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SUMMER INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT 6 WEEKS TRAINING (17 June - 27 July, 2013) BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION (NTPC-BADARPUR,

NEW DELHI)

Submitted by: Abhishek Kalra V.T NO: 1601 B.Tech 4th year (Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology, Greater Noida) Roll: 1013321005 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF TRAINING

This it to acknowledge and certify that Mr Abhishek Kalra (VT-1601), 4th year student of Electrical and Electronics Engineering branch of Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology, Greater Noida (Roll NO: 1013321005) has successfully completed the 6 weeks summer industrial training at Badarpur Thermal Power Station (NTPC-Badarpur, New Delhi) from 17th June, 2013 to 27th July, 2013.

Training-In-Charge Badarpur Thermal Power Station NTPC-BADARPUR, NEW DELHI

Training at BTPS
I was appointed to do 6 week training at this esteemed organization from 11th June to 21st July, 2012. I was assigned to visit various division of the plant, which were: Electrical Maintenance Department I (EMD-I) Electrical Maintenance Department II (EMD-II)

Control and Instrumentation Department (C&I) These 6 weeks training was a very educational adventure for me. It was really amazing to see the plant by yourself and learn how electricity, which is one of our daily requirements of life, is produced. This report has been made by my experience at BTPS. The material in this report has been gathered from my textbook, senior student reports and trainers manuals and power journals provided by training department. The specification and principles are as learned by me from the employees of each division of BTPS.

-ABHISHEK KALRA

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ABOUT NTPC STRATEGIES JOURNEY OF NTPC ABOUT BTPS OPERATION OF POWER PLANT PARTS OF A POWER PLANT

7. 8. 9. 10.

VARIOUS CYCLES AT POWER STATION ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENTELECTRICAL MAINETNANCE DEPARTMENT-II CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION

ABOUT NTPC
Indias largest power company, NTPC was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. NTPC became a Maharatna company in May, 2010, one of the only four companies to be awarded this status. The total installed capacity of the company is 39,174 MW (including JVs) with 16 coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country. In addition under JVs, 7 stations are coal based & another station uses naptha/LNG as fuel. The company has set a target to have an installed power generating capacity of 1, 28,000 MW by the year 2032.

STRATEGIES OF NTPC

JOURNEY OF NTPC

ABOUT BTPS

BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION was established on 1973 and it was the part of Central Government. On 01/04/1978 was given to NTPC. Since then operating performance of NTPC has been considerably above the national average. Badarpur thermal power station started with a single 95 mw unit. There were 2 more units (95 MW each) installed in next 2 consecutive years. Now it has total five units with total capacity of 720 MW. Ownership of BTPS was transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.06.2006 The power is supplied to a 220 KV network that is a part of the northern grid. The ten circuits through which the power is evacuated from the plant are:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mehrauli Okhla Ballabgarh Indraprastha Noida (U.P) Jaipur

DETAILS OF UNITS INSTALLED IN BTPS

OPERATION OF A POWER PLANT


Basic Principle As per FARADAYs Law-Whenever the amount of magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes, an EMF is produced in the circuit. Generator works on the principle of producing electricity. To change the flux in the generator turbine is moved in a great speed with steam. To produce steam, water is heated in the boilers by burning the coal. In a Badarpur Thermal Power Station, steam is produced and used to spin a turbine that operates a generator. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser. The electricity generated at the plant is sent to consumers through high-voltage power lines The Badarpur Thermal Power Plant has Steam TurbineDriven Generators which has a collective capacity of 705MW. The fuel being used is Coal which is supplied from the Jharia Coal Field in Jharkhand. Water supply is given from the Agra Canal.

BASIC STEPS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION


The basic steps in the generation of electricity from coal involves following steps: Coal to steam Steam to mechanical power Mechanical power to electrical power

PARTS OF A POWER PLANT


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cooling tower Cooling water pump Transmission line (3-phase) Unit transformer (3-phase) Electric generator (3-phase) Low pressure turbine Condensate extraction pump

8. Condenser 9. Intermediate pressure turbine 10. Steam governor valve 11. High pressure turbine 12. Deaerator 13. Feed heater 14. Coal conveyor 15. Coal hopper 16. Pulverised fuel mill 17. Boiler drum 18. Ash hopper 19. Super heater 20. Forced draught fan 21. Reheater 22. Air intake 23. Economiser 24. Air preheater 25. Precipitator 26. Induced draught fan 27. Flue Gas

VARIOUS CYCLES AT POWER STATION


PRIMARY AIR CYCLE SECONDARY AIR CYCLE COAL CYLCE ELECTRICITY CYCLE FLUE GAS CYCLE CONDENSATE CYCLE

FEED WATER CYCLE STEAM CYCLE

THEMAL POWER PLANT

Introduction

Classification

Functioning

INTRODUCTION

Power Station (also referred to as generating station or power plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Power plant is also used to refer to the engine in ships, aircraft and other large vehicles. Some prefer to use the term energy center because it more accurately describes what the plants do, which is the conversion of other forms of energy, like chemical energy, gravitational potential energy or heat energy into electrical energy. However, power plant is the most common term in the U.S., while elsewhere power station and power plant are both widely used, power station prevailing in many Commonwealth countries and especially in the United Kingdom.

A coal-fired Thermal Power Plant

At the center of nearly all power stations is a generator, a rotating machine that converts Mechanical energy into Electrical energy by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. It depends chiefly on what fuels are easily available and the types of technology that the power company has access to.

In thermal power stations, mechanical power is produced by a heat engine, which transforms Thermal energy (often from combustion of a fuel) into rotational energy. Most thermal power stations produce steam, and these are sometimes called steam power stations. About 80% of all electric power is generated by use of steam turbines. Not all thermal energy can be transformed to mechanical power, according to the second law of thermodynamics.

Therefore, there is always heat lost to the environment. If this loss is employed as useful heat, for industrial processes or district heating, the power plant is referred to as a cogeneration power plant or CHP (combined heat-and-power) plant. In countries where district heating is common, there are dedicated heat plants called heat-only boiler stations. An important class of power stations in the Middle East uses by-product heat for desalination of water.

CLASSIFICATION

By fuel

Nuclear power plants use a nuclear reactor's heat to operate a steam turbine generator.

Fossil fuelled power plants may also use a steam turbine generator or in the case of natural gas fired plants may use a combustion turbine.

Geothermal power plants use steam extracted from hot underground rocks.

Renewable energy plants may be fuelled by waste from sugar cane, municipal solid waste, landfill methane, or other forms of biomass.

In integrated steel mills, blast furnace exhaust gas is a low-cost, although low-energy density, fuel. Waste heat from industrial processes is occasionally concentrated enough to use for power generation, usually in a steam boiler and turbine.

By prime mover

Steam turbine plants use the dynamic pressure generated by expanding steam to turn the blades of a turbine. Almost all large non-hydro plants use this system.

Gas turbine plants use the dynamic pressure from flowing gases to directly operate the turbine. Natural-gas fuelled turbine plants can start rapidly and so are used to supply "peak" energy during periods of high demand, though at higher cost than base-loaded plants. These may be comparatively small units, and sometimes completely unmanned, being remotely operated. This type was pioneered by the UK, Prince town being the world's first, commissioned in 1959.

Combined cycle plants have both a gas turbine fired by natural gas, and a steam boiler and steam turbine which use the exhaust gas from the gas turbine to produce electricity. This greatly increases the overall efficiency of the plant, and many new base load power plants are combined cycle plants fired by natural gas.

Internal combustion Reciprocating engines are used to provide power for isolated communities and are frequently used for small cogeneration plants. Hospitals, office buildings, industrial plants, and other critical facilities also use them to provide backup power in case of a power outage. These are usually fuelled by diesel oil, heavy oil, natural gas and landfill gas.

Micro turbines, Sterling engine and internal combustion reciprocating engines are low cost solutions for using opportunity fuels, such as landfill gas, digester gas from water treatment plants and waste gas from oil production.

FUNCTIONING

In a thermal power plant, one of coal, oil or natural gas is used to heat the boiler to convert the water into steam. The steam is used to turn a turbine, which is connected to a generator. When the turbine turns, electricity is generated and given as output by the generator, which is then supplied to the consumers through high-voltage power lines

Process of a Thermal Power Plant

Detailed process of power generation in a thermal power plant:

1) Water intake: Firstly, water is taken into the boiler through a water source. If water is available in a plenty in the region, then the source is an open pond or river. If water is scarce, then it is recycled and the same water is used over and over again. 2) Boiler heating: The boiler is heated with the help of oil, coal or natural gas. A furnace is used to heat the fuel and supply the heat produced to the boiler. The increase in temperature helps in the transformation of water into steam. 3) Steam Turbine: The steam generated in the boiler is sent through a steam turbine. The turbine has blades that rotate when high velocity steam flows across them. This rotation of turbine blades is used to generate electricity. 4) Generator: A generator is connected to the steam turbine. When the turbine rotates, the generator produces electricity which is then passed on to the power distribution systems. 5) Special mountings: There is some other equipment like the economizer and air pre-heater. An economizer uses the heat from the exhaust gases to heat the feed water. An air pre-heater heats the air sent into the combustion chamber to improve the efficiency of the combustion process. 6) Ash collection system: There is a separate residue and ash collection system in place to collect all the waste materials from the combustion process and to prevent them from escaping into the atmosphere. Apart from this, there are various other monitoring systems and instruments in place to keep track of the functioning of all the devices. This prevents any hazards from taking place in the plant.

OPERATION

Introduction Steam Generator or Boiler

Steam Turbine Electric Generator Introduction

The operating performance of NTPC has been considerably above the national average. The availability factor for coal stations has increased from 85.03 % in 1997-98 to 90.09 % in 2006-07, which compares favourably with international standards. The PLF has increased from 75.2% in 1997-98 to 89.4% during the year 2006-07 which is the highest since the inception of NTPC.

Operation Room of Power Plant

In Badarpur Thermal Power Station, steam is produced and used to spin a turbine that operates a generator. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser; this is known as a Rankine cycle. Shown here is a diagram of a conventional thermal power plant, which uses coal, oil, or natural gas as fuel to boil water to produce the steam. The electricity generated at the plant is sent to consumers through high-voltage power lines.

The Badarpur Thermal Power Plant has Steam Turbine-Driven Generators which has a collective capacity of 705MW. The fuel being used is Coal which is supplied from the Jharia Coal Field in Jharkhand. Water supply is given from the Agra Canal.

Table: Capacity of Badarpur Thermal Power Station, (BTPS) New Delhi

There are basically three main units of a thermal power plant:

1. Steam Generator or Boiler 2. Steam Turbine 3. Electric Generator

We have discussed about the processes of electrical generation further. A complete detailed description of two (except 2) units is given further.

Coal is conveyed (14) from an external stack and ground to a very fine powder by large metal spheres in the pulverised fuel mill (16). There it is mixed with preheated air (24) driven by the forced draught fan (20). The hot air-fuel mixture is forced at high pressure into the boiler where it rapidly ignites. Water of a high purity flows vertically up the tube-lined walls of the boiler, where it turns into steam, and is passed to the boiler drum, where steam is separated from any remaining water. The steam passes through a manifold in the roof of the drum into

the pendant super heater (19) where its temperature and pressure increase rapidly to around 200 bar and 540C, sufficient to make the tube walls glow a dull red. The steam is piped to the high pressure turbine (11), the first of a three-stage turbine process. A steam governor valve (10) allows for both manual control of the turbine and automatic set-point following. The steam is exhausted from the high pressure turbine, and reduced in both pressure and temperature, is returned to the boiler reheater (21). The reheated steam is then passed to the intermediate pressure turbine (9), and from there passed directly to the low pressure turbine set (6). The exiting steam, now a little above its boiling point, is brought into thermal contact with cold water (pumped in from the Cooling tower) in the condenser (8), where it condenses rapidly back into water, creating near vacuum-like conditions inside the condensor chest. The condensed water is then passed by a feed pump (7) through a deaerator (12), and pre-warmed, first in a feed heater (13) powered by steam drawn from the high pressure set, and then in the economiser (23), before being returned to the boiler drum. The cooling water from the condensor is sprayed inside a cooling tower (1), creating a highly visible plume of water vapour, before being pumped back to the condensor (8) in cooling water cycle. The three turbine sets are sometimes coupled on the same shaft as the three-phase electrical generator (5) which generates an intermediate level voltage (typically 20-25 kV). This is stepped up by the unit transformer (4) to a voltage more suitable for transmission (typically 250-500 kV) and is sent out onto the three-phase transmission system (3). Exhaust gas from the boiler is drawn by the induced draft fan (26) through an electrostatic precipitator (25) and is then vented through the chimney stack (27). Steam Generator/Boiler The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60 mm) in diameter. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns, forming a large fireball at the center. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 F (370 C) and 3,200 psi (22.1MPa). It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to 1,000 F (540 C) to prepare it for the turbine. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. The generator includes the economizer, the steam drum, the chemical dosing equipment, and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and the superheater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan, air preheater (APH), boiler

furnace, induced draft (ID) fan, fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack.

For units over about 210 MW capacity, redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan, APH, fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers. On some units of about 60 MW, two boilers per unit may instead be provided.

Schematic diagram of a coal-fired power plant steam generator

Boiler Furnace and Steam Drum

Once water inside the boiler or steam generator, the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel.

The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically). As the water is turned into steam/vapour in the water walls, the steam/vapour once again enters the steam drum.

External View of an Industrial Boiler at BTPS, New Delhi

The steam/vapour is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. The steam separators and dryers remove the water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated. This process is known as natural circulation. The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers, water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a tripout are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal. The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air vents

and drains needed for initial start-up. The steam drum has an internal device that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils. Geothermal plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources. Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended solids. Nuclear plants also boil water to raise steam, either directly passing the working steam through the reactor or else using an intermediate heat exchanger.

Fuel Preparation System In coal-fired power stations, the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers. The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. The pulverisers may be ball mills, rotating drum grinders, or other types of grinders. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable. The oil is usually heated to about 100C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles.

Boiler Side of the Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi

Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. Other power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that their main fuel supply (coal or oil) is interrupted. In such cases, separate gas burners are provided on the boiler furnaces.

Fuel Firing System and Igniter System From the pulverized coal bin, coal is blown by hot air through the furnace coal burners at an angle which imparts a swirling motion to the powdered coal to enhance mixing of the coal powder with the incoming preheated combustion air and thus to enhance the combustion. To provide sufficient combustion temperature in the furnace before igniting the powdered coal, the furnace temperature is raised by first burning some light fuel oil or processed natural gas (by using auxiliary burners and igniters provide for that purpose).

Air Path External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion, injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall. The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace, maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening. At the furnace outlet and before the furnace gases are handled by the ID fan, fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric pollution. This is an environmental limitation prescribed by law, and additionally minimizes erosion of the ID fan.

Auxiliary Systems Fly Ash Collection Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. Generally, the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars.

Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal At the bottom of every boiler, a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and

clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site.

Boiler Make-up Water Treatment Plant and Storage Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate to the boiler, losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be made up for so as to maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam drum. For this, continuous make-up water is added to the boiler water system. The impurities in the raw water input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart hardness to the water. Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of the tubes. Thus, the salts have to be removed from the water and that is done by a

Water Demineralising Treatment Plant (DM).

Ash Handling System at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi

A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion and mixed bed exchangers. The final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. The DM water, being very pure, becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However, some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make-up. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water, such as PVC. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. DM water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i.e., the vacuum side). This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself. Electric Generator

The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy, large diameter shaft. The shaft therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation, the shaft has a number of bearings. The bearing shells, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt metal. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated.

A 95 MW Generator at BTPS, New Delhi

Barring Gear (or Turning Gear)

Barring gear is the term used for the mechanism provided for rotation of the turbine generator shaft at a very low speed (about one revolution per minute) after unit stoppages for any reason. Once the unit is "tripped" (i.e., the turbine steam inlet valve is closed), the turbine starts slowing or "coasting down". When it stops completely, there is a tendency for the turbine shaft to deflect or bend if allowed to remain in one position too long. This deflection is because the heat inside the turbine casing tends to concentrate in the top half of the casing, thus making the top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. The shaft therefore warps or bends by millionths of inches, only detectable by monitoring eccentricity meters. But this small amount of shaft deflection would be enough to cause vibrations and damage the entire steam turbine generator unit when it is restarted. Therefore, the shaft is not permitted to come to a complete stop by a mechanism known as "turning gear" or "barring gear" that automatically takes over to rotate the unit at a preset low speed. If the unit is shut down for major maintenance, then the barring gear must be kept in service until the temperatures of the casings and bearings are sufficiently low.

Condenser The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. A Typical Water Cooled Condenser For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam. Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100 C where the vapour pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure, the condenser generally works under vacuum. Thus leaks of noncondensible air into the closed loop must be prevented. Plants operating in hot climates may have to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer; unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air conditioning. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once-through water from a river, lake or ocean.

A typical water cooled condensor

Feedwater Heater A Rankine cycle with a two-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater heater. In the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a drum boiler, the surface condenser removes the latent heat of vaporization from the steam as it changes states from vapour to liquid. The heat content (btu) in the steam is referred to as Enthalpy. The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a feedwater heater. The feedwater heating equipment then raises the temperature of the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine. Preheating the feedwater reduces the irreversibilitys involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system.[9] This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feedwater is introduced back into the steam cycle.

A Rankine cycle with a 2-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater heater Superheater

As the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the drum, it is piped from the upper drum area into an elaborate set up of tubing in different areas of the boiler. The areas known as superheater and reheater. The steam vapour picks up energy and its temperature is

now superheated above the saturation temperature. The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves of the high pressure turbine.

Deaerator A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones, in order to avoid corrosion of the metal. Generally, power stations use a deaerator to provide for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler feedwater. A deaerator typically includes a vertical, domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as the deaerated boiler feedwater storage tank.

Boiler Feed Water Deaerator There are many different designs for a deaerator and the designs will vary from one manufacturer to another. The adjacent diagram depicts a typical conventional trayed deaerator. If operated properly, most deaerator manufacturers will guarantee that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm3/L).

Auxiliary Systems

Oil System An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam turbine generator. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's main inlet steam stop valve, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil systems, the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. At a preset speed of the turbine during start-ups, a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the functions of the auxiliary system.

Generator Heat Dissipation The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates. While small units may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet, larger units generally require special cooling arrangements. Hydrogen gas cooling, in an oil-sealed casing, is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. This system requires special handling during start-up, with air in the chamber first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air. The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. Mechanical seals around the shaft are installed with a very small annular gap to avoid rubbing between the shaft and the seals. Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere. The generator also uses water cooling. Since the generator coils are at a potential of about 15.75kV and water is conductive, an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to interconnect the water line and the generator high voltage windings. Demineralised water of low conductivity is used.

Generator High Voltage System

The generator voltage ranges from 10.5 kV in smaller units to 15.75 kV in larger units. The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines. They are enclosed in wellgrounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on suitable insulators. The generator high voltage channels are connected to step-up transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of 220 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid. The necessary protection and metering devices are included for the high voltage leads. Thus, the steam turbine generator and the transformer form one unit. In smaller units, generating at 10.5kV, a breaker is provided to connect it to a common 10.5 kV bus system.

Other Systems

Monitoring and Alarm system

Most of the power plants operational controls are automatic. However, at times, manual intervention may be required. Thus, the plant is provided with monitors and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters are seriously deviating from their normal range.

Battery Supplied Emergency Lighting & Communication A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply emergency electric power, when needed, to essential items such as the power plant's control systems, communication systems, turbine lube oil pumps, and emergency lighting. This is essential for safe, damage-free shutdown of the units in an emergency situation.

ELECTRICITY GENERATION PROCESS (A BASIC OVERVIEW) HOW ELECTRICITY IS GENERATED?

Thermal power station burns fuel and uses the resultant heat to raise steam which drives the TURBO GENERATOR. The fuel may be fossil(coal,oil,natural gas) or it may be fissionable, whichever fuel is used, the objective is same to convert the mechanical energy into electricity by rotating a magnet inside a set of winding.

COAL TO STAEM Its other raw materials are air and water. The coal brought to the station by trains or by other means, travels handling plant by conveyer belts, travels from pulverizing mills, which grind it as fine as the face powder of size upto 20 microns. The finely produced coal mixed with preheated air is then blown into the boiler by a fan called primary air fan where it burns more like a gas than as a solid, in the conventional domestic or industrial grate, with additional amount of air, called secondary air supply, by forced draft fan.

As coal is ground so finally the resultant ash is also a fine powder. Some of it binds together to form pumps, which falls into ash pits at the bottom of the furnace. The water-quenched ash from the bottom is conveyed to pits for subsequent disposal or sale. Most of ash, still in fine partical form is carried out of boilers to the precipitator as dust, where electrodes charged with high voltage electricity trap it. The dust is then conveyed to water to disposal area or to bunker for sale while the clean flue gases are passed on through IP fans to be discharged through chimneys.

The heat released from the coal has been absorbed by the many kilometers tubing which line the boiler walls. Inside the tubes the boiler feed water, which is transformed by heat into staemat high temperature and pressure.. The steam superheated in further tubes (superheaters) passes to turbine where it is discharged through the nozzle on the turbine blades. Just as the energy of wind turns the sail of the windmill, the energy of steam striking the blade makes the turbine rotate.

Coupled to the end of the turbine is the rotor of the generator. The rotor is housed inside the stator having heavy coils of the bars in which electricity is produced through the movement of magnetic field created by the rotor. Electricity passes from stator windings to step-up

transformer which increases its voltage so that it can be transmited efficiently over lines of grid.

The staem which has given up its heat energy is cahnged back into water in a condenser so that it is ready for re-use. The condenser contains many kilometers of tubing through which cold water is constantly pumped. The staem passing around the tubes looses heat.Thus it is rapidly changed back into water.

But, the two lots of water, that is, the boiler feed and cooling water must never mix. Cooling water is drawn from river- bed, but the boiler feed water must be absolutely pure, far purer than the water we drink (de-mineralized water), otherwise it may damage the boiler tubes.

ELECTRICAL MENTAINANCE DEPARTMENT-1 (EMD-1) It includes: High Tension and Low Tension Motors High Tension/Low Tension Switchgear Coal handling plant

Coal Handling Plant Coal is delivered by highway truck, rail, barge or collier ship. Some plants are even built near coal mines and coal is delivered by conveyors. A large coal train called a "unit train" may be a kilometres (over a mile) long, containing 60 cars with 100 tons of coal in each one, for a total load of 6,000 tons. A large plant under full load requires at least one coal delivery this size every day. Plants may get as many as three to five trains a day, especially in "peak season", during the summer months when power consumption is high. A large thermal power plant such as the Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi stores several million tons of coal for use when there is no wagon supply.

Coal Handling Plant Layout Modern unloaders use rotary dump devices, which eliminate problems with coal freezing in bottom dump cars. The unloader includes a train positioner arm that pulls the entire train to position each car over a coal hopper. The dumper clamps an individual car against a platform that swivels the car upside down to dump the coal. Swivelling couplers enable the entire operation to occur while the cars are still coupled together. Unloading a unit train takes about three hours. Shorter trains may use railcars with an "air-dump", which relies on air pressure from the engine plus a "hot shoe" on each car. This "hot shoe" when it comes into contact with a "hot rail" at the unloading trestle, shoots an electric charge through the air dump apparatus and causes the doors on the bottom of the car to open, dumping the coal through the opening in the trestle. Unloading one of these trains takes anywhere from an hour to an hour and a half. Older unloaders may still use manually operated bottom-dump rail cars and a "shaker" attached to dump the coal. Generating stations adjacent to a mine may receive coal by conveyor belt or massive diesel electric-drive trucks.

Coal is prepared for use by crushing the rough coal to pieces less than 2 inches (50 mm) in size. The coal is then transported from the storage yard to in-plant storage silos by rubberized conveyor belts at rates up to 4,000 tons/hour. In plants that burn pulverized coal, silos feed coal pulverisers (coal mill) that take the larger 2 inch pieces grind them into the consistency of face powder, classify them, and mixes them with primary combustion air which transports the coal to the furnace and preheats the coal to drive off excess moisture content. In plants that do not burn pulverized coal, the larger 2 inch pieces may be directly fed into the silos which then feed the cyclone burners, a specific kind of combust or that can efficiently burn larger pieces of fuel.

Coal Handling Division of BTPS, New Delhi A simple stockpile is formed by machinery dumping coal into a pile, either from dump trucks, pushed into heaps with bulldozers or from conveyor booms. More controlled stockpiles are formed using stackers to form piles along the length of a conveyor, and reclaimers to retrieve the coal when required for product loading, etc. Taller and wider stockpiles reduce the land area required to store a set tonnage of coal. Larger coal stockpiles have a reduced rate of heat lost, leading to a higher risk of spontaneous combustion.

Stacking Travelling, lugging boom stackers that straddle a feed conveyor are commonly used to create coal stockpiles. Stackers are nominally rated in tph (tonnes per hour) for capacity and normally travel on a rail between stockpiles in the stockyard. A stacker can usually move in at least two directions typically: horizontally along the rail and vertically by luffing its boom. Luffing of the boom minimises dust by reducing the height that the coal needs to fall to the top of the stockpile. The boom is puffed upwards as the stockpile height grows.

Coal Sampling Sampling of coal is an important part of the process control in the CHP. A grab sample is a one off sample of the coal at a point in the process stream, and tends not to be very representative. A routine sample is taken at a set frequency, either over a period of time or per shipment. Screening Screens are used to group process particles into ranges by size. These size ranges are also called grades. Dewatering screens are used to remove water from the product. Screens can be static, or mechanically vibrated. Screen decks can be made from different materials such as high tensile steel, stainless steel, or polyethylene.

Magnetic Separation Magnetic separators shall be used in coal conveying systems to separate tramp iron (including steel) from the coal. Basically, two types are available. One type incorporates permanent or electromagnets into the head pulley of a belt conveyor. The tramp iron clings to the belt as it goes around the pulley drum and falls off into a collection hopper or trough after the point at which coal is charged from the belt. The other type consists of permanent or electromagnets incorporated into a belt conveyor that is suspended above a belt conveyor carrying coal. The tramp iron is pulled from the moving coal to the face of the separating conveyor, which in turn holds and carries the tramp iron to a collection hopper or trough. Magnetic separators shall be used just ahead of the coal crusher, if any, and/or just prior to coal discharge to the in-plant bunker or silo fill system.

Coal Crusher Before the coal is sent to the plant it has to be ensured that the coal is of uniform size, and so it is passed through coal crushers. Also power plants using pulverized coal specify a maximum coal size that can be fed into the pulverizer and so the coal has to be crushed to the specified size using the coal crusher. Rotary crushers are very commonly used for this purpose as they can provide a continuous flow of coal to the pulverizer.

Pulverizer Most commonly used pulverizer is the Boul Mill. The arrangement consists of 2 stationary rollers and a power driven boul in which pulverization takes place as the coal passes through the sides of the rollers and the boul. A primary air induced draught fan draws a stream of heated air through the mill carrying the pulverized coal into a stationary classifier at the top of the pulverizer. The classifier separates the pulverized coal from the unpulverized coal.

ELECTRIC MOTORS

An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy. The reverse process that of using mechanical energy to produce electrical energy is accomplished by a generator or dynamo. Traction motors used on locomotives and some electric and hybrid automobiles often performs both tasks if the vehicle is equipped with dynamic brakes.

A High Power Electric Motor

Categorization of Electric Motors

The classic division of electric motors has been that of Direct Current (DC) type vs Alternating Current (AC) types. The ongoing trend toward electronic control further muddles the distinction, as modern drivers have moved the commutator out of the motor shell. For this new breed of motor, driver circuits are relied upon to generate sinusoidal AC drive currents, or some approximation of. The two best examples are: the brushless DC motor and the stepping motor, both being polyphase AC motors requiring external electronic control. There is a clearer distinction between a synchronous motor and asynchronous types. In the synchronous types, the rotor rotates in synchrony with the oscillating field or current (eg. permanent magnet motors). In contrast, an asynchronous motor is designed to slip; the most ubiquitous example being the common AC induction motor which must slip in order to generate torque.

Comparison of Motor Types

At Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi, mostly AC motors are employed for various purposes. We had to study the two types of AC Motors viz. Synchronous Motors and Induction Motor. The motors have been explained further.

AC Motors An AC motor is an electric motor that is driven by an alternating current. It consists of two basic parts, an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with AC current to produce a rotating magnetic field, and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field. There are two types of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used. The first is the synchronous motor, which rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a sub multiple of the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor is either generated by current delivered through slip rings or a by a permanent magnet.

The second type is the induction motor, which turns slightly slower than the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an induced current. Synchronous Motor A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor distinguished by a rotor spinning with coils passing magnets at the same rate as the alternating current and resulting magnetic field which drives it. Another way of saying this is that it has zero slip under usual operating conditions. Contrast this with an induction motor, which must slip in order to produce torque. Sometimes a synchronous motor is used, not to drive a load, but to improve the power factor on the local grid it's connected to. It does this by providing reactive power to or consuming reactive power from the grid. In this case the synchronous motor is called a Synchronous condenser. Electrical power plants almost always use synchronous generators because it's very important to keep the frequency constant at which the generator is connected.

Advantages

Synchronous motors have the following advantages over non-synchronous motors:

Speed is independent of the load, provided an adequate field current is applied. Accurate control in speed and position using open loop controls, eg. Stepper motors. They will hold their position when a DC current is applied to both the stator and the rotor windings. Their power factor can be adjusted to unity by using a proper field current relative to the load. Also, a "capacitive" power factor, (current phase leads voltage phase), can be obtained by increasing this current slightly, which can help achieve a better power factor correction for the whole installation. Their construction allows for increased electrical efficiency when a low speed is required (as in ball mills and similar apparatus).

Induction Motor

An induction motor (IM) is a type of asynchronous AC motor where power is supplied to the rotating device by means of electromagnetic induction.

Three Phase Induction Motors An electric motor converts electrical power to mechanical power in its rotor (rotating part). There are several ways to supply power to the rotor. In a DC motor this power is supplied to the armature directly from a DC source, while in an AC motor this power is induced in the rotating device. An induction motor is sometimes called a rotating transformer because the stator (stationary part) is essentially the primary side of the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is the secondary side. Induction motors are widely used, especially polyphase induction motors, which are frequently used in industrial drives. Induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors due to their rugged construction, lack of brushes (which are needed in most DC Motors) and thanks to modern power electronics the ability to control the speed of the motor. Construction The stator consists of wound 'poles' that carry the supply current that induces a magnetic field in the conductor. The number of 'poles' can vary between motor types but the poles are always in pairs (i.e. 2, 4, 6 etc). There are two types of rotor: 1. Squirrel-cage rotor 2. Slip ring rotor

The most common rotor is a squirrel-cage rotor. It is made up of bars of either solid copper (most common) or aluminum that span the length of the rotor, and are connected through a ring at each end. The rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction motors are not straight, but have some skew to reduce noise and harmonics. The motor's phase type is one of two types: 1. Single-phase induction motor 2. 3-phase induction motor Principle of Operation The basic difference between an induction motor and a synchronous AC motor is that in the latter a current is supplied onto the rotor. This then creates a magnetic field which, through magnetic interaction, links to the rotating magnetic field in the stator which in turn causes the rotor to turn. It is called synchronous because at steady state the speed of the rotor is the same as the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator. By way of contrast, the induction motor does not have any direct supply onto the rotor; instead, a secondary current is induced in the rotor. To achieve this, stator windings are arranged around the rotor so that when energised with a polyphase supply they create a rotating magnetic field pattern which sweeps past the rotor. This changing magnetic field pattern can induce currents in the rotor conductors. These currents interact with the rotating magnetic field created by the stator and the rotor will turn. However, for these currents to be induced, the speed of the physical rotor and the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator must be different, or else the magnetic field will not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no currents will be induced. If by some chance this happens, the rotor typically slows slightly until a current is re-induced and then the rotor continues as before. This difference between the speed of the rotor and speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator is called slip. It has no unit and the ratio between the relative speeds of the magnetic field as seen by the rotor to the speed of the rotating field. Due to this an induction motor is sometimes referred to as an asynchronous machine.

Types: Based on type of phase supply 1. Three phase induction motor (self starting in nature) 2. Single phase induction motor (not self starting)

Other 1. Squirrel cage induction motor

2. Slip ring induction motor

SWITCHGEAR The term switchgear, used in association with the electric power system, or grid, refers to the combination of electrical disconnects, fuses and/or circuit breakers used to isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. The very earliest central power stations used simple open knife switches, mounted on insulating panels of marble or asbestos. Power levels and voltages rapidly escalated, making open manually-operated switches too dangerous to use for anything other than isolation of a deenergized circuit. Oil-filled equipment allowed arc energy to be contained and safely controlled. By the early 20th century, a switchgear line-up would be a metal-enclosed structure with electrically-operated switching elements, using oil circuit breakers. Today, oilfilled equipment has largely been replaced by air-blast, vacuum, or SF6 equipment, allowing large currents and power levels to be safely controlled by automatic equipment incorporating digital controls, protection, metering and communications. Types A piece of switchgear may be a simple open air isolator switch or it may be insulated by some other substance. An effective although more costly form of switchgear is "gas insulated switchgear" (GIS), where the conductors and contacts are insulated by pressurized (SF6) sulphur hexafluoride gas. Other common types are oil [or vacuum] insulated switchgear. Circuit breakers are a special type of switchgear that are able to interrupt fault currents. Their construction allows them to interrupt fault currents of many hundreds or thousands of amps. The quenching of the arc when the contacts open requires careful design, and falls into four types: Oil circuit breakers rely upon vaporization of some of the oil to blast a jet of oil through the arc. Gas (SF6) circuit breakers sometimes stretch the arc using a magnetic field, and then rely upon the dielectric strength of the SF6 to quench the stretched arc.

Vacuum circuit breakers have minimal arcing (as there is nothing to ionize other than the contact material), so the arc quenches when it is stretched a very small amount (<2-3 mm). Vacuum circuit breakers are frequently used in modern medium-voltage switchgear to 35,000 volts. Air circuit breakers may use compressed air to blow out the arc, or alternatively, the contacts are rapidly swung into a small sealed chamber, the escaping of the displaced air thus blowing out the arc. Circuit breakers are usually able to terminate all current flow very quickly: typically between 30 ms and 150 ms depending upon the age and construction of the device. Classification Several different classifications of switchgear can be made: By the current rating: By interrupting rating (maximum short circuit current that the device can safely interrupt) Circuit breakers can open and close on fault currents Load-break/Load-make switches can switch normal system load currents Isolators may only be operated while the circuit is dead, or the load current is very small. By voltage class Low Tension (less than 440 volts AC) High Tension (more than 6.6 kV AC) By insulating medium: Air Gas (SF6 or mixtures) Oil Vacuum

By construction type: Indoor Outdoor Industrial Utility Marine Draw-out elements (removable without many tools) Fixed elements (bolted fasteners) Live-front Dead-front

Metal-enclosed Metal-clad Metal enclose & Metal clad Arc-resistant No Separation Bus bars separated from functional units Terminals for external conductors separated from bus bars Terminals for external conductors separated from functional units but not from each other Functional units separated from each other Terminals for external conductors separated from each other Terminals for external conductors separate from their associated functional unit By interrupting device: Fuses Air Blast Circuit Breaker Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker Oil Circuit Breaker Vacuum Circuit Breaker Gas (SF6) Circuit breaker

By operating method: Manually-operated Motor-operated Solenoid/stored energy operated By type of current: Alternating current Direct current By application: Distribution. Transmission system A single line-up may incorporate several different types of devices, for example, air-insulated bus, vacuum circuit breakers, and manually-operated switches may all exist in the same row of cubicles.

Ratings, design, specifications and details of switchgear are set by a multitude of standards. In North America mostly IEEE and ANSI standards are used, much of the rest of the world uses IEC standards, sometimes with local national derivatives or variations.

Functions One of the basic functions of switchgear is protection, which is interruption of short-circuit and overload fault currents while maintaining service to unaffected circuits. Switchgear also provides isolation of circuits from power supplies. Switchgear also is used to enhance system availability by allowing more than one source to feed a load. Safety To help ensure safe operation sequences of switchgear, trapped key interlocking provides predefined scenarios of operation. James Harry Castell invented this technique in 1922. For example, if only one of two sources of supply is permitted to be connected at a given time, the interlock scheme may require that the first switch must be opened to release a key that will allow closing the second switch. Complex schemes are possible. HIGH TENSION SWITCHGEAR High voltage switchgear is any switchgear and switchgear assembly of rated voltage higher than 1000 volts. High voltage switchgear is any switchgear used to connect or to disconnect a part of a high voltage power system. These switchgears are essential elements for the protection and for a safety operating mode without interruption of a high voltage power system. This type of equipment is really important because it is directly linked to the quality of the electricity supply. The high voltage is a voltage above 1000 V for alternating current and above 1500 V for direct current.

The high voltage switchgear was invented at the end of the 19th century for operating the motors and others electric machines. It has been improved and it can be used in the whole range of high voltage until 1100 kV.

Functional Classification

Disconnectors and Earthing Switches They are above all safety devices used to open or to close a circuit when there is no current through them. They are used to isolate a part of a circuit, a machine, a part of an overheadline or an underground line for the operating staff to access it without any danger. The

opening of the line isolator or busbar section isolator is necessary for the safety but it is not enough. Grounding must be done at the upstream sector and the downstream sector on the device which they want to intervene thanks to the earthing switches. In principle, disconnecting switches do not have to interrupt currents, but some of them can interrupt currents (up to 1600 A under 10 to 300V) and some earthing switches must interrupt induced currents which are generated in a non-current-carrying line by inductive and capacitive coupling with nearby lines (up to 160 A under 20 kV). A Vacuum Circuit Breaker (High Tension Switchgear

High-Current Switching Mechanism They can open or close a circuit in normal load. Some of them can be used as a disconnecting switch. But if they can create a short-circuit current, they can not interrupt it.

Contactor Their functions are similar to the high-current switching mechanism, but they can be used at higher rates. They have a high electrical endurance and a high mechanical endurance. Contactors are used to frequently operate device like electric furnaces, high voltage motors. They cannot be used as a disconnecting switch. They are used only in the band 30 kV to 100 kV.

Fuses The fuses can interrupt automatically a circuit with an over current flowing in it for a fixed time. The current interrupting is got by the fusion of an electrical conductor which is graded. They are mainly used to protect against the short-circuits. They limit the peak value of the fault current. In three-phase electric power, they only eliminate the phases where the fault current is flowing, which is a risk for the devices and the people. Against this trouble, the fuses can be associated with high-current switches or contactors. They are used only in the band 30 kV to 100 kV.

Circuit Breaker A high voltage circuit breaker is capable of making, carrying and breaking currents under the rated voltage (the maximal voltage of the power system which it is protecting): Under normal circuit conditions, for example to connect or disconnect a line in a power system; Underspecified abnormal circuit conditions especially to eliminate a short circuit. From its characteristics, a circuit breaker is the protection device essential for a high voltage power

system, because it is the only one able to interrupt a short circuit current and so to avoid the others devices to be damaged by this short circuit. The international standard IEC 62271-100 defines the demands linked to the characteristics of a high voltage circuit breaker. The circuit breaker can be equipped with electronic devices in order to know at any moment their states (wear, gaz pressure) and possibly to detect faults from characteristics derivatives and it can permit to plan maintenance operations and to avoid failures. To operate on long lines, the circuit breakers are equipped with a closing resistor to limit the overvoltage. They can be equipped with devices to synchronize the closing and/or the opening to limit the overvoltage and the inrush currents from the lines, the unloaded transformers, the shunt reactance and the capacitor banks. Some devices are designed to have the characteristics of the circuit breaker and the disconnector, but their use is limited.

EMD II

In EMD-II we have to go through following 3 sectors: Generator Protection

GENERATORS
The basic function of the generator is to convert mechanical power, delivered from the shaft of the turbine, into electrical power. Therefore a generator is actually a rotating mechanical energy converter. The mechanical energy from the turbine is converted by means of a rotating magnetic field produced by direct current in the copper winding of the rotor or field, which generates three-phase alternating currents and voltages in the copper winding of the stator (armature). The stator winding is connected to terminals, which are in turn connected to the power system for delivery of the output power to the system. The class of generator under consideration is steam turbine-driven generators, commonly called turbo generators. These machines are generally used in nuclear and fossil fuelled power plants, co-generation plants, and combustion turbine units. They range from relatively small machines of a few Megawatts (MW) to very large generators with ratings up to 1900 MW. The generators particular to this category are of the two- and four-pole design employing round-rotors, with rotational operating speeds of 3600 and 1800 rpm in North America, parts of Japan, and Asia (3000 and 1500 rpm in Europe, Africa, Australia, Asia, and South America). At Badarpur Thermal Power Station 3000 rpm, 50 Hz generators are used of capacities 210 MW and 95 MW. As the system load demands more active power from the generator, more steam (or fuel in a combustion turbine) needs to be admitted to the turbine to

increase power output. Hence more energy is transmitted to the generator from the turbine, in the form of a torque. This torque is mechanical in nature, but electromagnetically coupled to the power system through the generator. The higher the power output, the higher the torque between turbine and generator. The power output of the generator generally follows the load demand from the system. Therefore the voltages and currents in the generator are continually changing based on the load demand. The generator design must be able to cope with large and fast load changes, which show up inside the machine as changes in mechanical forces and temperatures. The design must therefore incorporate electrical current-carrying materials (i.e., copper), magnetic flux-carrying materials (i.e., highly permeable steels), insulating materials (i.e., organic), structural members (i.e., steel and organic), and cooling media (i.e., gases and liquids), all working together under the operating conditions of a turbo generator. Since the turbo generator is a synchronous machine, it operates at one very specific speed to produce a constant system frequency of 50 Hz, depending on the frequency of the grid to which it is connected. As a synchronous machine, a turbine generator employs a steady magnetic flux passing radially across an air gap that exists between the rotor and the stator. (The term air gap is commonly used for air- and gas-cooled machines). For the machines in this discussion, this means a magnetic flux distribution of two or four poles on the rotor. This flux pattern rotates with the rotor, as it spins at its synchronous speed. The rotating magnetic field moves past a three-phase symmetrically distributed winding installed in the stator core, generating an alternating voltage in the stator winding. The voltage waveform created in each of the three phases of the stator winding is very nearly sinusoidal. The output of the stator winding is the three-phase power, delivered to the power system at the voltage generated in the stator winding. In addition to the normal flux distribution in the main body of the generator, there are stray fluxes at the extreme ends of the generator that create fringing flux patterns and induce stray losses in the generator. The stray fluxes must be accounted for in the overall design. Generators are made up of two basic members, the stator and the rotor, but the stator and rotor are each constructed from numerous parts themselves. Rotors are the high-speed rotating member of the two, and they undergo severe dynamic mechanical loading as well as the electromagnetic and thermal loads. The most critical component in the generator is the retaining rings, mounted on the rotor. These components are very carefully designed for high-stress operation. The stator is stationary, as the term suggests, but it also sees significant dynamic forces in terms of vibration and torsional loads, as well as the electromagnetic, thermal, and high-voltage loading. The most critical component of the stator is arguably the stator winding because it is a very high cost item and it must be designed to handle all of the harsh effects described above. Most stator problems occur with the winding.

STATOR

The stator winding is made up of insulated copper conductor bars that are distributed around the inside diameter of the stator core, commonly called the stator bore, in equally spaced slots in the core to ensure symmetrical flux linkage with the field produced by the rotor. Each slot contains two conductor bars, one on top of the other. These are generally referred to as top and bottom bars. Top bars are the ones nearest the slot opening (just under the wedge) and the bottom bars are the ones at the slot bottom. The core area between slots is generally called a core tooth.

Stator of a Turbo Generator The stator winding is then divided into three phases, which are almost always wye connected. Wye connection is done to allow a neural grounding point and for relay protection of the winding. The three phases are connected to create symmetry between them in the 360 degree arc of the stator bore. The distribution of the winding is done in such a way as to produce a 120 degree difference in voltage peaks from one phase to the other, hence the term three-phase voltage. Each of the three phases may have one or more parallel circuits within the phase. The parallels can be connected in series or parallel, or a combination of both if it is a fourpole generator. This will be discussed in the next section. The parallels in all of the phases are essentially equal on average, in their performance in the machine. Therefore, they each see equal voltage and current, magnitudes and phase angles, when averaged over one alternating cycle. The stator bars in any particular phase group are arranged such that there are parallel paths, which overlap between top and bottom bars. The overlap is staggered between top and bottom bars. The top bars on one side of the stator bore are connected to the bottom bars on the other side of the bore in one direction while the bottom bars are connected in the other

direction on the opposite side of the stator. This connection with the bars on the other side of the stator creates a reach or pitch of a certain number of slots. The pitch is therefore the number slots that the stator bars have to reach in the stator bore arc, separating the two bars to be connected. This is always less than 180 degrees. Once connected, the stator bars form a single coil or turn. The total width of the overlapping parallels is called the breadth. The combination of the pitch and breadth create a winding or distribution factor. The distribution factor is used to minimize the harmonic content of the generated voltage. In the case of a two parallel path winding, these may be connected in series or parallel outside the stator bore, at the termination end of the generator. The connection type will depend on a number of other design issues regarding current-carrying ability of the copper in the winding. In a two-parallel path, three-phase winding, alternating voltage is created by the action of the rotor field as it moves past these windings. Since there is a plus and minus, or north and south, to the rotating magnetic field, opposite polarity currents flow on each side of the stator bore in the distributed winding. The currents normally flowing in large turbo generators can be in the order of thousands of amperes. Due to the very high currents, the conductor bars in a turbo generator have a large cross-sectional area. In addition they are usually one single turn per bar, as opposed to motors or small generators that have multiple turn bars or coils. These stator or conductor bars are also very rigid and do not bend unless significant force is exerted on them

ROTOR The rotor winding is installed in the slots machined in the forging main body and is distributed symmetrically around the rotor between the poles. The winding itself is made up of many turns of copper to form the entire series connected winding. All of the turns associated with a single slot are generally called a coil. The coils are wound into the winding slots in the forging, concentrically in corresponding positions on opposite sides of a pole. The series connection essentially creates a single multi-turn coil overall, that develops the total ampere-turns of the rotor (which is the total current flowing in the rotor winding times the total number of turns). There are numerous copper-winding designs employed in generator rotors, but all rotor windings function basically in the same way. They are configured differently for different methods of heat removal during operation. In addition almost all large turbo generators have directly cooled copper windings by air or hydrogen cooling gas.

Rotor of a Turbo Generator Cooling passages are provided within the conductors themselves to eliminate the temperature drop across the ground insulation and preserve the life of the insulation material. In an axially cooled winding, the gas passes through axial passages in the conductors, being fed from both ends, and exhausted to the air gap at the axial center of the rotor. In other designs, radial passages in the stack of conductors are fed from sub slots machined along the length

of the rotor at the bottom of each slot. In the air gap pickup method, the cooling gas is picked up from the air gap, and cooling is accomplished over a relatively short length of the rotor, and then discharged back to the air gap. The cooling of the end-regions of the winding varies from design to design, as much as that of the slot section. In smaller turbine generators the indirect cooling method is used (similar to indirectly cooled stator windings), where the heat is removed by conduction through the ground insulation to the rotor body. The winding is held in place in the slots by wedges, in a similar manner as the stator windings. The difference is that the rotor winding loading on the wedges is far greater due to centrifugal forces at speed. The wedges therefore are subjected to a tremendous static load from these forces and bending stresses because of the rotation effects. The wedges in the rotor are not generally a tight fit in order to accommodate the axial thermal expansion of the rotor winding during operation. There are also many available designs and configurations for the end-winding construction and ventilation methods. As in the rotor slots, the copper turns in the end-winding must be isolated from one another so that they do not touch and create shorts between turns. Therefore packing and blocking are used to keep the coils separated, and in their relative position as the rotor winding expands from thermal effects during operation. To restrain the end winding portion of the rotor winding during high-speed operation, retaining-rings are employed to keep the copper coils in place. BEARINGS All turbo generators require bearings to rotate freely with minimal friction and vibration. The main rotor body must be supported by a bearing at each end of the generator for this purpose. In some cases where the rotor shaft is very long at the excitation end of the machine to accommodate the slip/collector rings, a steady bearing is installed outboard of the slipcollector rings. This ensures that the excitation end of the rotor shaft does not create a wobble that transmits through the shaft and stimulates excessive vibration in the overall generator rotor or the turbo generator line. There are generally two common types of bearings employed in large generators, journal and tilting pad bearings. Journal bearings are the most common. Both require lubricating and jacking oil systems, which will be discussed later in the book, under auxiliary systems. When installing the bearings, they must be aligned in terms of height and angle to ensure that the rotor sits in the bearing correctly. Such things as shaft catinery must be considered and pre-loading or shimming of the bearings to account for the difference when the rotor is at standstill and at speed. Getting any of these things wrong in the assembly can cause the rotor to vibrate excessively and damage either the rotor shaft or the bearing itself. Generally, a wipe of the bearing running surface or babbitt results.

AUXILIARY SYSTEMS All large generators require auxiliary systems to handle such things as lubricating oil for the rotor bearings, hydrogen cooling apparatus, hydrogen sealing oil, de-mineralized water for stator winding cooling, and excitation systems for field-current application. Not all generators require all these systems and the requirement depends on the size and nature of the machine. For instance, air cooled turbo generators do not require hydrogen for cooling and therefore no sealing oil as well. On the other hand, large generators with high outputs, generally above 400 MVA, have water-cooled stator windings, hydrogen for cooling the stator core and rotor, seal oil to contain the hydrogen cooling gas under high pressure, lubricating oil for the bearings, and of course, an excitation system for field current. There are five major auxiliary systems that may be used in a generator. They are given as follows:

1. Lubricating Oil System 2. Hydrogen Cooling System 3. Seal Oil System 4. Stator Cooling Water System 5. Excitation System Each system has numerous variations to accommodate the hundreds of different generator configurations that may be found in operation. But regardless of the generator design and which variation of a system is in use, they all individually have the same basic function as described before.

PROTECTION The protection system of any modern electric power grid is the most crucial function in the system. Protection is a system because it comprises discrete devices (relays, communication means, etc.) and an algorithm that establishes a coordinated method of operation among the protective devices. This is termed coordination. Thus, for a protective system to operate correctly, both the settings of the individual relays and the coordination among them must be right. Wrong settings might result in no protection to the protected equipment and systems, and improper coordination might result in unwarranted loss of production. The key function of any protective system is to minimize the possibility of physical damage to equipment due to a fault anywhere in the system or from abnormal operation of the equipment (over speed, under voltage, etc.). However, the most critical function of any protective scheme is to

safeguard those persons who operate the equipment that produces, transmits, and utilizes electricity. Protective systems are inherently different from other systems in a power plant (or for that matter any other place where electric power is present). They are called to operate seldom, and when they are, it is crucial they do so flawlessly. One problem that arises from protective systems being activated not often is that they are sometimes overlooked. This is a recipe for disaster. The most common reason for catastrophic failure of equipment in power systems is failure to operate or miss-operation of protective systems. Purchasing, installing, setting/coordinating, and properly maintaining protective systems are not an insignificant expense. Therefore the extent any device or electric circuit is protected depends on the potential cost of not doing so adequately. Electric power generators are most often the most critical electrical apparatus in any power plant. In fact, given the electrical proximity between the generator and the main step-up transformer (SUT), those two most important apparatuses share some of the protective functions. Given the prohibited cost of replacing any of these two, in particular, the generator, significant expense goes in providing the most comprehensive protection coverage. Protection is considered by many an art as much as a science. Although the basic protective components are well known, and the commonly used settings for those devices are spelled out in a number of standards and other widely available literature, the particular combination of protective relays, settings, and coordination schemes are particular to every site. Therefore it is impossible to describe or prescribe a single protective system for generators. The description we attempt here is on the most commonly encountered protection arrangements and functions. Protection systems can be divided into systems monitoring current, voltage (at the machines main terminals and excitation system), windings, and/or cooling media temperature and pressure, and systems monitoring internal activity, such as partial discharge, decomposition of organic insulation materials, water content, hydrogen impurities, and flux probes. Protective functions acting on the current, voltage, temperature, and pressure parameters are commonly referred to as primary protection. The others are referred to as secondary protection or monitoring devices. Secondary functions tend to be monitored real time, or on demand. For instance, hydrogen purity is monitored on-line real time, while water content (for water leaks) is not. Temperature detectors (RTDs or thermocouples) on bearings (and sometimes in on windings) may be monitored on-line real time, or they may not. Furthermore these functions may more often than not result in an alarm, rather than directly trip the unit (e.g., core monitors). The discussion of where and when to use these monitoring devices and how to set them is provided in. To the primary protective functions monitoring currents, voltages, temperatures and pressures, there can be added the mechanical protective function of vibration. Typically it will alarm, but it can also be set to trip the unit. Protections function can also be divided into shortcircuit protection functions. The short-circuit protection comprises impedance, distance, and current differential protection.