Land Use Planning

Figure 1. Singapore's Present Land Use Map

“Land-use planning is sometimes misunderstood as being a process where planners tell people what to do. Generally, land-use planning means the systematic assessment of physical, social and economic factors in such a way as to encourage and assist land users in selecting options that increase their productivity, are sustainable and meet the needs of society.”

Chapter 1- Concepts, Nature and Scope___________________________________
What is land-use planning? Land-use planning is the systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternatives for land use and economic and social conditions in order to select and adopt the best land-use options. Its purpose is to select and put into practice those land uses that will best meet the needs of the people while safeguarding resources for the future. The driving force in planning is the need for change, the need for improved management or the need for a quite different pattern of land use dictated by changing circumstances. All kinds of rural land use are involved: agriculture, pastoralism, forestry, wildlife conservation and tourism. Planning also provides guidance in cases of conflict between rural land use and urban or industrial expansion, by indicating which areas of land are most valuable under rural use. When is land-use planning useful?

clothing and shelter must be met from the land. Examples of unwise land use include:    the clearance of forest on steeplands or on poor soils for which sustainable systems of farming have not been developed. farmers have made plans season after season. • identifying and resolving conflicts between competing uses. However. labor and capital available. • planning to bring about desired changes. it is a consequence of using land today without investing in tomorrow. • seeking sustainable options and choosing those that best meet identified needs. Land taken for towns and industry is no longer available for farming. the development of new farmland competes with forestry. and between the needs of the present generation and those of future generations. As population and aspirations increase. agricultural and urban activities that produce pollution. must be accepted by the people involved. between the needs of individuals and those of the community. overgrazing of pastures. essentially. it has a further dimension. Land-use planning aims to make the best use of limited resources by: • assessing present and future needs and systematically evaluating the land's ability to supply them. water. Making the best use of limited resources Our basic needs of food. Planning involves anticipation of the need for change as well as reactions to it. water supplies and wildlife. and industrial. Degradation of land resources may be attributed to greed. fuel. or action to prevent some unwanted change. Its objectives are set by social or political imperatives and must take account of the existing situation. which is in limited supply.• the need for changes in land use. likewise. the existing situation cannot continue because the land itself is being degraded. In many places. Their decisions have been made according to their own needs. uncertainty or lack of an alternative but. As the size of the area. ignorance. so does the need for information and rigorous methods of analysis and planning. deciding what to grow and where to grow it. • there must be the political will and ability to put the plan into effect. the number of people involved and the complexity of the problems increase. their knowledge of the land and the technology. land-use planning is not just farm planning on a different scale. . namely the interest of the whole community. Planning to make the best use of land is not a new idea. Land must change to meet new demands yet change brings new conflicts between competing uses of the land and between the interests of individual land users and the common good. Over the years. so land becomes an increasingly scarce resource.

• learning from experience. a plan may have to be changed to take account of it. Land improvements and redistribution of land may be undertaken to reduce inequality or.” Objectives Land use planning is done to meet the following objectives:      To promote the efficient utilization. Efficiency means different things to different people. harmonize and influence discussions and activities of the private and public sectors relative to the use and management of land. At every stage. however. Efficiency Land use must be economically viable. at the same time. historical and cultural significance. “There can be no blueprint for change. . conserving resources for future generations. The whole process of planning is iterative and continuous. acquisition and disposition of land and ensure the highest and best use of land. Goals include food security. alternatively. Sustainability Sustainable land use is that which meets the needs of the present while. private and government entities relative to the present and future need for land. To the individual land user. To reconcile land use conflicts and proposals between and among individuals. To promote desirable patterns of land uses to prevent wasteful development and minimize the cost of public infrastructure and utilities and other social services. Equity and acceptability Land use must also be socially acceptable. so one goal of development planning is to make efficient and productive use of the land. To direct. Government objectives are more complex: they may include improving the foreign exchange situation by producing for export or for import substitution. as better information is obtained. employment and security of income in rural areas. to attack absolute poverty. To conserve areas of ecological. This requires a combination of production and conservation: the production of the goods needed by people now. aesthetic. certain areas are better suited than others. it means the greatest return on capital and labour invested or the greatest benefit from the area available. Efficiency is achieved by matching different land uses with the areas that will yield the greatest benefits at the least cost. For any particular land use.

The support of local leaders is essential while the participation of agencies that have the resources to implement the plan is also important. It can also help to resolve conflict by involving the community in the planning process and by revealing the rationale and information on which decisions are based. Land is not the same everywhere Land is. that is. and different areas present different opportunities and different management . labour and capital that they can contribute. The focus of land-use planning Planning is for people People's needs drive the planning process. In many cases. Land-use planning must be positive. Regulations to prevent people doing what they now do for pressing reasons are bound to fail. management skills and technology can be moved to where they are needed. planning can reduce the costs in trade-off. Trade-offs between conflicting goals Clearly. Land use has to be planned for the community as a whole because the conservation of soil. The planning team must find out about people's needs and also the local knowledge. informed disagreement. information about the needs of the people. More equity may mean less efficiency. if the system as a whole is to survive. the other focus of land-use planning. for example by burning oil or clearing areas of natural forest. Capital. In the short term. water and other land resources is often beyond the means of individual land users. it may not be possible to meet the needs of the present without consuming resources. failing that. skills. there are conflicts between these goals. A community that destroys its land forfeits its future. It must study the problems of existing land-use practices and seek alternatives while drawing the public's attention to the hazards of continuing with present practices and to the opportunities for change. social and environmental consequences of alternative decisions.combined with the conservation of the natural resources on which that production depends so as to ensure continued production in the future. Local acceptability is most readily achieved by local participation in planning. labour. for example by introducing appropriate new technology. Good information is essential. other land users and the wider community who depend on the land must accept the need for a change in land use. the use of natural assets must be compensated by the development of human or physical assets of equal or greater worth. about land resources and about the economic. as they will have to live with its results. The job of the land-use planner is to ensure that decisions are made on the basis of consensus or. Decision-makers have to consider the tradeoff between different goals but. self-evidently. Local farmers. Land cannot be moved.

infrastructure and utilities. Nor are land resources unchanging: this is obvious in the case of climate and vegetation.e. Planning has to integrate information about the suitability of the land. 20. New technologies may have social and environmental implications that should be addressed by the planner. within the territorial jurisdiction. but examples such as the depletion of water resources or the loss of soil by erosion or salinity are reminders that resources can be degraded. Integration A mistake in early attempts at land-use planning was to focus too narrowly on land resources without enough thought given to how they might be used. the demands for alternative products or uses and the opportunities for satisfying those demands on the available land. To preserve special natural features and environmentally critical areas. The technologies recommended must be those for which users have the capital. safety. To promote sustainable development. To guide the orderly development of a city/municipality to promote the health. in some cases irreversibly. Good information about land resources is thus essential to land-use planning. demography. regulating growth and development of a city or municipality. an integrated approach has to be carried down the line from strategic planning at the national level to the details of individual projects and programmes at district and local levels. livestock husbandry and other means by which land is used.problems. Good agricultural land is usually also suitable for other competing uses. that is. e. Comprehensive Land Use Plan The Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) refers to a document embodying specific proposals for guiding. Rationale for the Formulation/Revision of a Comprehensive Land Use Plan       To achieve an improved quality of life. To comply with the requirements of Article 41 of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Local Government Code of 1991 (Sec. Therefore. land use and local administration. smallholder tea development or irrigation. skills and other necessary resources. now and in the future. It is comprehensive because it considers all sectors significant in the development process. . socio-economic. appropriate technology. To translate socio-economic policies into physical policies and plans. Even where a particular plan is focused on one sector.g. i. RA 7160). Technology A third element in planning is knowledge of land-use technologies: agronomy. welfare and convenience of the population. land-use planning is not sectoral. silviculture. Land-use decisions are not made just on the basis of land suitability but also according to the demand for products and the extent to which the use of a particular area is critical for a particular purpose.

To provide guidelines for the appropriate use of natural resources To allocate land for settlements. design alternatives. economic.            To achieve an improved quality of life. It opens an opportunity for gaining community support. 20. physical. programs and projects. To translate socio-economic policies into physical policies and plans. The process attempts to rationalize the allocation of the limited local land resources by using empirical basis to analyze existing social. To guide the orderly development of a city/municipality to promote the health. safety. The CLUP process provides a venue to level off the different groups with varied interests in the local planning area. This process and its output which comes in a form of a Comprehensive Land Use Plan document sets the direction which the LGUs have to take to enable them to attain their vision and to transform them into active partners in the attainment of national goals. To reflect changes in the physical.     To provide guidelines for the appropriate use of natural resources To allocate land for settlements. To comply with the requirements of Article 41 of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Local Government Code of 1991 (Sec. industries and other urban uses on land least suitable for agricultural and farming uses. environmental. understanding and ownership of the Plan through a broad-based consensus formation efforts and participatory arrangements. RA 7160). This process and its output which comes in a form of a Comprehensive Land Use Plan document sets the direction which the LGUs have to take to enable them to attain their vision and to transform them into active partners in the attainment of national goals. strategies. and To incorporate changes in the goals and objectives of the community Comprehensive Land Use Planning puts into practice the essence of local autonomy among LGUs. To serve as basis for reclassifying and converting land. To promote sustainable development. welfare and convenience of the population. and To incorporate changes in the goals and objectives of the community Comprehensive Land Use Planning puts into practice the essence of local autonomy among LGUs. social and economic characteristics of the community. and arrive at sound policies. social and economic characteristics of the community. industries and other urban uses on land least suitable for agricultural and farming uses. To reflect changes in the physical. political and institutional situation. To preserve special natural features and environmentally critical areas. . To serve as basis for reclassifying and converting land. This enables the LGUs to formulate development goals and objectives.

Forestry Master Plan. ancestral domain plan etc. The broad allocation of land uses in the level of physical framework plans are treated in detail in the Comprehensive Land Use Plan. etc. regional and provincial physical framework plans are policy oriented and indicative in nature. as well as planning guidelines and standards promulgated by HLURB as much as practicable. i. policies. 3. 2. shall be consistent with the vision. provide the guide to plans of smaller scale such as neighborhood or community.. all local plans shall conform with set national planning goals. All local plans shall be consistent with the existing national agency plans. where different land use categories such as forest lands and agricultural lands are categorized into protection and production land uses. planning goals and objectives set forth in the city or municipal plan of which it forms part and shall furthermore. Hierarchy and Linkages of Plans National (N) (1) NPFP (3) MTPD P National Agency Plans and Programs (3) MTPIP Regional (R/RD) (1) RPFP RDP Regional Agency Plans and Programs RDIP Provincial (P/PD) City (C/CD) (1) PPFP PCLUP (2) (4) PCDP/CCDP Provincial Plans and Programs PD IP/CDIP Local (L/LD) Municipal (M) (2) C/M CLUP C/M C DP City/Municipal Plans and Programs LDIP .e. such as heritage area plan. Provincial plans shall promote the goals and objectives provided for in the national and regional plan and shall provide the guidelines for the preparation of city and municipal plans. The goals and objectives of the framework The local plans shall have the following relationships to the other plans existing in the country: 1.Linkage of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan to the Provincial Physical Framework Plan The national. The barangay plan and other area specific plans. Further. Medium Term Agricultural Development Plan. The city and municipal Comprehensive Land Use Plans shall be consistent with and supportive of the goals and objectives in the provincial plan and shall provide the guidelines for the development of plans for parts of the city or municipality such as the barangay. Tourism Master Plan.

herders. The involvement of all land users in planning is essential. as well as the most important. a land evaluation specialist. Such a range may only be available at the national level. an economist and a sociologist. they will usually be government ministers. Without the support of local leaders. a plan is not likely to succeed. Each must tackle a wide range of jobs and . Decision-makers. which of the options presented should be chosen. The planning team provides information and expert advice. at the local level. They include not only farmers. agricultural and social sciences). The planning team. This involves crossing boundaries between disciplines (natural resource. sawmills and furniture factories. These are the people living in the planning area whose livelihood depends wholly or partly on the land. An essential feature of land-use planning is the treatment of land and land use as a whole. a sincere interest in people and the land as well as a willingness to experiment mark the more successful efforts. Decision-makers are those responsible for putting plans into effect. a team needs a wide range of special expertise. for example a soil surveyor. operators in crop or meat processing. e. Achieving effective public participation in planning is a challenge. Planners have to invest the time and resources needed to secure participation through local discussions. Ultimately. a more typical planning team may consist of a land-use planner and one or two assistants. engineering. a forester. an engineer. Imagination. foresters and others who use the land directly but also those who depend on these people's products. The decision-makers guide the planning team on key issues and goals while also deciding whether to implement plans and. Decision-makers also have a key role in encouraging public participation through their willingness to expose their decisions and the way they are reached to public scrutiny. Although the leader of the planning team is in charge of day-to-day planning activities. Ideally. through technical workshops and extension services. a range and livestock specialist. they will be members of the council or other authorities. resource. At national and district levels. People will grasp development opportunities that they themselves have helped to plan more readily than any that are imposed on them. an agronomist.Notes: (1)PFP = (N/R/P) Physical Framework Plan (2)CLUP = (P/C/M) Comprehensive Land Use Plan (3)MTP = Medium Term Philippine (DP and IP) (4)CDP = (P/C/M) Comprehensive Development Plan People in planning: Land users. by broadcasting and newspaper articles. the decision-maker should be involved at regular intervals. they have to put the plan into effect and must therefore believe in its potential benefits as well as in the fairness of the planning process. so teamwork is essential.g. At the local level. The experience and determination of local people in dealing with their environment are often the most neglected. if so.

The Planning Process and Implementation 12-Step Process to Comprehensive Land Use Planning Step 1. Chapter 2.will consequently need specialist advice.Flow chart for getting organized . Government agency staff and universities may be useful sources of assistance.

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