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# NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.

ofAerospaceEngineering

1
Module1: Brief Review
of
Thermodynamics

Lecture1:
Compressible Aerodynamics

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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Thermodynamics

Experimental results are the basis of any physical theory. The experimental basis of
thermodynamics is formalized in the principal laws. The law of conservation of energy is one of
these principal laws. It introduces the concept of internal energy of a system. The other principal
laws of thermodynamics introduce and define the properties and concepts of temperature and
entropy. Classical thermodynamics is concerned, at any rate as the bulk of the subject stands,
with equilibrium state of uniform matter, that is, with states in which all local mechanical,
physical and thermal quantities are virtually independent of both position and time.
Thermodynamical results may be applied directly to fluids at rest when their properties are
uniform. A very little is known of the thermodynamics of non-equilibrium states. However,
observation shows that results for equilibrium states are approximately valid for the non-
equilibrium non-uniform states common in practical fluid dynamics; large through the departures
from equilibrium in a moving fluid may appear to be, they are apparently small in their effect on
thermodynamical relationships.

Fluid mechanics of perfect fluids (without viscosity and heat conductivity) is an extension of
equilibrium thermodynamics to moving fluids. In addition to internal energy, kinetic energy of the
fluid needs to be considered. The ratio of the kinetic energy per unit mass to the internal energy
per unit mass is a characteristic dimensionless quantity of the flow problem and in the simplest
cases is directly proportional to the square of Mach number.

In fluid mechanics of low speed flow, thermodynamic considerations are not needed: the heat
content of the fluid is then so large compared to the kinetic energy of the flow that the
temperature remains nearly constant even if the whole kinetic energy is transformed into heat.
The opposite can be true in high-speed blow problems.

Thermodynamic system a quantity of matter separated from the surroundings or the
environment by an enclosure

Enclosure =a closed surface with its properties defined everywhere may or may not transmit
heat, work or mass.

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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The concepts of thermodynamics are helpful in fluid mechanics for the additional reason that in
both subjects the objective is a set of results which apply to matter as generally as possible,
without regard for the different molecular properties and mechanism at work. Additional results
may be obtained by taking into account any known molecular properties of a fluid (with the aid
of kinetic theory in case of certain gases).

It is a fact of experience that the state of a given mass of fluid in equilibrium (spatial and
temporal uniformity) under the simplest possible conditions is specified uniquely by two
parameters, which for convenience may be chosen as the specific volume

1
= and the
pressure p. All other quantities describing the state of the fluid are function of these two
parameters of state. One of the most important of these quantities is the temperature. A mass
of fluid in equilibrium has the same temperature as a test mass of fluid also in equilibrium if the
two masses remain in equilibrium when placed in thermal contact (Zeroth law). The relation
between the temperature T and the two parameters of state may be written as
( ) , , 0 f p T =
This exhibits formally the arbitrariness of the choice of the two parameters of state. The
equation is called the equation of state. Generally written as ( ) T p p , = and is called thermal
equation of state. Another important quantity describing the state of the fluid is the internal
energy per unit mass e. The change in the internal energy of the system (mass of fluid) at rest
consequent on a change of state is defined by the first law of thermodynamics, as being such as
to satisfy the conservation of energy when account is taken of both heat given to the fluid and
work done on the fluid. Thus if the state of a given uniform mass of fluid is changed by a gain of
heat of amount Q per unit mass and by the performance of work on the fluid of amount W per
unit mass, then
W Q e + =
) , ( T v e e = is the caloric equation of state
The internal energy e is a function of the state parameters, and the change which may be either
infinitesimal or finite depends only on the initial and final states, but Q and W are measures of
external effects and may separately depend on the particular way in which the transition
between the two states is made. If the mass of fluid is thermally isolated from its surrounding so
that no exchange of heat can occur, 0 = Q , and the change of state of the fluid is adiabatic.

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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The most important way of performing work on the system is compression. Analytic expression
can be obtained if the change is reversible. This implies that the change is carried out so slowly
that fluid passes through a succession of equilibrium states, the direction of the change being
without effect. At each stage, the pressure is uniform p, so the work done on unit mass of fluid
for small decrease in volume is p . Thus for a reversible transition from one state to another
neighbouring state,
e q p =
The particular path by which the initial and final equilibrium states are joined is relevant here,
because p is not in general a function of alone.

Another practical quantity of some importance is the specific heat of the fluid, which is the
amount of heat given to unit mass of the fluid per unit rise in temperature in a small reversible
change. The specific heat may be written as

T
Q
c

=
This is not uniquely determined until the conditions under which the reversible changes occur
are specified: An equilibrium state is a point on a ( ) , p plane (indicator diagram) and a small
reversible change ( ) , p starting from a point A may proceed in any direction.

If the only work done on the fluid is that done by compression, the heat Q which must be
supplied to unit mass is determined as

p
E
p
p
E
Q
p
+

=
n
m
A
AA
p A
isothermal

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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and the change in temperatures is

p
T
p
p
T
T

=
The specific heat thus depends on the ratio
p

## , and hence on the choice of direction of the

change from A. Two particular well defined choices are changes parallel to the axes of the
indicator diagram giving the principal specific heats

;
p p p
p
T
p
T
E
T
Q
C

=
T
E
T
Q
C
T various sinusoidally as the point representing the final state moves round a circle of small
radius centered on A, being zero on the isotherm through A and maximum in a direction m
G
normal to the isotherm. Likewise, Q varies sinusoidally, being zero on the adiabate through A
and a maximum in a direction n
G
normal to it. The components of the unit vectors being
( )
p
m m ,

and ( )
p
n n ,

( )
( )
max
max
T m
Q n
C
p

= ,
( )
( )
max
max
T m
Q n
C
p
p

=
Since
p
m m

and
p
n n

are the gradients of the isothermal and adiabatic lines, the ratio of
the principal specific heats is

= =
p p
p
m
m
n
n
C
C

p p

=

or

=
a T
p p

Extensive variables: value depends on the mass of the system, Like M, E, V, S.
Intensive variables: variables that do not depend on the total mass of the system, like p, T.
Both sets refer to state variables only. For every extensive variable an intensive variable (per
unit mass, or specific) can be introduced.

The weighted ratio p p

in a small reversible change is the bulk modulus of
elasticity of fluid. For fluid dynamical purposes, its reciprocal
p

or
1
p

is more useful.
This is called the coefficient of compressibility. Like specific heat, the bulk modulus or the
coefficient of compressibility takes a different value for each direction of change. Adiabatic and

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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isothermal changes correspond to two particular directions with special significance and the first
law requires the ratio of the two corresponding bulk module to equal the ratio of the principal
specific heats.

____________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

1
Module1: Brief Review
of
Thermodynamics

Lecture2:
Compressible Aerodynamics (Contd.)

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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Thermal equation of state for all gases for low densities approaches
p = PRT, T in K or R, C +273.16 or F +459.69

This defines a family of perfect gases, one for each value of R. Any gas at low enough density
approaches a perfect gas with a particular value of R. the caloric equation of state for a perfect
gas is e =constant T T C

=

Every real gas can be liquefied. The highest temperature at which this is possible is called
critical temperature T
c
, the corresponding pressure and density are called critical pressure p
c

and critical density
c
. Critical variables are characteristics of a gas and depend on
intermolecular forces. At the critical point
2
2
0.
p p
v v

= =

An equation of state for a real gas must
involve at least two parameters besides R, say p
c
and T
c
as in Van-der-Walls equation.

=
RT p
RT p

1
1

c c
p p RT p 27 ,
8
27
2
= =
The internal energy of a Van-der-Walls gas is
( ) ( )
o o
e e T e T

= =
It is clearly possible to draw lines defining the direction of a small reversible change involving no
gain or less of heat through each point of the indicator diagram, and to regard the family of
these adiabatic lines of equal value of some new function of state. The properties of this
function are the subject of the second law. The second law implies the existence of another
extensive property of the fluid in equilibrium (even for systems with more than 2 independent
parameters of state) termed the entropy such that in a reversible transition from an equilibrium
state to another neighbouring equilibrium state, the increase in entropy is proportional to the
heat given to the fluid and that the constant of proportionality itself is a function of state,
depends only on the temperature and can be chosen as the reciprocal of the temperature. With
entropy per unit mass of a fluid s, we have
Tds =dq =the infinitesimal amount of hat given reversibly.
This is the means by which the thermodynamic or absolute scale of temperature is defined.

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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An adiabatic reversible transition takes place at constant entropy, and the process is called
isentropic. It is a consequence of the second law that in an adiabatic irreversible change the
entropy can not diminish.

Hence, for a small reversible change in which work is done on fluid only by compression
p e s T + =
Since the equation contains only functions of state, the relation must be valid for any
infinitesimal transition in which work is done by compression, whether reversible or not. If the
transition is irreversible Q s T , and p w

Another function of state which like internal energy and entropy proves to be convenient for use
in fluid mechanics particularly when effects of compressibility of the fluid are important is the
enthalpy or heat function. The enthalpy of unit mass of fluid is
p e h + =
p s T dp pd e h + = + + =
The relation involves only state functions. For a reversible small change at constant pressure
q h =
Helmholtz free energy
F =E Ts per unit mass
T s p T s s T E F = =
Thus, the gain in free energy per unit mass in a small isothermal change, whether reversible or
not, is equal to p . When this small isothermal change is reversible the gain in free energy is
equal to the work done on the system.
Another form of free energy is Gibbs free energy defined as
G =E + pV Ts =H Ts
G V p s T =
Using and s as the 2 independent parameters
T
s
E
p
E
p E s T
s
=

+ =

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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s
E

2
may be obtained in two different ways.

s
T
s
E
s
p
s
E

2 2
,
Hence
s
T
s
p

Similarly,
s
p
p
T
s

;
p T
T
s p s
T p T

= =

may be obtained by forming the double derivative, in two different ways, of the functions
,
h F
E p E Ts and E p Ts H Ts G + + = =

The four relations given above are known as Maxwells thermodynamic relations.
Alternatively, from the first relation
s s
s
T T p
p v

=

s p s
p p T
s s

= =

s
p
p
T
s

Coefficient of thermal expansion of fluid is

1
p
T

It plays an important role in considerations of the action of gravity on a fluid of non-uniform
temperature.
Specific heats using entropy

T
s
T
T
Q
C

= =

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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,
p
p
T
s
T C

=
T
s
T C
Using ( )

T
s
T
T
s
s T s s

= = , ,
p T p
T
s
T
s
T
s

Since

T
p s
T

p
p
p
C C T
T T

=

RHS can be calculated from the equation of state.
In terms of easily measurable quantities,
p
T p p
p
C C T
T T

=

2
T p T p
p p
T T
T T

= =

Relationship between increments of S and E consequent on small changes in two parameters
(useful for flow of fluid with non-uniform temperature)
( ) p T S S , =
p
p
s
T
T
s
s
T
p

=
p
T
p
p
T p
s
T
C
T
s

,
p
T
T
C p
T T
T
C s
p
p
p

=
or p E p T T C s T
p
+ = =
Except s and E , others are directly observable
p
T
T
p
C C
C
p T
T C
p T p
p p

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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p
p
T
T
T
p

=
1

from which it will be possible to see whether one term is dominant

( )
( ) p s H H
s E E
,
,
=
=
Canonical equation of state
T S
p

Couple of relations for perfect gas
( ) T s s . =

d
s
dT
T
s
ds
T

d
T
p
T
dT
C

+ [from definition of C

## and Maxwell relation]

d
R
T
dT
C

+
Integrating between state (1) & (2)

d
R
T
dT
C s s

+ =
2
1
2
1
1 2

For a calorically perfect gas R C C
p
, ,

are constant
1
2
1
2
1 2
ln ln

R
T
T
C s s + =
Similarly, ( ) T p s s , =
dp
p
s
dT
T
s
ds
T
p

=
dp
T T
dT
C
p
p

=

[definition & Maxwell relation]
Integrating

2 2
2 1
1 1
ln ln
p
T p
s s C R
T p
=
Conjugate variables

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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Isentropic relations

/
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
ln ln
p
C R
p
T p p T
C R
T p p T

= =

,
1
=

R C
p
Hence
1
1
2
1
2

=

T
T
p
p

Similarly,

2 2
1 1
ln ln
T
R C
T

=

or,
R C
T
T

=
1
2
1
2

1
1

R
C

1 1
1
2
1
2

T
T
or
1
1
1
2
1
2

T
T

Hence,
1
1
2
1
2
1
2

T
T
p
p

Total or stagnation conditions

If a fluid element passing through a point where the local pressure, temperature, density,
velocity, etc are p, T, , V, is brought to rest adiabatically the flow parameters will change and
the corresponding values are called total values. The temperature of the fluid element after it
brought to rest (imagine) is called total temperature T
o
. For a calorically perfect gas, the
corresponding total enthalpy is h
o
=C
p
T
o.

Considering the energy equation for inviscid flow and assuming adiabatic flow with negligible
body forces,

( )
2
1
2
D
e V pV p V V p
Dt

+ = = +

G G G

From continuity equation
Dt
D
V

1
=
G

p V
Dt
D p
V V e
Dt
D
=

+
G G G

2
1

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

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Now
( )
Dt
p D
Dt
Dp
Dt
D p

=

t
p
p V
Dt
Dp
V V
p
e
Dt
D

= =

+ +
G G G
2
1

or 0
2
2
=

+
t
p V
h
Dt
D
The time rate of change of
2
2
1
V h + following a moving fluid element is zero.
2
2
1
V h + =constant along a path or streamline (steady, adiabatic, inviscid flow)
The total enthalpy h
o
is enthalpy at a point if the fluid element were brought to rest adiabatically
o
h
V
h = +
2
2

The combination
2
1
2
h V + in the equation can be replaced by h
o
.

The energy equation for steady, adiabatic, inviscid flow is then 0 =
Dt
Dh
o

The total enthalpy is constant along a streamline. If all the stream lines of the flow originate from
a common uniform free stream, then h
o
is constant for each line. Hence, for steady, inviscid,
adiabatic flow, the energy equation becomes
h
o
=constant everywhere
or, Alternatively T
o
=constant for calorically perfect gas.

For a general non-adiabatic flow, the forms of the energy equation are not valid but the
definition of total quantities hold locally at each point of the flow. At point 1, the local static
enthalpy and velocity are h
1
and V
1
and the total enthalpy
2
1 1 1
2
1
V h h
o
+ = ; and at point 2,
2
2
2 2
2
1
h V h
o
+ = . But
2 1 o o
h h . Only if the flow between point 1 and 2 is adiabatic
2 1 o o
h h =

The total (stagnation) pressure and density are the pressure and density if the fluid is brought to
rest adiabatically and reversibly, i.e., isentropically (temperature
o
T ). The definition of
o
p and

NPTELIITKharagpur:Prof.K.P.Sinhamahapatra,Dept.ofAerospaceEngineering

9
o
involve isentropic assumption. However, the concept of total pressure and density can be
applied throughout any general non-isentropic flow. If the flow is non-isentropic between points
1 and 2,
1 2
,
o o
p p
2 1 o o
. But if the flow is isentropic between points 1 and 2 then
,
2 1 o o
p p = and
2 1 o o
= . If the general flow field is isentropic throughout then both
o
p and
o
are constant throughout.

Sonic temperature (T*) In a subsonic flow if a fluid element is speeded up to sonic velocity,
adiabatically, the temperature it would have at such sonic condition is T*. In a supersonic flow,
the fluid element is slowed down to sonic velocity adiabatically.

----xxx---

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module2:
One-Dimensional Gas Dynamics

Lecture3:
Governing Equations

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

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One-Dimensional Gas Dynamics
The definition applies to flow in a channel or tube which may be described by specifying the
variation of the cross-sectional area (A) along its axis (x), ( ) x A A = , and in which the flow
properties are uniform over each cross-section ( ), p p x = ( ) x = , etc. The flow quantities
may be time dependant, i.e., ( ) ( ) t x p p t x u u , , , = = . If there are sections over which the flow
conditions are not uniform it is still possible to apply the results between sections where they are
uniform, i.e., one-dimensional. At non-uniform stations, the results applied to suitable mean
values. Furthermore, the one-dimensional results are applicable to the individual stream tubes of
a general 3-D motion; x being along the stream tube.

For an incompressible flow, complete information about a one-dimensional flow is obtained from
the kinematic relation: u is inversely proportional to A. The pressure is then obtained from the
Bernoullis equation. For a compressible flow the relation between velocity and area also depends
on density variation since the governing equations are interdependent.

1-D continuity equation

If the flow is unsteady then the mass contained between sections 1 and 2, x distance apart,
changes at the rate ( ) x A
t

## where x A is the mass contained. The rate of change must be

equal to the flow through 1 minus flow through 2, i.e., the net inflow
( ) ( ) A x uA x
t x

=

or ( ) ( ) 0 =

uA
x
A
t

x
u

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
If the flow in the tube is steady, the continuity equation is
( ) 0
d
uA
dx
=
This implies that the mass of fluid that passes a given section must pass all the other sections
downstream. At any two sections where conditions are uniform
1 1 1 2 2 2
u A u A = .
This equation is general, since it holds even if the conditions between the sections are not
uniform. If the flow is uniform at every section, the equation can be written as
= = m uA Constant

Eulers equation or Momentum equation

1 u u p
u
t x x

+ =

for steady flow, the first term is zero, and the derivatives become total derivatives.
0 = +

dp
du u
or = +

dp
u
2
2
1
constant

It is often convenient to express Eulers equation in an alternative form that describes the changes
in momentum of the fluid within a fixed control space.
Multiplying Eulers equation by A and the continuity equation by u
x
p
A
x
u
uA
t
u
A

( ) ( ) 0 =

uA
x
u A
t
u
Adding the two yields the one-dimensional momentum equation
( ) ( ) ( )
x
A
p pA
x x
p
A A u
x
uA
t

2

Integrating this between any two sections gives
( ) ( ) ( )

+ = +

2
1
2 2 1 1 1
2
1 1 2
2
2 2
2
1
pdA A p A p A u A u dx uA
t

The first integral is the momentum of the fluid enclosed between 1 and 2 and the last integral may
be evaluated by defining a mean pressure
m
p .

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 2 2 1 1 1
2
1 1 2
2
2 2
2
1
A A p A p A p A u A u dx uA
t
m
+ = +

The integral form of the momentum equations is more general, since it is valid even when there
are dissipative processes within the control space, provided that the reference sections are
equilibrium states. During the integration of the differential momentum equation the forces on
adjacent internal faces cancel as they are equal and opposite and only the forces and the fluxes
at the boundaries of the control space are left out. If there is a non-equilibrium region inside this
space, it does not affect the integrated result.

For steady flow in a duct of constant area, the momentum equation becomes
2 1
2
1 1
2
2 2
p p u u =

Energy equation

For a fluid flow problem the basic thermodynamic quantity is the enthalpy, rather than internal
energy due to the presence of flow work. In adiabatic flow through a resistance the total enthalpy
per unit mass upstream and downstream of the resistance is the same.

Lets select a definite portion of the flowing fluid, between sections 1 and 2 for the system.

During a small time interval in which the fluid is displaced to a
region bounded by sections 1 and 2, a quantity of heat, q, is
added. According to the first law,
q +work done =increase in energy

Assume that the volume displaced at 1 is the specific volume
1
corresponding to a unit mass,
then for steady conditions the displacement at 2 is also for unit mass with specific volume
2
. The
work done on the system during this displacement is
2 2 1 1
p p . The local energy of the system
change in space
Transport or flux of momentum
into the space through end
sections
Force in the x direction due to
pressures on the end sections
and on the walls

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
is
2
2
1
u e + per unit mass. Comparing the energy of the system after the displacement with that
before, the net increase in energy is

+
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
1
2
1
u e u e
Hence, the steady flow energy equation is

+ = +
2
1 1
2
2 2 2 2 1 1
2
1
2
1
u e u e p p q
or
2 2
2 1 2
1
2
1
2
1
u u h h q + =
And, the adiabatic flow energy equation becomes

2
1 1
2
2 2
2
1
2
1
u h u h + = +
These equations relate conditions at two equilibrium states. They are valid even if there are
viscous stresses, heat transfer, or other non-equilibrium conditions between the two sections
provided sections1 and 2 are equilibrium states.

If equilibrium exists all along, the equilibrium equation is valid everywhere and may be written as
2
1
2
h u + = constant
or 0 = + udu dh
For a thermally perfect gas this becomes 0 = +udu dT C
p

And for a thermally and calorically perfect gas
2
1
2
p
C T u + = constant
At a place where u =0 and the fluid is in equilibrium

2
0
1
2
h u h + = = constant
h
0
is called reservoir or stagnation enthalpy, the enthalpy of the fluid in a large reservoir where
velocity is practically zero.

If there is no heat addition to the flow between two reservoirs, then the enthalpy of both the
reservoirs is same,
0
h . Since
0 0 p
h C T = for a perfect gas, the stagnation temperatures in the two
reservoirs are also same.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6

0 0 0 0
, h h T T

= =
From second law of thermodynamics
0 0
s s

Since for a perfect gas
0
0 0
/ 0 0
0
ln ln 0
p
p T
s s R C
T
p

= +
1
o
o
p
p
>

Downstream total pressure must be less than upstream total pressure
This is true for any gas, since it follows from the definition of entropy,
1
Tds dh dp

= ,
An increase in entropy, at constant stagnation enthalpy, will be associated with a decrease of
stagnation pressure.

The increase of entropy, and the corresponding decrease of stagnation pressure, represents an
irreversible process. Entropy is being produced in the flow between the reservoirs. The flow is not
in equilibrium throughout. Only if the flow is in equilibrium throughout, entropy will not be produced
and the flow will be isentropic. Only in such isentropic flow
0 0 0 0
, s s p p

= =

The reservoir conditions or stagnation conditions are also called total conditions. The terms are
used to define conditions at any point in the flow. The total conditions at any point in the flow are
the conditions that would be attained if the flow there were brought to rest isentropically. For
stagnation conditions to exist it is not enough that the velocity be zero, it is also necessary that
equilibrium conditions exist.

Since the imaginary local stagnation process is isentropic, the total entropy at any point is by
definition equal to local static entropy s s
o
= . Since
o o
T T =

## , then the local entropy for a perfect

gas is related to total pressure by
ln
o
o
p
s s R
p

=

A flow which is in equilibrium and adiabatic is isentropic. For adiabatic, non-conducting flow the
energy equation
0 = +udu dh applies all along the flow

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

7

Similarly, in the absence of friction forces, Eulers equation
0 = + dp udu is applicable everywhere
0 = dp dh
0
1
=

dp
dh
T
ds or s =constant along the flow
Thus an adiabatic, non-conducting, inviscid flow is isentropic. In this case, either the momentum
or the energy equation can be replaced by the equation
s =constant
For a perfect gas, using 0
dp
dh

## = , this condition may be written as

1
o o o
p
T
p T

= =

The conditions of equilibrium cannot be strictly attained in a real, non-uniform flow, since a fluid
particle must adjust itself continuously to the new conditions that it encounters. Thus, entropy
production is never strictly zero.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Module2:
One-dimensional gas dynamics

Lecture4:
Governing Equations(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Speed of sound & Mach number

Speed of sound is the speed at which small disturbances or waves are propagated through a
compressible fluid or an elastic medium in general. Its relation to the compressibility of the fluid is
given by

2
s
p
a

, isentropic compressibility
1
s
s
p

s
s
K
= =
1
,
s
K is isentropic bulk modulus

The disturbances (the temperature and velocity gradients) produced in a fluid by a sound wave
are so small that each fluid particle undergoes a nearly isentropic process. In a perfect gas
= p . const

RT
p
a

= =
2

In a flowing fluid, the speed of sound is a significant measure of the effects of compressibility
when it is compared to the speed of the flow. This introduces the dimensionless parameter called
Mach number
a
u
M =
M will vary from point to point in a flow because of change in u and a. In an adiabatic flow an
increase in u always corresponds to an increase of M. A flow is called subsonic if M <1 and it is
called supersonic if M >1.

Area-velocity Relations

For a steady adiabatic flow in a stream tube of varying area the continuity equation is
0 = + +
A
dA
u
du d

For incompressible flow 0 = d and this gives the simple result that increase or decrease of
velocity is proportional to decrease or increase of area. The change in density modifies this simple
relation. Using Eulers equation for steady flow

d
d
dp dp
du u = =
NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Since, adiabatic, inviscid flow is isentropic
s
d
dp
d
dp

d
a du u
2
=
or
u
du
M
d
2
=

At very low Mach numbers the density changes are so small compared to the velocity
changes, that they may be neglected in flow computation and it may be considered that =
constant. Hence, equivalent definitions of incompressible flow are = a or 0 = M .
The continuity equation now becomes
0
2
= + +
A
dA
u
du
u
du
M
or
2
1 M
A dA
u
du

=
(1) At M =0, a decrease in area gives a proportional increase in velocity
(2) For 0 <M <1 (subsonic speeds), the relation is qualitatively the same as for incompressible
flow, a decrease of area giving an increase in velocity, but the effect on the velocity is
relatively greater.
(3) At supersonic speeds, the right hand side becomes positive implying an increase of speed is
associated with an increase of area. This is due to the fact that at supersonic speeds the
density decreases faster than the velocity increases, so that the area must increase to
maintain the continuity of mass.

Form the equation, at M =1,
u
du
can be finite only if 0
dA
A
= . Considering a tube in which the
velocity increases continuously from zero to supersonic speeds, it is obvious from above that the
tube must converge in the subsonic portion and diverge in the supersonic portion. Hence, the
area must be minimum at M =1, sonic condition is reached only at the throat. The same logic
holds when the velocity decreases continuously from supersonic to subsonic. Hence M =1 can be
attained only at a throat of the tube. The inverse is not true, that is, M is not necessarily 1 at a
throat. Since the equation shows that a throat corresponds to 0 = du ; the velocity attains a
maximum or a minimum there, depending on whether the flow is subsonic or supersonic. Near M
=1, the flow is very sensitive to changes in the area, since the denominator (1 M
2
) is very small.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Some Important Relations

In adiabatic flow the energy equation for a thermally and calorically perfect gas is
o p p
T C T C u = +
2
2
1

Now, ( ) T C T C RT a
p p
1
1
1
2
=

= =

or
1
2

a
T C
p

1 1 2
2
2 2

+

o
a a u

Multiplying by
2
1
a

T
T
a
a
M
o o
= = +

2
2
2
1
2
1

2
2
1
1 M
T
T
o

+ =

Hence, the isentropic relations become
( ) 1
2
2
1
1

+ =

M
p
p
o

( ) 1 1
2
2
1
1

+ =

M
o

In the above equations, the values of
o
T and
o
a are constant throughout the flow and can be taken
as the actual reservoir value. The values of
o
p and
o
are the local reservoir values. They are
constant throughout only if the flow is isentropic.

Instead of the reservoir, any other point in the flow can be used for evaluating the constant in the
energy equation. The throat, where M =1, is a very useful point. The flow variables at the throat
are called sonic and are denoted by superscript *. The flow speed and sound speed are

u and

## a . At sonic condition M =1 and

= a u . The energy equation then gives
NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1 1
1
2
1
1 2 1 2
2
2
2 2 2 2

+
=

+ =

o
a
a
a u a u

o o
T
T
a
a

=
+
=
1
2
2
2

Thus for a given fluid the sonic and the reservoir temperatures are in a fixed ratio, so that T
*
is
constant throughout in an adiabatic flow.

For air 913 . 0 , 833 . 0 = =

o o
a
a
T
T

Using the isentropic relations with M =1,
528 . 0
1
2
1
=

+
=

o
p
p

643 . 0
1
2
1
=

+
=

o

It is not necessary that a throat actually exist in the flow for sonic values to be used as reference.

The speed ratio

= M
a
u
is a convenient quantity in many situations.
Using
2
2 2
1
1
2
1
1 2

+
=

+ a
a u

Or,
( )
2 2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1

+
=

+
M M

( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
1
1
1
1 2

+
=

M M
M

or
( )
( ) 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1 2
1
M
M
M
M
M

+
+
=
+
+
=

1
2
1
2
+
+
=

M

Alternatively
NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

( ) 1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2

+
=

+
=

M
M
M
M
M
*
<1 for M <1, and M
*
>1 for M >1

Using RT p = and eliminating T from the energy equation for adiabatic steady flow,
2
2 1 1
o
o
p u p

+ =

For isentropic conditions,

o
o
p p
=
1
1
o o
o o o o
p p p
p
p

= =

Hence, the energy equation becomes
o
o
o
o
o
p
p
p
p u

1 1 2
1
2

This is the steady state Bernoullis equation for an adiabatic compressible flow.
In a compressible flow, the dynamic pressure
2
2
1
u (used for normalizing pressure and forces) is
not simply the difference between stagnation and static pressure. It depends on Mach number as
well as static pressure.
2 2 2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
M p M
p
a M u

= = =
Hence,
2
2 2
2
1
1 1
2 2
p
p p p p p
C
M p
U p M

= = =

For isentropic flow, this becomes
( )
( )
2 1
2 2
2 1
2
1
2 1
p
M
C
M M

+

=

+

M

and U

## are reference quantities,

2 2
2 2
2 2
,
U u
M M
a a

= =
M or a can be eliminated from the above definition using the energy equation in the form
NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2 2 2 2
2 1 2 1
U a u a

+ = +

1
2
2
2 2
2 1
1 1 1
2
p
u
C M
M U

= +

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module2:
One-dimensional gas dynamics

Lecture5:
Governing Equations(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2

Flow through a Constant Area Duct and Normal Shock

The inviscid incompressible flow through a uniform duct has only one possible solution, which is
of uniform flow. However, there are two possible solutions when the flow is compressible. If there
is no change in entropy anywhere, the only possible solution is the uniform flow. An alternative
solution which contains a jump in the parameters is also possible when there is a change in
entropy or a non-equilibrium region between the two stations.

Considering two sections (1) and (2) where equilibrium exists but which may contain non-
equilibrium region between them, all the conservation laws apply, and hence
2 2 1 1
u u =
2
2 2 2
2
1 1 1
u p u p + = +

2
2 2
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
u h u h + = +
There is no restriction on the size or details of the dissipative region as long as the reference
sections are outside it. The non-equilibrium region may be idealized by a vanishingly thin region,
across which the flow parameters may jump. The control sections (1) & (2) may be brought
arbitrarily close to it. Such a discontinuity is called shock wave. A real fluid cannot have an actual
discontinuity and this is just an idealization of the very high gradients that actually occur in a
shock wave. These severe gradients produce viscous stress and heat transfer (non-equilibrium
conditions) inside the shock.

Non-equilibrium region (shock)
Non-equilibrium region
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
The three conservation statements given above are the general equations for a steady, inviscid
adiabatic flow and hence, for a normal shock. For a thermally and calorically perfect gas, the
equations can be solved explicitly in terms of the Mach number M
1
. The results always apply
locally to the conditions on either side of a shock, provided it is normal to the streamline.

Both sides of the momentum equation divided by the appropriate side of the continuity equation
2 2
2
2 2 2
1 1
2
1 1 1
u
u p
u
u p

+
=
+

or
1
2
1
2
2
2
1 1
1
2 2
2
2 1
u
a
u
a
u
p
u
p
u u

= =
Using the energy equation for a perfect gas, in terms of sound speed

2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2 2
1 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
u a u a
a

+
+ = + =

2
2 1

= a u u
This is known as Prandtl or Meyer relation.
The equation can be stated, in terms of the speed ratio, as

=
1
2
1
M
M
1 =
>
<

M corresponds to 1 =
>
<
M . Thus, the velocity change across a normal shock must be from
supersonic to subsonic or vice-versa. There is nothing in the relation to exclude possibility.
However, from the physical ground, it can be anticipated that accelerating jump is not possible,
since increase in velocity is unlikely when dissipative processes are in action.

Using
( )
( )
2
2
2
1 2
1
M
M
M
+
+
=

## the above relation can be written as

( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 1
2 2
2 1
1 2 1
2 1 1
M M
M M

+ +
=
+ +

( )
1 2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
M f M
M
M
M =

+
=

If = = 1 , 1
2 1
M M infinitely weak normal shock or a March wave

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
1 1
2 1
< > M M
As
1
M increases above 1, the normal shock wave becomes stronger and
2
M becomes
progressively smaller.
As ,
1
M

2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1

+
=

M
M
Lim M
M

378 . 0
2
M for air with 4 . 1 =

The velocity ratio is simply
2 2
2 1 1 1
1 2
2 1 2
u u u
M
u u u a

= = =
Using the continuity equation
( )
( )
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1 2
1
M
M
M
u
u
+
+
= = =

( )
2 1 1 1 2 1 2
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
1 1 1 2
u u u u u u u u p p = = =

1
2
1
2
1 1
1
1 2
1
u
u
p
u
p
p p

Using

2
1
1
1
a
p
= , and relation for
1
2
u
u

( ) 1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1 2

+
=

M
p
p
p
p p

1
1
p
p
is generally used to define the shock strength
( )
2
2
1
1
2
1 1
1
p
M
p

= +
+

The temperature ratio
2
1
1
2
1
2

p
p
T
T
=
Also,
( )
( )
( )
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1 2
1
h
h
M
M
M
a
a
T
T
=
+
+

+ = =

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

The limiting values for air with 4 . 1 =
378 . 0
2
1
2
1
=

M Lim
M

6
1
1
1
2
1
=

+
=

M
Lim

= =

1
2
1
2
1 1 T
T
Lim
p
p
Lim
M M

All the ratios are functions of upstream Mach number for a calorically perfect gas.
The change in entropy across the shock is given by
1
1 1
2 2 2 2
2 1
1 1 1 1
ln ln ln
p
T p p
s s C R R
T p p

= =

or
( )
( )
( )
2 1 1
1 2 2 1
1
1 2
1
1
2
ln 1 1
1 1 2
M
s s
M
R M

+
= +

+ +

Since
1 2
s s in an adiabatic process, the condition can only be satisfied if
1
1 M . If
1
1 M < , then
0
1 2
< s s , which is impossible according to second law. Hence, supersonic to subsonic jump is
the only possibility across a normal shock.

For a weak shock,
2
1
1 M is small and the change in entropy can be approximated as
( )
( )
3
3 2
1
2 1 1
2 2
1
1
2 1
3 12
1
M
s s p
R p

+

+

Hence, the increase in entropy is third order in shock strength
( )
2
1
1 M or
1
1
p
p

. A small change
in pressure, that is associated with first order change in velocity, density and temperature,
produces third order change in entropy. A weak shock produces nearly isentropic change of state.
Since the flow across a shock is adiabatic,
02 01
T T = .

1 1 1 2 1
2 1 1 1
ln ln ln 1
o o o
o o o o
p p p s s
R p p p p

= = = +

+

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6
The expression for the total pressure ratio is obtained from that of
R
s

( )
( )
( )
1
2
1
1
1 2 2
1 2
1 1
1
2
1 1
1 1 2
o
o
M
p
M
p M

+
= +

+ +

For a weak shock 1
1
1
<<

o
o
p
p
hence
( )
( )
3
2
1
1 2 1
2
1
1
2
3
1
o
o
M
p s s
R p

=
+

Change in entropy is directly proportional to change in total pressure. Hence, change in total
pressure is also of 3
rd
order in shock strength.

The shock jump relations (Rankine-Hugoniot relations) are often expressed in terms of pressure
jump instead of upstream Mach number.

.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module2:
One-dimensional gas dynamics

Lecture6:
Governing Equations (Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Moving Shock Wave Problem

The normal shock wave relations are established above assuming the shock to be stationary and
the fluid flows through it with speed u
1
. Alternatively, the shock may be taken as propagating
through the fluid with speed u
1
.

Consider the fluid in front of the shock wave is at rest and the wave is moving into it with the
speed
s
u . The shock causes the fluid behind the wave to move with speed
b
u . The problem is
solved by using a transformation of the reference system. With respect to an observer moving
with the shock the fluid ahead of it is moving with speed
1
u (in opposite direction) and the fluid
behind is moving with speed
2
u , where

1 s
u u = , and

2 1 s b b
u u u u u = = , or
1 2 b
u u u =

The static densities, pressures, and temperatures on either side of the shock are not affected by
the transformation. The shock jump relations for these quantities obtained above apply here also.
Hence, a shock wave propagating into a stationary fluid sets it into motion and raises its pressure,
density and temperature.

The jump relations across the shock may be rewritten in terms of
s
u and
b
u by using the
transformation. The Mach number of the shock is
( )
2
1 1
1 1
,
s
u p
M a
a d

= = .
For practical usefulness, all other quantities are expressed in terms of the pressure ratio

1
2
p
p

The shock velocity for a perfect gas is
u
1 u
2
u
s
u
p
(a)
u
1
u
2
u
s
u
b
(b)
(1)
(2)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

1
2
2
1 1 1
1
1 1
2 2
s
p
u M a a
p

+
= = +

The density ratio and temperature ratio are given by the Rankine-Hugoniot relations.
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
u
u
p
p
p
p
=
+

+

+
+
=

1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
p
p
p
p
p
p
T
T

+
+
+

+
=

The fluid velocity behind the shock is
2
1 2
1
1
b s
u
u u u u
u

= =

1
2
1 2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
b
a p
u
p
p
p

+
=

+
+

The total quantities in the two systems are not the same. It should be noted, for example, that
2
0 01 0 02 0 0
1
, and
2
a a b b b b a
h h h h h u h h h = = + .
However,
2 2
02 2 2 1 1 01
1 1
.
2 2
h h u h u h = + = + =

A weak shock is the one for which the normalized pressure jump is very small,

1
1
1 2
1
<<

p
p p
p
p

The other disturbances are then also small and can be obtained by expanding the above
equations in series and retaining only the first order terms in
1
p
p

.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
This gives
1 1 1
1
b
u p
p a

1
1 1 1
1 1
, 1
4
s
T p p
u a
T p p

+
+

The speed of very weak shocks is nearly equal to
1
a .

For a very strong shock the pressure ratio
1
2
p
p
is very large. In this case,
1
1
1
2

1
2
1
2
1
1
p
p
T
T
+

1
2
2
1
1
1
2
s
p
u a
p

( )
2
1
1
2
1
b
p
u a
p

+

One-dimensional wave motion

Disturbances created in a fluid by a moving body are propagated or communicated to other parts
of the fluid. The motion of the disturbances relative to the fluid is called wave motion, and the
speed of propagation is called the wave speed. Through this mechanism, various parts of a
moving body interact with the fluid and with each other and the forces on the body are
established. The problem is unsteady and appropriate equations need to be solved. Considering
adiabatic, non-viscous motion in a constant area duct,
Continuity equation: 0
u
u
t x x

+ + =

Euler/Momentum equation: 0
1
=

x x
u
u
t
u

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

Since friction is neglected and external heat addition is excluded, the isentropic conditions exist
( ) p p = , for a perfect gas

=
1 1
p
p

2
p p
a
x x x

= =

The disturbances or perturbations are defined relative to the fluid that is at rest, with
1
0, u = = . Assume the perturbed values are u and . The perturbations are not
necessarily small.
Define ( ) s + = 1
1

The dimensionless quantity
( )
1
1

= s is called condensation.
With these definitions, the equations of motion may be written
0
1 1 1
=

x
s
u
x
u
s
x
u
t
s

0
1
2
=

+
+

x
s
s
a
x
u
u
t
u

For a perfect gas ( )
1
1
1
p
s
p

= = +

( )
1
1
1

+ =

s
T
T

These equations are exact for frictionless, non-conducting motion, but not easily integrable as
they are non-linear. The equations can be linearized through a small disturbance assumption.

Assuming
x
u
s
x
u
x
u
s s

<<

The terms
x
s
u

and
x
u
u

## are of the same order and may be neglected.

( )
2 2
2 2
1 1 1 2 2
1 1 1
dp p p d p
a a s
d d

= + = +

Hence,
x
s
s
a

+ 1
2
can be approximated to
x
s
a

2
1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6
The approximate linearized equations are then
0
s u
t x

+ =

2
1
0
u s
a
t x

+ =

These equations are called acoustic equations because the disturbances due to sound wave are
very small.
The isentropic relations for a perfect gas can be approximated as
s
p
p
+ =1
1
( )s
T
T
1 1
1
+ =
Differentiating the linearized continuity and momentum equations with respect to t and x
respectively
0
0
0
2
2
1 2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
=

x
s
a
t
s
x
s
a
t x
u
t x
u
t
s

Similarly, 0
2
2
2
1
2
2
=

x
u
a
t
u

Both the disturbances ( ) s u, satisfy the wave equation. The disturbance propagates with a definite
signal velocity or wave velocity
1
a .
The general solutions of the equations are
( ) ( ) t a x G t a x F s
1 1
+ + =
( ) ( )
1 1
, u f x a t g x a t = + + F a f
1
=

1
g a G =
To analyze the characters of the solution, lets take 0 = G .
So, the density distribution at time t is
( ) t a x F s
1
=
This represents a disturbance or wave which at time t =0 had the shape
( ) x F s =

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

7
and which at time t has exactly the same shape, but with corresponding points displaced a
distance
1
a t to the right. The velocity of each point in the wave and hence of the wave is
1
a .

A wave in which the propagation velocity is in one direction is called a simple wave. Similarly, the
wave described by ( ) t a x G s
1
+ = is a simple wave propagating to the left with speed
1
a .

The lines in the t x plane which trace the progress of the waves, i.e., the lines with slope
1
dx
a
dt
= , are called the characteristics of the wave equation.

The disturbances propagate through the fluid with the speed
d
dp
a = and the quantity is
called the speed of sound or acoustic speed. The result is applicable to disturbances in which
velocity and temperature gradients are very small and 1
1
<<
a
u
so that dissipative forces have no
considerable effects. It implies that motion in a sound wave is isentropic, and

s
p
a

2

t
t
2
t
1
x
1
a
dt
dx
=
( ) s F x =
dt
dx
=
1
a
dt
dx
=
t
t
t
x
( ) s G x =

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

8
The amplitude of ordinary audible sound is small and the local production of entropy is negligible.
Friction and local entropy production is negligible for computing the speed of ordinary sound, but
the cumulative effect on the amplitude is not negligible.
The quantity
2
a provides a pressure-density relation and eliminates pressure from the momentum
equation
2
p
a
x x

=

. When non-isentropic processes are present pressure depends on
entropy also, and

x
s
s
p
x
a
x
p

2

2
a can be evaluated from the equation of state. For a perfect gas RT
p
a

= =
2

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module2:
One-dimensional gas dynamics

Lecture7:
Governing Equations (Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Pressure and particle velocity in a sound wave

The pressure disturbance accompanying the density wave for a perfect gas is
s
p
p p
s
p
p
=

+ =
1
1
1
1
Pressure wave has the same shape as the density wave, differing by a constant factor .

As the wave progresses through the fluid, the pressure disturbance sets the fluid in motion, giving
it a velocity u which is called the particle velocity and, in general, is much smaller than the wave
speed
1
a .

A simple wave ( )
1
s F x a t = , propagating to the right, produces a velocity disturbance
( ) s a t a x F a u
1 1 1
= =
In a left ward propagating wave ( )
1 1 1
u a G x a t a s = + = . The various parts of the wave are called
condensation and rarefaction depending on whether the density is higher or lower than the
undisturbed density
1
.

The effect that the wave produces on the fluid depends on the gradient of this density and
pressure distribution and on the direction of motion of the wave. Thus the portion of the wave that
increases the density as it passes is called a compression and that which decreases the density is
called an expansion. The corresponding distributions of particle velocity are
s a u
1
=
for left and right propagating waves respectively. It may be seen that a compression accelerates
the fluid in the direction of wave motion, whereas an expansion decelerates it. The non-simple
wave is a superposition of two simple waves and the relation between particle velocity and density
is
1
u F G
a s F G

=
+
.
In the limit of vanishingly small disturbances the perturbation quantities may be written in
differential form with u and s replaced by du and
1

d
. The relations then become

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

1
1
1
1 1
1
1 1
d
du a
p
dp d a du
dp d
p

= =

Linearized Shock Tube

Shock tube is a simple device consisting of a tube that is divided by a membrane or diaphragm
into two chambers in which pressures are different. A wave motion is set up when the diaphragm
is suddenly removed or broken. If the pressure difference is very small, the wave motion may be
approximated as isentropic and can described by the acoustic equations. The shock tube in such
a case is called acoustic or linearized.

At t =0, immediately after the membrane is removed the wave has a shape of step distribution.
The particle velocity at this instant is zero everywhere. The wave at t =0 is described by
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
,0 s x F x G x s x = + =
( )
4
0
0 0
s x
x
>

=

<

( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 ,
1 1
= = x G a x F a x u
Simultaneous solution gives ( ) ( ) ( )
0
1
2
F x G x s x = =
4
1
0
2
0 0
s x
x

>

<

Hence, the motion at any subsequent time is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
4 1
0 1 0 1 4 1 1
1
1 1 1
,
2 2 2
0
s x a t
s x t s x a t s x a t s a t x a t
x a t
>

= + + = < <

<

s

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 0 1 1 0 1 1 4 1 1
1
0
1 1 1
,
2 2 2
0
x a t
u x t a s x a t a s x a t a s a t x a t
x a t
>

= + = < <

<

A compression wave is propagated to low pressure side and an expansion wave of equal strength
to the high-pressure side.

Finite Amplitude Isentropic waves

The simple acoustic waves as seen above have constant wave velocity and permanent shape.
These properties are due to the linearization of the equations achieved through the assumption of
infinitesimal amplitudes and gradients. When such an assumption is not possible, the conditions
at a given point in the wave cannot be approximated by those in the undisturbed fluid. The wave
velocity varies from point to point and the simple wave becomes distorted as it propagates. To
describe such finite disturbance, the complete non-linear equations need to be solved.

Consider a right moving plane compression wave. At two adjacent points, as shown in the figure
below, the fluid properties differ in magnitude by , , , , du dp d da etc. The respective parts of the
a
1
a
1
0 = s
4 2
2
1
s s =

4
s s =
t =t
1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
wave passing through these same points differ in wave speed by the amount dc . Since a finite
wave may be thought of as a succession of infinitesimal pressure pulses, each element of the
wave may be analyzed as an acoustic wave. As long as the velocity and temperature gradients
are moderate, the viscous and heat conduction effects are negligible. Hence, each part of the
wave travels at the local speed of sound with respect to the fluid in which it is propagating. The
propagation velocity of a part of the wave with respect to fixed coordinates is then,
c u a = +
The propagation velocity of an adjacent part of the wave is
c dc u du a da + = + + +
dc du da = +

dc du da
dp dp dp
= +

Now for a right ward wave
1 1
,
du dc da
dp a dp dp a
= = +

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6
Since the entire fluid was originally at rest with uniform pressure and temperature and each
particle of fluid undergoes isentropic changes, the increments in pressure and density between
2
2
dp da d dp d d dp
a a
d dp dp d dp d d

= = =

1
1
2
s
d dp
d d dc
dp
dp a
d

= +

Replacing density by specific volume

d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
2
2
1
= = =

( )
2
2
2
2
s
s
d p
d
dc
dp dp a
d

=
For a thermodynamically stable fluid,
( )
s
dp
d
must be negative. Hence, the isentrope must have
a negative slope on the p diagram. Consequently, the sign of
dc
dp
depends only on the sign
of
2
2
s
d p
d

, i.e., on whether the isentrope on the p diagram is concave upwards or
concave downwards. Hence, higher-pressure parts of the wave overtake the lower-pressure parts
when
dp
dc
is positive. Consequently, a compression wave steepens as it progresses and an
expansion wave flattens as it progresses. Opposite happens if
dp
dc
is negative.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

7
(i) Compression waves steepen and expansion waves flatten when 0
2
2
>

s
d
p d

, or the
isentrope is concave upward. This is the usual case for all real fluids.
(ii) Compression waves flatten and expansion waves steepen if
2
2
0,
s
d p
d

<

or the
isentrope is concave downward.

For a gas with straight line isentrope waves of finite amplitude propagate through the gas with
unchanged shape.
In a perfect gas,

p is constant and
( )
2
2 2
1
0
s
p
d p
d

+
= >

. Hence, compression waves
steepen and expansion waves flatten in a perfect gas.

From the point of view of an observer moving with the local particle velocity the acoustic theory
applies locally. Relative to an observer moving with the local fluid velocity, the wave at that point
propagates with the local acoustic speed
( )
1
2
dp
a
d
= whereas relative to the fixed frame of
reference in the undisturbed fluid, it propagates with the speed c a u = + . Considering both left
and right moving waves, the local wave speed at any point is given by
u a c + =
The wave speed is no longer constant since a is a variable and u may no longer be neglected.
To evaluate these in terms of the density, the acoustic theory is applied locally. Using the
isentropic relation for a perfect gas
1
1
p p

= to eliminate p from

p
a =
2
,
2
1
1
1

a a
The particle velocity is evaluated in terms of the density by applying locally

d
a du
This becomes integrable if a is replaced by above

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

8
( )
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
a a
a d
a u

= =

or u a a
2
2
1

=

1
1
2
c a u
+
= +
or

+
+ =

1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1

a c
where
1
a is the speed of sound in the undisturbed fluid and
1
is the density of undisturbed fluid.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module2:
One-dimensional gas dynamics

Lecture5:
Governing Equations (Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Propagation of Finite waves

Consider the propagation of a simple wave of finite amplitude. Assume that the initial density
distribution is as shown in the figure ( ) 0
0
= = t t
For the right ward propagating wave

+
+ =

1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1

a c
Hence, the wave speed is higher than
1
a in regions of condensation ( )
1
> and lower than
1
a
in regions rarefaction. Thus the wave distorts as it propagates, the regions of higher condensation
tending to overtake those in regions of lower condensation. In regions of higher condensation, the
characteristic lines are inclined more, since the slope is inversely proportional to the wave speed.

In terms of the compression and expansion regions the net effect is to steepen compression
regions and to flatten expansion regions in which the characteristic lines converge and diverge
respectively. In a compression region, the characteristics lines would eventually cross leading to
the situation
3
t t = . But this would be physically impossible, for it implies three values of density at
a given point. Actually, well before this happens, the velocity and temperature gradients in the
compression regions become so large that friction and heat transfer effects become important.
These have a diffusive action which counteracts the steepening tendency. The two opposing
effects achieve a balance and the compression portion of the wave become stationary, in the
sense that it propagates without further distortion. It is then a shock wave.

t
t
3

t
2

t
1

x
t
0
=0
( ) 0 ,
~
x s

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
In compression regions, the isentropic relations are valid until friction and heat transfer become
important. When a stationary balance between the diffusive and steepening (non-linear) terms
has been reached, the conditions across the wave front are given by the shock wave relations.
The intermediate unsteady, non-isentropic states can be treated only with the full unsteady
equations including viscous and heat transfer terms.

An expansion wave always remains isentropic as it tends to flatten and so reduce the velocity and
temperature gradients further. It never achieves stationary condition, corresponding to the fact
that there are no expansion shocks.

Centered Expansion wave

Consider a duct containing fluid enclosed by a piston. If the piston is withdrawn an expansion
wave is produced. If the piston starts impulsively, with speed
p
u , the distribution of particle
velocity in the first instant is a step. However, the expansion wave begins to flatten as soon as the
wave starts propagating. At some later time
1
t the particle velocity has a linear distribution and
the pressure has a corresponding distribution.

u
3
=- |u
p
|
p
3

p
4

u =0
a
4

(4)
u
p

x
x =-|u
p
| t
Piston path
Expansion path
t
t
1

(3)
(4)
x =a
4
t
t u a t c x
p

+
= =
2
1
4 3

(3)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

The front of any isentropic wave propagates at the speed of sound of the undisturbed fluid. Thus,
the front of the wave propagates with speed
4
a into the undisturbed fluid that is in the opposite
direction of the piston and fluid motion. The wave speed in the portions of the wave behind the
front is given by
u a c
2
1
4
+
+ =

Wave speed c decreases continuously through the wave since 0 u < . The fan of straight lines are
lines of constant c and thus of constant u and . These lines are the characteristics. With
increasing time the fan becomes wider and the wave becomes flatter and the gradients of
velocity, density, temperature become smaller. Thus the wave remains isentropic. The terminating
characteristic is given by
p
u a c
t
x
2
1
4 3
+
= =

and slopes to right or left depending on
whether
4
1
2
p
a u

>
<
+
. Between the terminating characteristics and the piston, the fluid properties
have the uniform values
3 3 3
, , T p , etc. For a perfect gas they are given in terms of the isentropic
relations

1
2
4 4
3
2
1
1

a
u
p

2
1
3
4 4
1
1
2
p
u
p
p a

=

This pressure ratio defines the strength of the expansion wave. The maximum expansion is
obtained when
4
2
1
p
a
u

giving 0
3 3
= = T . This implies that all the fluid energy is converted into
kinetic energy of flow. If the piston velocity is higher than this limiting value, it produces no further

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
effect on the flow. The wave produced by an impulsive withdrawal of piston is called a centered
expansion wave after the fan like set of characteristic lines in the x t plane.

Shock Tube: Nonlinear solution

The diaphragm at 0 = x separates the low pressure chamber (1) from the high pressure chamber
(4). The chambers are also called respectively, the expansion and compression chamber. The
characteristic parameter of a shock tube is the diaphragm pressure ratio
4
1
p
p
. The two
chambers may be at different temperature
1
T and
4
T and may contain different gases with gas
constants
1
R and
4
R .

When the diaphragm is burst ( ) 0 t = , the pressure distribution is ideally a step. This splits into a
shock wave which propagates into the expansion chamber with speed
s
u and an expansion wave
which propagates into the compression chamber with the speed
4
a at its front. The condition of
the fluid which is traversed by the shock wave is denoted by (2) and that of the fluid traversed by
the expansion wave is denoted by (3). The interface between these two regions is called the
contact surface. It marks the boundary between the fluids which were initially on either side of the
diaphragm. The region behind the shock is different from the one behind the expansion and they
have different values of entropy. Neglecting diffusion, the fluids in the two regions do not mix, but
are permanently separated by the contact surface.

p
1
p
4

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6

On either side of the contact surface, the temperature and density may be different, but it is
necessary that the pressure and fluid velocity be the same,

3 2 3 2
, u u p p = =
Thus
3 2
u u = must be the velocity of the contact surface. Using shock wave and expansion wave
relations

( ) ( )
2 1
2 1
2
1
1 1
1
2
1
1 1
p
u a
p
p
p

=

+ +

( )

=

4
4
2
1
4
3
4
4
3
1
1
2

p
p a
u
t =t
1
x
u
s

u
2

p
1

p
2

T
1

T
2

T
3

T
4

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

7
Since
3 2
u u = and
3 2
p p = , the basic shock tube relation is
( )
( )
( )
4
4
2
1
1 2
4
4 1 4 2
1 1
2
1 1 1
1
1 1
1
2 2 1 1
a p
a p
p p
p p
p
p

=

+ +

This gives the shock strength
1
2
p
p
implicitly as a function of the diaphragm ratio
4
1
p
p
. The
expansion strength is obtained from
2
3 3 1 1
3 2
4
4 1 4
1
since
p
p p p p
p p
p
p p p
p
= = =
The values of u and p calculated across the shock and expansion are identical. However, and
T are usually different. The temperature
3
T behind the expansion wave is given by the isentropic
relation

( )
( )
4
4
4
4
1
1
4
1
2
1
4
3
4
3

=
p
p
p
p
p
p
T
T

The temperature
2
T behind the shock is given by the Rankine-Hugoniot relation

2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
p
p
p
p
T
T
+

+
+

+
=

The duration of the flow is limited by the lengths of the expansion and compression chambers,
since the shock wave and expansion wave reflect from the ends of the chambers and eventually
interact with each other.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module3:
Waves in Supersonic Flow

Lecture9:
Waves in Supersonic Flow

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
The motion of a body in a fluid at rest creates disturbance in the fluid. The disturbances, in general,
may not be small. The disturbances in the fluid close to the body are transmitted to other parts of the
body and also to the other parts of the fluid through propagation of the waves. The wave motion is
compatible with the motion of the body. This wave motion determines the pressures on the body as
well as the complete flow field around the body. When the flow is subsonic, it is not essential to
consider the wave motion. Particularly, if the motion is steady it is easier to study the motion from a
reference system where the body is at rest and the fluid flows over it. However, if the relative wind is
supersonic, the waves can not propagate ahead of the immediate vicinity of the body. Consequently,
the wave system travels with the body. Thus, the wave system is stationary in the reference system
that moves with the body. Limited upstream influence allows the flow to be analyzed or constructed
step by step.

Oblique shock waves

Stationary shock waves can either be normal or oblique to the flow direction. Necessary relations
between the parameters across an oblique shock can be obtained directly from the equations of two-
dimensional motion. However, the normal shock results can easily be transformed to obtain the
appropriate relations. Consider the flow velocity ahead of an oblique shock is
1
w . It can be resolved
into components normal and parallel to the shock, denoted respectively by
1 1
and u . Thus, the
velocity vector ahead of the shock has an inclination to the shock given by
1
1
1
tan
u

=

. The flow
associated with the tangential component does not cross the shock and is not affected by the shock
and, hence
1 2
= = . The normal component undergoes a jump and
2 1
u u . Hence, the inclination
of the flow after the shock is different from that ahead. The flow turns abruptly at the shock.
Since
2 1
u u < , the turn is always toward the shock and the angle of deflection is positive.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

Since, the superposition of a uniform velocity ( ) = =
2 1
does not affect the static pressures and
other static parameters, the relations for the conditions before and after the shock can be obtained
from normal shock relations. The modification is due to initial Mach number since
1
1
1
a
w
M =
sin
1 1
w u =
1
1
1
sin
u
M
a
=
In the normal shock relations
1
1
1
M or
a
u
is to be replaced by sin
1
M
( )
( ) 2 sin 1
sin 1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
+
+
=

M
M

( )
2 2
2
1
1
2
1 sin 1
1
p
M
p

= +
+

1 2
=

u
2

w
1
1

u
1
w
2

w
1

w
2

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
( )
( )
( ) 1 sin
sin
1 sin
1
1 2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 2
1
2
2
1
2
+

+ = =

M
M
M
a
a
T
T

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2 1
1
1 2 2 01 2 1
1
2 2
1 02
1 sin
2
ln 1 sin 1 ln
1 1 sin 2
M p s s
M
R M p

+
= + =

+ +

The ratios depend only on the normal component of the velocity and this component has to be
supersonic i.e.
1
sin 1 M . This sets a minimum wave inclination for a given Mach number. The
maximum wave inclination is that for a normal shock
2

## = . Thus for a given initial Mach number

1
M ,
a range of possible wave angles exists as given by

1
1
1
sin
2 M

For each wave angle , there is a corresponding deflection angle .
The Mach number
2
M after the shock may be obtained using
2
2
2
w
M
a
= and ( )
2
2
2
sin
u
M
a
= .
( )
2 2
1
2 2
2
2 2
1
1
1 sin
2
sin
1
sin
2
M
M
M

+
=

Also,
( )
1
2
2
2
1
1
tan , tan

u u u
= = =

( ) ( )
( )
2 2
1
2 1
2 2
1 2 1
tan 1 sin 2
tan 1 sin
M
u
u M

+
= = =
+

The trigonometric relation can be shown to be

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

( )
2 2
1
2
1
sin 1
tan 2cot
cos 2 2
M
M

=
+ +

0 = at
2

= and

=

1
1
1
sin
M

Within this range is positive and must therefore have a maximum. For each value of
1
M there is a
maximum value of . For
max
< , each value of and M corresponds to two possible solutions,
having different values of . The larger value of gives a stronger shock. In the solution with strong
shock the flow becomes subsonic. With weak shock the flow remains supersonic except for a small
range of value of slightly smaller than
max
.

( ) ( )
( )

2
2
1
2
2
1
sin 1
2 sin 1
tan
tan
M
M
+
+
=

slightly greater than 45

M
2
=1

max M

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6
( )
2
1
tan
tan
2
1
sin
1
2
2
1

+
=

M

or
( )
2 2 2
1 1
1 sin sin
sin 1
2 cos
M M

+
=

2 2 2
1 1
1
sin 1 tan
2
M M

+

for small values of

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module3:
Waves in Supersonic Flow

Lecture10:
Waves in Supersonic Flow (Contd.)S

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Supersonic Flow over a wedge

Any streamline in inviscid flow can be replaced by a solid boundary. Thus the oblique shock flow
provides the solution to supersonic flow in a corner. For a given values of
1
M and , the values of
and
2
M are determined. Using symmetry the flow over a wedge of nose angle 2 is also obtained.
The flow on each side of the wedge is determined only by the inclination of the surface on that side.
Thus, the wedge need not be symmetric. When the shock waves are attached to the nose, the upper
and lower surfaces are independent since there is no influence on the flow upstream of the waves.

Mach Lines

Assuming that downstream flow remain supersonic ( 1
2
> M ), the wave angle decreases with
decrease in the wedge angle. When decreases to zero, decreases to the limiting value , given
by
0 1 sin
2 2
1
= M or

=

M
1
sin
1

The jump in the flow quantities is then zero and, hence the strength of the wave is zero. The flow is
continuous without any disturbance. There is nothing unique about the point where this wave
originates; it might be any point in the flow. The angle is simply a characteristic angle associated
M
2

M
1

M
1
M
1

M
2
M
2

M
1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
with
1
M . It is called the Mach angle. The lines of inclination which may be drawn at any point in
the flow field are called Mach lines or Mach waves.

If the flow is nonuniform varies with M and the Mach lines are curved. At any point P in a 2-D flow
field, there are always two lines which intersect the streamline at the angle . In 3-D flow, the Mach
lines or characteristics define a conical surface with vertex at P. A 2-D supersonic flow is always
associated with two families of Mach lines denoted by the labels (+) and (). Those in the (+) set run
to the right of the streamlines and those in the () set run to the left. They are also called
characteristics from the mathematical theory of hyperbolic PDEs. These are analogous to the two
families of characteristics that trace the propagation of 1-D waves in the x-t plane. Like the
characteristics in the x-t plane, Mach lines have a distinguished direction, the direction of flow or the
direction of increasing time. This is related to the fact that there is no upstream influence in
supersonic flow.

First-order approximation for weak oblique shocks

For small deflection angles , the oblique shock equations reduce to very simple expressions. The
approximate relation that can be used to derive others is

+
tan
2
1
1 sin
2
1
2
2
1
M M

For small , the value of is close to either
2

or , depending on whether 1
2
< M or 1
1
> M .
For 1
2
< M , the approximation reduces to
M
1
()

M
1
()
(+)

M
1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

2
2 2 1
1
2
1
1
sin 1
2
1
M
M
M

, as
1
1
tan tan
2
1

=
M

The pressure is then approximated to

1
2
1
2
1
1
1 2

M
M
p
p
p
p p

The changes in other flow quantities are also proportional to the deflection angle ' ' . The change of
entropy is proportional to the third power of the shock strength and hence to third power of deflection
angle

3
s
The difference between the wave angle and the Mach angle , to first order accuracy, can be
found as follows,
Let , = + <<
Hence,
( )
sin sin sin cos = + +

By definition
1 cot ,
1
sin
2
1
1
= = M
M

Hence,
2
1 1
sin 1 1 M M +

2 2 2
1 1
sin 1 2 1 M M +

2
2 2 2
1
1 1
2
1
1
sin 1 2 1
2
1
M
M M
M

or
2
1
2
1
1
4 1
M
M

+
=

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
Hence, for a finite deflection angle , the direction of the wave differs from the Mach direction by an
amount , which is of the same order as .
The change in flow speed can be obtained as

( )
( )
2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1
1
1
tan 1
cos
tan 1 cos
1
u
w u
w u
u

+

+
+

= = = =
+ +

+

Now,
2
2 2
1
2
2
1
1
1 2
cos 1 sin 1
1
M
M
M

= =

Similarly, ( )
2
cos can be obtained form
2
cos by replacing by .
The final result, after dropping all terms of order
2
and higher
2
2
1
1
1
1
w
w
M

or
1
2
1
1
=

M
w
w

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module3:
Waves in Supersonic Flow

Lecture11:
Waves in Supersonic Flow (Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Supersonic compression by turning

A shock wave passing through a fluid increases the pressure and density of the fluid. Hence, shock
waves can be used to compress a flow. A simple method for compressing a supersonic flow is to turn
it through an oblique shock by deflecting the wall through an angle . The turn may be subdivided
into several segments which make smaller corners of angle so that compression occurs through
successive weaker oblique shocks. These shocks divide the field near the wall into segments of
uniform flow. Away from the wall the shocks tend to intersect each other since they are convergent. In
the near wall region each segment of the flow is independent of the next one and may be constructed
step by step proceeding downstream. This property of limited upstream influence exists as long as
the deflection does not become so great that the flow becomes subsonic.

For each wave in the multiple shock p and ( )
3
s .
The overall pressure and entropy changes are

1
~
k
p p n

( ) ( )( ) ( )
3 2 2
1
~ ~
k
s s n n

Thus, when the compression is achieved through a large number of weak shocks, the entropy
increase can be reduced significantly compared to a single shock giving the same net deflection. It
decreases as
2
1
n
. By continuing the process of subdivision, the segments can be made vanishingly
small ( 0 ), and in the limit, the smooth turn or isentropic compression is obtained.

When the shocks become vanishingly weak, they are almost straight Mach lines. Each segment of
uniform flow becomes vanishingly narrow and finally coincides with a Mach line. Thus, the flow
inclination and Mach number are constant on each Mach line. Thus, in the limit of smooth flow, the
velocities and flow inclination are continuous, but their derivatives may still be discontinuous. The
approximate expression for the change of speed across a very weak shock
1
2
1

=

M
w
w

becomes the differential equation

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
) (
1
2
1
M
M
d
w
w d

=

Due to the convergence of the Mach lines, the change form
1
M to
2
M on the streamline b occurs in a
shorter distance than on the streamline a. Hence, the gradients of velocity and temperature on b are
higher than those on a. An intersection of Mach lines would imply an infinitely high gradient for there
would be two values of M at one point. However, this cannot occur since in the region where Mach
lines converge and the gradients become very high the conditions are no longer isentropic. Before the
Mach lines cross a shock wave is developed. Far from the corner, there would be a simple oblique
shock for
1
M and . The convergence of Mach lines in a compression is a typical nonlinear effect:
decreasing Mach number and increasing flow inclination both tend to make successive Mach lines
steeper.

If a wall is placed along one of the streamlines, say b, where the gradients are still small enough for
the flow to be isentropic; then an isentropic compression in a curved channel is obtained. Since this
flow is isentropic, it may be reversed without violating the second law of thermodynamics.

a
b
M
2
M
2
M
1
M
1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

Supersonic Expansion by Turning

Flow round a concave turn, that is turns in which the wall is deflected in to the flow, undergoes
compression through shock wave/Mach lines. Expansion takes place in a flow over a convex corner.
In this case a turn through a single oblique wave is not possible.

Since
1 2
= ,
2
u must be greater than
1
u decrease in entropy. Hence, expansion shocks are not
possible.

The non-linear mechanism that steepens a compression produces the opposite effect in expansion.
Instead of being convergent, the Mach lines are divergent.

2

w
1
u
1
w
2
1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

Consequently, there is a tendency to decrease gradients. Thus an expansion is isentropic throughout.
The expansion at a corner occurs though a centered wave defined by a fan of straight Mach lines.
The flow up to the corner is uniform at Mach number
1
M and thus the leading Mach wave must be
straight at the Mach angle
1
. The terminating Mach lines stands at the angle
2
(corresponding
to
2
M ) to downstream wall. This centered wave is more often called a Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan.

Using the differential relation between and M in an isentropic compression or expansion by turning

2
M
1
M
2
M
2
M
1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6

w
dw
M d 1
2
=

( ) M
w
dw
M K = = +

1
2

Now aM w = and
2
2
0
2
1
1
2
a
M
a

= +

+
= + =
2
2
1
1
1
M
M
dM
a
da
M
dM
w
dw

Hence
M
dM
M
M
M

+

=
2
2
2
1
1
1
) (

( )
1 2 1 2
1 1
tan 1 tan 1
1 1
M M

+
=
+

This function is known as the Prandtl-Meyer function. The constant of integration is chosen arbitrarily
so that 0 = corresponds to 1 = M . The corresponding values of the flow properties are obtained
from isentropic relations.

A supersonic Mach number M is always associated with a definite value of the function . As M
varies from 1 to , increases monotonically form 0 to
max
, where

max
1
2 1

+
= = =

D

In a compression turn decreases, whereas in an expansion turn it increases, in each case by an
amount equal to the flow deflection. Knowing the initial value ( )
1 1
M = , the value of for a given

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

7
value of then gives the corresponding value of M . Usually, the value of
1
0, isset to since only
the deflection matters.

For compression

1 1
=
, , M
1

1 1
, M
, , M
1 1
+ =
1 1 1
, , M
For expansion

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module3:
Waves in Supersonic Flow

Lecture12:
Waves in Supersonic Flow (Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2

Simple and Non-simple regions

The isentropic compression and expansion waves are distinguished by the straight Mach lines with
constant conditions on each one and by the simple relation between flow deflection and Prandtl-
Meyer function. A wave belongs to one of two families (+ or ), depending on whether the wall that
produces it is to the left or right of flow respectively. In the region where two simple waves of opposite
family interact with each other, the flow is non-simple. The relation between and is not the simple
one given by =
1
. These regions may be treated by the method of characteristics.

Reflection & Intersection of oblique shocks

An oblique shock incident on a wall is reflected. The incident shock deflects the flow through an
angle toward the wall. Hence, a reflected shock of the opposite family is required to turn it back
again an amount of to satisfy the zero normal velocity on the wall.
Non simple region

Simple wave

Simple wave ()

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
The deflections produced by the two shocks are equal in magnitude but the pressure ratios are not,
since
1 2
M M < . The strength of the reflection is defined by the overall pressure ratio which equals the
product of the individual shock strengths.
3 3 2
1 2 1
p p p
p p p
=

Usually, the reflection is not specular, i.e., the inclination of the reflected shock is not the same as
the inclination of the incident shock. The shock angles are different since both Mach number and
flow inclination ahead of the second shock are smaller than those ahead of the first shock. The two
effects are opposite and the result depends on the particular values of
1
M and . An explicit relation
cannot be found but the values can be found easily.

The wall streamline, in the reflection case, may also be identified with the central streamline of the
symmetric flow in the intersection of two shocks of equal strength but of opposite families. The shocks
pass through each other but are slightly bent in the process. The flow downstream of the shock
system is parallel to the initial flow.

p
2
p
1
On wall
On streamline
p
3
p
2
p
1

M
3
M
2 M
1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

(Intersection of equal strength shocks)

If the intersecting shocks are of unequal strengths, the flow experiences different changes in
traversing the shock wave system. The streamline through the intersection point divides the flow into
two portions. The two portions have the same pressure and the same flow direction. The direction is
not necessarily that of the free stream. These two requirements determine the final direction and the
final pressure
3
p . All other parameters are then determined, but they do not have the same values on
the two sides of the dividing streamline. A slip stream or shear layer develops since the magnitudes
of the velocity on either side of it are different. It is also called a contact surface, because the
temperature and density on either side are different. These differences are related to the net entropy
changes experienced by the fluid on the two sides of the intersection.

M
3

central streamline
M
3
M
2
M
1
M
2

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

Dividing streamline
or slip stream
, M
2

M
3

p
3

p
3
M
3

M
2
M
1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module3:
Waves in Supersonic Flow

Lecture13:
Waves in Supersonic Flow(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2

Intersection of shocks of the same family

Two shocks of the same family produced by, for example, successive corners in the same wall,
cannot pass through each other. They coalesce to form a single stronger branch.

The flow on either side of the intersection point, o, experiences different entropy changes and a
slipstream is produced. An additional wave oe , of the opposite family, is needed to equalize the
pressures on the two sides of the slipstream. This may be either a compression or an expansion
wave depending on the particular configuration and Mach number. However, it is very much weaker
than the primary waves. If the second shock bo is much weaker than the first one ao, thenoe is
usually a compression. In this case the second shock is partly transmitted along oc , thus
augmenting the first one and partly reflected along oe .

In the interaction of an expansion wave with a shock wave of the same family, the main effect is an
attenuation of the shock, but there is also a partial reflection of the expansion along Mach lines of the
opposite family. These reflected waves are always very mach weaker than the primary ones and may
be neglected in all but the strongest interactions. Instead of the single slipstream, there is a whole
region of vorticity, that is, an entropy field downstream of the interaction.

Slip stream
Weak reflection
d

e

b
a
c

o

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

Detached shocks
For a given supersonic stream if the wall deflection is
max
, > the flow cannot negotiate the turn
through an attached oblique shock. The observed flow configurations are, as example,

M<1
a

c

b

M>1
M
1
Attenuation of shock by expansion wave
Weak reflections

M=1
b c
M=M
1

=
max

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

The flow is compressed through a curved shock, detached from the body and stands at some
distance ahead of it. The shape of the shock and the detachment distance depend on the geometry
and flow Mach number. On the central streamline, the shock is normal and the flow behind the shock
is subsonic. On the nearby streamlines, the shock is nearly normal and the flow is compressed to
subsonic conditions. Further out, the shock becomes weaker and less steep, approaching
asymptotically to the Mach angle. Thus conditions along the detached shock wave contain the whole
range of the oblique shock solution for the given Mach number. In such configurations, shock
inclination corresponding to strong solution is found. When the flow behind the shock is subsonic, the
shock is no longer independent of the downstream conditions. A change in geometry or pressure in
the subsonic portion affects the entire flow up to the shock and the shock needs to adjust itself to the
new conditions. In the case of a blunt-nosed body, the shock wave is detached at all Mach numbers.
A wedge of half-angle
max
> is a blunt-nosed body so far as the oncoming flow is concerned.

The sequence of events in the flow over a wedge with after-body with decreasing Mach number is as
follows: (1) when
1
M is sufficiently high the shock wave is attached to the nose, the straight portion is
M>1
M<1
/2
d

a

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
independent of the shoulder and after-body. The shock angle increases as
1
M decreases. (2) At a
certain reduced Mach number, the flow after the shock becomes subsonic. The shoulder now affects
the whole shock, which may be curved, even though still attached. These conditions correspond to
the region between the lines
2
1 M = and
max
= in the M relationship. (3) At the Mach
number corresponding to
max
, the shock wave starts to detach. This is called detachment Mach
number. (4) With further decrease of
1
M , the detached shock moves upstream of the nose.
A similar sequence of events occurs in flow over a cone with cylindrical after-body. The detachment
Mach numbers are lower than for wedges.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module3:
Waves in Supersonic Flow

Lecture14:
Waves in Supersonic Flow
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2

Mach Reflection:

The appearance of subsonic regions in the flow complicates the problem. The complications are also
encountered in shock reflections, when they are too strong to give the simple or regular reflections. If
2
M after the incident shock is lower than the detachment Mach number for , then no solution with
simple oblique wave is possible. A three-shock Mach reflection appears that satisfies the downstream
conditions.

A normal, or, nearly normal, shock that appears near the wall forms with the incident and reflected
shocks a triple intersection point at O. Due to the difference in entropy on streamlines above and
below the triple point, the streamline that extends downstream from the triple point is a slipstream.
The nearly normal shock is termed shock stem.

The subsonic region behind the shock stem makes a local description of the configuration impossible.
The triple point solution that occurs in a particular problem and the location of the triple point are
determined by the downstream conditions which influence the subsonic part of the flow.

Shock-Expansion Theory

Slip stream

0 M
1

M
2
<1
M
2
>1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
Oblique shock wave and simple isentropic wave relations can be used to analyze many 2-D
supersonic flow problems, particularly for geometries with straight segments.

(1) Diamond-section airfoil: Consider a diamond section or double-wedge section airfoil with
semi-vertex angle . Assume the semi-vertex angle to be sufficiently smaller than
max
associated with the free stream Mach number
1
M . An attached oblique shock appears at
the nose that compresses the

flow to pressure
2
p .On the straight portion, downstream of the shock the flow remains uniform at
2
M .
The centered expansion at the shoulder expands the flow to pressure
3
p and the trailing edge shock
recompresses it to nearly the free stream pressure (
1 4
p p ). Hence, an overpressure acts on the
forward face and an under-pressure acts on the rearward face. Since the pressure on the two straight
portions is unequal, a drag force acts on the airfoil. This drag force is given by
( ) ( )
2 3 2 3
cos D p p t p p t = per unit span

t is the section thickness at the shoulder. Pressure values
2
p and
3
p can be obtained using the
shock and expansion relations. This drag exists only in supersonic flow and is called supersonic
wave drag.

p
3
p
4
p
2
p
1
3
4
2
M
1
, p
1

M
1
>1
2
t
2

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
(2) Flat plate at incidence: Consider a flat plate of chord c set at an angle of attack . Due to
no upstream influence, the streamlines ahead of the leading edge are straight and the upper surface
flow is independent of lower surface. The flow on the upper surface turns at the nose through a
centered expansion by the angle whereas on the lower side the flow is turned through a
compression angle by an oblique shock. The reverse happens at the trailing edge.

From the uniform pressures on the two sides, the lift and drag forces are
( )
3 2
cos L p p c =

( )
3 2
sin D p p c =

The shock on the lower surface at the nose is weaker than the shock at the trailing edge on the upper
surface (shock at higher Mach number). Hence, the increase in entropy for flow on the two sides is
not same and consequently the streamline from the trailing edge is a slipstream inclined at a small
angle relative to the free stream.

(3) Curved airfoil section

An attached shock forms at the nose. Subsequently, continuous expansion occurs along the surface.
The flow leaves at the trailing edge through an oblique shock. For the shocks to be attached, it is
required that nose and tail be wedge shaped with half angle less than
max
. Since the flow over the
curved wall varies continuously, no simple expression for lift and drag forces is obtained in this case.
Slip stream
3
2
M
1
>1
M
1
, p
1

p
1

p
2

p
3

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

If a larger portion of the flow field is considered, then the shocks and expansion waves will interact.
The expansion fans attenuate the oblique shocks, making them weak and curved. At large distances
they approach asymptotically the free-stream Mach lines. Due to the interaction the waves will reflect.
The reflected wave system will alter the flow field. In shock-expansion theory, the reflected waves are
neglected. For a diamond airfoil and a lifting flat plate, the reflected waves do not intercept the airfoil
at all. Hence, the shock-expansion results are not affected.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module3:
Waves in Supersonic Flow

Lecture15:
Waves in Supersonic Flow
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2

Thin Airfoil Theory

The shock-expansion theory provides numerical solutions as long as the shocks are attached. The
method is quite simple and general for computing lift and drag. The results, in general, cannot be
expressed in a concise analytic form. However, for a thin airfoil at small angle of attack all the flow
deflections are small and the shock-expansion theory can be approximated by the approximate
relations for weak shocks and expansions. The basic approximate expression for computing pressure
change is

1
2
2
M
M
p
p

When the first-order weak wave approximation is valid, p andM will not be much different
from
1
p and
1
M . Hence,

1
2
1
2
1
M
M
p
p

If all pressure changes are referenced to free-stream pressure
1
p and all deflections to the free-stream
direction, then

1
2
1
2
1
1
1

M
M
p
p p
where is inclination relative to free
stream

1
2 2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1 1
1

=
M
p
p p
M
u
p p
C
p

Thus for a flat plate at a small angle of attack , the pressure coefficients on the upper and lower
surfaces are

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

2
1
2
1
p
C
M

The lift and drag coefficients are

( )
( )
2
2
1
1 1
cos
4
cos
1
1
2
l u
l u
L p p
p p c
C C C
M
u c

= =

( )
( )
2
2
2
1
1 1
sin
4
sin
1
1
2
l u
l u
D p p
p p c
C C C
M
u c

= =

2
1
2
1
1
4
D
L
C
M
C
=

The aerodynamic centre is at mid-chord.
For the diamond section aerofoil with nose angle 2 the pressure coefficients, on the front and rear
faces, at zero-incidence are

2
1
2
1
p
C
M

2 3
2
1
4
1
p p
M

2
1 1
1
2
u

( ) ( )
2
2
2 3 2 3 1 1
2
1
4 1
2
1
D p p t p p c u c
M

= = =

Hence,
2
2
2 2
1 1
4 4
1 1
D
t
C
c
M M

= =

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
For a general airfoil that has thickness, camber and angle of attack, the pressure coefficient on the
upper and lower surfaces are

2 2
1 1
2 2
,
1 1
U L
U L
p p
dy dy
C C
dx dx
M M

= =

The profile can be resolved into a symmetric thickness distribution ( ) x
t
and a camber line of zero
thickness ( ) x
c
at an incidence

U c t
dy d d
dx dx dx

= +

c t L
d d dy
dx dx dx

=

Hence,

( )
2
1 1
2
1 1
2
1
1
4
1 2
2
1
L U
c c
c
p p
o o
u
d
L u C C dx dx
dx
M

= = +

2
1 1
1

2
L U
c
U L
p p
o
dy dy
D u C C dx
dx dx

= +

2
2 2
1 1
2
1
1
2
2
1
c
U L
o
u
dy dy
dx
dx dx
M

= +

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

2
2 2
1 1
2
1
1
4
2
1
c
c t
o
u
d d
dx
dx dx
M

= + +

The lift and drag coefficients are given as

2 2
2
2
0
1
4 1
1
c
c t
D
d d
C dx
c dx dx
M

= + +

The lift coefficient depends only on angle of attack but the drag coefficient also depends on camber
and thickness. The drag splits into three parts: a drag due to lift, a drag due to thickness and a drag
due to camber.

2 2
1 1
4 1 4
1 1
c
c
L
o
d
C dx
c dx
M M

= + =

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1
Module4:
Fiber in Ducts

Lecture 16:
Flow in ducts, (Nozzles and diffusers)
and wind tunnels

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
The flow can be assumed to be one-dimensional, that is, conditions across each section are uniform.
The conditions at any two sections in a steady flow are related by the equation
2 2 2 1 1 1
A u A u =

Using the sonic condition as reference

= A u uA

When the flow is purely subsonic,

A is a fictitious area that does not occur in the flow. But, if sonic
and supersonic conditions are attained in the flow, then = =

t
A A area of the actual throat
Since

= a u ,

u
a
u
a
A
A
o
o

= =

We have
1
1
2
,
1 o

=

+

2
1
2
1
1
2

+
+
=

M
u
a

1
1
2
2
1
1

+ =

M
o

The isentropic area-Mach number relation becomes

( )
( ) 1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2 1

+

+
+
=

M
M A
A

Area-pressure relation
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1

= =

o
o p
p
p
p
u
u
A
A

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

Mass flow rate per unit area

o
o
T
T
T
R
RT
pu
u
RT
p
u
A
m 1

= = =

2
1
1
2
o
pM
M
R
T

= +

Defining a mass flow parameter as

W
p
T
A
m
o
m
1
=

2
1
1
2
m
M M

= +

## , = universal gas constant

In terms of stagnation quantities and Mach number

( ) 1 2
1
2
2
1
1

+

+
=

M
M
T
p
R A
m
o
o

Hence, for a given Mach number, the flow rate is proportional to the stagnation pressure and
inversely proportional to the square root of stagnation temperature.
o
o
p
T m
is used as a non-
dimensional mass flow parameter for turbomachinery performances.

In can be seen that the mass flow rate attains a maxima when 1 M = . Hence,

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
o
o
T
p
R A
m
A
m
1
1
max
1
2

+

+
= =

Hence, for a given gas, the maximum flow per unit area depends on
o
o
p
T
. For fixed and
o o
p T and
passage, the maximum flow that can pass is relatively large for gases of high molecular weight and
small for gases of low molecular weight.

The fact that the curve of mass flow rate per unit area has a maximum is connected with the
interesting and important effect called choking.

1
isentropic relations
chart or
M

,
1

,
1

o
T
T

( )
1

A
A
.

A is constant . Hence,
( ) ( )
1
1
2
2

=
A
A
A
A
A
A

( )
2

A
A

or chart
relations isentropic
,
2
M
,
2

o
T
T

Since
o
p and
o
T are constant,
2
p &
2
T can be obtained as

,
1
2
1
2

=
o
o
p
p
p
p
p
p

1
2
1
2

=
o
o
T
T
T
T
T
T

Now, for a given area ratio
1
2
A
A
,
2
M can be computed for given
1
M . The plotted results look like

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

(1) For a given initial Mach number
1
M and a given area ratio
2
1
A
A
, there are either two solutions for
final
2
M or none at all. When there are two solutions, one is subsonic and the other is supersonic.
Which one of the two occurs depends, the part, on whether a throat exists between sections (1) and
(2), since in order to change the regime the flow must pass a throat at 1 M = .

For example if
1
M is subsonic and the passage is converging, then
2
M must be subsonic. But if the
passage is converging-diverging and has a throat between (1) and (2), the flow at section (2) may be
either subsonic (venturi) or supersonic (nozzle) depending on the pressures imposed at the inlet and
exit.

(ii) No solution ( )
2
M for the chosen values of
1
M and
1
2
A
A
, that is, the solution is imaginary in
mathematical sense can occur only if
2
A is smaller than
1
A . Physically, this result signifies that for a
given flow at section 1, there is a maximum contraction which is possible. The maximum contraction
corresponds to sonic velocity at 2. If conditions at section (1) are specified, the mass flow is fixed and
there is then a minimum cross-sectional area required to pass this flow. This phenomenon is called
choking. For a given area reduction, in subsonic flow there is a maximum initial Mach number which
can be maintained steadily; and in supersonic flow a minimum initial Mach number which can be
maintained steadily. At either of these limiting conditions, the flow at section (2) is sonic and is said to
be choked.
A
2
/A
1
= 1
A
2
/A
1
= 1
M
2
M
1
No throat
--- Throat
A
2
/A
1
= 2
A
2
/A
1
= 1.2
A
2
/A
1
= 0.8
A
2
/A
1
= 0.8

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6

Consider subsonic flow at 1. If
1 2
A A = , all conditions at 2 will be identical to 1. A slight reduction in
2
A will produce certain effects at 2 and will comprise an increase in
2
M and decrease in
2
p and
2
T .
This slight reduction in
2
A without a change in conditions at 1 must be accompanied by a reduction in
the back pressure
2
p . Further reduction in
2
A may be made in the same way until
2
M reaches unity.
After this point is reached, there is no way of reducing the area further without simultaneous change
in the steady state conditions at section 1. If, for example, the pressure and temperature at 1 are held
constant, a reduction in
1
2
A
A
beyond its limiting value will, after a transient period of wave
propagation, result in a reduced steady-state
1
M reducing the mass flow rate. The maximum possible
value of
1
M (also, maximum flow rate) is obtained when 1
2
= M . To obtain this limiting flow, the back
pressure
2
p must of course be adjusted accordingly.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1
Module4:
Fiber in Ducts

Lecture 17:
Flow in ducts, (Nozzles and diffusers)
and wind tunnels (Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Converging-Diverging Nozzles

In regime I the flow is entirely subsonic, and the duct behaves like a conventional venturi tube. The
flow rate is sensitive to changes in back pressure (conditions 1a, 1b).

V
0
=0
P
0
, T
0

Constant

p
B
p
e
p
B
p
B
T

0
*
p
p
0
p
p

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

0
*
p
p

0
p
p
e
0
p
p
B
0
p
p
B
0
*
p
p

0
p
p
B

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

At condition 2, which forms the dividing-line between regimes I and II, a normal shock appears
downstream of the throat, and the process aft of the shock comprises subsonic deceleration. As the
back pressure is lowered, the shock moves down the nozzle. At condition 4, it appears in the exit
plane of the nozzle. Both in regime I & II the exit pressure
e
p is virtually identical with the back
pressure
B
p . But the flow rate in regime II, unlike regime I, is constant and is unaffected by the back
pressure (conditions at the throat are sonic and unaltered).

In regime III, as for condition 5, the flow within the entire nozzle is supersonic, and the pressure in the
exit plane is lower than the back pressure over expanded nozzle. The subsequent compression
occurs outside the nozzle by oblique shocks and their reflections.

Condition 6 is the design condition for the nozzle under supersonic conditions. The exit pressure is
identical with the back pressure. A reduction in the back pressure below that corresponding to
condition 6 has no effect on the flow pattern within the nozzle. In regime IV the expansion from
e
p to
B
p occurs outside the nozzle in the form of expansion waves (underexpanded nozzle). In both
regimes III and IV the flow within the nozzle is independent of
B
p and corresponds to the flow pattern
for the design condition. Adjustment to the back pressure is made in the jet.

0
p
p
B
0
*
p
p

0
0
p A
T m
t

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
For subsonic flow there are an infinite number of possible pressure-distance curve. For the
supersonic region of flow, the pressure-distance curve is unique. Since, in subsonic flow the pressure
ratio does not depend solely on area ratio, but in supersonic flow the pressure ratio depends solely on
area ratio.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1
Module4:
Fiber in Ducts

Lecture 18:
Flow in ducts, (Nozzles and diffusers)
and wind tunnels(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Laval nozzle as a supersonic wind tunnel

As the exit pressure is described the shock moves downstream, finally reaching the exit, pressure
there then reaches a value of
4
p . If pressure at the exit decreases further, the flow in the nozzle is not
affected; the pressure adjustment being made through system of oblique shock waves. For exit
pressure lower than
4
p , flow up to the exit is completely supersonic. Thus a Laval nozzle may be
used as supersonic wind tunnel provided
4
p p
e

This is the principle of the open-circuit type of supersonic wind tunnel, operating from a high-pressure
reservoir or into a vacuum receiver or both. Continuous flow may be obtained if enough power is
available; otherwise, it is used as an intermittent or blow-down wind tunnel.

If the nozzle discharges directly into the receiver, the minimum pressure ratio for full supersonic flow
in the test section is

4
p
p
p
p
o
e
o
=

But if a diffuser is attached to the exit, operation at a lower pressure ratio is possible, since the
subsonic flow downstream of the shock may be decelerated isentropically to the stagnation pressure
o
p in principle.

The pressure ratio required then is the ratio of stagnation pressures across a normal shock at the test
section Mach number
1
M , i.e.,
Test
section
M
1

P
1

P
0

M
2

P
2
=p
4

P
0

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2 1
1
1
2
1

+
+

+
+ =

M
M
M
p
p
o
o
s

Practically, this type of diffuser does not give the expected recovery, the interaction of shock wave
and boundary layer develops a flow different from this model.

However, a long constant area duct ahead of the subsonic diffuser nearly realizes the normal shock
recovery. Such a duct, provided it is long enough, gives nearly the same recompression as a normal
shock. The compression occurs through a system of shocks interacting with the thickened boundary
layer. Through this recovery through a dissipative system is not the most efficient, but it is often most
practical. It is quite stable with respect to variations of inlet conditions.

The normal shock pressure recovery is an ideal, convenient reference or standard for comparison of
performance.

If the supersonic flow at the test section could be isentropically compressed to sonic conditions at a
second throat, if could then be decelerated sub-sonically in the diffuser. Ideally, then it is possible to
operate at even a lower pressure ratio than the one for normal shock recovery. In the idealized case,
no shock complete recovery,
o o
p p = .

=
1 2
A A

No pressure difference No power
But necessary to create a pressure difference to start.
Initial normal shock at the test section layer second throat
Minimum starting area forth second throat is

s
o
o
o
o
p
p
p
p
A
A
=

= =

2
1
1
2

Diffuser contraction ratio,

=
2
1
A
A

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

( )
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
max
1
M f
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
s
= = = =

With minimum area for the second throat and with larger ones, the shock wave jump from the test
section to the downstream side of the diffuser throat swallowing the shock test section is
supersonic, but also the second throat and part of the diffuser. The second throat area can be
reduced after the flow has started to move the shock toward the start.

=
1 2
A A will now make it ideal,
but not possible to achieve the reduction, but some contraction is possible.

Flow in constant Area ducts with friction

Stationary power plants, aircraft propulsion, high-vacuum technology, fluid transport in chemical
process plants, natural gas transport in long pipe.

Wall friction is the chief factor, with the assumption that no special attempt is made to transfer heat to
or from the stream. When the ducts are reasonably short, the flow is approximately adiabatic, but for
extremely long ducts; there is sufficient area for heat transfer to make the flow non-adiabatic and
approximately isothermal.

Assumptions: - One dimensional steady flow,
Neither external heat exchange nor external shaft work

o
h u h = +
2
2
1

G
m
u = =
2

## , h u, , are measured at he same section

2
2
2
G
h h
o
=
, a relation between & h for a particular flow ( G h
o
, are
constant)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

All possible states of the fluid for a given adiabatic, constant area flow lie on one of these lines.
Since for a pure substance ( ) , s s h = , the curves may be transferred to the enthalpy-entropy
diagram. The curves are called Fanno curves or Fanno lines.
For all substances, the Fanno curves have the general shape

1

h
0

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6

p
0a
=p
0b

p
0a
*=p
0b
*
p
a
*=p
b
*
h
o

p
a

Fanno curves
Small G
p
b

b
Large G
s
ha
a

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1
Module4:
Fiber in Ducts

Lecture 19:
Flow in ducts, (Nozzles and diffusers)
and wind tunnels(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
The upper branch of each Fanno curve corresponds to the subsonic flow, and the lower branch
corresponds to supersonic flow, and the Mach number is unity at the point of maximum entropy on
each Fanno curve.
Since the flow is adiabatic, the second law of thermodynamics states that entropy can not decrease;
thus the path of states along any Fanno curves must be towards the right. Consequently, if the flow at
a point in the duct is subsonic (a), the effects of friction will be to increase the velocity and Mach
number and to decrease the pressure and enthalpy. If the flow is initially supersonic (b), the friction
will decrease the velocity and Mach number and will increase the enthalpy and pressure. A subsonic
flow, therefore, will never become supersonic and a supersonic flow will not become subsonic, unless
a discontinuity is present.
The limiting pressure, beyond which the entropy would suffer a decrease, occurs at Mach number
unity and is denoted by

p .

p denotes the state where 1 = M for the adiabatic flow at constant area.
Referring to a state ' ' a the value of

a
p will be different for an isentropic flow as compared with the
value for an adiabatic constant area flow.
The isentropic stagnation pressure is reduced as a result of friction, irrespective to whether the flow is
subsonic or supersonic.
Choking due to friction Consider the stagnation enthalpy, flow per unit area and length of duct are
such that Mach number unity is reached at the end of duct. If the duct length is increased, it is evident
from the foregoing considerations that some sort of adjustment in the flow is necessary. When the
flow is subsonic, this adjustment is in the form of a reduction in the flow rate, that is, the flow is
chocked. When the flow is supersonic, the adjustment at first involves the appearance of shock
waves, and for sufficiently large increase in duct length, involves ultimately a choking of the flow.
Adiabatic, Constant-Area Flow of a Perfect Gas

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

T
dT d
p
dp
RT p + = =

--- (1)

2 2 2
2 2
2 2
,
u dM du dT
a RT M
RT M u T

= = =
--- (2)
Energy:-
( ) 0
2
2
= +
u
d dT C
p
Divide by T C
p
, and use definition of Mach number

0
2
1
2
2
2
=

+
u
du
M
T
dT
--- (3)
Mass conservation

u
A
m
G = =

+ d, M + dM
dx

w

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

0
2
1
2
2
= +
u
du d

--- (4)
Momentum Conservation:
w w
=
A: cross sectional area
dA
w
: wetted wall area over which
w
acts.
The drag coefficient, usually called the coefficient of friction for duct flow, is defined as

2
2
1
u
f
w

=

The hydraulic diameter is defined as 4 times the ratio of c.s. area to wetted perimeter,

dx
dA
A
dx
dA
A
D
w
w
4
4
= =

Using f D, and continuity equation into the momentum equation to give

u
du
u du
A
m
D
dx u
f dp
2
2
2
4

= =

Dividing by p and using
2 2
pM u =
0
2
4
2
2
2 2 2
= + +
u
du M
D
dx
f
M
p
dp
-- (5)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
From the definition of isentropic stagnation pressure

1
2
2
1
1

+ =

M p p
o

2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
M
dM
M
M
p
dp
p
dp
o
o

+
+ =

--- (6)
Impulse function is defined as

( )
2 2
1 M pA Au pA F + = + =

2
2
2
2
1 M
dM
M
M
p
dp
F
dF

+
+ =
--- (7)
We have now seven simultaneous linear algebraic relations involving eight differential variables
2 2
2 2
, , , , ,
o
o
dp dp d
dT dM du dF
p T p F
M u

and
D
dx
or
D
dx
f 4
.
The physical phenomenon causing changes in state is viscous friction. Hence, the variable
D
dx
f 4 is
the physically independent variable.
From (1) and (3)
2
2
2
2
1
k
dk
M
d
p
dp
=

Introducing (4) into it

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6

( )
2
2 2
2
1 1
u
du M
p
dp +
=

With (5) this gives,
( ) [ ]
( ) D
dx
f
M
M M
p
dp
4
1 2
1 1
2
2 2

+
=

-- (8)
Similarly,

D
dx
f
M
M M
M
dM
4
1
2
1
1
2
2 2
2
2

+
=

-- (9)

( )
2
2
4
2 1
du M dx
f
u D
M

--- (10)

( )
( ) D
dx
f
M
M
a
da
T
dT
4
1 2
1
2
1
2
4

= =

--- (11)

( ) D
dx
f
M
M d
4
1 2
2
2

-- (12)
D
dx
f
M
p
dp
o
4
2
2

=
- (13)

( ) D
dx
f
M
M
F
dF
4
1 2
2
2

+
=
-- (14)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

7
Also,
2
1
1
2
1
1
ln
o
o o
p p o
o
o
T
T dp s ds
c c p
p
p

= =

Since
o
T is constant in an adiabatic flow
D
dx
f M
c
ds
p
4
2
1
2

=

--- (15)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1
Module4:
Fiber in Ducts

Lecture 20:
Flow in ducts, (Nozzles and diffusers)
and wind tunnels(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Since entropy can not decrease in an adiabatic process, (15) tells that ' ' f must be positive, thus the
shearing stress must always act on the stream in a direction opposite to the direction of flow, as
assumed.
The isentropic stagnation pressure and impulse function must decrease if friction is present both in
the subsonic or supersonic flow. Wall friction reduces the effectiveness of all types of flow machinery
and also reduces the thrust obtainable from jet propulsion devices.
Summary Subsonic Supersonic
p decreases increases
M increases decreases
u increases decreases
T decreases increases
decreases increases
F p
o
, decreases decreases
The Mach number always tends toward unity. Continuous transition from one regime to the other is
impossible. For given conditions at an initial section of the duct, the maximum possible duct length
which can be employed without attiring the given initial conditions and without introducing
discontinuities is that length for which the exit Mach number is exactly unity.
M is chosen as independent variable to integrate the relations above.

2
1
2 2
2
2
max
2
1
1
1
4 dM
M M
M
D
dx
f
M
L
o

Defining a mean friction coefficient with respect to length as

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

dx f
L
f
L
o

=
max
max
1
; we have
( )
2
2
max
2
2
1
1 1
4 ln
1
2
2 1
2
M
L M
f
D M
M

+
+
= +

+

max value of
D
L
f 4 for given M
Hence, the length of duct L required for the flow to pass from
1
M to
2
M can be found from

2 1
max max
4 4 4
M M
D
L
f
D
L
f
D
L
f

=

Combining (8) and (9)

( )
2
2 2
2
2
1
1 2
1 1
dM
M M
M
p
dp

+
+
=

+
+
=

2
2
1
1 2
1 1
M
M
p
p

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
Similarly,
( )
;
2
1
1 2
1
2

+
+
=

M
M
v
v

+
+
= =

2
2
2
2
1
1 2
1
M
a
a
T
T

1
2
1
1 2
1
2
+

+
= =

M
M u
u

1
1
1
2
1
1 2
1
2
+

+
=

M
M
p
p
o
o

( )

+ +
+
=

2
2
2
1
1 1 2
1
M M
M
F
F

1
2
2 2
1
ln
1
2 1
2
p
s s
M
c
M M

+

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
Hence,
1
2
1
2
M
p
p
M
p
p
p
p

and so on.

xxx---

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1
Module4:
Fiber in Ducts

Lecture 21:
Flow in ducts, (Nozzles and diffusers)
and wind tunnels(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Isothermal flow in long ducts
Isothermal flow with friction is of interest in connection with pipe lines for transporting gas over long
distances. Mach number is usually quite low, but substantial pressure changes because of friction
over great lengths.
Energy equation: - o p p
dT c
v
d dT c dQ =

+ =
2
2
--- (1)
o
T is not a constant now, it is the local stagnation temperature
( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1 2
1
2
1
1
M
dM
M
M
T
dT
M T T
o
o
o

+

=

+ =

--- (2)
Equation of state of a perfect gas is isothermal flow

d
p
dp
=
--- (3)
Also
u
du
M
dM
2
2
2
=
--- (4)
The continuity, momentum and definition of stagnation pressure (local) remain unaltered (e.g. 4, 5, 6
earlier)
Solving the algebraic equations
( ) D
dx
f
M
M
M
dM
u
du d
p
dp
4
1 2 2
1
2
2
2
2

= = = =

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
( )
D
dx
f
M M
M M
p
dp
o
o
4
2
1
1 1 2
2
1
1
2 2
2 2

( )
( )
D
dx
f
M M
M
T
dT
o
o
4
2
1
1 1 2
1
2 2
2

+

=

In this case, the direction of change depends not on M alone, but or
2
M . Since
D
dx
f 4 is always
+ve, the direction of change of the parameters is as follows

1
< M (subsonic) Sub or Supersonic

>

1
M
p decreases increases
decreases increases
u increases decreases
M increases decreases
o
T increases decreases
o
p decreases increases
The Mach number always tends towards

1
. When M is less than

1
, heat is added to the
stream, when M is greater than

1
heat is rejected from the stream.
Again

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
2
1
4
2
2
max 1
4 M
M
M
D
dx
f
M
L
o

=

2
2
2
max
1
4 M l
M
M
D
L
f
u

=

Denoting properties at

1
2
= M by symbols t p t V

, , it can be written as
( )
2
2
2
1
t V
V
M

=

Since T
RT
u
M ,
2
2

## = being a constant here

M
V
u
t
=

Also
*
1
t
t
u
u
M

= =

Hence,
*t
from the perfect gas relationships

M
p
p
t t

1
= =

From the formula for isentropic stagnation pressure

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1

+
= =

M
p
p
t t
o
o

M
M
1
2
1
2
1
1
1 3
2 1

From stagnation temperature

+
= =

2
2
2
1
1
1 3
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
M
M
T
T
T
T
t t
o
o

In long commercial pipelines, the Mach numbers employed are so low that the loss in stagnation
pressure is virtually identical with the loss in static pressure.
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
max
1
max
1 1
4 4 4
M
M
l
M
M
M
M
D
L
f
D
L
f
D
L
f
n
+

Since
2
1
1 2
1
2
2
1
p
p
M M
M
M
p
p
= =

2
2
2
1
1
2
1 2
1
4 ln
p
p
p L
f
D M p

=

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6
Since
2
M cannot exceed

1
, it follows form the pressure ratio relation that
2
1
2
1
2
M
p
p
>

For given values of
1
M and
D
L
f 4 , there are two solutions for
1
2
p
p
. However, one of these is
not acceptable as it involves a violation of the second law of thermodynamics.
For a small pressure drop (in percentage), employing power series of the fractional pressure
drop
( )
1 2
1
p p
p

( )

1
2 1
2
1
2
1
1
2 1
2
1
2
1
1
2
4
p
p p M
M
p
p p
M
D
L
f

The conventional pressure-drop formula for incompressible flow is similar to above except the square
bracket on the rhs is unity. Solving the quadratic equation

D
L
f
M
M
M
M
M
M
p
p p
4
1 1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2 1

It is convenient to use

1
1
2
2
1
P
RT
A
m
M

For a given value of
1
M , there is a maximum length for continuous isothermal flow, hence, it follows
that choking effects may occur in similar fashion to those for adiabatic flow.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1
Module4:
Fiber in Ducts

Lecture 22:
Flow in ducts, (Nozzles and diffusers)
and wind tunnels(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Flow in ducts with heating or cooling factors tending to produce continuous changes in the state of a
flowing stream are (i) changes in cross-sectional area, (ii) wall friction and (iii) energy effects such as
external heat exchange, combustion, or moisture condensation. Simple
o
T change is difficult to
achieve in practice. If
o
T is changed through external heat exchange, the connection between the
mechanisms of friction and of heat transfer assure that frictional effects will be present. Combustion
change in mass rate, chemical composition Simple
o
T change is an ideal case.
With constant area and no friction, the momentum equation is = = +
A
F
u p
2
constant
Continuity = =
A
m
u

constant G =
Combining
A
F G
p = +

2

For fixed mass flow rate per unit area and constant impulse function per unit area, the above equation
defines a unique relation between p and called the Rayleigh line. Since both enthalpy and
entropy are functions of p and , the above equation can be used for representing the Rayleigh line
on the s h diagram. All fluids have Rayleigh curves of the general form.

i
s
e
n
t
r
o
p
e
F
a
n
n
o

p
1

p
01
p*

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
The relation above, in the differential form, becomes

= = =

d
dp
u u
G
d
dp
2
2
2

d
dp
represents the local velocity of sound only for a special circumstances, namely, when the
infinitesimal variation of pressure with density is such that there is no change of entropy. This
condition is fulfilled at the point of maximum entropy on the Rayleigh line. This point represents the
state of Mach number of unity for the process of simple
o
T - change.
Beginning with state 1, Mach number unity might be reached in several way (isentropically,
adiabatically at constant area, etc), and it is only for simple heating the * point will correspond to
Mach number unity. The branch of the Rayleigh curve about the point of maximum entropy generally
corresponds to subsonic flow. Since the process of simple heating is thermodynamically reversible,
heat addition must corresponds to an entropy increase and heat rejection must corresponds to an
entropy decrease. Thus at subsonic speeds the Mach number is increased by heating and decreased
by cooling. The reverse happens in case of supersonic flow. Hence, heat addition, like friction, always
tends to make the Mach number approach unity. Cooling causes the Mach number to change always
in the direction away from unity.
For heat addition at either subsonic or supersonic speeds, the amount of heat input can not be
greater than that for which the leaving Mach number is unity. If the heat addition is too great, the flow
will be choked, the initial Mach number will be reduced to a magnitude that is consistent with the
amount of heat thermal choking.

Mass Conservation
2
1
1
2
u
u
=

p
1
, T
1
M
1
, T
01
p
2
, T
2
M
2
, T
02

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
Momentum Equation ( )
1 2 2 1
u u
A
m
p p =

Using u
A
m
=

and pM u =
2
the momentum equation can be arranged to give
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
M
M
p
p

+
+
=
Equation of state:
2 2 2
1 1 1
p T
p T

= or
2 2 1 2 2
1 1 2 1 1
T p p u
T p p u

= =
Definition of Mach number:
2 2 1 2 1
1 2 1 1 2
M u a u T
M a u u T
= =
Impulse function
( )
( )
1
1
1
2
1 1
2
2 2
1
2
=
+
+
=
M p
M p
F
F

Definition of isentropic pressure
1
2
2
2 2
1 1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
o
o
M
p p
p p
M

+

=

+

Change in entropy
2
2 1 1
1
2
1
ln
p
T
s s T
c
p
p

=

When the process involves heat exchange, the change in stagnation temperature is a direct measure
of the amount of heat transfer. Form the energy equation
( ) ( )
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
2
o o p p
T T C
u u
T T C Q =

+ =
When the process involves combustion or evaporation, it is usually possible to devise an
approximately equivalent process of simple
o
T change. In such cases the initial and final stagnation

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
temperatures would be made respectively identical for the real process and for the equivalent
process. For a Rayleigh process, the change in stream properties are due primarily to changes in
stagnation temperature, u , the rate of change of stream properties along the Rayleigh line is a
function of the rate of change of stagnation temperature.
Now
2
2
1
1 M
T
T
o

+ =

2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
M
M
T
T
T
T
o
o

+
=

Substituting momentum equation and continuity into the equation of state

1
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
u
u
M
M
T
T

+
+
=
Using
1
2
u
u
from the definition of Mach number
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
M
M
M
M
T
T

+
+
=
Substituting this into the stagnation temperature ratio

( )
( )
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
M
M
M
M
M
M
T
T
o
o

+
+
+
=

Similar expression for
1
2

,
1
2
p
p
,
1
2
u
u
may be found in terms of
1
M and
2
M . It is convenient to
normalize the equation by setting the Mach number equal to unity at one of the sections, say at 1.

( )
( )
2
2
2 2
1
1
M
M
T
T

+
+
=

( )
( )
2 2
2
1
1
1
1
M p
p
M
M
u
u

+
+
=
+
+
= =

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6

1
2
2
1
2
1
1 2
1
1

+
+
+
=

M
M p
p
o
o

1
2
2
1
ln
1
p
s s
M
c M

+
=

+

The ratio of properties at two sections where the Mach numbers are
1
M and
2
M are found using
these normalized expressions

2
1
1
2
M
T
T
M
T
T
T
T
o
o
o
o
o
o

and so on...

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module5:
Multi - Dimensional
Problems

Lecture 23:
Linearized Compressible Flow

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Stokes theorem:
( ) ( )

c s s
A dr A dS A ndA = V = V
} }} }}

Green-Gauss theorem:

s V
} }

Or
j
A V
j
g
gn dA dV
x
c
=
c
} }

Continuity equation
( ) 0 =
c
c
+
c
c
j
j
u
x t

or
0
j
j
u
D D
u
Dt Dt x

c
+ V = + =
c

Momentum equation

( ) ( )
i i j i
j i
p
u u u f
t x x

c c c
+ = +
c c c

Assuming steady flow and no body forces, integrating the equation over an enclosing control surface,
the force of the fluid on the body is obtained as

( )
1 1
i i k k i
A A
F u u n dA pn dA =
} }

( )
1 1
1 1 k k
A A
D u u n dA pn dA =
} }

( )
1 1
2 2 k k
A A
L u u n dA pn dA =
} }

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
Energy equation

( )
2 2
1 1
2 2
j i i i
j i
e u e u u q f u pu
t x x

( c c c
| | | |
+ + + = +
| | (
c c c
\ . \ .

or
( )
2
1
2
i i i
i
De D
u q f u pu
Dt Dt x

c
| |
+ = +
|
c
\ .
[using continuity]
i
i
x
u
p q
t D
De
c
c
=
[using momentum]
Or
q
Dt
D
p
t D
De
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

1
[using continuity again]

Introducing entropy
1 De D DS
p T
Dt Dt Dt
| |
+ =
|
\ .

Introducing enthalpy

2
1 1
2
i i
D p
h u q f u
Dt t
c
| |
+ = + +
|
c
\ .

If the flow is inviscid, non-conducting, adiabatic and steady both entropy and total enthalpy are conserved
along streamlines. Using the natural co-ordinate system (streamlines and normal n ), the steady flow
equations of motion are

. const n u = A
- continuity

s
p
s
u
u
c
c
=
c
c

- s momentum

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

s
u
n
p
R
u
c
c
=
c
c
=
u

2
2
- n momentum [u flow direction wrtx ]

o
h u h = +
2
2
1
- energy
1 1
o
TdS dh udu dp dh

| |
= = + +
|
\ .

1
0
S u p
T u
s s s
c c c
= + =
c c c

1
o o
dh dh S u p u u
T u u
n n n dn n R dn
| | | | c c c c
= + + = +
| |
c c c c
\ . \ .

, u
dn
dh
o
+ =

The flow will be homentropic if
=
o
h constant throughout
And 0 = , throughout

General form of the Croccos theorem

dp p
TdS dh T S h

V
= V = V

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

DV
p
f
Dt

V
=

( )
( )
( )
2
V V
DV V V
V V V V
Dt t t

c c
= + V = + V V
c c

2
1
2
V
V V
t
e
c
= +V
c

2
1
2
V
T S h f V V
t
e
c
V = V + +V
c

|
.
|

\
|
+ V V =
c
c
2
2
1
V h S T V
t
V
e

## [body force neglected]

o
h S T V V =

S T h V
o
V V = e

Circulation and rotation

} }
V = = I
c A
dA n u dl u

Vorticity = = V 2 u angular velocity
j
i
ij
i j
u
u
x x
e
c
c
=
c c

----xxx---

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1
Module5:
Multi - Dimensional
Problems

Lecture 24:
Linearized Compressible Flow
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2

1 1 1
2 2 2
j j
i i i
ij ijk k
j j i j i
u u
u u u
e
x x x x x
c e
| | | |
c c
c c c
= + + =
| |
| |
c c c c c
\ . \ .

Irrotational flow
i
i
x
u u
c
c
= V =

,

Kelvins theorem:

In an inviscid flow of a homogeneous fluid without body forces the circulation along a closed fluid line
remains constant with respect to time.

Irrotational Flow

Consider adiabatic, irrotational flow. From Croccos theorem, these flows are isentropic. The equations
are

( ) 0 =
c
c
+
c
c
j
j
u
x t

i j
i
j
i
x
p
x
u
u
t
u
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c

o o
p
p

| |
=
|
\ .
or, = S constant

Auxiliary conditions

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

0 =
c
c

c
c
i
j
j
i
x
u
x
u

i
i
u
x
c
=
c

( )
2 2 2
1 2 3
1
;
2
O
h u u u h + + + =
for a perfect gas
2
2 2
3
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1 2 1
-

+
=

=
+ +
+

a
a u u u a
O

Consider steady flow. Pressure can be eliminated from the momentum equation using

2
i i i
s
p p
a
x x x

| | c c c c
= =
|
c c c c
\ .

Scalar multiplying the momentum equation by
i
u
2
i i
i j i
j i i
u u p a
u u u
x x x

c c c
= =
c c c

k
k
x
u
a
c
c
=
2
Expanding

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 2
1 2 3 1 2
1 2 3 2 1
3 3 2 1
2 3 3 1
3 2 1 3
0
u u u u u
u a u a u a u u
x x x x x
u u u u
u u u u
x x x x
| | c c c c c
+ + + +
|
c c c c c
\ .
| | | | c c c c
+ + + + =
| |
c c c c
\ . \ .

In terms of the velocity potential, the equation becomes

j j j i j i
x x x x x x a c c
c
=
c c
c
c
c
c
c
2 2
2
1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
or

2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2 0
y
x z
xx yy zz
x y y z
z x
xy yz xz
a a a
a a a

| |
| | | |
+ +
|
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .
=

Reduces to standard Laplace equation for incompressible flow (
2
a )
In natural coordinates ( ) n s,

2
2
1
1 0
u u
a u s n
u
| |
c c
+ =
|
c c
\ .

Small perturbation theory

Free stream
( ) ( )

a T p x along U , , ,
1

=
a
U
M

0 , 0 ,
3 2 1
= = =

u u U u

Small perturbation
w u u u U u = = + =
3 2 1
, , v

1 , , <<

U
w
U U
u v

The equation of motion can then be written as

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
1 2 3 1 2 3
2 1 3 2 1 3
u w u w
a U u w
x x x x x x
u w w u
U u w U u w
x x x x x x
v v
v
v v
v v

| |
c c c c c c
+ + = + + +
|
c c c c c c
\ .
| | | | | | c c c c c c
+ + + + + + + +
| | |
c c c c c c
\ . \ . \ .

From the energy equation

( )
2 1 1 2
2 2
2 2 2
2

+

+
+ + + U a a w u U

v

or
( )
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
1
w u u U a a + + +

=

v

Substituting and dividing by
2

a

( ) =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

3 2 1
2
1
x
w
x x
u
M
v

( )
1
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
x
u
U
w
U
u
U
u
M
c
c
(

+
+
+
+ +

( )
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
x
U
u w
U
U
u
M
c
c
(

+
+
+
+ +

v v

( )
3
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
x
w
U
u
U
w
U
u
M
c
c
(

+
+
+
+ +

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6
2
2
2 1 3 1 2 3
1 1
v u u w u u w w w
M
U U x x U U x x U x x
v v v

(
| | | | | || | | |
c c c c c c
+ + + + + + + +
( | | | | |
c c c c c c
(
\ .\ . \ .\ . \ .

----xxx---

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1
Module5:
Multi - Dimensional
Problems

Lecture 25:
Linearized Compressible Flow
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
The equation is still exact. Neglecting the terms containing squares (second degree) of perturbation
velocities, the equation becomes

( ) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+ =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

3 2
2
1 3 2 1
2
1 1 1
x
w
x U
u
M
x
u
U
u
M
x
w
x x
u
M
v

v

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
+

1 3
2
1 2
2
x
w
x
u
U
w
M
x x
u
U
M
v v

If the entire right hand side is neglected the equation becomes linear

( ) 0 1
3 2 1
2
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

x
w
x x
u
M
v

or
( ) 0 1
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

x x x
M

( is perturbation potential)
In transonic flow, where 1

M , the coefficient of
1
x
u
c
c
on the lhs becomes very small and it is then not
possible to neglect the first term on the . rhs This condition ( ) 1

## M does not affect the terms

3 2
,
x
w
x c
c
c
cv
and can be neglected on the rhs. So, the small-perturbation equation valid for subsonic,
transonic and supersonic flow is
( ) ( )
1
2
3 2 1
2
1 1
x
u
U
u
M
x
w
x x
u
M
c
c
+ =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

v

( )
( )
2
1
2
1
2
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
x
x U
M
x x x
M
c
c
c
c +
=
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c

For flows outside the transonic range, the rhs can be neglected.
For
2

M very large, hypersonic-flow, certain terms on the rhs must be retained as the product of some of
the small perturbation quantities with
2

## M may not be negligible

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

Pressure coefficient
2
2
2
1
2
p
p p p p
C
M p
U

= =

( )
( )

)

+
+
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

1
1 2
1 2 2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2 2 2

M
M
M
p
p
p
p
M
p
p
M
C
o
o
p

where
2 2
2 2
2 2
,
U V
M M
a a

= =

From energy equation
2 2 2 2
2 1 2 1
U a V a

+ = +

( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
1 1
1
2 2
V
a a U V a U
U

| |

= + = +
|
\ .

2
2
2
2
2
1
1 1
2
V
a
M
a
U

| |

= +
|
\ .

2
1
2
2 2
2 1
1 1 1
2
p
V
C M
M U

(
| |

= +
` ( |
\ .

)

or
( )

(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +

+ =

1 1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2 2
2
2
2

v
U
w u U
M
M
C
p

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
1
2 2 2
2
2 2
2 1 2
1 1
2
u u w
M
M U U

(
| |
+ +
= +
` ( |
\ .

)

( )
2 2 2
2
2 2
2 1
u u w
M
U U U
v

(
+
= + +
(

neglecting
higher power
For 2-D and planar flows
p
C , consistent with the firstorder perturbation equations, is

=
U
u
C
p
2

For flow over axially symmetric or elongated bodies, the consistent approximation is
2
2 2
2

+
=
U
w
U
u
C
p
v

2-D past a wave shaped wall (Ackerets problem)

Consider the flow past a boundary of sinusoidal shape, the so called wavy wall. The boundary is given
by
0 sin = x h y o
h denotes the amplitude of the waves of the wall, and
o
t 2
= l is the wavelength

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

For plane subsonic or supersonic flow, the linear equation may be used

( ) 0 1
2
2
2
2
2
=
c
c
+
c
c

y x
M

Subject to the boundary conditions
y x c
c
c
c
,
are finite at infinity
and
( )
0
,0
y wall
y
x U
y x

v

=
| | | | c c
= =
| |
c c
\ . \ .

x h U o o cos

=

Consider 0 1
2
>

M , i.e., a subsonic flow. The equation is elliptic

0
1
2
2
2 2
2
=
c
c
+
c
c
y x

Try
( ) ( ) ( ) y G x F y x = ,

0
2
= ' ' + ' ' G F G F |
or
0
1
2
=
' '
+
' '
G
G
F
F
|

h

x

y

U

d

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6
----xxx---

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1
Module5:
Multi - Dimensional
Problems

Lecture 26:
Linearized Compressible Flow
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
The first term is function of x only, and the second one is functions of y only. The equation holds for any
( ) y x, , hence,
=
' '
F
F
constant
2 2
2
1
, &
G
k k
G |
''
= =

kx A kx A F cos sin
2 1
+ =

and
y k y k
e B e B G
| |
2 1
+ =

Since, the velocity components remain finite at y
0
2
= B
From the wall boundary condition
( ) x h U
dy
dG
x F
y
y y
o o

cos
0 0

= =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

The condition is satisfied if

h U k B A and k A o | o

= = =
1 2 1
, , 0

( ) x e
h U
y x
y
o
|

| o
cos ,

=
=
l
x
he
U
l
y
t
|
| t
2
cos
2

x e
M
h U
u
y
o
o
| o
sin
1
2

=

x e h U
y
o o v
| o
cos

=

x e
h
U
u
C
y
p
o
|
o
| o
sin
2
2

= =

Largest perturbation occurs at the boundary

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

( ) ( ) x
h
C C
y
p
wall
p
o
|
o
sin
2
0
= =
=

There is no drag force, as the pressure is in phase with the wall and hence symmetrical about the wavy
wall. The pressure coefficient increases with Mach number, proportionally to
1
|
- the Prandtl-
Glauert factor. Also, the attenuation of the perturbation away from the wall becomes weaker as the Mach
number is increased.

From the above expressions, it is possible to write
( ) o| o
o
|
y x f
h
C
p
, =

The relation is between 3 variables, instead of six a modified pressure coefficient and a modified
coordinate system. The factors that make this reduction possible incorporate the effects of Mach number,
wave amplitude and wavelength in such a way that one relation is valid for all combination of these three
variables.
1. since, as per our assumption , 1 , <<

U U
u v
it is evident from the solution that
1
1
2
<<

M
h o

2. In using the linearized equation, it is assumed that
( ) ( )

+ >>
U
u
M M 1 1
2 2

( )
( )
2
2
2
1
1
1

+
>>
M
h M
M
o

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
or
( )
( )
1
1
1
3
2
2
2
<<

M
h M o

The condition for the occurrence of local sonic velocity is

( )
( )
1
1
1
3
2
2
2
=

M
h M o

The transonic parameter include and
2
3
as exponent of ( )
2
1

M

3.
x e h
U
y
o o
v
| o
cos

=

x e h
U
x h
boundary
o o
v
o | o
cos
sin

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

. . . sin 1 1 cos
2
T O H x M h x h o o o o

The second term is always smaller than or at most equal to | oh ; it should be negligible
compared to the first, for the small perturbation theory to be valid. This approximation becomes
even better as the Mach number is increased. The amplitude of the permissible perturbation, for
linearized theory to be accurate, is given by
1 << | oh
or in terms of the maximum inclination,u , of the wall
1 << u|
For supersonic flow, 0 1
2
>

## M and the equation becomes hyperbolic

0
2
2
2
2
2
=
c
c

c
c
y x

|

This is the simple wave equation with the general solution being the sum of two arbitrary functions

( ) y x f |
and
( ) y x g | +

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

( ) ( ) ( ) y x g y x f y x | | + + = ,

Boundary conditions are identical.
Only the function f is needed andg is set equal to zero. This choice has to do with the direction of
flow or the distinction between upstream and downstream region of flow.

Using wall boundary condition

( ) ( )
0
0
cos
y
y
f x y f x U h x
y

| | | o o

=
=
| | c
' ' ( = = =
|

c
\ .

( ) x h
U
x f o
|
sin

=

( ) ( ) ( ) y x h
U
y x f y x f | o
|
| = =

sin ,

(

1 sin
1
2
2
M y x
M
h U
o

( ) y x
h U
u | o
|
=

cos

( ) y x h U | o o v =

cos

( ) y x
M
h
C
p
| o
o

cos
1
2
2

----xxx---

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1
Module5:
Multi - Dimensional
Problems

Lecture 27:
Linearized Compressible Flow
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
1. The solution does not contain an exponential attenuation factor like the subsonic solution and
hence the perturbation does not decrease with y . Instead, the same value of the perturbation
exists all along the straight lines
= y x | constant
These lines are inclined at the Mach angle with respect to the undisturbed flow. They are the
Mach lines or characteristics. The existence of these characteristics is independent of the specific
boundary conditions, being contained in the form of the solution. f = constant along
= y x | constant, and = g constant along lines = + y x | constant. The former characteristics are
inclined upstream; they originate at infinity and so carry no perturbation. Hence, 0 = g when the
fluid above the wall is unlimited.
2.
p
C on the wall is x
h
C
p
o
|
o
cos
2
=
Comparing with the subsonic case, it can be seen that the maxima and minima of the pressure
are now shifted by the phase 2 t from the maxima and minima of the wall coordinate y . Hence,
the pressure distribution is now anti-symmetrical around the crests and troughs of the wall and a
drag force exists. The magnitude of the drag coefficient per wavelength is
dx
dx
dy
C
l
C
l
o
p D
}
=
1
[
w
dx
dy
|
.
|

\
|
= ~ u u tan sin
]
This can be evaluated by replacing the sine of the slope of the wall by the tangent, valid within the
frame work of small perturbation

p
C can be written as
dx
dy
M
C
p
1
2
2

,
1
2
2
2
|
.
|

\
|

dx
dy
M
C
D

2 2
1
l
o
dy dy
dx
dx l dx
| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .
}

3. The range of validity of the approximations follows exactly the same line as in the subsonic case

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

Supersonic Thin Airfoil Theory

The general solution of the wave equation may be applied to the problem of a 2-D supersonic
airfoil. Since, disturbances are propagated only along downstream-running Mach lines, we need
only the function f for the upper surface and g for the lower surface. Thus,

( ) ( ) o y y x f y x > = , , |

( ) ( ) o y y x g y x < + = , , |

Boundary condition on the upper surface is

( )
0
U
y
dy
U f x
dx y

=
| | c
| |
' = =
| |
c
\ .
\ .

x

y

(M

<1) Force
M

>1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

( )
U
U y
f x u
x |

c
| |
' = =
|
c
\ .

Similarly,

( )
L
x
y U
x g
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
= '

|

Hence,
( )
( )
2
2
p
f x upper surface
U
C
g x lower surface
U

'

'

Or
2 2
2 2
;
1 1
U L
p p
U L
dy dy
C C
dx dx
M M

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .

----xxx---

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module6:
Bodies of Revolution

Lecture 28:
Slender Body Theory

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Different classes of small perturbation flow

1) Two-dimensional flow
2) Planar System 2D flow is a special class
3) Elongated body Slender body is a special case, which is so elongated that bcs may be
applied on the axis.
4) Interference Problems
Cylindrical co-ordinates are more convenient for elongated bodies and bodies of revolution

locates the meridian plane, x r , relative to some convenient reference, say z x plane. The
velocity components are given by

1 1 1
1
, , u U u w w
x r r

= + = = = = =

is total potential

xx
z

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

Mass conservation:

( ) ( ) ( ) 0
3 2 1 3
3
2 1 3 2
2
1 3 2 1
1
=

x x x u
x
x x x u
x
x x x u
x

Volume = x
1
x
2
x
3

x
2

x
1

x
3

x
r
r
Volume = x r r

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

or
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
3
3
2
2
1
1
=

u
x
u
x
u
x

for cylindrical coordinates

( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
0 u x r x r x x w x r
x r

+ + =

( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 1
0 u r w
x r w

+ + =

Also,
( ) d a dp wdw d du u
2
1 1
= = + +

Hence,

( )
1
1
1
1
1
1
x
u
x
u
u
x

=
1
3
3
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
x
u
u
x
u
u
x
u
u
a
u
x

small perturbation procedure results

( ) 0 1
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
=

x x x
M

is perturbation potential

Cylindrical system contains one additional term from

( ) ( )
1
r
r r r r

= +

r

## cannot be neglected even in first order equation as r can be small.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module6:
Bodies of Revolution

Lecture 29:
Slender Body Theory
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Hence

( )
2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
1 1
1 0 M
x r r r r x

+ + + =

Boundary conditions
2D flow,
( )
( ) 0
0
2 2
1
2
u U
u
u U
u
x
dx
body body
+

+
=

( )

U
u 0
~
2

For a body of revolution, aligned in cylindrical coordinates, the component of velocity w is
automatically tangent to the surface. Hence, only the boundary condition in the meridian plane is to be
considered. In the meridian plane the body contour is ( ) r R x = . The exact condition is

R
u U dx
dR

+
=

Approximation similar to 2D or planar case is not applicable
Consider longitudinal section of either 2D/planar body or a body of revolution and radial velocity near
the surface

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

x
2
=
2D/planar
Body of revolution
r R =
x
2
= 0
0 r =

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
This velocity field may be obtained by a suitable source distribution on 0
2
= x or 0 r = . In 2D/planer
flow, the velocity near the axis is nearly the same as at the boundary. In axially symmetric flow the
radial velocity at the axis must be infinite if it is to be finite on the boundary.

Using power series expansion, for 2D case
( ) ( ) ... 0 , ,
2
2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1
+ + + + = x a x a x u U x x u

( ) ( ) ... 0 , ,
2
2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
+ + + = x b x b x u x x u

Only the first term is retained for approximate boundary condition.
Power series expansion is not possible in the axially symmetric case since velocity gradients near the
axis are singular; because of the term ( )
1
r
r r

## . However, this term must be of the same order as the

other terms
( )
1
~
u
r
r r x

or
( )
~
u
r r
r x

( ) ~0 r
r

as ( )
0
0 r r a x =
Hence, near the axis is of the order of
1
r

0
1 2
...
a
a a r
r
= + + +

The correct form for an approximate boundary condition on the axis in case of an elongated body is
( )
0
R
r
dR r
R
dx U u U

=

+

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
Using irrotationality,

u
r x

=

0
1
...
a
a
r

+ +

0 1
log ... u a r a r = + +

The pressure coefficient
( )

+ + +

1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

U
w
U u
u
u
u
M
M
C
p
For small perturbation, using series expansion, to second order

( )

+
+ + =

2
2 2
2
2
2
1 2
U
w
U
u
M
U
u
C
p

For 2-D case, it is possible to neglect all but the first term in the first order theory. But for elongated
axi-symmetric body, the radial component is of different order form , near the axis, as shown
above. Since is very large near 0 r = , the pressure coefficient for axially symmetric case to the first
order accuracy is

2
2

=

U U
u
C
p

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module6:
Bodies of Revolution

Lecture 30:
Slender Body Theory
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2

Axially Symmetric Flow

No variation with , conditions are same in every meridian plane. The potential equation is
( )
2 2
2
2 2
1
1 0 M
r r r x

+ + =

The incompressible case has the basic solution

2 2
A
x r
=
+
; either a source or sink
- A for source
If the source is at , 0 x r = =

( )
( )
2
2
,
A
x r
x r

=
+

Since, the governing equation is linear, superposition is allowed

( )
( ) ( )
0 1 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
1 2
, ...
A A A
x r
x r
x r x r

= + + +

+
+ +

represents the flow due to a series of sources placed along x axis.

Introducing a source distribution, where ( ) f is the source strength per unit length, and
( )
( )
( )
2 0
2
,
l f d
x r
x r

=
+

( ) f is obtained by satisfying the boundary conditions.

Solution is most often obtained through numerical method with finite number of sources and sinks.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

Subsonic flow
0 1
2
2
> =

M

The potential equation is

2 2
2 2 2 2
1 1
0
r r r x

+ + =

or
0
1 1
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
=

z y x

Introducing a transformation (affine transformation)

, x x r r = =

or
, , x x y y z z = = =

2 2
2 2
1
0
r r r x

+ + =

or
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
=

z y x

incompressible flow equation

Two alternative solutions

1) Solution for the incompressible problem in the affinely transformed domain. Velocity and pressure
fields to be transformed to the physical domain (Gothert similarity rule).

2) Solution for the physical problem. Solution computed in the physical domain.

Basic solution in the original coordinates is

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
( )
( )
2
2 2
, ,
A
x r
x r

=
+

( )
( )
2
2 2 2 2
, ,
A
x y z
x y z

=
+ +

and the general solution is

( )
( )
( )
2 0
2 2
,
l f d
x r
x r

=
+

Supersonic flow

0 1
2
2
> =

M

The equation becomes

2 2
2
2 2
1
0
r r r x

+ =

(wave equation)
By analogy,

( )
( )
2
2 2
,
A
x r
x r

=

The equation is satisfied. Representing flows is problematic, since denominator may become zero or
negative, resulting infinite or imaginary .

Potential may be represented as an integral over a distribution of sources

( )
( )
( )
2 0
2 2
,
x r f d
x r
x r

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
For suitable distribution of sources, solution may be obtained that have no singularities off the axis.
Even though the sources are distributed along the x axis from 0 to 1, the value of at ( ) , x r include
only the sources up to x r = . The sources downstream of x r = have no influence on the
conditions at ( ) , x r

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module6:
Bodies of Revolution

Lecture 31:
Slender Body Theory
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2

Since the angle

1
tan
1

The upper limit implies that a source has no influence ahead of its Mach cone.

In linearized 2D supersonic flow a disturbance has no effect either upstream or downstream of its
Mach lines. In the axially symmetric case, there is an effect over the whole region downstream of the
Mach cone. Thus( ) , x r is affected by all the disturbances ahead of x r = .

r
x
( ) , x r
Mach cone from Mach cone
from origin
l

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

at
1

at
2

Ut
1

Ut
2

Ut
1

Ut
2

Wave propagation from a moving a
source

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

The integrand is undefined at the upper limit. Need to be treated specially (Hadamard rule).

( )
( )
( ) { }
( )

=

ds
dg
s s g F d
s
F
d s F
ds
d
rule Leibnitz
s g s g
0 0
; ; :

Substituting cosh x r =

( )
2
2 2
sinh d r d x r d = =

1
0 cosh
x
r

= =

( )
1
cosh 1 0 x r

= = =

U<<a

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
Hence

( ) ( )
1
cosh
0
, cosh x r f x r d

( ) ( ) ( )
1
cosh
2 2 2 0
1
, cosh 0
x
r
u x r f x r d f
x
x r

= =

( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
1
cosh
2 2 2 0
, cosh cosh 0
x
r
x
x r f x r d f
r
r x r

= = +

( ) cosh
f
f
x r

=

If ( ) 0 0 = f , as in case of pointed bodies,

( )
( )
2 0
2 2
,
x r f
u d
x r

( )( )
( )
2 0
2 2
1
x r f x
d
r
x r

=

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module6:
Bodies of Revolution

Lecture 32:
Slender Body Theory
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2

Flow over a cone

Indirect solution -
( ) a f =

( ) ( ) a f f =

= , 0 0

( ) ( )
( )
1
cosh
0
, cosh
x
r
x r a x r d

2
1
cosh 1
x r
ax
r x

=

2
1
cosh , 1
x x
u a a
r r

= =

u and are functions of
( )
,
x
r
and are invariant along lines
x
r
=constant (radial lines or rays from the
origin) A conical flow field. On a ray which his on the Mach cone from the vertex, the perturbation
velocities are zero; the flow is still at free stream condition. Higher perturbation velocities near the axis,
flow direction changes. One streamline along the ray. The cone that contains the ray can be
represented as a solid cone in supersonic flow. Internal flow than of no consequence

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3

Vertex angle of the cone depends on a. Hence for a given cone of semi-vertex angle , it is required
to determine a by satisfying the boundary condition

tan =

cone
u U

On the cone surface

cot
cosh
1
= a u

2 2
cot = a

x

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

+
=

cot
cosh tan cot
tan
1 2 2
U

For a slender cone, i.e., 2 is very small,
then >> cot (assuming

M is not very large)

2
log
~
cot
cosh
1

and
0
2
log tan

2
cot

= = U
U
a

Since, for such a slender cone
r
x
is also small
2
2
log 1
x
U x
r

2
2
log ,
u x
U r

=

2
x
U r

=

On the cone surface,
r
x
, and hence

2
log
2
=

cone
U
u

cone
U

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
2
2

=

U U
u
C
p

for a wedge

2
=
p
C

=
2
1 2
log 2
2

Pressure rise on the cone is much less than on the wedge three-dimensional relieving effect.

Yawed body of revolution

The body axis is aligned with the x - axis. The body is at an angle of attack or yaw.

U
c

U
a

U

, r
w
Uc
z

2
c
p

Wedge
Cone

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6

Since the equation is linear, the solution can be written as sum of two solutions.

( ) ( ) ( )
, , , , ,
a c
x r x r x r = +

a
is an axial flow and
c
is a cross flow.

For the axial flow, the free stream velocity is cos

=U U
a
and for the cross flow it is sin

=U U
c
.

The axial problem is already discussed and can be solved similarly provided the boundary condition
can also be split.

The cross-flow problem must satisfy the full equation,
2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
1 1
0
c c c c
r r r r x

+ + =

0 1
2 2
> =

M ,

## M is based on full free stream velocity

U .

It is irrelevant if
c
U is subsonic, since
c
U is a component of the full supersonic free stream. Similarly, if
the cross-flow perturbations are large, the results still holds.

z
x

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module6:
Bodies of Revolution

Lecture 33:
Slender Body Theory
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
The axial flow satisfies
2 2
2
2 2
1
0
a a a
r r r x

+ =

Hence, it also satisfies the equation obtained by differentiating wrt r .
2 2
2
2 2 2
1 1
0
a a a a
r r r r r r r x r

+ =

It will also be true if
a
r

is replaced by cos
a
r

2 2
2
2 2 2
1 cos
cos cos cos 0
a a a a
r r r r r r r x r

+ =

or
2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
1 1
cos cos cos cos 0
a a a a
r r r r r r r x r

+ + =

cos
a
r

## is a solution of the cross flow problem.

or ( ) , , cos
a a
c
x r
r z

= =

( )
( )
2 0
2 2
1
x r
a
f d
d
r r
x r

Can also be written as (integration by parts)

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
3
2 0
2 2 2 2
2 2
0
1
x r
x r
a
f d f x
r
r r
x r
x r

= +

For a pointed body the last term at the lower limit gives zero, but be comes infinite at the upper limit.
Hence, only the finite part of the first integral should be considered.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
The result can formally be written as

( )
( )
2
3
0
2 2
2 2
x r
a
f d
r
r
x r

The notation denotes the finite part of the integral. The undetermined functions ( ) ( ) f f , are to be
determined by the cross flow boundary conditions. The cross flow solution is represented by these two
forms, which can be written as either

( )
( )( )
( )
2 0
2 2
cos
, ,
x r
c
f x
x r d
r
x r

or
( )
( )
( )
2
3
0
2 2
2 2
, ,
x r
c
f d
x r r
x r

Boundary conditions

Radial velocity in any cross section is
cos
c
U
r

and the axial velocity is
x
U
a

+

Using the boundary condition
body
a
u U dx
dR

+
=

cos
c a
body body
dR
U U
r dx x

+ = +

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
or
cos
a c a c
c a
body body
dR
U U
r r dx x x

+ + = + +

a
a
body body
dR
U
r dx x

= +

for axial flow

and
cos
c c
c
body body
dR
U
r dx x

+ =

for cross flow

For slender body the rhs of the exact cross flow be is lower order and may be neglected

cos 0
c
c
body
U
r

Drag on slender bodies of arbitrary profile in axially symmetric flow

( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
0
,
x r
f d
x r
x r

For slender bodies, the integral need to be evaluated for small values of
r
x

To avoid the singularity
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
0
x r x r
x r
f d f d
x r x r

=

( )
2 1
I I + =

Since, the first integrand is not singular; it can be expanded in power series of
2 2
r
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
3
2
2 2
1
...
2
f f f
r
x
x
x r

= + +

Integrating term by term for 0

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

log log log log 0
0
1
x f d x f x f x f I
x
+ + =

For the second integral
( )
( ) 1
cosh
2
0
cosh
r
r
I f x r d

+

=

( ) ( )
1 1
cosh cosh
0 0
cosh . . .
r r
r r
f x d r f x d H OT in r

+ +

= +

For 0 r ,

( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
log log ... I f x f x f x
r

= + +

Considering pointed bodies and arbitrary small,
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
0
2
log log
x
I I f x f x d
r

= =

Apply bc:
( ) f x
r r

= =

or ( ) r f x =
On the body surface r R =

( ) R x f
body
=

( )
dx
dA U
dx
dR
R U x f
2

= =

2
R A = is the cross-sectional area of the body at x . Hence, source strength is proportional only to the
local rate of change of area of the body. The portions of the body that are far away do not influence
the local conditions. The rate at which the fluid is pushed outward locally depends entirely on the local
rate of area change.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6
Thus, the solution for axial flow over or slender body of revolution with closed nose and arbitrary
smooth meridional section is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
2
, log log
2 2
x
U U
x r A x A x d
r

=

( )
2
A x
R dR
U r r dx

= =

( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
0
log
1 2
log

+

=

dx
dR
d x A
dx
d
R
x A
C
x
body
p

p at an arbitrary section x is uniform over the cross-section. The pressure acts on the projected
area RdR 2 .

Thus the drag is
( ) ( )
B
L
B
L
B B
A p p dA p p A p pdA D

+ = =

0 0

M

p
B

L
dx
R
dx
dx
dR
R +
dR
Projected area
dA (x) = 2R dR

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

7

+ = + = =

L
p p D p p
B
B
D
B B
C C C C dx
dx
dA
C
A
A U
D
C
0
2
1 1 1
1
2
1

Viscous wake flow is required to find
B
p
C
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 1
0 0
2
0 0 0
log
1
2
log
1
1
I I I dx d x A
dx
d
x A
dx x A
dx
dR
x R
x A x A dx x A C C A
x L
L L L
p D B
+ = +

= =

( ) [ ]
2
0
1
2
log
2
1
x A d
R
I
L
=

( ) dx
dx
dR
A
R
A
L
L

=
0
2
0
2
2
log
2
1

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

=
x L
L
x
dx d x A x A d x A x A I
0 0
0
0
2
3
log
1
log
1

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) dx d x A A d L A L A
L x L

=

log
1
log
1
0 0 0

( ) [ ]
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) dx d x A x A
d L A
L A
L R
L A
C A
L x
L
D B

=

log
1
log
2
log
2
0 0
0
2
1

First two terms become zero, if ( ) 0 = L A

( ) 0 2 = = L A R R A
if ( ) , 0 = L R , the body is closed at the
base

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

8

or ( ) , 0 = L R , body slope at the base is zero.

In such a case
( ) ( ) ( ) dx d x x A A C A
L x
D B

=

log
1
0 0
1

Integration over the triangular area bounded by
L x x = = = , , 0

Making the integrand symmetric,

( ) ( ) dx d x A A C A
L x
D B

=

log
2
1
0 0
1

----xxx---

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module6:
Bodies of Revolution

Lecture 34:
Slender Body Theory
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Lift of slender bodies of revolution

Full solution
c a
+ =
Velocity at any point can be obtained from this. Since
p
C contains square of velocity, it cannot be split
in two parts. Now

2 2 2
2
1
cos sin
a c c
V U U U
x r r

= + + + +

cos

=U U
a
and sin

=U U
c
with small.

2
2
2
2
body body
a a
body
a
x x
U U
x
U

+ + =

+

( )
2
2 2
2 1
body body
x x
U U

Using boundary condition
2
2
cos
c
body
dR
U U
r d x

For slender bodies,
( ) ( )
cos cos cos
a
c
f x x
r r r

= = = =

The doublet strength is related to section radius.

Using the boundary condition
cos 0
c
c
body
U
r

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
( ) ( ) x A
U
R U x
c
c

= =
2

2 2
cos sin cos
c c
R R
U U
r r

= =

Hence
( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
sin 2 sin 2
1
sin

U U
R
U
c
body
c

To second order,
2
2
2
2
2
1

x
U
M
U
V
C
p

2
2
2
2 2
2
2
sin 4
2
body
body
p
x U dx
dR
x U
C
body

Last term may be neglected.

2
2

dx
dR
x U
C
body
a
p
a

and
( )
2 2
sin 4 1
2

body
c
p
x U
C
c

a
p
C gives only drag (
1
D
C for axially symmetric flow)

Using
c
,

( )
2 2
sin 4 1 cos 4 + =
dx
dR
C
c
p

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4

Radial component of the force acting on an element of surface area is dx Rd C U
c
p

2
2
1

Hence, the cross force in the direction of
c
U is
( ) dx d R C U N
L
p
c

=

0
2
0
2
cos
2
1

( ) dx Rd q dx d
dx
dR
R q
L L

=

0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2 2
sin 4 1 cos cos 4

B
A q

= 2

( ) ( )

= = =

L R L A A U q
B
2 2
,
2
1

2 =
N
C

Cross flow contribution to axial force is
( )
( ) [ ] ( )
2
2
0
2
0
2

L A q L R q dR d R C q A
L R
p
c

= = =

2
2
= C

dx
R R + dR
d
Projection normal to radius = R d dx
Projection normal to axis = R d dR

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

Net Axial force is
( )( )
B
p D
C C L A q A A A A + = + =

1
1 2 1
,

sin cos A N L =

cos sin A N D + =

( )

2
2
1
2
1 C C C C C
B
p D N L
+ +

( )

+ + +
2
1
2
2
1

C C C C C
B
p D N D
Retaining only the dominant terms, assuming
2
1
<< +
B
p D
C C
,
2 =
L
C ,
2
1
+ + =
B
p D D
C C C
(referred to base area)
The drag increment due to angle of attack is called the induced drag (due to trailing vortices).
Induced drag coefficient is
2
=
i
D
C

2
2

= =
L
D
C
C
i
L
D
i
[compare with incompressible result
i
D
L
L
C
C
C AR
= ]
The force vector due to angle of attack is midway between the normal to the body axis and the
normal to the flight path.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module7:
Similarity Rules

Lecture35:
Similarity Rules

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
For supersonic flow over slender cones ( )
2
2
1
p
C
f M

=

For flow over wavy walls
( )
2
2
1
, 1
p
C M
f x y M

=

These results show that the parameters could be arranged into functional groups so that a single
curve represents the solution for a whole family of shapes and range of Mach numbers. These are
examples of similarity relations.

Since the solution of the equations of motion can be found in these special cases, the functions are
known explicitly. If the solutions are not easily obtainable, as in the non-linear cases of transonic or
hypersonic flow, the similarity analysis is especially useful. The similarity analysis is also useful when
solutions are known. The steady 2-D or axially symmetric flow of a perfect gas over a body of chord
lengthc and maximum thickness t is characterized by the following parameter,

( )
c
t
M
c
x
C c
p p
, , ,

=

This result is obtained from dimensional analysis. The problem now is to find the functional form
which will represent
p
C in such a way that the five dimensionless variables are grouped into a smaller
a numbers of similarity parameters. The pressure coefficient parameter at a given station
c
x
can
then be represented by a single curve for all Mach numbers and gases and whole family of shapes.

Dimensional analysis lists the dimensionless parameters that are involved. Only certain amount of
book keeping is needed only the variables involved need to be known or guessed. Similarity
analysis shows how to group these dimensionless quantities in such a way as to reduce the number
of independent variables. The differential equations and boundary conditions are required. Some
integral relations may also be required. Set of experiments may also give similarity rules.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
Most useful for non-linear problems

Similarity Rules for 2D linearized flow
( ) y x, is the perturbation potential in a plane, steady flow with free stream mach number
1
M
0
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
=

y
M
x

Boundary shape is given in the form

1 1
,
x x
y t f c f c
c c

= =

is chord

c
t
1
1
=
is thickness ratio

or

=
c
x
f
c
y
1

must satisfy the boundary condition
( )
c
x
f U
dx
dy
U
y
body
y
=

=
1 1 1
0

Pressure coefficient
1
p
C on the boundary is
0 1
2
1
=

=
y
p
x U
C

Consider potential function ( ) , of a second flow in the( ) , system and related to by the
relation

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
( ) ( )

= = y
M
M
x
U
U
A
U
U
A y x
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
, , ,

Correspondence between the two coordinate systems is
y
M
M
x
2
2
2
1
1
1
,

= =

Ifis introduced into the linearized differential equation, it showssatisfies.

0
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
=

M

if is solution corresponding to Mach number
1
M , thenis a solution corresponding to
2
M
Boundary condition gives

= =
c
x
f U
M
M
U
U
A
y
y
1 1
0
2
2
2
1
2
1
0
1
1

=
c
f U

1 1
0

f is the same function in both cases, and

1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1

=
M
M
A

=
2
1
A
A
A

Since f is same in both flows, only bodies of the same family can be compared.

Now

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5
0
2 0 1
2 2
1
=
=

A
U x U
C
y
p

But the pressure coefficient in the second flow is

0
2
2
2
=

U
C
p

2 1
p p
AC C =

=
2
1
A
A
A

Two members of a family of shapes characterized by the thickness ratios
1
and
2
have pressure
distributions given by coefficients
1
p
C and
2
p
C . If the Mach numbers of the flows are
1
M and
2
M ,
then
2 1
p p
AC C = , provided that

2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1

M
M
A

2
1 M A
f
A
C
p

A is arbitrary, since the linearized equation is homogeneous in , can be multiplied by any constant
factor without changing the equation.
1.

= =

2
1
1
M
f C A
p

2. ( ) f
M
C
M
A
p
2 2
1
1
1
1

=

= [Prandtl-Glauert rule]

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6

3.

= =

2
1 M f C A
p

4.

=

2
2 2
1
1
1
1
1
M f
M
C
M
A
p

[Gothert rule]

1)
p
C remains invariant with M if is reduced as M increased so that
2
1 M

constant
2)
p
C increases with

M as
( )
2
1
2
1

## M for a given member of the family of shapes.

3)
p
C is proportional to for a fixed value of

M .
4) Gthet rule, applies to axially symmetrical as well as 2D case. It states that
p
C increases with
Mach number as ( )
1
2
1

## M if the thickness ratio increases as

( )
2
1
2
1

M
.
The rules are applicable for supersonic flows if
( )
2
1

M
is replaced by
( ) 1
2

M
.
Generalized rules can be written using
2
1

M or in a form without square root as
in
( )
2
2 2
1
p
C
f
A
A M

.
Example:
( ) ( ) ( )
40 . 0
2
2
40 . 0 75 . 0
38 . 1
75 . 0 1
40 . 0 1
p p p
C C C =

=

Accuracy decreases as the transonic range is approached.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

7

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module7:
Similarity Rules

Lecture36:
Similarity Rules (Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2

2-D Transonic flow (Von Kamans Rule)

The governing equation is
( )
2
2
2
1
2
1 1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
x x U
M
M
y
M
x

+
=

The equation is written for a flow with free stream Mach number
1
M and velocity
1
U in a gas with
1
.

Introducing ( ) , as before, it can be seen that ( ) , satisfies
( )
2
2
2
2
1
2
1 1
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1

+
=

U
A
M
M
M

if is to satisfy the TSD equation for a flow with free stream speed
2 2
,U M in a gas with
2
, then

( ) ( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
2
1 1
1
1
1
1
M
M
A
M
M

+
=

+

2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
M
M
M
M
A

+
+
=

Consideration of the boundary condition gives, as before
1 2
2
2
2
1
1
1
=

M
M
A

and
2 1
p p
AC C =

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
Thus the similarity rule becomes
( )
( )
( )

+
=

2
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
M
M
f
M
M C
p

Multiplying both sides by
( )
2
2
2 3
1
1
M
M

=
+

( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
2 2 3
2 2
2 3 3
1 1
1
p
M C M
f f
M

+

= =

+

- Von Karman similarity rule
The rule is valid from subsonic through sonic to supersonic flows. Prandtl-Glauert and Gthert rules
are special cases of this rule.

Since A is not arbitrary, it is impossible to compare the same body at different Mach number or
different bodies at a given Mach number. Comparison is possible for bodies of different thickness
ratios at different Mach numbers in different gases so that
( )
2
1
1 2 2
2 3
1 1 1
1
1
M
or
M

=
+

( ) [ ]
3
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
1
1
M
M
+

=

Flow is transonic if 1 1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
Linearized Axially Symmetric Flow

1
U and Mach number
1
M is
2 2
2 2 2
1
1 1
0
1 x M r r r

+ + =

( ) , x r may be related to a second flow ( ) R , through the transformation
( )
2
1 1
2
2 2
1
, ,
1
U M
x r A x r
U M

satisfies the same equation as for a Mach number
2
M . If
( ) 1
x
r cf
c
= is the shape of the axially
symmetric body, then the exact boundary condition is
1 1
body
x
U f
r c

Since the bc cannot be applied at 0 r = , it is necessary to use the exact bc.
( )
( )
1
1 1
x
r cf
c
x
U f
c
r

Now

( )
2
1
1 1
2
2
2
1 1
2
1
2 2
1
1
1
M x
x
r cf R c f
c
c M
U M
A
r U M R

= =

=

The boundary condition that must be satisfied byis

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

=
c
F U
R
c
F c R

2 2
2

To compare the two above, ( )
c
x
f must equals

c
F

. Same condition as in linearized 2-D, Also,
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
=

M
M

( )

=
c
x
f
M
M
M
M
A
c
x
f
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

or 2
1
2
2
1
1
M
M
A

=

Consistent pressure coefficient for axially symmetric flow is

2
0
2
1
0 1
1
1
1
1 2
=

=
c
x
cf
c
x
f c
p
U
x U
C

In terms of,
2
0
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
0
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1 2
=

=
c
x
cf
M
M
c
x
f c
M
M
p
R
M
M
U
A
A
U
C

2 1
p p
AC C =
Hence, the similarity law may be expressed as

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6

2
1
p
C
f
A
A M

Since ( )
1
2
1

## = M A , the similarity rule becomes the Gtherts rule

( )

=

2 2
1 1
1
M f M C
p

No corresponding similarity relation for axially symmetric transonic flow.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

1

Module7:
Similarity Rules

Lecture37:
Similarity Rules (Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
Planar Flow

Planar boundary

=
b
y
c
x
cf z ,
1

( )

=
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
,
1
1
, , ,
M
M
z
M
M
y x
U
U
A z y x

2
2
2
1
2 2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
,
1
1
M
M
b
y
b
x
b
y
M
M
A

= =

2
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
M
M
b
b

=

The similarity low becomes

2
2
1 ,
1
M b
M A
f
A
C
p

Chord c is kept unaltered; hence S is proportional to b for a given platform. Hence,
2
b
AR
s
= is
proportional to b.

2
2
, 1
1
p
C
f AR M
A
A M

For transonic flow

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

3
( )
( )
1
2 3
2
2
2 2
2
2 3 3
3
1
1
, 1
1
p
C M
M
P AR M
M

+

=

+

Local lift coefficient
l
C is equal to
p
C
p p l
C C C = cos .
is local inclination relative to free stream.
Within the framework of small perturbation, the body thickness and angle of attack are small. So is
small
p p l
C C C = cos

p p p d
C C C C = sin

( )
( )
1
2 3
2
2
2 2
2
2 3 3
3
1
1
; 1
1
L
C M
M
L AR M
M

+

=

+

( )
( )
1
2 3
2
2
5 2
2
2 3 3
3
1
1
; 1
1
D
C M
M
D AR M
M

+

=

+

Hypersonic Similarity

The potential equations and associated pressure coefficients looses their validity at sufficiently high
Mach numbers. The approximations used in deriving the TSPequation imply that the shock waves on
the body are weak. In supersonic flow, these shock waves lie close to a characteristic, Mach line,

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

4
whereas in transonic flow they are nearly normal. At very high Mach numbers, the Mach angle be of
the same order or less than the maximum deflection angle, , of the body. Since

=
M
1
sin , this
case occurs when

M
1
or 1

M .

This regime is thus characterized by the parameter

M , or rather

## M . This parameter is called the

hypersonic similarity parameter

= M K .

For large values of the hypersonic parameter, the difference between the shock angle and the
Mach angle is especially important. This is also true in case of transonic cases. In both cases, the
equations are non-linear but the non-linearity comes from different sources, since the nature of flow in
the two regimes are radically different. In the transonic case, the lateral extent of the field is large and
the changes along the flow direction are of main importance. In the hypersonic regime, the flow field
is narrow, since the shock is very close to the body, and, hence the changes normal to the direction
of flow are the most important ones. Furthermore, in hypersonic flow it is not possible, in general, to
assume irrotational flow, with a corresponding velocity potential. The shock waves are strong even for
thin bodies and the entropy gradients in the wakes of shocks are usually not negligible.

The relation between, , , M for an oblique shock is

( )

+
=
cos
sin sin
2
1
1 sin
2 2 2
M M

For small values of and large values of M such that , 1 > M must also be small allowing the
approximations

( )
sin , sin , cos 1

Thus, up to terms of order
2 2
or

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

5

2 2 2
2
1
1 M M
+
=

( )
2
2
1
4
1
4
1

M
+

+
+
+
=

The pressure ratio across the oblique shock wave is
( )

2 2 2 1 2
1
1
2
M M
p
p p

+

or
( )

+ +
= =

=
2
2
2 1 2
2
1
4
1
4
1
2 2
2

M
p
p p
M
C
p

Thus the pressure coefficient is o the form
( ) M f C
p
2
=

and the similarity rule is
( ) ( )

M f
C
M f
C
p p
= =
2 2

Using Prandtl-Meyer expansion

+
=

1 tan 1 tan 1
1
1
tan 1
1
1
tan
1
1
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
M M M M

Since

## M is large, so is M and hence M M 1

2
. Then using the series expansion

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

6
...
1
2
tan
1
+ =

x
x

and considering largex , the above equation gives

+ =

= M
M
M
M M 2
1
1
1 1
1
2

Using
( )
( )
( )

+
+
=

1
1 2
1 2 2
1
2
2
2

M
M
M
C
p

For large

M andM ,

1
2
1
2
2

M
M
M
C
p
or

+ =

1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2

M M C
p

Dividing by
( )

= M f
C
M
p
2
2
or
( )

= M f
C
p
2
Hence, the hypersonic similarly law is

( )

= M P
C
p
2

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

7

( )

= M D
C
D
3
,
D
C based on chord
Comparing it with the linearized supersonic flow

1
2
M A
f
A
C
p

,
For

= =

1
1
1
,
2
2
2
2
M f
M
f
C
A
p

Since, in a hypersonic flow
2 2
1

M M , the above rule is valid for the whole supersonic-
hypersonic range. (Van Dyke)

For a planar flow ( )
2
2
1, 1
p
C
P M AR M

=

----xxx---
NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Module8:
Method of Characteristics

Lecture 38:
Method of Characteristics

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Method of characteristics

In many cases, the accuracy of small perturbation theory, which is valid for slender bodies, is not
sufficient. It is necessary to include higher order approximation or to solve the exact equations. It is
rarely possible to solve the exact equations analytically.

The full, non-linear equations of motion for 2-D inviscid, irrotational flow are
( ) ( ) 0
2 2 2 2
=

y
a
x y
u
u
x
u
a u

0 =

y
u
x

These can be extended to flow with vorticity by including the appropriate term in the right-hand side of
the second equation.

If
( )
2 2
2
1
u
a
+
<
, the equations are elliptic, for which method of relaxation is appropriate.
If
( )
2 2
2
1
u
a
+
>
, the equations are hyperbolic and the numerical solution is obtained by the method
of characteristics. Transonic flow is a mixed case, and even numerical methods present problems
since the boundary between two regions is not known a-priori.

1. An equation is hyperbolic if a certain relation is satisfied by the coefficients of its highest order
derivatives. For the flow equation above, this condition is
( )
2 2
2
1
u
a
+
>
.
2. There are certain characteristic directions or lines in the( ) y x plane on which the normal
derivatives of the dependent variables( ) , u may be discontinuous. These lines are called
characteristics. In the present case the characteristics are the Mach lines. Because of the
nonlinearity, the characteristic network is not known a-priori.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Because the normal derivatives of the velocity on the Mach lines may be discontinuous, it
is possible to patch different flows together at these lines. The only restriction is that velocity
itself must be continuous.

3. On the characteristics, or Mach lines, the dependent variables satisfy a certain relation, known
as compatibility relations. This provides the key to the computation.

The Compatibility relation

The method of characteristics may be applied directly to the flow equation in Cartesian
coordinates. However, it is convenient, for both derivation and application, to use the natural
coordinate system. The velocity is expressed as( ) , v and the independent variables are
streamline coordinates( ) n s, . The equations are

0
cot
2
=

n s

0
1
=

s n

The characteristics or Mach direction is explicitly introduced here by the expression
1 cot
2 2
= M

The form of these equations lends itself naturally to introduction of the Prandtl-Meyer function ,
which is a dimensionless measure of the speed defined by the relation

cot
dv
v

or
cot
dv
d
v
=

is the most natural function related to or M .Introducing the equations become
tan 0
s n

=

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

tan 0
n s

=

We rewrite the equations in a coordinate system( ) , which consists of the network of Mach lines.
The two sets of coordinates are related by the fact that the Mach lines are inclined at the angles to
the streamlines.

The change in any function f , in going fromP to P can be written

=
f
f

Also,
s
s
n
n
f
s
f
n
n
f
s
s
f
f

=

Comparison yields

f f f n
s s n s

= +

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

or,
n
f
s
f f

tan sec

Similarly

n
f
s
f f

tan sec

The flow equations in( ) n s, coordinates may be written, by adding and subtracting, as

( ) ( )
tan 0
s n

+ =

( ) ( )
tan 0
s n

+ + =

( ) 0

and
( )
0

+ =

Hence, R = , constant along an characteristic, and

Q + =
, constant along an characteristic
These are the compatibility relations between and . Qand R are called the Riemann invariants.

Method of computation

Solutions are obtained in terms of and . The values of can be converted into
o
p
p
a
M , , ,

## or any other related supersonic variable.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

The data, or, boundary conditions, are specified on a data curve. This must not be a characteristic. It
is now required to find the conditions at an arbitrary point P . Through P there are two characteristics,
one of type and the other of type. These two characteristics intersect the data curve at A and B. At
A and B and are known, and, hence Qand R on the characteristic curves. At P , the values of
Qand R are then obtained by choosing the appropriate one for each of the characteristics.

2 3 1 3
, R R Q Q = =

or
3 3 1 1 3 3 2 2
, + = + =

Hence,
( ) ( )
3 1 2 1 2
1 1
2 2
= + +

( ) ( )
3 1 2 1 2
1 1
2 2
= + +

or,
( ) ( )
1 1
,
2 2
Q R Q R = + =

Thus, the solution for any arbitrary point P is very simple and elegant. But the solution is not yet
complete, for the location of the characteristics is not known a-priori.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Hence, the solution is essentially numerical one. To locate the characteristics a step-by-step
procedure must be used. By subdividing the region into a characteristic network, the mesh spacing
may be made small enough so that the mesh sides may be approximated by straight line segments.
For example, point 5 is located by using the known Mach angles and flow directions at 1 and 4 to
draw the characteristic segments. Then conditions at 5 are determined from the data at 1 and 4.
Similarly point 7 is found and then point 8 is found from 5 and 7. The computation proceeds outward
from the data curve.

The accuracy depends on the mesh size. In the 3
rd
figure a constructed mesh element is compared to
the true mesh which is defined by the true mesh of curved characteristics. The computed values
5 5
, apply to point 5, but the solution scheme gives them for 5 . Iteration can be used to improve.
However, finer mesh is the best option.

Interior & Boundary points

The boundary conditions fit into the computation easily. At a boundary one of the two invariants is not
available, but one of the other two variables is determined instead. At a solid boundary is given,
whereas at a free boundary, as at the edge of a jet, the pressure ratio

o
p
p
and thus are given

1
3
3 1
, Q
1 3
, Q
For point downstream of a shock
Free boundary point
Solid boundary point
3
1
3
1
Interior point
1
3
2
NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

R is obtained from point 1. The other quantity is obtained from the shock equations(R-H relations) as
a relation between
3
and
3
. Thus, the condition at point 3 may be solved. These then determined
the shock wave angle , which can be used to draw the next shock segment.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Module8:
Method of Characteristics

Lecture 39:
Method of Characteristics
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Interior & Boundary points

The boundary conditions fit into the computation easily. At a boundary one of the two invariants is not
available, but one of the other two variables is determined instead. At a solid boundary is given,
whereas at a free boundary, as at the edge of a jet, the pressure ratio

o
p
p
and thus are given

R is obtained from point 1. The other quantity is obtained from the shock equations(R-H relations) as
a relation between
3
and
3
. Thus, the condition at point 3 may be solved. These then determined
the shock wave angle , which can be used to draw the next shock segment.

Axially Symmetric Flow

2
cot sin sin
tan tan
v
v s n r s n r

= =

1
0 tan 0
v
v n s n s

= =

1
3
3 1
, Q
1 3
, Q
For point downstream of a shock
Free boundary point
Solid boundary point
3
1
3
1
Interior point
1
3
2
NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Compatibility relations
( )
sin
sin
r

( )
sin
sin
r

+ =

( ) ( )
3 3 3 3
2 2 1 1
sin sin
sin ; sin d d d d
r r

= + =

Hence, for small mesh size
( ) ( )
2
3 3 2 2 2 23
2
sin
sin
r

=

( ) ( )
1
3 3 1 1 1 13
1
sin
sin
r

+ + =

or

( ) ( )
1 2
3 1 2 1 2 1 13 2 23
1 2
sin sin 1 1 1
sin sin
2 2 2 r r

= + + + +

( ) ( )
1 2
3 1 2 1 2 1 13 2 23
1 2
sin sin 1 1 1
sin sin
2 2 2 r r

= + + +

Non-isentropic Flow (axisymmetric)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2
cot sin v
v s n r

=

2 2
1 1
o
dh v T dS
v n s dn dn

= +

( )
2
sin cos
sin
o
dh dS
T
r dn dn

=

( )
2
sin cos
sin
o
dh dS
T
r dn dn

+ = +

For very small mesh element

( )
( )
3 2
2 2
3 3 2 2 2 23 2 3 2
2
2 2
sin cot
sin
o o
T S S h h
r

= +

( )
( )
3 1
1 1
3 3 1 1 1 13 1 3 1
2
1 1
sin cot
sin
o o
T S S h h
r

+ = + +

3
S and
3 o
h are needed for the computation. Once 3 is located, the streamline through it may
approximately be located by drawing a line with slope
2
2 1
3

+
= intersecting the data line at 3 .
S and
o
h are invariant along a stream line and their values at 3 are the same as at 3 .
Plane flow theorems

We have for plane supersonic flow
Q + =
on
R = on
NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

These relations are independent of specific flow geometry. These lead to three kinds of flow field (1)
general or non-simple region, (2) simple region, or simple wave, (3) uniform region or constant state.

In the general region the characteristics are curved and each one corresponds to one value of
Qand R . At the intersection of any two characteristics
,
2 2
Q R Q R

+
= =

Along an -characteristic R is constant and so the changes in and depend only on changes in Q
owing to crossing of -characteristic.

1
2
Q = =

Similarly along a -characteristic
1
2
R = =

In a simple region or simple wave, the one of the invariants is constant throughout the region. Then
and are individually constant along the other characteristic and it must therefore be straight line1
with uniform conditions on each one. The flow changes in crossing the straight characteristics are
related by

=

A constant state or uniform flow is one in which both the invariants are constant throughout. and
are uniform and both sets of characteristics consist of straight lines forming a parallel network.

The usual convention is to omit the Mach lines in the uniform region, the show only the straight lines
in a simple wave and both sets in the non-simple region.

The uniform region does not adjoin the non-simple region except at one point. This is a general
theorem.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Module8:
Method of Characteristics

Lecture 40:
Method of Characteristics
(Contd.)

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Weak finite waves

If the waves are weak, it is possible to set up a computing procedure that is equivalent to the method
of characteristics. However, one must remember that waves are not characteristics and vice-versa.

Difference and similarity

(a) The wall and flow are continuous. Several characteristics of the straight family are shown. As
many as can be drawn from arbitrary points on the wall. Other family is not shown.
(b) The wall is approximated by a series of straight line segments, meeting at finite angles. The
expansion fans or waves which originate at the corner divide the field into segments of
uniform flow. Since, these are simple waves, the flow changes across them are related by the
same relations.
=
The positive sign is for waves from the upper wall and negative sign is for waves from the
lower wall. being considered positive when counterclockwise.

(c) Further approximation to replace each fan by a single line, the central one. The changes at
the waves are now discontinuous, but this approximation is no greater than in representing
the wall by straight segments.

If the wall is concave, it gives a continuous compression, which may be approximated by a series of
weak shocks. The above equations for the flow changes apply without modification. The position of
each wave is midway between the characteristics of the uniform flow fields which it separates. This is
the same rule as for the expansion waves above.

3

1

2

n

c
b
3

2

n

1

a
n

1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

In summary, the method of weak waves is to replace a continuously varying flow by a series of
uniform segments with steps between them. These steps occur at the positions of the waves. To
extend them to non-simple flows the rules for intersection of waves of opposite family are needed.

Interaction of waves

The use of finite weak waves for the construction of plane flows depends on the following theorem
The strength of a weak wave is not affected by intersection with other waves.
The strength here is defined as the flow deflection which the wave produces.

(a) Shows the intersection of two simple expansions, for which the theorem is easily proved by
noting that the flow crosses the same characteristics on either side of the intersection. In (b) the
expansion waves are represented by single lines.

With these it is possible to set up a single, systematic computing method. We first consider an
example with expansion waves. These waves (represented as a single wave) divide the flow into a
number of cells, in each of which the flow is uniform. It is required to calculate and in each cell.

c. Intersecting compression waves b. Approximate form a. Intersecting expansion waves

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Let =
i
absolute value of flow deflection produced by a wave
i

and =
i

## deflection produced by waves from upper and lower walls

Expansion waves from the upper wall deflect the flow upward (+ve) and increase . Those from the
lower wall deflect the flow downward 1and also increase . To reach a cell the flow crosses m waves
of - type and n waves of type. Thus the condition in (m, n) cell are given by
i
n
i
m
i
i

1 1
1
= =
+ =

1
1 1
i
m n
i
i i

= =
= + +

If all the waves are of equal strength (say
D
1 =
i
) then
n m =
1

1
m n = +

Conditions in a cell are obtained by simply adding up the number of waves of each kind that are
crossed.

3, 3
0, 3
1, 3
2, 3
3, 2
2, 2
1, 2
0, 2
3, 1
2, 1
1, 1
0, 1
3, 0
2, 0
1, 0

1
1

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

The compression waves can also be included in the result. If the flow crosses k compression waves
from the upper wall and l compression waves from the lower wall then

l k n m + =
1

1
m n k l = +

Complete construction of the flow requires rule for reflection and cancellation of waves. On reflection
from a solid wall a wave of - type is changed to one of - type. The turning strength of the reflected
wave is the same as that of the incident one since the flow must return to the original direction parallel
to the wall.

By accommodating the wall to the flow direction after the incident wave, the reflected wave may be
cancelled. The wall deflection should be equal to the strength of the wave.

In designing supersonic nozzle, all the waves produced in the upstream part of the nozzle must be
cancelled before they reach the test section.

Supersonic Nozzle Design by wave method

To expand the flow from M = 1 at the throat to M = M
T
in the test section, where the flow is to be
uniform and parallel to the direction at the throat. Chosen 16
T
=
D
which corresponds to M
T
= 1.639
and = 37.611.

1. The initial expansion, whose length and shape are arbitrary, is divided in to segments with equal
deflection angles at the corners.
Lets use 2 deflections, instead of 1 as before. So, all the waves are of strength 2.

Cancellation Reflection
NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

There are four such waves, the corresponding maximum value of the wall deflection
being
D
8
max
= . The inclination of each wave is midway between the Mach lines on either side of
it. The inclination of the first wave, measured relative to the centerline is

( ) ( ) [ ] 75 2 0 . 62 0 90
2
1
= +

2. The waves are reflected from the centerline of the symmetrical nozzle. (Alternatively, the
centerline might be the wall of an asymmetrical nozzle).

3. In the region of cancellation the reflected waves are canceled by deflecting the wall 2 at each
wave intersection. After the last wave the wall is parallel to the centerline and the flow is uniform.
It has the value of 16
T
=
D
having crossed eight expansion waves of 2 each.
Rule: Value of the initial expansion (maximum) wall deflection is given by
max
1
2
T
=

4. The final test section height must agree with the value
A
A
T
Corresponding to
16 1.283
T
T
A
A

= =

Many variations and modifications are possible to this basic design.

li
n
e
s
o
n
i
c
M
T
=1.639

T
=16
1.283
*
T
A
A
=
T
A
2
1

*
2
1
A
Reflection
Cancellation Expansion
Initial
NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

a) The length of the initial expansion contour is arbitrary. The shortest nozzle is obtained by
having zero length for this region a Prandtl-Meyer expansion to
max
. But such rapid
expansion gives troublesome effects in the side wall boundary layer.

b) The construction has been started at the narrowest part, i.e., at throat assuming the sonic line
to be straight. But it is actually curved and meets the wall somewhat upstream of the throat,
the details depending on the throat shape. For greater accuracy, it may be necessary to use
transonic solution for the throat region to start the supersonic solution correctly.

c) The problem above may be avoided by starting the solution well downstream of the throat, in
the initial expansion, where the flow may be assumed radial. This is reasonable approximation
if the wall curvature is not too great. The Mach number in the radial flow is obtained from the
area relation

A
A
, with A being the area of the curved cross section over which M is uniform.

d) The rule
max
1
2
T
= is valid only if all the waves are cancelled after one reflection form the
centerline. But if they are reflected back to the wall and reflected there once more, then
max
1
4
T
= as the flow then cross the expansion four times. Partial cancellation may also be
used. In these cases, the nozzle will be longer.

e) Another approach is to specify the centerline Mach distribution. It should fair smoothly
into
T
M and its slope should be consistent with the actual transonic throat flow that depends
on the throat shape. This approach is particularly suitable if the method of characteristic,
instead of method of waves, is used. Convenient for axially symmetric nozzle.

f) The boundary layer on the nozzle and side walls has a displacing effect which reduces the
effective height and width of the nozzle. Allowance for this is to be made by adding a
correction for boundary layer. The side walls should also diverge to allow for their boundary
layers.

NPTEL IIT Kharagpur: Prof. K.P. Sinhamahapatra, Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

Method of characteristics is & Method of waves

1. The method of characteristics deals with a continuous velocity field, the computation being
made at the lattice points of a network of characteristics. The wave method deals with a patch
work field of cells of uniform flow, with discontinuities between them. Accuracies in the two
methods are similar, being dependent on the fineness of the mesh

2. Computation with waves is convenient only in plane flow, since it depends on the theorem that
the strength of a wave does not change after intersections and reflections. In axially
symmetric flow and in general 3-D flow the strength of a wave varies continuously.

3. The wave method is more intuitive in plane flow than the characteristic method and is usually
preferred. In some problem it is more convenient because of the idea of wave cancellation
to determine a boundary shape.

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