes them take revenge upon society in the worst of forms. a teapot and various dishes were in the way. It does not want to see reality. Because it does not see them. They reject them because these are ideal and through this rejection. Idealism is like a child who does not see reality. A child wanted to go out of a room.arise within them. however. it thinks they do not exist. Its followers see everything. All these crimes which occur in Europe and. They oppose and reject. The reason is that in these Western societies. it believes in the despotism of history. even though they have civilizations in the sense that they have culture. They take their revenge on society. truth and correctness. It closes its eyes to that which it does not want to see. ethics. They accept a thing. nourished minds. We see that realists believe that whatever exists should be as it is! The members of the Parliament in . Actually. not history. The opposite of idealism is realism. do not exist in backward and underdeveloped countries. Whatever exists is accepted because it is a reality which results from the despotism of history as the despot of society. He thought all the obstacles were gone. they become unbelievers. no matter how ugly or unpleasant. the sword is the despot here. simply because it has an external existence. all beauty. the individual. freedom of thought. It believes that whatever happens is beyond human will. society and religion. simply because these do not agree with existing realities. They suffer an anger and an anguish which is beyond the imagination.

England defend the laws of homosexuality because it is an objective reality which exists in society. A realist. through inexperience. The weakening of the weak by the strong is also a reality. He drowns himself in objective and sensible phenomena and the existing situation. efforts. Oppression and suppression of certain classes is also a reality. Therefore. it is a reality which must be accepted. To oppose this realism is to worship idealized fantasies which form the basis of politicians and pseudointellectuals. mounted spirits. He thinks in terms of imagery. a thinker. Reality seekers are completely objective viewers. Then they judge. visions. it exists. Politicians and intellectuals accept it and officially recognize it. or else. ideals and sacred values. on the other hand. They see the external form which is a scientific and sensible reality. kills flights of thought. . ideology and ideas which are not translated into real forms. You do not hear them argue that Israel is a reality (Yes! It is). Although it moves against the grain of humanity. But the settlement of the Palestinian people in lands occupied by Israel shows the manifestation of someone who worshipped the ideal. They face no difficulties with imagination. He occupies a sacred place but does not realize that he is in an idealistic environment. We see that an idealist. although it is murder. He pulls himself away from realities. It is impossible to negate them. He turns his back on them. Even though it is wrong. A realist keeps everything (as it is). it must be made legal. rejects them. goodness and the highest of needs and he denies or rejects the realities which deviate from his beliefs and act as existing barriers. longing desires and the seeking of perfection. a reformer is called towards mental desires.

Islam. in which God says: They speak of an unexpended (holy) fig tree (asvattha) with roots above and branches below. which in Europe is considered to be an illegal. Islam uses that which hinders the idealists as a composite for its own ideals. he who knows it is a Vedaknower. Take concubinage. as well as in those found in community relationships. Islam does not submit to realities. It tames them. whose leaves are sacred verses. and downwards also there are ramified roots which bind to action in the world of men. for instance. Through this means. It seeks them out. sense-values its buds. and in the spirit of an individual. it does not accept the status quo but changes them.Neither Idealism Nor Realism : Both Islam is a pure tree which belongs neither to the East nor the West and has its root in the heavens and its branches reaching towards the earth. Islam recognizes the existing realities in life. Unlike realists.) Contrary to idealism. but as opposed to realism. It changes their essence in a revolutionary way. which are non-existent by themselves. Below and above spread its branches. But it exists. admits to their existence. but rather. as with the realists. Islam does nto turn away from realities as idealists do. its real desires. It carries realities along with its ideals. abhorred and an unclean marriage. those which reach the depths of a society and can be seen in the motion of history. It exists throughout Europe and . in the body. (Ali Shariati may have never read the Gita. nourished by the modalities of nature (gunas). but see the similarity in his description with that of Gita. It uses realities as a means to reach its idealistic goals. it causes the realities to submit to it.

If we deny realities. their contract is based upon ethical principles and religion is preserved. realism is drowned in existing realities. divorce would still exist. they fall on their knees because they are defenseless. who do not recognize them do not see them and deny them through their ignorance and their attachment to imaginary ideals. it can control its results. The same is true for young men who grow up in a pious society. whether good or bad. we will be pulled wherever they want us to go. Thus. Realists move along with realities and accept them. natural reality. Idealists sacrifice more as they are imprisoned in the chains of useless customs. inexperienced and weak. These people can nourish their environment. As can be seen. Islam accepts divorce in certain social circumstances. it makes it into a legal form. It can give them an ethical and religiously accepted form. a new marriage contract and temporary marriage in certain very exceptional cases. They will be destroyed. The nouveau riche have just moved from the former world of their idealistic pseudo-religious . Islam gains strength. On the other hand. Without knowing it. realism can be seen running away from those very same realities. But Islam accept divorce. By accepting an unavoidable. one can conquer the sense of guilt one has in the eyes of God and society. guide and dominate the reality within a framework. Society does not look upon them as sinners or at their children as illegal and impure. As a result.America and in very religious societies and groups as well. they will dominate us. By confirming and admitting the existence of a reality. It can then control. Islam succeeded the day it admitted the existence of these social and human realities. whereas idealists. Because of this. but it would be outside its control. If it did not accept divorce. Idealists then face an attack.

The leaders of the people. Newspapers? Don’t read them. health and independence. they sit in coaches instead of in buses or in taxis. They know that corruption will find a home deep within people’s brains. They have tried to preserve their horse drawn carriages side by side with taxis. Office work? Don’t do it and … women? Shhh… Don’t mention that word! Those who acknowledge realities are people who .environment. they only say one thing and one thing only: Forbidden! Radios? Don’t buy one. knowing the order and relationship which it impose when it reaches the furthermost points and the most backward tribes of society. Loudspeaker? Don’t listen. There they were prohibited from learning physics or chemistry. have closed their eyes. They are aware. The new science? Don’t study it. faith. these young people face the new world of realities. those responsible for their ethics. piety. But face to face with this coersion and this rush towards a new phenomenon. those who stand face to face with unavoidable realities. or studying at the university. They neither buy radios nor do they spread the word of the Quran through a microphone! Suddenly. The men do not shave their beards. They wear no neck-tie. they do not change the form of their clothes or their hair-style. University? Don’t go. even those in the depths of the desert. They have given their hearts to mental ideologies and to their ancient thoughts. Vote? Don’t give it. They predict the phenomenon of the rush to the interior world. Television? Don’t watch it. full of twists and turns. They even correctly predict this truth. The women are forbidden to have a high school or college education. They know it will bring about the decline of much of the beliefs. having electricity. those who have been given the responsibility of guiding their lives and thoughts. Movies? Don’t see them. And they still light lamps. they do not let their hair grow long.

They are not so stupid as to react in such a way that when they see a flood ahs come to cover their town. ancient mould nor is it the new woman who is a modern doll that has assumed the mould of the enemy and in the process has become full and saturated. Neither are they sufficiently without pain to sit down and watch. They feel that the strong forces of the world have turned to us to make us change. Now. and. she sees ugly.know time moves. keep them safe and pull their own carpet from the water. is a person who is not satisfied with old advice. Behind the pre-packaged slogans of freedom. Rather. who can break the fastenings of old traditions which were presented in the name of religion. thoughts and behaviour of society. find her and show her the attractions and shows of the outside world. because they know it is a wrong and useless act. what can we do? Who is it that can take up the mandate? The one who can do something. frightening faces which act against the spiritual. even if you hide your daughter in the back room of your house. play an active role. They know that society has a skin which it sheds. is not the traditional woman who is asleep in her quiet. which oppose humanness. but in fact. She sees that they are in . they should try to protect only their wife and children. in saving us. tame. They know that today is not like the past where families were living in a closed society. were national and tribal traditions ruling over the spirit. nor handed to them.” What Should We Do? Writes Shariati: “In the midst of the disruptive thought which has been imposed upon us and will continue to impose itself upon us. national and international television will follow her. one who can choose the new human characteristics. Slogans which are given by doubtful sources do not enthuse her.

the human. without pain. since they neither want to remain as this. It is because of them that ‘Who am I? Who should I be?’ is pertinent. This is thrown at our women and they know why. Fresh. It is obvious what their worthiness is in and for what work. the rational.” Truly. clean dolls. Their means of support and its derivation are also obvious. They cannot surrender themselves to whatever was and is. ‘worthy ones’. Who? Fatima. without responsibility and even without human feelings. What creatures they have sent to the market place! Creatures without sensitivities. without knowledge. They know where they get their orders form. without their own will and choice playing a role. Fatima is one who can serve as the greatest model for women on earth. nor become that. They are against women and the human reverence of women.contradiction to the spiritual. They want a model. . It is these people who know where those things which are forced upon us come from. without understanding.

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