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he end of the nineteenth century was a time despite his protestations of being an American citizen.

of emigration from the European countries His unit was dispatched to the Balkans. At the time of to the Americas. This was especially evident the armistice in 1918, Grandfather Isadore was in in the rural regions of Eastern Pennsylvania Sarajevo. In the turmoil of that time, there was no transwhere many people moved from their original home- portation to return the troops to their homes, so he lands to seek work in the factories, farms and mines of walked from Sarajevo to Tuenno, surviving by digging the Coal Region. Many Tyrolean families sought work in potatoes from fields along the way. In 1923, the mines of the area. My great-grandfather Francesco Grandparents Bianca and Isadore returned to America. Dallago, his wife Maria and their daughters Rosina, After marrying, they settled in Minersville, PA, not far Amalia, and Maria left Tuenno, in the Val di Non, from their respective birthplaces. In 1924, they were booked passage to America, and took up residence in the joined by Bianca's younger sister, Ludwina, and Isadores town of Atlas, near Mount Carmel, in Northumberland younger brother, Francisco. Sadly, Francisco would die County, PA. In 1894, another daughter, my grandmoth- only one week after taking a job at the nearby Lytle er Bianca, was born, followed by a fourth daughter Colliery. In 1926, Grandmother Bianca gave birth to Ludwina, in 1896. At nearly the same time, in New their only child, my mother, Dora. Grandfather Isadore Boston, a town near Mahanoy City, in Schuylkill County, worked as a carpenter, but the effects of the great depresPA, my other great-grandfather, Ferdinand Leonardi, his sion were being felt throughout the nation. They then wife Assunta, and their sons Frederick and David took opened a corner grocery store to supplement their up residence. They had also emigrated from Tuenno. income when carpentry work would be difficult to come Father and sons were soon working in the local collieries. by. Over the years, the store prospered and they made a In 1891, my grandfather, Isadore, was born, followed by successful life for themselves. They returned to visit their a daughter, Albina, in 1894, and another son, Francisco families in Tuenno for a few months in 1956. They expein 1896. In 1900, disaster struck the colliery at Buck rienced a lifetime which saw the horse as a common Mountain, in the form of a methane gas explosion. Ten means of transportation in their youth and space flight miners died, among them my great-grandfather and man visiting the moon in their later years. Ferdinand and his son, David. Shortly thereafter, great- Grandparents Isadore and Bianca went to God in 1972 grandmother Assunta returned to Tuenno with my and 1978. They left behind their legacy of hard work, grandfather Isadore and his brother Frank. Their broth- determination, resiliency in the face of adversity, and an er, Frederick, remained behind in America. At roughly unflagging belief in God, surely a testament to those who the same time, in Atlas, PA, my Dallago grandparents follow in their footsteps. elected to return to Tuenno with their family . Both fam- Written by Grandson, David Dando, Galloway, New ilies grew through the early part of the twentieth centu- Jersey ry, leading happy lives amid the familiar surroundings of the beautiful Val di Non. This pleasant environment underwent a seismic shift with the advent of World War I. Val di Non was then a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1915, Italy entered the war on the side of the allies, opposing the Empire. This posed considerable anxiety to the Dallago family, since my grandmother Bianca was serving as governess to children of a wealthy family in Venice. The Venetian family treated her very well, but communications across the border to Tuenno were not possible because of the war. Grandmother Bianca's family had no idea of her whereabouts or her conditions. Eventually, Bianca was able to return to Tuenno by traveling first to Switzerland and then to the Val di Non to reunite with her family. At the same time, Grandfather Isadore was inducted into the Austrian army Bianca & Isadore Leonardi 25

Family Stories: The Leonardis

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