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L thuyt v bi tp v c

1-Cu hnh electron- V tr-Tnh cht ho hc c trng

T s hiu nguyn t (Z) vit cu hnh electron. 1-Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t ca cc nguyn t c Z=20 v Z=35. Hy cho bit v tr ca tng nguyn t trong bng tun hon v d on xem nguyn t l kim loi hay phi kim ! (H M a cht-98) 2-S th t ca nguyn t A l 8, nguyn t B l 17, nguyn t C l 19. Vit cu hnh electron ca chng v cho bit chng thuc chu k no, nhm no? (HAn ninh-99) 3-Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t X (Z = 13). Cho bit ho tr ca X. Nguyn t X c th c ho tr no khc? Ho tnh c trng ca X. Cho 1 v d minh ho. Vit cng thc cu to ca oxit, baz v mui sunfat ca X. 4-Cho nguyn t A c Z = 16. a) Xc nh v tr ca A trong bng tun hon. b) A l kim loi hay phi kim? Gii thch. c) A va c tnh oxi ho, va c tnh kh. Vit phng trnh phn ng minh ho. (HQGTPHCM-99) 5- Cho hai nguyn t A v B c s hiu nguyn t ln lt l 11 v 13. a) Vit cu hnh electron v cho bit v tr ca chng trong bng h thng tun hon (s th t, chu k, nhm). b) A c kh nng to ra ion A + v B to ra ion B3+. Hy so snh bn knh ca A vi A+ ; B vi B3+ v A vi B. Gii thch. (HHu-2001-tr135) 6- Hy vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t c 2 electron c thn lp ngoi cng vi iu kin: S hiu nguyn t Z < 20. 1-C bao nhiu nguyn t ng vi tng cu hnh electron ni trn, cho bit tn ca chng. 2- Vit cng thc phn t ca cc hp cht c th c c ch t cc nguyn t ni trn. (HKTQD-97-tr38)

2 7- Nguyn t Cr c 24 electron; nguyn t Cu c 29 electron. Hy vit cu hnh electron ca Cr v Cu. Trong cc hp cht, Cr v Cu c cc s oxi ho no? (H Lt98) 8-a/ Vit s phn b electron vo cc obitan trong nguyn t S v ion S2. T gii thch v sao ion S2 ch c tnh kh, nguyn t S va c tnh kh, va c tnh oxi ho. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng minh ho..Bit S 16 trong bng h thng tun hon. (CSP Ph Th-98-H Nng-1998-H NngCB99) O 2+ 9-Vit cu hnh electron ca Ca , Ca , SO, S2; (HTm-99) Bit canxi 20; lu hunh 16 trong bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc. 10- Vit cu hnh electron ca cc ion Fe3+, Fe2+, S2 bit s th t ca S v Fe trong bng H thng tun hon tng ng l 16 v 26. (Bu chnh VT-99) 11-Vit cu hnh electron ca cc ion S 4+, Fe2+ v vit cc phng trnh phn ng chng minhcc ion ny va c tnh oxi ho va c tnh kh. Cho bit s th t ca S , Fe ln lt l 16, 26. (H M-a cht-2000-tr241) 12-Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t F (Z=9) v ion F . Xc nh v tr (, nhm, chu k) ca cc nguyn t X, Y bit rng chng to c anion X2 v cation Y+ c cu hnh electron ging ion F . (H Cn Th-98) 13-a) Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t F ( th 9), Cl ( th 17), Br ( th 35). Trn c s cho bit tnh cht ho hc c trng ca chng l g v gii thch s bin thin tnh cht ho hc ca cc nguyn t theo th t F, Cl, Br. b) Sp xp cc axit sau theo chiu tnh axit tng dn HCl, HF, HBr. (H Y Thi Bnh-98) 14-Trong h thng tun hon cc nguyn t, nguyn t A c s th t Z = 8, nguyn t B c s th t Z = 15. a) Vit cu hnh elctron ca A v ca B vi y cc lng t.

3 b) Xc nh v tr (chu k, nhm, phn nhm) ca A v ca B trong h thng tun hon. Cho bit tn A v B. c) Vit cng thc electron ca hp cht c th c gia A v B. Trong mi phn t, lp electron ngoi cng ca B c bao nhiu electron? (CSP TPHCM-98) 15-Nguyn t X c s th t bng 20. a) Hy vit cu hnh electron ca X. b) Cho bit v tr ca X trong bng h thng tun hon, tn ca nguyn t X. c) Cho bit lin kt ho hc trong hp cht ca X vi clo. d) Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra ti cc in cc khi in phn dung dch XCl2 dng bnh in phn c mng ngn, catot bng st, anot bng than ch. pH ca dung dch thay i nh th no trong qu trnh in phn? (HKTQD-2000-tr52) 16-Hy vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t A c Z = 16? Nguyn t A c th kt hp vi hiro to ra hp cht B c cng thc H2A c mi trng thi. Hy vit cc phng trnh phn ng (nu c) ca B vi oxi, cc dung dch SO2, H2SO4 c, HNO3 c, nc clo, Fe2(SO4)3 , CuSO4 v FeSO4? (HVQHQT-2001tr227) 17-a) Vit cu hnh electron v s phn b electron theo obitan ca Ca v Ca2+. T hy cho bit v tr ca Ca trong bng tun hon (chu k, nhm). b) Hy gii thch tnh oxi ho- kh ca Ca v Ca 2+ khi tham gia cc phn ng ho hc Vit phng trnh phn ng minh ho. (HThngLong-99) 18- Al c s th t 13 trong H thng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc. -Vit cu hnh electron ca Al v Al3+. -Vit cc phng trnh phn ng chng minh: +Al c tnh kh mnh. +Al2O3 v Al(OH)3 l oxit v hiroxit lng tnh. (CTC K ton-98) 19- Vit cu hnh electron ca: - Nguyn t Fe c Z = 26.

4 -Ion Fe2+. -Ion Fe3+. (HDLng-CB99) 20- St (Fe) c Z = 26. Vit cu hnh electron v trnh by tnh cht ho hc ca st. (H M a cht98) 21-Cho bit st c s hiu nguyn t l 26. 1. Khng dng bng h thng tun hon, hy xc nh v tr ca n (chu k, nhm v phn nhm) trong bng. 2. Cho bit cc s oxi ho c th c ca st. 3. Vit phng trnh phn ng biu din mi quan h gia cc s oxi ho ca st sau y (mi mi tn Fe+ cho mt v d).
2

(1) (2) (3) (4)

(6) (5)

Fe

Fe+
3

(HDL Hi Phng-2000tr349-HTi chnhKTHN-2001tr-56) 22-1) Cho 10 gam mt kim loi kim th tc dng ht vi nc, thu c 6,11 lt kh hiro ( o 25oC v 1 atm) Hy xc nh tn ca kim loi kim th dng. (SGK 12-tr116) 2) Cho 1,80 gam kim loi X thuc phn nhm chnh nhm II ca bng tun hon phn ng vi nc ta c 1,10 lt hiro 770 mmHg v 29OC. Gi tn X, vit cu hnh electron ca X v ion ca n. Bit rng trong ht nhn nguyn t X s proton bng s ntron. (HSPHN-2001-tr64) 23-Xc nh v tr ca cc nguyn t c s proton l 31, 35, 27, 21 trong bng h thng tun hon. (CSPBcNinh-99)

5 24- Cu c Z = 29. a) Vit cu hnh electron v cho bit v tr ca n trong bng h thng tun hon? b)Cu c th to thnh nhng hp cht ng vi cc s xy ho no? Cho v d. (H MC-CB99) Bit cu hnh electron, xc nh v tr ca nguyn t trong HTTH 25-Cho bit cu hnh electron ca A: 1s22s22p63s2 , ca B: 2 2 6 2 6 2 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s . Xc nh v tr (s th t, chu k, phn nhm) ca A, B trong bng h thng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc. A, B l nhng nguyn t g? Vit phng trnh phn ng ca A, B vi nc iu kin thng (nu c). (HThng mi 2001-tr47) 26- 1-Trong bng tun hon c mt 29 ghi: X a)Hy cho bit ngha ca ch v cc s 3d104s1 c trong . b) Xc nh v tr ca X trong bng tun 63,546 tun hon. c) Hon thnh phng trnh theo s sau: XCl2 X2O HNO ) 3
(2) (1)

XO

(3)

hh(HCl + X
(4)

2- Cho 0,2 mol XO ( cu trn) tan trong H2SO4 20% un nng, sau lm ngui dung dch n 10OC. Tnh khi lng tinh th XSO4.5H2O tch khi dung dch, bit rng tan ca XSO4 10OC l 17,4 g/100 gam H2O. (HNgoi thngMN-97-tr68) 27-Cc nguyn t A, B, C c cu hnh electron lp ngoi cng ln lt l 3s23p1, 3s23p4, 2s22p2. a) Hy xc nh v tr (s th t, chu k, phn nhm) v tn ca A, B, C. b) Vit cc phng trnh phn ng khi cho A ln lt tc dng vi B v C nhit cao. Gi tn sn phm to thnh. (HSPQ Nhn-99) 28-a) Cc ion X+ , Y v nguyn t Z no c cu hnh electron 1s2 2s2 2p6 ?

6 b) Vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t trung ho X v Y. ng vi mi nguyn t, nu mt tnh cht ho hc c trng v mt phn ng chng minh. (HQGTPHCM-t 1-1998) 29- Nguyn t A khng phi l kh him, nguyn t c phn lp electron ngoi cng l 4p. Nguyn t ca nguyn t B c phn lp electron ngoi cng l 4s. a) Nguyn t no l kim loi? l phi kim? b) Xc nh cu hnh electron ca A v B, bit tng s electron ca hai phn lp ngoi cng ca A v B bng 7. (HYdcTPHCM-99) 30-Cation M+ c cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng l 2p6. a)Vit cu hnh electron v trnh by s phn b electron trn cc obitan (cc vung lng t) ca nguyn t M. b) Cho bit v tr ca M trong h thng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc. Gi tn ca M. c) Anion X c cu hnh electron ging ca cation M+, X l nguyn t no? (HQG H Ni-98) 31-Cation R3+ c cu hnh electron phn lp ngoi cng l 2p6. -Vit cu hnh electron ca R v cho bit v tr ca n trong Bng h thng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc. -Anion X2 cng c cu hnh electron ging R3+. Cho bit X l nguyn t no? Vit cu hnh electron ca X. -Nu tnh cht ho hc c trng nht ca R v X. Cho v d minh ho. (CSPBc Giang-99) 32-Ion M3+ c cu to lp v electron ngoi cng l 2s22p6. -Hy vit cu hnh electron ca M v cho bit M thuc chu k no? Phn nhm no v l nguyn t g? -Nguyn tc iu ch M t M3+ trong cng nghip? (Nu r cc iu kin cn thit). -Tnh cht ho hc c bn ca M? Vit mt phng trnh phn ng minh ho. (CSPH Ni-2001-tr266) 33- Hon thnh phng trnh phn ng theo s +D1 +D sau: A1 A2 2 A3 +D3 tO M (2) (3) M (1
)
1 2 B1 B2 B3 3 (5) (6) M (7)

(4) +E

+E

+E

Cho bit: A1 l oxit kim loi A c in tch ht nhn 3,2.1018 culng; B1 l oxit phi kim B c cu hnh electron lp v ngoi cng l 2s2 2p2. (H Ngoi Thng-Pha Nam-98) Da vo tng s ht, xc nh v tr ca nguyn t. 35-Hp cht X c dng AB3, tng s ht proton trong phn t l 40. Trong thnh phn ht nhn ca A cng nh B u c s ht proton bng s ht ntron. A thuc chu k 3 bng h thng tun hon. a) Xc nh tn gi ca A, B. b) Xc nh cc loi lin kt c th c trong phn t AB3. c) Mt khc ta cng c ion AB32-. Tnh s oxi ho ca A trong AB3, AB32-. Trong cc phn ng ho hc ca AB3 v AB32- th A th hin tnh oxi ho , tnh kh nh th no? (HTi chnhKTHN-2001-tr-57) 36-Tng s ht proton, ntron, electron ca nguyn t ca mt nguyn t l 21. a) Hy xc nh tn nguyn t . b) Vit cu hnh electron nguyn t ca nguyn t . c) Tnh tng s obitan trong nguyn t ca nguyn t . (HY Dc TPHCM-98) 37-Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s ht c bn (e, p, n) l 82, trong s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in l 22. Xc nh s hiu nguyn t, s khi v tn nguyn t. Vit cu hnh electron ca nguyn t X v ca cc ion to thnh t X. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra khi cho X ln lt tc dng vi: dung dch Fe2(SO4)3; axit HNO3 c nng. (HXD-2001-tr179) 38-Mt nguyn t R c tng s ht mang in v ht khng mang in l 34. Trong s ht mang in gp 1,8333 ln s ht khng mang in. Xc nh R v

8 v v tr ca R trong bng h thng tun hon. ( HCn Th 2001-tr214) 39-Nguyn t ca nguyn t X c tng s ht proton, ntron v electron bng 115; trong s ht mang ingp 1,556 ln s ht khng mang in. 1-Vit cu hnh electron ca X v xc nh v tr ca chng trong bng h thng tun hon. 2-D on tnh cht ho hc c bn ca X dng n cht. Minh ho bng cc phn ng ho hc. ( HDL Hng vng-2001-tr305) 40-Hp cht A c to thnh t ion M+ v ion X. Tng s 3 loi ht (proton, ntron, electron) trong A l 140. Tng s ht mang in trong ion M+ ln hn tng s ht mang in trong ion X2 l 19. Trong nguyn t M, s ht proton t hn s ht ntron 1 ht; trong nguyn t X, s ht proton bng s ht ntron. Vit cu hnh electron ca M+, X2 v gi tn hp cht A. (HAn Giang2001-tr311) 41-Hp cht Z c to bi hai nguyn t M, R c cng thc MaRb trong R chim 6,667% khi lng. Trong ht nhn nguyn t M c n= p + 4, cn trong ht nhn ca R c n = p , trong n, p, n, p l s ntron v prton tng ng ca M v R. Bit rng tng s ht proton trong phn t Z bng 84 v a + b = 4. Tm cng thc phn t ca Z. (HQGHN2001-tr14) 42-Hp cht A c cng thc l MXx trong M chim 46,67% v khi lng, M l kim loi, X l phi kim chu k 3. Trong ht nhn ca M c: n - p = 4, ca X c: n = p (trong n, n, p, p l s ntron v proton). Tng s proton trong MXx l 58. a) Xc nh tn, s khi ca M v tn, s th t ca nguyn t X trong bng h thng tun hon. b) Vit cu hnh electron ca X. (HDcHN-99) 43-Mt kim loi M c s khi bng 54, tng s ht gm (p + n + e) trong ion M2+ l 78. (p: proton; n: ntron; e: electron). a) Hy xc nh s th t ca M trong bng tun hon v cho bit M l nguyn t no trong s cc nguyn t c 54 54 54 54 k hiu sau y: Mn Co Fe Cr
24 25 26 27

9 b) Vit phng trnh phn ng khi cho M(NO3)2 ln lt tc dng vi Cl2, Zn, dung dch Ca(OH)2, dung dch AgNO3, dung dch HNO3 long (to ra NO). T hy cho bit tnh cht ho hc c bn ca ion M2+. (HNg-thng 2001-tr28) Cc nguyn t thuc cng mt phn nhm chnh, thuc hai chu k k tip. 44-X v Y l hai nguyn t thuc cng mt phn nhm v hai chu k lin tip trong bng h thng tun hon. Tng s cc ht mang in trong nguyn t X v Y l 52. Xc nh s th t ca nguyn t X v Y. Chng thuc nhm my, chu k my trong bng phn loi tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc? (HVNgn hngTPHCM2001-tr89) 45-Hai nguyn t A v B hai phn nhm chnh lin tip nhau trong bng h thng tun hon. Tng s hiu nguyn t ca A v B l 31. Xc nh s hiu nguyn t, vit cu hnh electron ca cc nguyn t A v B. Nu tnh cht ho hc c trng ca mi nguyn t v vit cu hnh electron ca cc ion to thnh t tnh cht ho hc c trng . (H Xy dng-98) 46-Hai nguyn t A, B thuc hai chu k lin tip, c th to thnh cc anion A2- v B2- (u c cu hnh electron bn ca kh tr). S in tch ht nhn ca A v B hn km nhau 8 n v. Hy xc nh s hiu nguyn t ca A, B v vit cu hnh electron ca chng. (HDLNNTin hc-2001-tr233) 47-X, Y l hai nguyn t trong cng mt phn nhm chnh, thuc hai chu k lin tip trong h thng tun hon. 1- Tng s ht proton. ntron v electron c trong mt loi nguyn t ca Y l 54, trong tng s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht khng mang in 1,7 ln. Hy xc nh s hiu nguyn t v s khi ca Y. 2-Vit cu hnh electron ca Y, xc nh v tr (chu k, nhm, phn nhm) v tn gi ca nguyn t Y. 3-Cho bit nguyn t X c th l nguyn t g? Xc nh tn gi ng ca X, nu xy ra cc phn ng sau:

10 Y2 + 2NaX = X2 + 2NaY Gii thch kt qu chn? (HAn ninh 2001-tr303) 48-Hai nguyn t X v Y hai phn nhm chnh lin tip trong bng h thng tun hon, c tng s proton trong ht nhn nguyn t ca hai nguyn t l 23. Bit nguyn t Y thuc nhm V v trng thi n cht, hai nguyn t khng phn ng vi nhau. a) Hy vit cu hnh electron ca X v Y. b) T n cht X v cc ho cht cn thit, vit cc phng trnh phn ng iu ch axit trong X c s oxi ho dng cao nht. (HDc HN-2000-tr155) 49- a) A v B l hai nguyn t cng mt phn nhm v thuc hai chu k lin tip trong bng h thng tun hon. Tng s proton trong 2 ht nhn nguyn t A v B l 30. Hy vit cu hnh electron ca A, B. T cho bit chu k, phn nhm ca A, B trong bng h thng tun hon v nhng tnh cht c bn ca hai nguyn t A, B. (HSPQui Nhn-98) 50-Cho A, B, C l ba nguyn t lin tip nhau trong mt chu k ca bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc. Tng s cc ht mang in trong thnh phn cu to nguyn t ca A, B, C bng 72. a) Bit s hiu nguyn t (Z) ca mt s nguyn t: ZNa= 11, ZMg=12, ZAl=13, ZSi=14, ZP =15, ZS =16, ZCl =17, hy xc nh s hiu nguyn t v gi tn A, B, C. b) Vit cu hnh electron ca A, B, C. c) Vit cng thc cc hiroxit ca A, B, C. Trnh by cch nhn bit ba hiroxit ca A, B, C ring r trng thi rn, ch s dng mt loi dung mi ph bin. (HSP Qui Nhn-2001-tr297) nh lut tun hon 51-a) Pht biu nh lut tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc. b) Cho 6 nguyn t thuc chu k 3 l: S, Mg, Al, P, Na, Si. Hy sp xp cc nguyn t theo chiu tng dn tnh phi kim. Gii thch s sp xp bng 3 cch khc nhau.

11 Hy vit cng thc v gi tn 6 mui trung ho ( hc) ng vi 6 gc axit khc nhau v c thnh phn ch gm cc nguyn t trn v oxi. ( 30 I-2-tr60) 52-1. Hy cho bit nguyn nhn s bin i tun hon tnh cht ca cc nguyn t. (HANinh-99) 2. Cho cc nguyn t thuc chu k 3: P, Si, Cl, S. a) Sp xp cc nguyn t theo chiu tng dn tnh phi kim v gii thch. b) Vit cng thc phn t cc axit c oxi vi s oxi ho cao nht ca cc nguyn t trn v so snh tnh axit ca chng. (HQGTPHCM-99) 53-Hy vit cu hnh in t ca cc nguyn t sau: C, N, S v Cl. Hy cho bit s oxi ho cao nht v thp nht ca cc nguyn t trn. (HLt-CB99) ng v 54- a) nh ngha nguyn t ho v ng v. Cho v d. b) Nguyn t X c 2 ng v I v II. S nguyn t ca 2 ng v ny trong hn hp c t l tng ng l 27: 23. Ht nhn ng v I c 35 proton v 44 ntron. ng v II cha nhiu ntron hn ng v35 I l 2. Tnh Cl khi lng nguyn t trung bnh ca X. (HYTBnh-200117 tr122) 55- Cho ba nguyn t M, X, R trong R l ng v -Trong nguyn t ca M c hiu s: (s n) - (s p) = 3. -Trong nguyn t M v X c hiu s: (s p trong M) - (s p trong X) = 6. -Tng s n trong nguyn t ca M v X l 36. -Tng s khi cc nguyn t trong phn t MCl l 76. (n, p l s ntron v s proton). a) Tnh s khi ca M v X. b) Hy nu tnh cht ho hc c bn ca cc nguyn t M, X, R. c) Vit phng trnh phn ng iu ch M t MCl v iu ch X t oxit ca X. (HNg-thng 2001-tr38) 56-S khi ca ht nhn nguyn t l g? S khi ca ht nhn c phi l khi lng ca ht nhn khng? (HNg-thngMN-99)

12 57-Theo em, nhng cu sau y ng hay sai: 1. Cht tc dng c vi dung dch axit v vi dung dch baz phi l cht lng tnh. 2. Hai cht c phn t khi bng nhau phi l hai ng phn ca nhau. 3. Ch c oxit ca phi kim mi l oxit axit. 4. Hai nguyn t c s in tch ht nhn Z bng nhau c th c s khi A khc nhau. 5. Hai nguyn t c s in tch ht nhn Z khc nhau c th c s khi A bng nhau. Hy gii thch kin ca em. (HNg-thng-99)
2- m in-Lin kt ho hc

1-a) Th no l lin kt ion, lin kt cng ho tr? Lin kt cho nhn thuc loi lin kt no? Cho v d minh ho. b) Nu bn cht lin kt gia cc nguyn t trong phn t cc cht sau: NH 3, NH4NO3, Al2(SO4)3. Vit cng thc cu to ca chng (HThi Nguyn-2000-tr322 s 2) 2-Lin kt cho- nhn l g? Hy so snh cc loi lin kt sau y: a) Lin kt cho -nhn v lin kt cng ho tr. b) Lin kt cng ho tr v lin kt kim loi.(HAn ninh97-tr48) 3-So snh s ging nhau v khc nhau gia lin kt ion v lin kt cng ho tr, cho v d minh ho. (H Thi Nguyn-98-tr95) 4-Lin kt trong tinh th kim loi ging nhau v khc nhau vi lin kt ion v vi lin kt cng ho tr ch no? (HNg-thng-99) 5- in m l g? Bin thin in m ca cc nguyn t trong mt chu k, trong mt nhm? Da vo in m ngi ta phn loi lin kt nh th no? (HY H Ni-98-tr191) 6-a) Trong nguyn t, nhng electron no l electron ho tr? b) Ti sao Ca ch c mt trng thi ho tr l ho tr 2 cn Fe li c nhiu trng thi ho tr? (HNg-thngPha Nam-98) 7-a) Phn ng ho hc l g?

13 b) Phng trnh ho hc l g? Hy nu ngha ca phng trnh ho hc. (HNg-thng-97-tr59) 8-a) Nguyn t l g? Phn t l g? Phn t ca n cht v hp cht khc nhau ch no? b) Hy nu ngha ca cng thc ho hc. c) Phn bit cc khi nim: Ho tr, electron ho tr, in ho tr, cng ho tr. (HNg-thng-97-tr67)
3-Phn ng oxi ho - kh. Cn bng phng trnh phn ng oxi ho kh:

nh ngha-Cc khi nim c bn. 1-Th no l phn ng oxi ho-kh? Hy phn bit cc khi nim cht kh, cht oxi ho, qu trnh kh v qu trnh oxi ho. Cho v d. (HYThBnh-98-A ninh-CB99-Cng on-99-ThNguyn2000-tr323) 2- a) S oxi ho ca mt nguyn t ho hc l g? b) Nu qui tc xc nh s oxi ho.(HNg-thng97-tr67) 3- Phn bit phn ng t oxi ho kh v oxi ho kh ni phn t. Cho v d minh ho. (HSPTPHCM-2001tr73) 4-Phn bit phn ng trao i ion v phn ng oxi ho- kh. Phn ng trao i ion v phn ng oxy ho - kh xy ra theo chiu no? Cho cc th d minh ho. (HDLNNTinhc-99) 5-Phn ng nhit phn l g? Phn ng nhit phn c phi lun lun l phn ng oxi ho kh khng? Vit phng trnh phn ng nhit phn cc cht sau: NaNO 3; (NH4)2CO3; KClO3; KMnO4 ; AgNO3. (HYThiBnh-99tr210) 6-Phn ng ho hp v phn ng phn tch c phi l phn ng oxi ho kh khng? Cho v d minh ho v gii thch. (HThiNguyn-2000-tr323-2) 7- Vit hai phng trnh phn ng chng minh mui nitrat ng vai tr oxi ho trong mi trng axit v mi trng baz. (HSPtpHCM-2001-tr73) 8-Ly 3 phn ng minh ho rng trong phn ng oxi ho- kh, cc axit c th ng vai tr cht oxi ho,

14 cht kh, hoc ch l mi trng khng tham gia cho nhn electron. (Nng98-Hu-2001tr135) 9- Cho bit vai tr ca nguyn t kim loi v ion kim loi trong phn ng oxi ho-kh. Cho v d minh ho. (HCth-98tr86-HThNguyn-2000-tr323-2Hu2001-135) 10-Hy nu tnh cht ho hc c bn ca ion kim loi n+ M . (H Ngthng-Pha Bc-98) 11-Cc cht v ion sau y: Mg 2+, Ca, Br2 v S2 c th ng vai tr cht kh hay cht oxi ho ? Cho v d minh ho. (HLt-99) 12-Cc cht v ion sau y ng vai tr g (cht oxi ho hay cht kh) trong cc phn ng oxi ho kh xy ra trong dung dch: Al, Fe2+, Ag+, Cl, SO32. Cho v d. (HXD-2000-tr251) 13-Gii thch v chng minh bng phng trnh phn ng cc kt lun sau: a) Fe3+ ch th hin tnh oxi ho. b) NH3 ch th hin tnh kh. c) SO2 va th hin tnh oxi ho va th hin tnh kh. (HV2001tr82) 14-Trong cc cht sau, cht no c th l cht oxi ho hay cht kh: NH3, FeO, Fe2O3, SO2. Trong mi trng hp cho mt v d minh ho. (HXD-2001tr179) (sa) Cn bng phng trnh phn ng oxi ho kh. 17-Cho cc phn ng: 1. Cu + HNO3 (long) Cu(NO3)2 + NO + H2O (1) 2. KMnO4 + HCl MnCl2 + Cl2 + KCl + H2O (2) Hy: a) Cn bng cc phn ng oxi ho - kh trn. b) Vit cc phng trnh ion thu gn (rt gn). c)Xc nh cc cht kh, cc cht oxi ho v vai tr ca HNO3 (long) cng nh HCl trong cc phn ng trn. (CKN TPHCM-98) 18-Cn bng cc phn ng oxi-ho kh sau bng phng php thng bng electron. Ch ra cc qu trnh oxi ho-kh ?

15 a/ Zn + HNO3 (rt long) Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + H2O b/ FeS2 + O2 Fe2O3 + SO2 .(CSPBGiang-98) c/ Mg + HNO3 Mg(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + H2O. (HNNI-99) 19-C phn ng g xy ra khi cho cc cht sau y tc dng vi nhau (trong dung dch): a) Mg + H+ + SO42 ? b) Cu + H2SO4 (long) + NaNO3 ? c) FeCl2 + H2SO4 (long) + KMnO4 ? (HVQHQt98) 20-Hon thnh v cn bng cc phng trnh phn ng sau: a) O3 + KI + H2O I2 + ... (HYHNi-98) b) Na2O2 + CO2 O2 + ... (HXD-2001tr179) 21-Hon thnh cc phng trnh phn ng sau: o t a) FeS2 + H2SO4 (c) to b) Ag2S + O2 ... c) KNO2 + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 KNO3 + Cr2(SO4)3 +
to

98) 22-Cn bng v vit phng trnh ion rt gn ca phn ng sau: Fe3O4 + H2SO4 (c, nng) ...+ SO2 + ... (HCnTh-98) 24-Hy m t hin tng v vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra khi: a) Cho dng kh CO 2 lin tc qua cc ng dung dch Ca(OH)2. b) Cho dn dn dung dch NaOH n d vo cc ng dung dch AlCl3. c) Cho dn dn dung dch HCl long n d vo cc ng dung dch NaAlO2. d) Cho dn dn n d dung dch KMnO4 vo cc ng hn hp FeSO4 v H2SO4 long. Trong cc phn ng xy ra phn ng no l phn ng oxi ho- kh, cht no l cht oxi ho, cht no l cht kh? (H Qui Nhn-98)

d) NH4NO3

(HKin trc HN-CB-

16 25-Vit cc phng trnh phn ng sau y di dng phn t v ion rt gn: 1. FeSO4 + Cl2 2. Fe(OH)2 + Br2 + NaOH 3. Al + NaOH + H2O 4. Cl2 + NaOH
(ngui)

6. Mg + HNO3 NH4+ 7. Ca(HCO3)2 + NaOH (d) (HKT Qdn-98) 26-Hon thnh cc phng trnh phn ng sau y dng phn t v dng ion thu gn: 1. Al + HNO3 Al(NO3)3 + NH4NO3 + H2O 2. FeCO3 + HNO3 Fe(NO3)3 + N2O + CO2 + H2O 3. M + H2SO4 M2(SO4)n + SO2 + H2O (n: Ho tr ca kim loi M). (H LutHN-99) 27-Cn bng cc phng trnh phn ng sau di dng ion: Mn2+ + H2O2 + OH MnO2 + H2O Ag + NO3 + H+ Ag+ + NO + H2O IO3 + I + H+ I2 + H2O + MnO4 + Cl + H Mn2+ + Cl2 + H2O Cr3+ + ClO3 + OH CrO42 + Cl + H2O (HAn ninh-99) 28-Hy cn bng cc phng trnh phn ng oxi hokh sau bng phng php thng bng electron: a/ K2S + KMnO4 + H2SO4 S + MnSO4 + K2SO4 + H2O b) SO2 + KMnO4 + H2O K2SO4 + MnSO4 + H2SO4 c) K2SO3 + KMnO4 + KHSO4 K2SO4 + MnSO4 + H2O (H Thi Nguyn-99-HVCNBCVT2001tr260) d/ KMnO4 + KNO2 + H2SO4 K2SO4 + KNO3 + MnSO4 + H2O (HCng on99)

5. Fe

+ Fe2(SO4)3

17 29-Cn bng cc phn ng sau y theo phng php cn bng electron: a) CrCl3 + Br2 + NaOH Na2CrO4 + NaBr + NaCl + H2O b) K2S + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 S + Cr2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + H2O c/ K2Cr2O7 + KI + H2SO4 Cr2(SO4)3 + I2 + K2SO4 + H2O 30- Cn bng cc phn ng sau y theo phng php cn bng electron: to a) KNO3 +FeS2 KNO2 + Fe2O3 + SO3 b) Fe3O4 + HNO3 Fe(NO3)3 + NO + H2O c/ FeSO4 + Cl2 + H2SO4 Fe2(SO4)3 + HCl (HNNICB99) d/CuS2 + HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + H2SO4 + N2O + H2O e/Cu + HCl + NaNO3 CuCl2 + NaCl + NO + H2O 31-Hon thnh cc phng trnh phn ng sau: FeS2 + HNO3 d Fe(NO3)3 + H2SO4 + NO + ... FeCO3 + HNO3 Fe(NO3)3 + NO + ... Fe3O4 + HNO3 Fe(NO3)3 + NO + ... (DL99) 32-Hon thnh cc phng trnh phn ng sau: a) Fe3O4 + HCl ... b) Cu + HNO3 NO + ... c) Cl2 + H2O .... d) Cu + H2SO4 c SO2 + ... (HTsnMNCB99) 33-Cho bit phn ng no di y c th xy ra v nu vn tt nguyn nhn xy ra cho tng phn ng: a) CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + H2O b) C6H5ONa + CO2+ H2O C6H5OH + NaHCO3 c) Cl2 + 2KI I2 + 2KCl nhit d) SiO2 + 2C Si + 2CO (CSPHCM-99) cao 34- Cn bng phn ng sau bng phng php in t. Ch r cht oxi ho v cht kh. to a) Cl2 + NH3 N2 + HCl

18 b) KMnO4+ NaNO2 + H2SO4 K2SO4 + MnSO4 + NaNO3 + H2O c) NH3 + Na NaNH2 + H2 (H Nng99) 35-Hon thnh cc phng trnh phn ng sau: a/ K + dd NaOH d/ Cu + dd FeCl3 b/ Ba + dd Na2SO4 e/ Zn + dd Ni(NO3)2 c/ Na + dd ZnCl2 (HNgoithng-99) 36-Hon thnh phng trnh phn ng sau y (nu c xy ra): a) Zn + H2SO4 long d) H2S (k) + SO2 (k) b) S + H2SO4 c nng e) FeS2 + HCl (dd) c) MgSO4 (dd) + Na3PO4 (HQGtpHCM-99)
(dd)

37-Hon thnh cc phn ng sau: 1100o a) FeCl3 + Na2CO3 + H2O c) CuO C to b) NH4Cl + NaAlO2 + H2O d) NH4NO2 (HKintrcH N-CB99) 38- Hon thnh cc phng trnh phn ng sau: NaOH SO2 + Br2 + H2O SO2 + dd ? ? SO2+ SO2 + H2S CO2+ ddBa(OH)2 KMnO4+H2O ? ? ? (HVQunY-99) (14/10/2005)**