P-POD

A QUATIC

TM

N UTRIENT AND C ONTAMINANT R EMOVAL S YSTEM

P-Pod configuration with external supports for work on contaminated sediments. External supports and plunger are not required for most applications.

OVERVIEW The P-PodTM is a new and innovative device and process (patent pending) developed to permanently remove excess nutrients or contaminants from water bodies. In freshwater, the primary nutrient responsible for dense aquatic plant growth and harmful algae blooms is most often phosphorus. Without excess phosphorus, there would be no dense plant or algae bloom growth. To remove excess phosphorus from water bodies, the P-Pod can work in two different ways: 1. For Nuisance Densities of Invasive or Noxious Aquatic Plants

P-Pods can be used to cover dense areas of plant growth and capture the phosphorus released by the plants as they die off due to lack of sunlight or after application of herbicides. This phosphorus-enriched water within the P-Pod can then be pumped out, treated to concentrate the phosphorus into a small volume of residue, and disposed of away from the water body. If herbicides are used, the P-Pods can help reduce costs and potential risks by isolating and focusing the treatment area directly around the targeted nuisance or invasive plant specie. 2. For Harmful Algae Blooms

The P-Pods can be used to cover over specific areas of sediment where harmful algae blooms come to rest due primarily to changes in water conditions and the nature of algae occurrence in each water body. We have learned how to identify these “hot spots” of algae bloom depositional areas on sediment. By placing P-Pods over the hot spots, the algae cells and the excess phosphorus they contain can be captured and permanently removed from the water body. HOW DOES THE P-POD WORK? The P-Pod is an ecologically-sensitive, soft, collapsible structure that when deployed, encloses or isolates a discrete volume of water and the targeted area of contaminated detritus/sediment/plants which can then removed by pumping out the P-Pod enclosure. P-Pods are sized according to the
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targeted area or intended use and can be upwards of 100 by 200 feet in dimension or as multiple, 10 by 10 foot or larger units used together. The P-Pod can be used in one of three ways: 1. By allowing for the physical disturbance of contaminated or nutrient-rich detritus and sediment captured within deployed P-Pods then removing the isolated volume of water and suspended contaminant/nutrient-rich materials within each P-Pod. By capturing the natural release of contaminants or nutrients from sediments, detritus and decaying plants beneath each P-Pod as these are naturally released by microbial degradation, diffusion, or physical separation. Then removing and treating this isolated but now nutrient- or contaminant-enriched water from each P-Pod. By inducing microbial degradation, using herbicides, or altering geochemical or hydraulic properties within the isolated area of each P-Pod to enhance the release of nutrients and contaminants from sediment, detritus or decaying plants. Then removing and treating this isolated but now nutrient- or contaminant-enriched water from each P-Pod.

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WHAT HAPPENS TO THE NUTRIENT/CONTAMINANT CONTAINING WATER AND DETRITUS/SEDIMENT REMOVED FROM EACH P-POD? The contents of each P-Pod are removed in a controlled manner using a pump and piping that can be connected to each P-Pod. Recovered water is then treated to remove nutrients or contaminants. Any detritus or sediments captured by the P-Pod removal process can also be separated out from the water, tested, and permanently removed from the water body. We can assist with identifying available disposal or reuse options for recovered nutrients and contaminants. For excess nutrients and contaminants, this is a permanent removal process. Sampling and laboratory analysis of “before and after” water and detritus/sediment is used to verify the effectiveness of the P-Pod process for removing targeted nutrients or contaminants from water bodies. COMPARISON OF P-POD TO OTHER REMOVAL OR TREATMENT METHODS The P-Pod process can permanently remove nutrients or contaminants from water bodies. When compared to other methods, the P-Pod process has lower costs over time; less potential for harm or disruption to ecological receptors and water users; and similar or less permitting requirements. It is important to note that the P-Pod process has some distinct advantages over other methods: P-Pod vs Traditional Dredging Methods: In addition to their much higher costs, traditional dredging methods are not necessarily effective at removing the easily disturbed, almost smokelike upper layer of sediment and detritus where nutrients and contaminants often concentrate.
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The P-Pod was specifically designed to capture and remove nutrients and contaminants from these easily disturbed sediments and detritus while minimizing resuspension. Dredging can also break up aquatic plants and allow them to readily propagate elsewhere in the water body. The PPod process can smother out plants in place while at the same time removing excess phosphorus from areas of dense aquatic plant growth. P-Pod vs In-Place Treatment Methods: It is important to recognize that in-place treatment methods often work by targeting either dissolved phosphorus or a particular invasive or nuisance plant species. However, by not actually removing the phosphorus from the water body, in-place treatment methods can lead to an excess of “treatment resistant” or non-targeted aquatic biota like filamentous “string” algae or harmful algae blooms. It may help to remember that the nutrient phosphorus is essential to life, so when people try to control it without actually removing the phosphorus from the water body, they are really just enabling some other aquatic biota resistant to the in-place treatment method to proliferate. You may have seen this “treat one problem that creates another problem or where the original problem comes back in a year or two” in a water body near you already. The P-Pod allows for the permanent removal of excess phosphorus and other contaminants from water bodies. As documented in our recently published paper, a significant portion of available phosphorus used by aquatic biota also occurs within shallow, ecologically-sensitive areas of water bodies which are not conducive for dredging or some in-place treatment methods. WHY CHOOSE THE P-POD METHOD? Because it is less disruptive and more cost effective than traditional dredging methods; particularly in ecologically-sensitive areas of water bodies. The P-Pods allow for the permanent removal of contaminants and nutrients from water bodies. No “band aids” associated with years of chemical treatments or binders used by other methods. It is more cost effective than temporary solutions over time, such as aeration or the use of harsh or toxic chemicals and binders. The P-Pods can also be used to control invasive, noxious or nuisance densities of aquatic plants while also removing phosphorus from these same areas. Basically, the P-Pod process is just a “greener” more sustainable technology that can permanently remove contaminants and nutrients from water bodies.

P-P O D TM A Q U A TIC N U TR IEN T AN D C O N TA M IN A N T R EM O VA L S YSTEM ©H IG GIN S E N VIR O N M EN TAL A SSO CIA TES , I N C .

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IT IS YOUR CHOICE, MAKE THE CALL The P-Pod technology and aquatic nutrient and contaminant removal process was developed after years of research and testing and we stand behind our work as earth scientists and business professionals. We can provide a demonstration of this technology for interested parties. P-POD CONTACT INFORMATION The P-Pod is a patent pending technology developed by Jonathan B. Higgins of Amesbury, Massachusetts. Currently, the P-Pod technology and process is only available by contacting our firm as follows: Higgins Environmental Associates, Inc. 19 Elizabeth Street Amesbury, Massachusetts, USA 01913 Jonathan B. Higgins, CPG, LSP Principal Earth Scientist P: 978 834-9000 email: higginsenv@comcast.net web: www.higginsenv.com

P-P O D TM A Q U A TIC N U TR IEN T AN D C O N TA M IN A N T R EM O VA L S YSTEM ©H IG GIN S E N VIR O N M EN TAL A SSO CIA TES , I N C .

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