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CLINICAL LABORATORY

1. What is the function of ➢ Absolutely specific for a


screening? specific disease
➢ Detect subclinical ➢ Easily measurable
disease ➢ Early detection
➢ Detect and quantify the ➢ Not affected by other
risk of future disease biological disturbances
2. Role of the laboratory test 7. Function of Troponin 1 is a
➢ Screening marker of MI because
➢ Diagnoses ➢ Found predominately in
➢ Helpful patient cardiac tissue
management ➢ Released into the blood
3. What are the steps in stream following cell
investigation of a patient? death
➢ Imaging techniques ➢ Highly specific marker
➢ diagnosis 8. Inter-individual varation
➢ Evaluation ➢ Age
4. Why are laboratory tests ➢ Sex
ordered? ➢ Race
➢ Prevent malpractice ➢ Genetic
➢ Educating residents ➢ Long term health issue
➢ Monitor 9. Intra-individual variation
effectiveness!! ➢ Diet
➢ Identify complication of ➢ Exercise
treatment ➢ Drugs
➢ Check accuracy and ➢ Time of venipucture
unexpected data ➢ Length of time
5. What are normal biological tourniquet is applied
specimens? BUC (Comprise ➢ Posture
➢ Blood the majority of ➢ Sleep pattern
all specimens
➢ Urine 10.Pre-analytical variation
analyzed)
➢ Cerebrospinal fluid ➢ Transport
➢ Stools ➢ Exposure to UV light
➢ Tissue specimen ➢ Storage condition
6. What is the function of a ➢ Centrifugation time
marker?

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CLINICAL LABORATORY

➢ Standing time be4 ➢ Increases Potassium,


separation of cell Magnesium and
11.Analytical variation phosphorous
➢ Random errors 17.Lipemia and proteinemia
➢ Systemic errors cause:
12.Post-analytical ➢ Serum and plasma to
➢ Transcription errors become turbid!!
➢ Result reported to 18.Blood composition with
wrong patient anticoagulant (Chelating
13.Prolonged venous stasis agent EDTA, Citrate /
(tourniquet put in a long Heparin enhance
period) will cause?! antithrombin)!
➢ Increase( Total ➢ 3 layers (PLASMA,
protein, Proteins, BUFFY COAT, and RBC)
iron Fe, Cholesterol, ➢ Buffy coat (WBC and
and bilirubin) platelets)
➢ Decreases potassium ➢ Plasma
(K+) (55% whole blood –
14.Supine position ( reduces protein, sugar, vitamin,
700ml blood volume) mineral, lipids,
➢ Decrease 5-15% of lipoprotein, and clotting
(Total protein, factors)
albumin, lipids, iron, (95% of plasma is
Calcium and water)
Enzymes) 19.Blood composition without
15.Specimens which required anticoagulant
special handling technique: ➢ 2 layers
➢ Lactate ➢ Serum and blood clot
➢ Ammonia ➢ Serum same as plasma
➢ Acid phosphatase but without clotting
➢ Plasma catecholamines factors
16.Hemolysis will cause: ➢ Blood clot (Clotting
➢ Serum and plasma into factors, fibrin, platelets,
red and RBCs)
20.Collection tube

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CLINICAL LABORATORY

➢ Red (X anticoagulant) • Urea; BUN; Creatinine


➢ Gold (Gel barrier) • GFR
➢ Grey (Glucose) ➢ Endocrine (DM)
➢ Green (Anticoagulant)
➢ Lavender (EDTA; Inhibit DIAGNOSA
coagulation) • fasting glucose
➢ Light blue (Coagulation • 2h post prandial
studies)
glucose
➢ Brown and Royal Blue
• OGTT
(Trace metal studies)
• C-peptide (DD type 1
21.Complete blood count is?
and type 2 DM)
➢ Haemoglobin
➢ WBC count
MONITORING
➢ Platelets count
• C.B.C, Urinalisa
➢ MCV
• Lipid profile
➢ MCH
• Renal function
➢ MCHC
➢ RDW • Electrolyte

➢ Haematocrit • Blood gas analysis

➢ RBC count • Ketone bodies


➢ Erythrocyte • Hb A1C
sedimentation rate • Fructosamine
➢ Blood smear evaluation • Micro-albuminuria
22.POCT (Point of care testing) • Insulin-Fasting and 2
➢ Blood glucose
h pp
➢ Urinalysis
➢ Blood gases
➢ Lipid profile
➢ Electrolytes
• Total cholesterol
➢ Cardiac markers
• Trygliceride
(troponin 1 and T)
• HDL
➢ Drugs screen
• LDL
23.Routine clinical chemistry
• Lp(a)
in laboratory examination
➢ Renal function test • ApoA, ApoB

• Urinalysis

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CLINICAL LABORATORY

➢ Liver function test ➢ Hematuria


Hepatobilier ➢ Myohemoglobinuria???
function 肌红蛋白尿症
• Synthesis function: ➢ Myoglobinuria??
CHE, albumin, 肌红蛋白尿
coagulation factors ➢ Hemoglobinuria??
• Hepatocellular 血红素尿
functions: AST, ALT 28.Observe the tube with
• Obstructive functions: graphic paper background
GGT, ALP is to?
• Excretions: Bilirubin, ➢ Observe the clarity of
bile acid the urine
24.Markers for hepatitis: 29.Clarity of urine influenced
➢ AFP by
➢ Ceruloplasmin ➢ Leucocyturia
➢ Serum iron ➢ hematuria
➢ Feritin ➢ Bacteriuria
25.Type of macroscopic ➢ Mucus from vagina
examination ➢ Phosphate precipitation
➢ Colour 30.Dipstick examination:
➢ Clarity ➢ Provide information-
➢ Volume (count by • Carbohydrate
urinometer) metabolism
➢ pH • Kidney function
➢ odor • Liver function
26.Chemical examination • Acid-base balance
➢ Glucose • UTI
➢ Blood (haemoglobin)
Dip not longer than 1
➢ Leukocyte esterase
second
➢ Protein
➢ Urobilinogen
31.Indicator used in the
➢ Bilirubin
dipstick:
➢ Ketone
➢ Glucose (Blue-brown)
➢ Nitrite
• Glucosa oxidase
27.Red urine is caused by

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CLINICAL LABORATORY

• Peroxidase ➢ Acid sulfosalisilat


➢ Bilirubin (Yellow-brown) ➢ Protein Bence Jones
• Diazotized • +ve or –ve
dicholororaniline 33.Glucose test
salt ➢ Benedict (5 ml) and 8
➢ Ketone drops (1/10 of urine)
• Nitroprusid • Negative (Blue)
➢ SG • +1 (Bight yellowish)
• Bromthymol blue • +2 (Yellow + green)
• Polyelectrolyte • +3 (Orange)
(Polymethylvinyl • +4 (Brownish red)
ether/ maleic acid) ➢ Reduction test
➢ Blood (Yellow-green) Others redactor:
• Tetramethylbenzidine • Vit C
➢ pH • Lactose
• Bromthymol blue • Asam salisilat
• Methyl red • Galactose
➢ Protein (Green) • Fructose
• Tetrablomphenol 34.Picture!!
➢ Urobilinogen (Red) ➢ Erythrocyte
• Diazonium salt ➢ Leukocytes
➢ nitrite (pink) ➢ Hyaline cast
• P-arsanilic acid ➢ Erythrocyte cast
➢ Leucocyte • Glomerulonephritis
• Indoxyl ester ➢ Leukocyte cast
32.Urine protein test • Pyelonephritis
➢ 2ml of urine + 3-5 drops ➢ Granular cast (Coarsely)
acetic acid 35.Oval Fat bodies +
• Negative ➢ Nephrotic syndrome
• +1 white ➢ Tubular cells that have
• +2 white cloudy absorbed lipoproteins

• +3 white yellowish with cholesterol and


triglycerides leaked
• +4 white yellowish
from nephritic glomeruli
cloudy
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CLINICAL LABORATORY

36.Leukocyte cast +
➢ Pyelonephritis
37.Erythrocyte cast +
➢ GLomerulonephritis
38.Fever
➢ Upper UTI
39.Burning sensation
➢ Lower UTI

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