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AN INTRODUCTION TO CDS/DVDS
CD, acronym of compact disc, is an optical memory that can store huge amount of information in digital format, up to 74 minutes of music or 783 megabytes (MB) of data. CDs are portable and can be mass-produced at a very low cost. A CD is a small plastic disk, made up of resin such as polycarbonate, which is coated with a highly reflective material usually aluminium. A CD platter is made up of a reflective layer of aluminium applied to a synthetic base that is composed of polymers. A layer of transparent polycarbonate covers the aluminium. A protective coating of lacquer is applied to the surface to protect it from dust, dirt and scratches
Fig 1.1 A compact disc structure

Both CDs and DVDs are optical media, meaning media that use light technology (more specifically, laser light) for data retrieval. A disc drive focuses a laser light beam into the CD or DVD to read the bits (data) in the disc. The drive can also write bits by focusing the laser beam into recordable CDs or DVDs. CDs and DVDs basically differ only in the amount of storage capacity. A DVD can store about 5 times more than a CD. Conventional optical discs store information by making contrast variations on a disc surface that can be detected as reflected light from a read laser as the disc is rotated beneath it. For read-only discs such as those used for content distribution, the optical contrast is made by imprinting pits in the disc surface that create light and dark regions at the pit edges. These edges can be detected by reflecting laser light off the surface of the optical disc. The pit edge transitions that represent the digital data stored on the read only optical disc are organized in a spiral track. Digital media have become popular, in part, because content can be accessed and distributed easily and quickly, and because digital media can store the equivalent of reams of documents or hundreds of songs on one tape or disc. Optical discs can provide faster access than magnetic tape to a particular file, song, video clip, document, record, or photograph within collections stored on the medium. These benefits have prompted significant increases in analog-to-digital conversion of existing documents, books, periodicals, photographs, and graphics, as well as music and moving images.

Fig 1.2 A digital versatile disc

DVD initially stood for digital video disc, then digital versatile disc, but today the term DVD is often used without referring to a specific set of words. DVD is also an optic memory/storage device which looks very close to a compact disc. DVDs consist of the same basic materials and layers but are manufactured differently. A DVD is actually like two thin CDs glued together. In contrast to CD which is mainly used for music storage, DVDs are generally used for movies and software. Most of the current DVDs on the market are single-sided and single-layer, but a DVD can use upto four physical surfaces for storage

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2. A BRIEF HISTORY OF CDS/DVDS


As we know, CDs didnt begin life in computers. Philips and Sony developed CDs in the late 1970s and unveiled the technology in 1980 as a replacement for vinyl record. This audio CD technology is available in every music store. In 1974, an initiative was taken by L. Ottens, a director of the audio industry group within the Philips Corporation in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. A seven-person project group was formed to develop an optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm with a sound quality superior to that of the large and vulnerable vinyl record. In March 1974, during a meeting of the audio group, two engineers from the Philips research laboratory recommended the use of a digital format on the 20 cm optical disc, because an error-correcting code could be added. It wasn't until 1977 that the directors of the group decided to establish a laboratory with the mission of creating a small optical digital audio disc and a small player. They chose the term "compact disc" in line with another Philips product, the compact cassette. Rather than the original 20 cm size, the diameter of this compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal measurement of a compact cassette. The first test CD was pressed in Langenhagen near Hannover, Germany, by the Polydor Pressing Operations plant. The disc contained a recording of Richard Strauss's Eine Alpensinfonie (in English, An Alpine Symphony), played by the Berlin Philharmonic and conducted by Herbert von Karajan. The first public demonstration was on the BBC television program Tomorrow's World when The Bee Gees' album Living Eyes (1981) was played. On March 2, 1983 CD players and discs (16 titles from CBS Records) were released in the United States and other markets. This event is often seen as the "Big Bang" of the digital audio revolution. The new audio disc was enthusiastically received, especially in the early-adopting classical music and audiophile communities, and its handling quality received particular praise. As the price of players gradually came down, the CD began to gain popularity in the larger popular and rock music markets. The CD was planned to be the successor of the gramophone record for playing music, rather than primarily as a data storage medium. From its origins as a musical format, CDs have grown to encompass other applications. In June 1985, the computer readable CD-ROM (read-only memory) and, in 1990, CD-Recordable were introduced, also developed by both Sony and Philips. Recordable CDs are an alternative to tape for recording music and copying music albums without defects introduced in compression used in other digital recording methods. Other newer video formats such as DVD and Blu-ray use the same physical geometry as CD, and video players can usually play audio CDs as well. By the early 2000s, the CD largely replaced the audio cassette player as standard equipment in new automobiles, with 2010 being the final model year for any car to have a factory-equipped cassette player. Meanwhile, with the advent and popularity of the MP3, sales of CDs began dropping in the 2000s. For example, during the eight-year period ending in 2008, despite overall growth in music sales and one anomalous year of increase, major-label CD sales declined overall by 20%.although independent and DIY music sales may be tracking better according to figures released March 30, 2009.

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3. TYPES OF CDS/DVDS
Disc CD-ROM, AudioCD, Video-CD Type Read only Storage Capacity 650MB Typical Uses Commercially available: computer programs, music, video CD-R CD-R CD-RW CD-RW Record once Record once Rewritable Rewritable 650MB 700MB 650MB 700MB User recording music, computer data, files, applications User recording computer data, files, applications

Table 3.1: Different types of CDs CD-ROM (Compact Disc-Read Only Memory): An extension of the compact disc digital audio format that allows computer data to be stored. Audio CD, also, CD-DA (CD-Digital Audio), CD-A (CD-Audio): A format that holds about 60 minutes of audio data, in up to 99 tracks (songs), to produce high-quality stereo sound. The success of audio CD (or CD-Digital Audio) has been key for the growth and success of CD-ROM and other CD formats. Video CD (VCD): Video CD (VCD, View CD, and Compact Disc digital video) is a standard digital format for storing video media on a CD. VCDs are playable in dedicated VCD players, most modern DVD-Video players, personal computers, and some video game consoles. CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable): A version of CD on which data can be recorded but not erased. An organic dye-based material is used to hold data that are written to it by a laser. CD-RW (Compact Disc-ReWritable): A version of CD on which data can be recorded and erased and re-recorded in the same physical location of the disc. A phase-changing metal alloy film is used to hold the data that are written to it by the laser.

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Disc DVD-ROM, DVDVideo, DVD-Audio

Type Read only

Storage Capacity 4.7GB -17.08GB

Typical Uses Commercially available: Movies , Interactive games, Programs, Applications

DVD-R (General)

Record once

4.7 GB

General use: One time video recording and data archiving

DVD-R (Authoring)

Record once

3.95GB or 4.7GB

Professional use: Video recording and editing General use: One time video recording and data archiving

DVD+R

Record once

4.7GB

DVD-RW

Rewritable

4.7GB

General use: Video recording and PC back-up

DVD+RW

Rewritable

4.7GB

General use: Video recording and editing, data storage, PC back-up

Table 3.2: Different types of DVDs DVD: Once stood for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc, now just DVD. The next generation of optical disc storage technology after the CD. A DVD is the same physical size and shape as a CD, but has a higher density and gives the option for data to be double-sided or double-layered in the disc.
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DVD-Audio: An audio-only storage format similar to CD-Audio. DVD-Audio differs, however, in offering 16, 20 and 24-bit samples at a variety of sampling rates from 44.1 to 192KHz, compared with 16 bits and 44.1KHz for CDs. The latest audio format more than doubles the fidelity of a standard CD. DVD-Audio discs can also contain music videos, graphics, and other information.

DVD-R (DVD-Recordable, sometimes referred to as DVD minus R): A version of DVD on which data can be recorded, but not erased, by a disc drive. An organic, dye-based material is used to hold data that are written to it by a laser. DVD-R provides secure recording for volumes of information that cannot be accidentally or intentionally altered. DVD-R has a capacity of 4.7 GB. There are two versions of DVD-R:32 Fred R. Byers DVD-RAM (DVD-Random Access Memory): A rewritable DVD. It is a cartridge-based, or, more recently, cartridge-less optical disc for data recording and playback. Data can be recorded and erased up to 100,000 times, making the DVD-RAM a virtual hard disk. DVD RAM uses a phase-change data layer to record data written to it by a laser. Current DVD-ROM drives and DVD-Video players cannot read DVD-RAM media. DVD-ROM (Read Only Memory): Typically, an optical disc used for storing data, interactive sequences, audio, and video. DVD-ROMs run in DVD-ROM, DVD-R, DVD-RW, or DVD-RAM drives, but not in DVD-Video players connected to televisions and home theaters. However, most DVD-ROM drives will play DVD-Video movies if the associated software is installed in the computer. DVD-RW (sometimes referred to as DVD minus RW, DVD-ReWritable): The DVD-RW is similar to DVD-RAM except that its technology features a sequential read-write access more like a phonograph than a hard disk. Its read-write capacity is 4.7 GB, and it can be re-written to about 1,000 times. For general recording of all types of content, for audio, for video recording and editing, and for random data recording. Compatible with most DVD-Video players and DVD-ROM drives. DVD+RW (DVD plus RW), (DVD-ReWritable): For general recording of all types of content, for audio, for video recording and editing, and for random data recording. Compatible with most DVD-Video players and DVD-ROM drives.33 Care and Handling of CDs and DVDsA Guide for Librarians and Archivists DVD Video: Used for viewing movies and for other visual entertainment, DVD Video is a popular format for highquality MPEG2 or MPEG4 video and digital surround sound. It enables multilanguage, multisubtitling, and other advanced user features. The total capacity is 17 GB if two layers are used on both sides of the disk.
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4. CONSTRUCTION OF CDS/DVDS
CDs and DVDs consist of the same basic materials and layers but are manufactured differently. A DVD is actually like two thin CDs glued together. A CD is read from and written to (by laser) on one side only; a DVD can be read from or written to on one or both sides, depending on how the disc was manufactured. Recordable DVDs (DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM) can be manufactured with one recording layer on each side. Prerecorded DVDs (DVD-ROM) can be manufactured with one or two recorded layers on each side.

Fig 4.1 Layers in a compact disc

Fig 4.2 Layers in a digital versatile disc

4.1 Polycarbonate (Plastic) Substrate Layer


The polycarbonate substrate makes up most of the disc, including the area that is read by the laser (opposite the label side on CDs). It is present on both sides of a DVD, even a single-sided disc with a label on one side. This substrate provides the disc depth necessary to maintain laser focus on the metal and data layers. It also gives the disc enough strength to remain flat. Anything in or on the polycarbonate layer that interferes with the ability of the laser to focus on the data layer will result in the misreading of data. Accordingly, fingerprints, smudges, or scratches, as well as such substances as dirt, dust, solvents, and excessive moisture (which polycarbonate will absorb), can interfere with the ability of the laser to read the data. Contact of any foreign material with the polycarbonate substrate layer should be avoided.

4.2 Data Layer


As its name implies, the data layer of CDs and DVDs is the layer that contains the data. The data appear as marks or pits that either absorb light from the laser beam, or transmit the light back to the laser photosensor by way of the metal reflective layer. In CDs, the data and metal layers are very close to the top of the disc (label side); in DVDs, they are in the middle of the disc (see Figures 16). The types of data and metal layers used depend on the type of discread-only (ROM), write-once (R), or rewritable (RW, RAM). Table 1 shows the relationship between the data and metal layers and the disc type. The dyebased (R discs) and the phase-changing film layers (RW discs) both hold data by allowing or blocking light transfer through the data layer. The laser-affected (written) areas of the data layer absorb the reading laser beam as it is emitted from the laser to the metal layer and reflected back to the laser photosensor. The light and dark areas give reflectivity effects that are similar to the interference effect of the pressed and molded data in the metal/substrate layer in ROM discs. The reflection, whether the
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result of dye, film, or pressed effects, is represented digitally as ones and zeros by the firmware in the disc drive as the laser reads the disc.

4.2.1 Data Layer in ROM Discs


ROM discs are commercially available or made-to-order prerecorded discs, also called replicated discs. Examples of CD-ROMs include the Audio-CD, Video-CD, CD-i, and CD+G, as well as any number of CDs used in computer applications. Among DVD-ROMs are the DVD-Video, DVD-Audio, and any of various DVDs used in games and computer applications. The data in CD-ROM or DVD-ROM discs are not actually in a separate layer. A molding machine uses a stamper to impress the pits (depressions) and lands (surface), which form the data, into the polycarbonate substrate surface. Metal is then sputtered or condensed onto the molded substrate to form a reflective data layer. The reflective metal layer in ROM discs can also be considered the data layer because the metal is integrated with the pits and lands in the polycarbonate (see Figures 2 and 3). The metal layer in ROM discs is usually aluminum. For double-sided DVD-ROM discs, the semi-reflective layer is gold, silver alloy, or silicon.

4.2.2 Data Layer in R Discs


The recordable, write-once optical disc (CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R) has its data-recording layer sandwiched between the polycarbonate substrate and the metal layer (see Figures 4 and 5). This layer is an organic dye. The dyes used in CDs and DVDs are the same basic types; those used in DVDs, however, are patented by the manufacturer, and the disc color does not indicate the type of dye used. The dyes in both CDs and DVDs are photosensitive. Bits (marks) are written to the dye by a chemical change caused by the laser light beam. This dye degrades over time, eventually making the disc unreadable. The data layer in CD-R discs consists of one of three basic dye types, each yielding a different disc color depending on the type of dye and the type of reflective metal used in the disc. Even on a plain, unlabelled disc, the label side can be a different color from the reading side. If the label side of a recordable disc does not have a printable surface, a label attached, or some other protective layer, it will have the color of the metal used (silver or gold). As for the laser reading side, the color will be as indicated in Table 2.

4.2.3 Data Layer in RW and RAM discs


The data-recording layer of the rewritable optical disc (CD-RW, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM) also lies between the polycarbonate substrate and the metal reflective layer (see Figures 6 and 7). This is a phase-changing metal alloy film. A laser beam writes bits (marks) to the film by heating the film above the melting temperature in the areas selected for bits. The rapid cooling enabled by the dielectric layers on both sides of the phase-changing film causes these bit or mark areas to remain in the amorphous state caused by melting. By heating the phase-changing film to a specific temperature above the crystalline temperature but below the melting temperature, the film can revert back to the crystalline state, thereby erasing previous bits. The writing and erasing processes can be done together in a single pass when rewriting a disc.

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4.3 Metal (Reflective) Layer


The metal layer in optical discs reflects the laser beam back to the laser photosensor in the laser head. Three types of reflective metals are typically used for this layer: aluminum, gold, and silver or silver alloy. In double-layer DVDs, silicon is sometimes used as one of the semi-reflective layers.

4.3.1 Metal Layer in RW, ROM, and RAM Discs


RW, ROM, and RAM discs (CD-RW, CD-ROM, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-ROM, DVD-RAM) use aluminum for the reflective layer, mainly because it is inexpensive and easy to apply. Aluminum oxidizes on exposure to oxygen from the environment or to moisture that has penetrated the disc. In some earlier CDs, poor sealing allowed oxygen to come into contact with the aluminum metal layer, causing the aluminum to oxidize. Oxidation of the aluminum diminishes its reflectivity, making the disc unreadable by the laser, and is sometimes referred to as disc rot. It is the primary cause of ROM disc degradation from environmental influences. Not so, however, for RW and RAM disc degradation; the phase-changing film in these discs normally degrades at a faster rate than the aluminum in the disc oxidizes.

4.3.2 Metal Layer in R Discs


In R discs (CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R), gold, silver, or a silver alloy is used for the reflective layer. Silver is slightly more reflective than gold but can lose reflectivity with corrosion on exposure to adverse environmental conditions. Silver corrodes through reaction with sulfur dioxide, an environmental pollutant that can migrate through the disc with moisture. Gold is noncorrosive, very stable, and longer lasting, but it is also expensive. Either metal should outlast the dye. Aluminum is not used with these discs because it can react with the dye in the recording (data) layer.

4.3.3 Metal Layers in Double-Layer DVD-ROM Discs


DVD-ROMs can be manufactured with two reflective metal layers that allow the laser to read data from both layers using one side of the disc. These double layered DVDs provide up to four times the capacity for content (video, audio, computer applications) as do single-layered DVDs. The laser beam must pass through a semi-reflective metal layer to read data from a fully reflective layer. The outer metal layer (silicon, gold, or silver alloy) is semi-reflective; that is, it reflects back some of the laser beam and allows some of it to pass through to a fully reflective layer (aluminum) and then reflect back. Both parts are thus reflected to, and detected by, the photosensor in the laser head, which focuses on one layer at a time. The difference between these two types is that one (Figure 8) has the metal data layers on separate sides (halves) of the disc. In addition to passing through a semi-reflective metal layer, the laser beam must also pass through a special adhesive that binds the two disc halves together and does not hinder the laser beam. In the example shown as Figure 9, the two metal data layers are on the same half of the disc. DVD-ROMs can also be double-sided. Figure 10 shows a double-sided DVD that may typically be a DVD-Video providing the video in a full-screen TV version on one side of the disc and a wide-screen version on the other side. When double-sided DVDs also have double layers on both sides, they may have almost quadruple the capacity of single-sided/single-layered DVDs (Figure 11).

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4.4 Lacquer (Metal Protective) Layer (CDs)


A very thin lacquer layer is applied to the label side of CDs to protect the metal from exposure to the environment. (DVDs have no such protective lacquer coating.) That layer also gives some limited protection from writing on or labeling the disc. However, the CD is more sensitive to damage on this side than on the polycarbonate side. Since the metal layer is so close to the surface of the label side, pointed objects can easily damage the CD by deforming the metal or exposing it to the environment. Some solvents can also affect lacquer coatings and expose or react with the metal. Once the metal is damaged, the laser cannot read data in the damaged areas. Sometimes a manufacturer will add an additional layer designed specifically to provide more resistance to fingerprints and scratches on the label side of CDs. One particularly effective modification has been the application of lacquer completely around the edges of the disc. In earlier CDs, moisture had been allowed to penetrate to the metal through unprotected areas of the disc edge. Clearly, it is as important to protect the edges of CDs as it is their surfaces.

4.5 Optional Surface Layer


An optional layer may also be added to a CD or DVD to provide a labeling surface (see "Disk Surface Printing," page 24). Such surfaces are of four types: thermal-printable inkjet-printable silkscreen-printable a surface that will accommodate more than one type of printing These layers are applied over the lacquer layer on CDs or over the polycarbonate substrate on a singlesided DVD. Some discs have an extra coating on which text or logos are printed. In many cases, the lettering appears to be stenciled, but it is not part of the coating; what one sees is the reflected surface of the metal rather than imprinted text or logos. Typically, one can see through this lettered areaand even through the metalby holding the disc up to light. Because these lettered areas are particularly susceptible to damage, it is most important to avoid writing on or scratching in these areas. The only disc surface area that is completely safe from writing or scratching is the clear inner hub or the "mirror band," since no data are recorded in these areas.

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Fig 4.3.1 Location of layers in CD-ROM and DVD-ROM

Fig 4.3.2 Location of layers in CD-R and DVD-R

Fig 4.3.3 Location of layers in CD-RW, DVD-RAM and DVD-RW

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Fig 4.3.4 Location of layers in single-sided and double-layered DVD-ROM

Fig 4.3.5 Location of layers in double-sided and single layered DVD-ROM

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5. DATA ORGANIZATION IN AN OPTICAL DISC


Conventional optical discs store information by making contrast variations on a disc surface that can be detected as reflected light from a read laser as the disc is rotated beneath it. For read-only discs such as those used for content distribution, the optical contrast is made by imprinting pits in the disc surface that create light and dark regions at the pit edges. These edges can be detected by reflecting laser light off the surface of the optical disc. The pit edge transitions that represent the digital data stored on the read only optical disc are organized in a spiral track. CDs and DVDs use red lasers, which have longer wavelengths than blu laser products such as HD DVD or a Blu-ray disc. The longer wavelength light only allows detectable contrast differences from pit land transitions on the playback medium that are larger than in case for shorter wavelength light.

Fig 5.1 Location of pits in CDs and DVDs

DVDs have a somewhat shorter wavelength light than CDs, so they can use smaller pits and also denser tracks. Likewise blue laser products have even smaller pits and denser tracks giving them a single layer capacity of about 25GB. With two layers this storage capacity increases by a little less than twice due to issues associated with signal loss from optical absorption of the laser light by the thickness of the medium between the laser and the detected layer. The effective limit of the layers that can be used are a function of the difficulty in manufacturing multiple layers, spherical aberration compensation, and the optical losses due to absorption when reading the different layers. Optical discs vary in storage capacity because of differences in the track and linear densities, similar to the way a real density is increases on hard disk drives. Optical discs differ from hard drives in that they can record information on layers in the depth of plastic optical disc. These are accessible by focusing the read laser beam to different focal depths in the media where information is recorded. Thus, for instance, a blu-ray disc can have a 50 GB capacity depending upon whether a single layer or double layer is used. Optical read only disc layers are made by stacking layers of imprinted plastic media together to make a thicker plastic optical disc.

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6. READ/WRITE OPERATION OF CDS/DVDS


6.1 Reading the CD:
When a CD is loaded into a player or CD-ROM drive, it spins and a laser moves over the lands and pits sensing thousands of them per sec. when the laser hits a land, its light reflects off the metallic coating to a sensor. A pit on the CD surface doesnt reflect the laser back to the sensor. When it hits a pit, the light doesnt reflect back to the sensor. whether the sensor sees a reflection or not is how, it knows if the bit on the CD is a 1 or 0. Unlike a floppy or hard disc, a CD is recorded on a single long (about 3 miles long) spiral, rather than in discrete tracks. The spiral is wound onto the disc in a pattern that is the equivalent of about 16,000 tracks per inch on a hard disc drive.
Fig 6.1 Reading a CD

6.2 Writing to the CD:


The CD-R WORM disc contains a layer of organic dye .The laser changes the light absorbing or reflecting properties of this dye to store digital data to the CD. The CD-RW (CDMO) disc has an internal layer of a special metal alloy. The laser changes the light reflecting characteristics of this metal alloy, and the read laser is reflected differently depending on the data value stored in each bit. A new type of CD is now emerging called CD-Erasable (CD-E) that uses a phase change technology that erases the contents of the CD so it can be rerecorded. The CD-E has a data layer of silver alloy that is recorded using a higher energy laser than is used to read the disc.
Fig 6.2 Writing to a CD

The top of the CD is its data surface, and the data is placed on substrate core directly beneath the CDs label. The laser is focused on the bottom of the CD directly through the CDs substrate, which is about 1mm thick. Scratches on a CD shouldnt interfere with the CDs ability to be read because the laser shines through them. As long as the substrate remains intact and undamaged, the disc should be readable. However, should the scratches be deep enough to remove any of the reflective coating, the disc would be unreadable. The 1st sector on the CD is located at 2 minutes, no seconds, and no hundredths of seconds(00:02:00), or 600 blocks. On a CD-ROM using 512-byte blocks, a minute of data contains 18000 blocks which means that there are 300 in a second and 600 in the first 2 sec. this also means that the logical block 0 is at 00:02:00 as well.

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6.3 Understanding the CD: The Spiral:


A CD has a single spiral track of data, circling from the inside of the disc to the outside. The fact that the spiral track starts at the centre means that the CD can be smaller than 4.8 inches (12 cm) if desired, in fact there are now plastic baseball cards and business cards that we can put in a CD player. CD business cards hold about 2 MB of data before the size and shape of the card cuts off the spiral.The data track is incredibly small -- it is approximately 0.5 microns wide, with 1.6 microns separating one track from the next.(A micron is a millionth of a meter.) And the bumps are even more miniscule...

Fig 6.3 The CD spiral

6.4 Understanding the CD: The bumps or pits:


The elongated bumps that make up the track are each 0.5 microns wide, a minimum of 0.83 microns long and 125 nanometres high. (A nanometre is a billionth of a meter.) Looking through the polycarbonate layer at the bumps, they look something like this: We often read about "pits" on a CD instead of bumps. They appear as pits on the aluminium side, but on the side the laser reads from, they Fig 6.4 The pits and bumps in CD are bumps. The incredibly small dimensions of the bumps make the spiral track on a CD extremely long. If we could lift the data track off a CD and stretch it out into a straight line, it would be 0.5 microns wide and almost 3.5 miles (5 km) long!

6.5 CD player components:


The CD player has the job of finding and reading the data stored as bumps on the CD. Considering Cross-section of a CD how small the bumps are, the CD player is an exceptionally precise piece of equipment. The drive consists of three fundamental components: A drive motor spins the disc. This drive motor is precisely controlled to rotate between 200 and 500 rpm depending on which track is being read. A laser and a lens system focus in on and read the bumps. A tracking mechanism moves the laser assembly so that the laser's beam can follow the spiral track. The tracking system has to be able to move the laser at micron resolutions.

Fig 6.5 CD player components

6.6 Laser Focus: Inside the CD player, there is a good bit of computer technology involved in
forming the data into understandable data blocks and sending them either to the DAC (in the case of an audio CD) or to the computer (in the case of a CD-ROM drive). The fundamental job of the CD player is to focus the laser on the track of bumps. The laser beam passes through the polycarbonate layer, reflects off the aluminum layer and hits an opto-electronic device that detects changes in light. The bumps
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reflect light differently than the "lands" (the rest of the aluminum layer), and the opto-electronic sensor detects that change in reflectivity. The electronics in the drive interpret the changes in reflectivity in order to read the bits that make up the bytes

Fig 6.6 Laser focus inside CD player

6.7 Tracking Mechanism:


The hardest part is keeping the laser beam centered on the data track. This centering is the job of the tracking system. The tracking system, as it plays the CD, has to continually move the laser outward. As the laser moves outward from the center of the disc, the bumps move past the laser faster, this happens because the linear, or tangential, speed of the bumps is equal to the radius times the speed inside a CD player at which the disc is revolving (rpm). Therefore, as the laser moves outward, the spindle motor must slow the speed of the CD. That way, the bumps travel past the laser at a constant speed, and the data comes off the disc at a constant rate.

Fig 6.7 Tracking mechanism in a CD player

6.8 DVD working:


A DVD works in the same manner as a CD. The only difference is that a laser of shorter wavelength is used to write information into it. Henceforth, the reading operation also requires a shorter wavelength and so a different encoding technique. This is the very reason why a CD player cant play a DVD. A DVD has lesser distance between consecutive pits . so, more information can be stored in it.

Fig 6.8 DVD working

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7. COMPARISON OF CDS/DVDS
CDs Firstly the CD pits are nearly twice as large or 0.83 micron wide. The data tracks of CDS are about 1.6microns The data spiral of CDS are too less. It uses infrared laser with a longer wavelength of 780nm. DVDs The DVD pits are only 0.44micron in diameter. The data tracks of DVDS are 0.74micron apart. The data spiral of DVD is upward of 11km. To read the smaller pits DVD players readout beam must achieve a finer focus.It uses a read semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 635650nm. The numerical aperture of DVD is 0.38-0.45. The capacity of DVD is about 4.7GB for single layer and 8.5GB for double layer. The scanning speed is 3.49m/s-3.84m/s. The rotational speed is 570-1600rpm. The reflectivity is 45-85%.

The numerical aperture of CD is 0.60. The capacity of CD is about 650MB

The scanning speed is 1.2-1.4m/s. The rotational speed is 200-500rpms. The reflectivity is 70% minimum.

CD and DVD drives use Red Laser. As we know a series of pits are burnt into CDs and DVDs to store data. The pits and flats are 1s and 0s, stored in a spiral, from centre to periphery. DVDs are nothing big. They are of the same size as of CDs, and use a different coating on the plastic of course. The reason that they are able to store more data is that their pit size is really small when compared to that of CDs. This is because the wavelength of the Laser that is used for DVD is less than that of the CD, which allows it to burn smaller pits on the surface. Compared to CD the DVD has more tracks since the pitch is reduced from 1600 nanometers to 740 nanometers and redundant information is reduced to minimum and hence the capacity can go up from 700 MB in case of CD to 4.5 GB in case of DVD. Also, unlike CD, the information can be stored in layers and on both sides of DVD giving it the obvious advantage in terms of size and cost. When it was developed, the only serious competition of DVD was from 3.5 inch floppies. The floppies had been in existence for quite a long time and had slowly been coming down in size from 10 inch to 5.5 inches and then to the standard 3.5 inches. The cost of blank DVD is just 4 to 10 times that of the floppy or the audio CD, but the data storage capacity is huge and thus the cost per bit of data stored comes down considerably. With the costs coming down rapidly, the cost advantage of DVD becomes further obvious.

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8. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF CDS/DVDS
ADVANTAGES OF CD/DVD
There are many advantages of using CD and DVD. Some of the advantages of CD/DVD are listed below: 1. CDs and DVDs are optical memories that can store huge amount of information. An optical memory uses laser beam to read the information stored on it. They can carry data, music, pictures, and computer programs. The average CD can carry 74 minutes of music of 750MB of data whereas a DVD can hold upto 15 times more 2. CDs/DVDs are portable, fast and can be mass-produced at a very low cost. They are in the form of small plastic disks, so we can easily carry it to anywhere with us. 3. Files can be copied to a CD or DVD which is called as writable disc. Common writable disc types include CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, and DVD-RW. 4. Originally CDs were developed for audio systems to replace phonograph records and audiotapes. But CDs are now used for storing data, images and videos. 5. Optical discs are differentially identified to designate specific features such as recordability, rewritability and accessibility. For example, CD-R, DVD-R, and DVD+R discs recordable but not erasable. CD-RW, DVD-RW, and DVD+RW discs are recordable, (rewritable) discs, or discs that permit the erasing of earlier information and the recording of new material in the same location on the disc. 6. The CD-ROM (Compact disk read-only memory),a direct extension of audio CD players are more rugged and have error-correction facility. This ensures proper transfer from CD-ROM to the main memory of the computer. 7. Byte storing capacity of CD-ROM is excellent. A 60 minutes CD-ROM can hold 60 * 60 * 75 = 270,000 blocks. Each of these blocks can store 2048 bytes or 2K of data. 8. CD-ROMs/DVD ROMs are removable disks, thus, are suitable for archival storage. 9. CD-ROMs and CD-Rs remain widely used technologies in the computer industry.

DISADVANTAGES OF CD/DVD
Though CDs and DVDs are very useful in our day to day life because of their so many advantages but they have some disadvantages also. Some of the disadvantages of CD and DVD are discussed below: 1. 2. 3. 4. CDs/DVDs are expensive media just for the purpose of storage. They are subject to degradation by environmental factors. They do not provide any security as such as password protection is not offered. Backup administration of CDs/DVDs is a lengthy process as it requires frequent human interaction for read/write operations. 5. Backup storage in CDs/DVDs arent as efficient as online backup since without web service, we may not be able to exchange any data. 6. In case of error occurrence, we may forever lose the data that we used for backup in disk drives

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9. HANDLING OF CDS/DVDS
DOS:
1. Handle discs by the outer edge or the centre hole. 2. Use a non-solvent-based felt-tip permanent marker to mark the label side of the disc. 3. Remove dirt, foreign material, fingerprints, smudges, and liquids by wiping with a clean cotton fabric in a straight line from the center of the disc toward the outer edge. 4. Store disc in plastic cases specified for CDs and DVDs. 5. Return discs to storage cases immediately after use. 6. Open a recordable disc package only when you are ready to record data on that disc. 7. Store discs in a cool, dry, dark environment in which the air is clean. 8. Use CD/DVD-cleaning detergent, isopropyl alcohol, or methanol to remove dirt. 9. Check the disc surface before recording.

DONTS:
1. Touch the surface of the disc. 2. Bend the disc. 3. Use adhesive labels. 4. Store discs horizontally for a long time (years). 5. Expose discs to extreme heat or high humidity. 6. Expose recordable discs to prolonged sunlight or other sources of ultraviolet light. 7. Mark in the data area of the disc (the area the laser reads). 8. Clean by wiping in a direction going around the disc. 9. Scratch the label side of the disc. 10. Write on the disc with markers that contain solvents. Prolonged exposure to high temperature and moisture: Optical discs will perform well within a wide range of temperature and relative humidity conditions. Discs kept in a cooler, less-humid environment and not subjected to extreme environmental changes should last longer. Optical discs stored in an optimal environment will outlast discs that are not. The polycarbonate substrate, or the plastic composition, that makes up most of the disc is a polymer material that is vulnerable to moisture. Any prolonged exposure to moisture resulting from a spill, humid air, or immersion allows water to become absorbed into the disc, where it may react with any of the layers. Scratching and smudging: Anything on an optical disc surface that impedes the ability of the laser to focus on the data layer can result in missing data as the disc is being read Scratches interfere with the ability of the laser to follow the data track in the disc. Light scratches and fingerprints are very common, and while they both can impede laser reading, their effects on the disc are somewhat different. Scratches affect discs differently depending on the side of the disc affected, the severity and direction of the scratch, and the type of disc. Flexing or bending: Flexing (bending) the disc by any means, such as removing it from a jewel case or sitting on it, may harm the disc by causing stresses. The disc should be stored in its case and placed vertically, like a book, on a shelf. Long-term horizontal storage, particularly in a heated environment, can cause the disc to become permanently bowed. While the data may still be intact, the disc may not operate properly in the drive or permit the laser to follow the track.
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10. CONCLUSION
CDs and DVDs have become an important part of todays world. CD and DVDs find their usage in almost every field, be it entertainment, business or education. They are used to hold music, data or computer software and have become the standard medium for distributing large quantities of information in a reliable package. CDs and DVDs have become popular formats for the recording and storing of all types of digital content. It is easily portable. Nowadays different books are found in form of CD and DVDs, that have made our education system much easier. Before the invention of CD, DVD people used to go out for cinema but nowadays everyone can have the fun of sitting comfortably and watch movies in their home. All these have become possible because of CD/DVDs. Among the digital media, prerecorded and write-once optical discs are more stable than digital magnetic tape. Neither optical discs nor magnetic tape, however, is as stable as microfilm or paper. With proper care, microfilm and non-acidic paper can last for centuries, while magnetic tape lasts only a few decades (Van Bogart 1995). Just as film types can vary in years of usefulness, one disc type can also last longer than another. Temperature and humidity conditions can markedly affect the useful life of a disc; extreme environmental factors can render discs useless in as little as a few days. Media deterioration is but one aspect of the preservation challenge. A potentially more immediate threat is technological obsolescence. Technological advances will no doubt make current optical disc types obsolete within several years. If the software currently used to interpret the data on optical discs becomes unavailable, a migration or emulation technology will be needed to access the data. Also, if the current disc-drive technology becomes unavailable, and if disc drives produced in the future lack the backward compatibility to play today's discs, the information on the discs will likewise be inaccessible. Film and paper are much more stable in this regard, as human language does not change as rapidly as computer software, hardware, or the media format. Ink on paper, for example, has been used for centuries, and film has not changed significantly over the years. The importance of ensuring that information can be read by future generations cannot be overstated. It is vital to have in place a preservation strategy that guarantees the sustainability of the collection for as long as possible. The computer-user industry standard for data storage on removable digital media has changed considerably over the past few decades (TASI 2002).

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