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THE SPEECH MECHANISM

z Speech is an overlaid function y there are no organs whose primary function is to produce speech z Articulators - parts of the speech mechanism that serve to produce different configuartions which make up different sounds

Teeth (dento/dental)- important for sounds involving lip & teeth and tongue & teeth y y y y labio-dental sounds /f, v/ (lip + teeth) lingua-dental sounds /T, D/ (tongue + teeth) Dental occlusion - how the teeth fit together when you bite down abnormal bite is a malocclusion x x x neutrocclusion (normal jaw relationship) distocclusion (retruded mandible) mesiocclusion (protruded mandible)

Four Parts of the Speech Mechanism z z z z Oral Cavity Nasal Cavity Pharynx Larynx z

Alveolar ridge (alveolo/alveolar) - gum ridge y sounds made at alveolar ridge x /t, d, l, n, s, z/

Oral Cavity (oro/oral) z Lips (labio/labial) - bounded by the cheeks, chin, and nose y orbicularis oris - lip muscle that can contract to round, protrude, or spread the lips to make various speech sounds y philtrum - grooved indentation in the center of the upper lip y vermilion - adaptation of the mucous membrane that lines the mouth; reddish color y sounds produced at lips x x bilabial /p, b, m, w/ labio-dental /f, v/ y y z y z

Hard palate (palato/palatal) - anterior roof of mouth y y bone covered with membrane sounds made at hard palate x /t, dZ, j, , Z/

Velum (velo/velar) - soft palate movable fold of mucuous membrane that is continous with hard palate divides oral cavity from nasal for non-nasal sounds -> is LOWERED for nasal sounds sounds made at velum - /k, g, N/

y uvula - little grape x z serves little function in humans

y y

velopharyngeal valve or port is formed by the soft palate making contact with the pharyngeal wall must be closed for vowels and non-nasal consonants

Tongue (lingua/lingual) - most important of the articulators y muscular organ capable of intrinsic (finer shapes) and extrinsic movements (responsible for up/down; backward/forward) y divided into parts: x x x x x tip front or blade - beneath alveolar ridge middle - beneath hard palate back - beneath velum root - most posterior part of tongue

Pharynx (pharyngo/pharyngeal) z z z z Throat extends from the posterior portion of the nasal cavity downward through the back of the oral cavity to the larynx pharynx is a vertical tube with 3 parts Nasopharynx - continuation of the nasal cavity z z z uppermost part of pharynx; directly behind nasal cavity nasopharynx can be closed off from the oropharynx where they join at the velopharyngeal port

Mandible (mandibulo/mandibular) - lower jaw y regulates the size of opening beneath teeth y tongue is connected to mandible by the lingual frenum which attaches tip and blade of tongue to floor of mouth

Oropharynx - continuation of the oral cavity z z opens to mouth very versatile in assuming a variety of configurations

Laryngopharynx - area just above larynx z z vibrating mechanism that houses the vocal folds sits on top of trachea

Facial muscles - important in controlling cheeks and size of mouth y aids in building intra-oral breath pressure Larynx z

Nasal Cavity (naso/nasal) z z Extends from the nostrils (nares) to pharynx (throat) important in resonance by opening or closing of velopharyngeal port

Two purposes of larynx y Prevent food from going into trachea

epiglottis -- leaf-like cartilage below root of tongue and at junction of oropharynx and laryngopharynx covers glottis during eating and drinking to prevent food and liquids from going into lungs

Vocal folds - mucous membranes that attach separately to the arytenoid cartilages in back of larynx and come together in front at angle of thyroid cartilage Positions of vocal folds y y open (abducted) - for normal inhalation/ exhalation closed (adducted) - for phonation

y Create a constriction in vocal tract which produces a sound source for communication Anatomy of Larynx z cricoid cartilage - bottom ring of larynx that sits on top of trachea y looks like a signet ring z artynoid cartilages - mobile, paired, pyramid-shaped cartilages that sit on top of cricoid cartilage y they attach to the vocal folds so that movement of the arytenoid cartilages moves the vocal folds z thyroid cartilage - largest structure of larynx y shield-shaped cartilage that protects vocal folds y referred to as Adams apple z hyoid bone - only bone in body not connected to other bones y attached to muscles and ligaments involved in swallowing and phonation y is a horse-shoe or U-shaped bone just above thyroid cartilage

Glottis -- opening in the vocal folds y two sounds produced at level of glottis /h, ?/

z z

vocal folds vibrate to produce voicing middle of vocal folds vibrate to produce voicing

IMPROVING YOUR LISTENING SKILLS


How tobe an Active Listener

Physically face towards and pay attention to the speaker. Listen for and verbally confirm the speaker's intent or purpose. Confirm the content or the speaker's request (the who, what, where, when, why and how). Clarify the degree of importance of the request to the speaker. What is the reason, need or urgency of the request? Recognize the level of emotion demonstrated by the speaker. Summarize and share their understanding of what is being requested. Indicate the level of response they will be able to provide.

Active Listening Good listening skills are important in school the workplace day-to-day living

Factors That Hinder Listening Many factors hinder our listening. Here are a few examples: Daydreaming. Preparing our responses ahead of time. Thinking about other people, places or things.

Yet most of us receive very little training in effective listening. Take the Effective Listening Quiz! Good Listeners: Minimize or remove any barriers to communication that may threaten their effectiveness.

7 Ways to Improve Your Listening Here are 7 strategies and suggestions to help you improve your listening skills. 1.) Increase your listening span: Try to resist the temptation to interrupt.

Make sure the speaker has had a complete chance to make his or her point before you speak. If you don't get the whole message, ask the speaker to repeat what they said. 2.) Take time to listen: Don't put obvious limitations on your listening time - the speaker will feel rushed. 3.) Listen between the lines: Don't just listen to what is being said. Try to understand the attitudes, needs and motives behind the words.

A good listener makes an effort to understand what the facts add up to.

7.) Don't monopolize: Resist the urge to dominate a situation or to feel that you know everything about a situation. Be open to new ideas and allow the speaker to have his or her say.

A Listening Quiz True or False? 1. The thief was tall, dark, and broad. 2. The professor turned off the lights. 3. A tall figure demanded the examination. 4. The examination was picked up by someone 5. The examination was picked up by the professor. 6. A tall, dark figure appeared after the professor turned off the lights in the office. 7. The man who opened the drawer was the professor. 8. The professor ran down the corridor. 9. The drawer was never actually opened. 10. In this report three persons are referred to.

4.) Give your full attention: Nodding or interjecting occasionally to clarify a point lets the speaker know you are interested. If the speaker pauses briefly, don't rush to fill the silence. Use open-ended questions to encourage elaboration.

5.) Restate the message: When you are sure that the speaker has finished, restate the main points. This is a good organizing strategy for you. It also gives the speaker assurance that the message has been received.

6.) Listen for ideas as well as facts: