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Chapter 7
Hydraulic Actuators
Hydraulic Cylinders Hydraulic Motors

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Hydraulic cylinders are categorized as ram, single-acting, and double-acting.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

A ram cylinder has the simplest design of all hydraulic cylinders because it has only one chamber and provides force in only one direction.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Most single-acting cylinders have a rod-end vent that allows air to enter and vent from the rod end of the cylinder.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

A single-acting, springreturn cylinder uses fluid flow for extension and a spring for retraction.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

A telescoping ram cylinder is a hydraulic cylinder that extends its rod in stages.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Double-acting cylinders are able to produce force in both directions by applying hydraulic fluid pressure to either side of the piston.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

A double-rod cylinder can provide equal force and piston speed in both directions.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Tandem cylinders consist of two or more in-line cylinder barrels with their rods connected to form a common rod.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Duplex cylinders have the same assembly as tandem cylinders, but the rods are not connected.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

A cushion is a tapered plug attached to the piston and rod and includes a needle valve with a check valve in the end cap at the rod end, cap end, or both.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Stop tubes prevent cylinder rods from sagging and pistons from pivoting.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

A seal creates positive contact between the components of a hydraulic cylinder to help contain pressure and prevent leaks.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

A back-up ring is installed on the side of the Oring receiving the least amount of pressure or on both sides if the O-ring receives pressure from both directions.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

When pressure is applied to a Quad-ring, it creates a dynamic seal by pressing against one side of the groove.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Common cup seals include Vring seals and Uring seals.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Compression seals are static cylinder seals commonly referred to as gaskets or packing.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

A rod wiper prevents foreign materials on the rod from contaminating the hydraulic fluid inside a cylinder.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Cylinder mounting methods are categorized as fixed or pivot.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

A hydraulic motor converts hydraulic energy into rotating mechanical energy.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

The farther a load is from the center of a hydraulic motor shaft, the greater the torque required to move the load.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Changing displacement can allow for greater breakaway or starting torque, but it has an adverse effect on hydraulic system speed and operating pressure.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

A gear motor has meshing gears, which are rotated by hydraulic fluid flow.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

When hydraulic fluid enters the inlet of a vane motor, the resulting force causes rotation of the rotor and torque on the drive shaft.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

A piston motor has internal pistons, which are extended by hydraulic fluid pressure to produce rotational movement.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Oscillators are used to provide instant torque at a high rate for moving an object a short distance, depending on the setting of the stop.

Chapter 7 Hydraulic Actuators

Rack and pinion valve actuators can be low-torque or high-torque designs.