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. PA. D.<7> rtt+G^/tC " A&*f' / zjz V&U. in March. LECTURES Delivered on the L.. PURVES.D. Stone Foundation at Princeton Theological Seminary. I l^O^y /zr~ Csi^jCi&ttiiULS-v THE TESTIMONY OF JUSTIN MARTYR EARLY CHRISTIANITY. F. BY GEORGE T. . "West Twenty-third Street. PASTOE OF THE FIRST PRESBYTEBIAS CHURCH OF PITTSBURGH. 38 RANDOLPH AND COMPANY. NEW YORK: ANSON D. P.

Cambridge. F. By Anson D.Copyright. . IHnfocrsttg $wsjf: John Wilson and Son. 1889. Randolph and Company.

entered into it will enable us to read the New Testament with fresh confidence and intelligence. to Eomanists and rationalists. all. as it has so largely been. and the author keenly realizes their He hopes. Stone Foundation at Princeton Theological Seminary. and are published at the request of the Faculty. as time went on. Its importance to Christian apolostudy will also contribute to getics is very great. While we firmly hold to the sole authority of the Scriptures for faith and practice. The form in which they were originally delivered has been retained. Its and true unity of the Church. and but few changes made in substance or They have been prepared in such leisure language. moments as could be found in a busy pastorate. some acquaintance with the events and literature of the second century is demanded of those who would successfully guide the . may stimulate more of field of early our Presbyterian ministers to cultivate the patristic literature. Above in this age of historical criticism. the history of the early ages of our religion and the clearer views of the nature careful examination of all the elements which.PREFACE. that they many imperfections. however. The following lectures were delivered on the L. when so many minds are honestly confused concerning the evi- dences for the faith of the Church. It should not be left. P.

Pa. re- newed assurance both ity of the divine origin of Christian- and of the correctness of the orthodox Protestant estimate of the New Testament. The author may be facts.iv PREFACE. 1888. by his excursions into patristic literature. allowed to add that. with the utmost desire to deal fairly with the evidence and to follow the he has obtained. . inquirer and help the doubter.. Allegheny.

— Popular Hostility. — Chris— No formal Persecution. Early and Modern quent Importance of Justin's Testimony. LECTURE I. Justin as an Apologist. . — The Unity of the Church. . — The Life of Justin: Christian Ministry. Character — Situation in Rome. zation of Christian — The Diffusion of Christianity. — Hadrian's Rescript. Plan of the following Lectures . The conseAnalysis of the Apologies and the Dialogue. — Supillegal.CONTENTS. — OrganiSocieties. — Popular Impatience with the Christians. THE TESTIMONY OF JUSTIN TO THE SOCIAL AND CIVIL RELATIONS OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY. his Birth . Views concerning Justin. — Explanation of this Hostility. — Frequent Outrages. ries of the Origin of Christianity. Critical TheoImportance of the Study of the Second Century. . — Charges made. — The Death — — The Union of Christianity and Philosophy. Chronology of his Life his of Justin and their Date. — Attitude of the Government. The New Testament Canon. tianity — Justin's Description confirmed by other Evidence. — 1 Philosophic Studies . — Correspondence of Trajan and Pliny. . Influence on Contemporaries . — The Writings — Conversion — — LECTUEE II. THE IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY TO EARLY CHRISTIANITY.

— Justin's Defence. Value of — The Tubingen — Ritschl's View. due to Jewish Sympathies. — Action of the Emperors with reference to Christi— Efforts to prevent Outrages.VI CONTENTS. — Various Views in the Church. — Extremists on both Sides. Its moderate but firmly anti-Jewish View that of the Majority. — Justin's Justin's its Testimony in this Particular. Scheme and Modifications. — The Sufferings of the Christians not so severe as often supposed. — The Church a Gentile Society. — Total Rejection of Judaism. Had there been a silent Blending of Gentile and Jewish Evidence alleged for this: (1) Abhorrence of Christianity? " Idol-meat " sition not — — The Authenticity of " The Acts " — Justin's Po(2) ing Paul — The Facts in the Case — Use of Pauline Writings — References to " the Twelve " — Unity of the Apostles assumed Chiliasm — No Proof of Jewish Tendencies. — Justin's Opinion of Jewish Christians. anity. — He appeals substantially Crime. His Description of Christian Life. — Comparison of his Views with the New Testament. Power of this Argument Its Value for us for the Legal Recognition of Christianity: — Strength — — — 50 LECTURE III. I. — Estimate Inspiration. His Silence concern- (3) (4) Its Justin's Testimony. — Persecution but just beginning. — The Old Testament a Christian Book. Legalism — Growth — Not necessarily due to Judaism. THE TESTIMONY OE JUSTIN TO THE EELATIONS OF GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. and Inferences from it 85 . II. (b) Because of the Virtues of the Christians and Simplicity of their Customs. pression of Unauthorized Societies. — The of the Old Testament by the Church. — Summary of . — Method of Interpretation. — Prophets. — Justin's Failure to appreciate the Hebrew Dispensation. — Membership Page in them a the true Philosophy (a) Because it was and Weakness of this Plea.

) in in . Page Contrast. between the Writings of Justin and the this Influence in the New . ruption explain the most important of them destroy the Force of the they do not Agreement. Examination of his Habits of Quotation." Comparison of Justin's Quotations and those of the Pseudo Clementines. Its Importance. vii LECTURE IV. His Doctrine the sense of Reason — Relation of the Logos of the Logos Creation and Revelation — Relation to the Father — Agent His Anthropology — to Man — The " Seminal Logos " Human Freedom and Ability — Power of the Demons — Idea of Sin.) his in his (II. Justin and the Synoptics. THE TESTIMONY OF JUSTIN TO THE NEW TESReview of modern critical Opinion concerning I. — Gospels. THE TESTIMONY OF JUSTE* TO THE INFLUENCE OF PHILOSOPHY ON EARLY CHRISTIANITY.CONTENTS. — Inferences concerning the Influence of . Early Church. — Justin shows the various Schools.) His Soteriology — Christ primarily a Teacher — Nature of Salvation. The Variations in the Text of Justin's Quotations from that of our Gospels. — His Criticism of Testament." Justin's Account of Christ's Life remark- — Justin's The The " — — ably full . : ophy of the Period Eclectic — Relation to Stoicism to Platonism. and the Realization by the Latter of the best Aspirations of the Pagan World 128 LECTUEE TAMENT. Memoirs. Extent of the Variation. the Spirit of his Age. (IV. — The Influence of Philosophy on Justin's Theology. Did Justin — Argument from the — — — — — . agrees substantially with that of our . Bearing of this on Quotations from the " Memoirs. V. — Progress of — Character of the PhilosTheological. (III. as shown Idea of God — Divine Transcendence unduly emphasized — Two Conceptions of God contending Mind. in (I. — substantial Differences trivial Oral Tradition and Textual Cor.) Philosophy on Christianity. as regards the Influence of Philosophy. as shown by Quotations from the Classics and Old Testament. Use of our Gospels.

— A monies and Worship. . — Views of Thoma and Abbott. — Proves the Unity and Apostoof the Orthodox Churches." Yet "Memoirs" not called "Scripture" with same frequency as Old Testament. Christians Conclusion. (4) Privileges and Hopes of the The Sacraments Eschatology. — His Use of New — — — — — — — — sion 170 LECTUKE VI. Review. — Reasons for firmation of Justin's Diatessaron. this. yet not with the same Fulness as Synoptics. (2) The Redemption. Post-Apostolic Christianity not created by Fusion but modiInferences to be drawn from Justin's fied by Paganism. licity I.viii . Mentions no public Use of the Epistles. Considerations which balance these Items of Negative Evidence. and differs from their Teaching. — The Unity of the — The Faith of the Church how to Churches in tin spiritual. except Gospels and Apocalypse. Justin and the New Testament Books besides the Gospels. (1) The Person . — Evidence for Justin's Use of the Fourth Gos— How did he use As historically True and presumapel. it 1 Text on the Antiquity of our Gos- bly Apostolic. — The Organization of the Churches. — Justin claimed to represent the true Christian Church. Recognition of Authority of Apostles as Teachers. use a — Bearing Page of the Evidence afforded by Jus- tin of Corruption of Gospel pels. — His Testimony trustworthy. and more as a Book III. — Description of Cereeach Locality. — Absence of Sacerdotalism. No New Testament Book quoted. — Deacons. Use of " Memoirs " as Sources for Belief and as " Scripture. — One Church permanent President to each. (3) . of Christ. : be obtained from Justin Trinity. Conclu- — Use of our Gospels afforded Conby Tatian's Testament Canon. — Why the Title of the President not given. Testimony — — 251 — . THE TESTIMONY OF JUSTIN TO THE ORGANIZATION AND BELIEF OF THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. — Justin and the Fourth Gospel. II. — Jusaccords with the known Facts of the Progress of Church Organization in the Second Century. — His Opposition to Heresy. CONTENTS. . Harmony 1 II. of Doctrine.

THE TESTIMONY OF JUSTIN MAETYR TO EARLY CHRISTIANITY. .

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Of the apostolic age the New Testament enables us to form a fairly clear idea. however.JUSTIN MARTYR. and co-operated to form the Church and the theology of later times. THE ful first three quarters of the second Christian century form a period which demands the careT both of the History. to the new influences which began during this period to affect the religion of Christ. to the nearness of the period to the age of the Apostles. investigation of students and repeated r ° New Testament and of Church . LECTURE I. on the other hand. from whom we may l obtain abun- dant testimony to the history of both the faith and order . of the second This is due. The period. chain of witnesses. a rity. Toward the close of the second century there begins. Importance century. THE IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY TO EARLY CHRISTIANITY. and. with the great work of Irenajus against heresies. on the one hand. since the results of investigation in affect it will necessarily our views of their work and teaching. is involved in much obscuowing to the scantiness of the literary remains from it.

The latter is now generally dated before the second Jewish war. The earliest apol- Quadratus and Aristides. though had only the work of Papias. 1880. but from the intermediate period our was barren of literarythe works which issued from orthodox and heretic had been preserved. A few letters and a brief manual (if the " Teaching of the Apostles " may be roughly classed in this period)." been preserved. Patriarchs. 1 2 Cf. The critical views are summarized in Dr. iii. On the heretical side some of the Gnostics were voluminous writers. Aristo and Justin defended Christianity against . or against perversions of the faith. but it was under Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius that the defences of the Christians became frequent and elaborate. 3. directed assaults on Christianity by Jews or Pagans. Rev. 8 H. Iren. XII. 12.2 of the JUSTIN MARTYR. Sinker's Testamenta. doubtless have been spared the necessity of we should much of the recent investigation into the origin and authoritv of the Gospels. Later in the century. de Prasscr.'e. . on the contrary. Athe- nagoras. followed by Tatian. the Christian literature of the period would suffice probably to settle most of the now vexed questions concerning it. 38. Church . the stream either against of apologetic literature began. January. and the Testaments of the XII. Theophilus of Antioch. that it Not productions . Judaism while the latter. The Pastor of Hernias. Tert. Haer. however. are indeed assigned to by Eusebius 3 the reign of Hadrian . if all — the Oracles of the Lord. 1 On the orthodox side there appears to have been during the earlier part of the period less literary activity. Patrr. AYarfield's article in Presb. heretical ogists.. and Melito of Sardis. cf. 2 are all that have been left to us. and one or two religious romances. entitled "Exposition of witnesses are few. adv. iv.

E. . iv. evident that but for the scantiness of the historical records such varieties the scattered of view would not be possible. 1 attempt at an ecclesiastical chronicle. •it -i • • i i r ' i theories of the origin of Without passing judgment on the it is truth or falsity of these theories. 8. is evident from those mentioned by Eusebius in the fourth book of his History. 22. left to feel our way in the darkness by the broken monuments and scattered fragments aid of the and we are that yet remain. But none the less.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. was far from being barren of literary productions. have escaped the ravages of time. however. is probably to be referred to about the middle second century. argued the truth of the 3 new religion against polytheism and philosophy. 21. The period. Christianity which are not only in conflict ern critical The scarcity of with the traditional view but often with each other. do the Tts first three quarters of the second century call for studv repeated investigation Christianity I. H. Only a few of these. by the student of demanded: and this for several reasons. Amid to fragments of early Christian literature tively easy to find 1 it is compara- room in which prolong the alleged The anonymous Epistle to Diognetus. 2 Eus. and the growth of heresy had begun to call forth defences of orthodoxy within the Church itself. But that many more Chris- tian writings of this period have been lost than those which have been in whole or in part preserved. and demanded its recognition by the Meanwhile Hegesippus 2 had made the first ^tate. 11. -while certainly not by of the Justin. perhaps all the more. . therefore. possible in its literary remains has made modern times a number of critical theories of the origin and early development of j Bvmod.

or easily ob- tained the time necessary for the supposed fusion of Church than would have been more of the books of whose existence we know had been preserved. the middle of the century. parties. In their absence." to- gether " with the so-called Epistle of Barnabas. original Christianity at least separate. is scanty sources the necessity all these imperative for who would justly estimate the worth of either the theories themselves or their refutations. has been reached. is Difficult as the task may of be to refute what investigating claimed to be proved by criticism based on such sources. as studies. ries Yet these critical theoof have claimed to be scientific reconstructions primitive Christian history.4 JUSTIN MAKTYR. must be our only guides until the period of the Apologists. we how slowly conclusions should be formed when supported by such delicate and easily misused methods of proof. they was divided into two have far more hostile. the few letters of the decisively. At least these books would in all probability have settled the question. the Shepherd " of Hernias. these into the Catholic possible if apostolic fathers (written for local or personal objects). the lately recovered "Teaching of the Apostles. how much is ology and incidental shall realize we do when we enter upon these made to depend on the phraseallusions of the early writers. pro or con. process of the formation of Christianity. Finding. Their truth or falsity in- volves the supernatural character of the Christian religion. and we shall re-examine the more . Those who assume that its rise must be conceived as a natural development have believed it possible to show that the final result was not attained till the middle of Starting with the assertion that the second century. and fragments of lost writings preserved by later authors.

closely such evidence as there is 5 because of its very meagreness. Adv.8. In connection also with these theories of the early history of Christianity. But the question has been raised whether doctrine. II. 103-116. and was. . fully agreed as to the limits of that collection. or. 2. At its close we Testament find Irenreus. tullian likewise declares it Ter- to be the Christian doctrine that the four Gospels possess apostolic authority. 3 while also recognized the authority of The most of Testa- the other books now contained in our New two or three cannot be used to prove that these were rejected. the history of the New Testament hooks and of their recognition by n B the the Church is inseparably bound up with the question of study of the second century. pp. Reuss's Hist. 1 for example. Irenaeus really expressed in this matter the traditional view of the churches. corresponding with our New Testament.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. and he knows none authoritative but these four. except in a few minor particulars. Cf. as apostolic and therefore authoritative. of the 3 Canon. It is certain that in the last quarter of the second century the Church fully accepted a collection of books. 2 same fathers ment. even if they were unknown or doubted by these particular their silence as to fathers. that they are not entitled to recognition by us. Marc. reached by 1 2 Adv. 11. 5. iv. and maintaining that there never had been and could not be more than these four of a sacred character. iii. Haer. stoutly defend- ing the apostolic authority of our four Gospels. appealing to these books as standards of and maintaining their apostolic authority on the ground of the unbroken testimony of the principal churches. or a new opinion.

that. to while by the same gradual process the books of the New Testament were. the Church of the second century fixed upon as canonical because harmonious with the doctrinal views which had become established.6 the Church of his flict JUSTIN MARTYR. not of inspiration. but of the mind of the Church as in the process of her establishment she doctrines came to look upon her life and to read her beliefs back into the of Jesus and his Apostles. To all this it has been replied. as These views involve of course the inference Christianity was itself the result of a natural develop- ment. but only the proved . as teachers of divine truth. was clearly recognized : that the au- thenticity of the several books of the satisfactorily Testament and that therefore the can be close conception of the Canon which prevailed at the of the second century was not a new idea. which the early Church is and that they thus represent the phases through which these parties passed. or at least thrown into their present form. while the Church's apprehension of the limits of the Canon was a result gradually reached. for the purpose of supporting one or other of the parties into said to have been divided. that. elevated the position of in- spired works which the Old Testament already occupied. by certain critics that our Gospels are in fact not authentic. It is said that the evidence of the earlier fathers shows that apostolic authority was but gradually recognized. the New Testament also was the product. but were composed. New . They are alleged to be only those which. out of a considerable number of early Gospels. own time as the result of its conits with heresy and the consolidation of It is alleged origi- nally separate parts. yet from the beginning the authority of the Apostles. in the second century itself. as well as the authoritative character of their writings.

but soon. v." man could have been an this " elder.. again. however. Prominent among these Christian ministry.. Tit. . with the New Testa- becomes evident that considerable change had In the first taken place in the organization of the Christian communities during the intervening time. 5. both to the historian and to the practical the Christian . 28. III. Apart.. 23. indeed. 1 Pet. Phil. ministry. it Irenseus. is that of the origin of the By comparing ment. 1. to have as well as in its been also used in a wider sense 3 official so that a " bishop.. . m offers other problems of particular interest problem of . from these questions which concern the very foundations upon which Christianity rests. tne origin of -T . Episcopate. Hatch's theory of the origin of the Cf. could not have been a bishop unless an elder. v. as Cf. VI. Lect." but not a though he Still.-. Acts xiv. i. 4 body of officers were of equal rank. cen- tury the local churches appear to have been governed by a body of officers called " bishops " or " elders. Tim. 7. Christian. xx.. " IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. 17." 2 appears. the period of which we are speaking B the . 1 . . 2 8 1 . 1 iii. 4 I cannot accept Dr. 8-13. Ruling was the i original purpose of their office." 1 asThe term " elder sisted by an order of " deacons.. Tim. Between these opposing views the decision evidently and no rests with the testimony of the second century student of the New Testament can afford to be without some personal acquaintance with the period which immediately followed that in which it was composed. 1 i. more 7 definite statement of that recognition of apos- tolic authority which existed from the days of Paul himself.

v. Not yet. Then. Iren. v. appears from the New Testament it itself. to Victor. Eus.8 JUSTIN MARTYR. too. indeed. . Iren. iii. however. and assisted in the active government and care of his church by the " deacons. who had largely monopolized the functions of the original body. 1 Hardly. The Epistles of Ignatius. 2 Tim. 3. 3 all arrangement seems to have been first remembrance of the lost. Hser. when we find in at least some churches a siugle president. Adv. the period before us becomes of exits ceeding interest inasmuch as in 1 writers we may first 1 Tim. alone called the " bishop. the work of teaching was attached to according as the spirit official might qualify individual members of the body. Cf. had the name "elder" were the ceased to be applied to the bishop. 2 8 Cf. 5 not yet had the Christian ministry been clothed with sacerdotal dignity but the growth is very evident from the college of equal bishops portrayed by the New Testament to the influential chief officer of a century later. E. 2. cal power." 2 Thus the direction of the local churches seems to have been early appropriated by one presiding officer a centre of unity was formed in the person and office of . and that writer speaks of the cipal churches of presiding bishops of the prin- Christendom as having been appointed to office by the Apostles. 12. in proportion to the prominence of the city of whose church he was the head. 24. 4 6 Cf. the " bishop " until in Irenasus earlier . H. iii. ii. 4 nor two clearly regarded as distinct offices." surrounded by a college of "elders" as his advisers. 2 and 3. IV. represented ecclesiastical tradition and exercised ecclesiasti. 3. has the second century opened. 2. and who.

.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. indeed." 2 " lest any man Christianity . and the Gnostic systems. inevitable that the latter should affect it in various ways. 1 Already. and though it was in sympathy with not a few of the conclusions to which uninspired reason had attained. about the same 1 1 Cor. IV. 8. produced a sion of the simple Gospel of the Apostles. ii. 3 it felt no need of the pagan philosophy of the day to form its doctrines. as the of Christian language. 9 recognize the mingling of philosophy with the doctrines of Christianity. . On New For this tendency Jewish Alex- andrianism and Cabalism had prepared the way. Lect. " Eeware. dogmatic in its teaching. philosophical speculations began to be mingled with Christian ideas. vain." and to direct arguments against it while orthodox Christianity in its turn began to attempt the time. and needing no support from the conclusions of human reason and though it really contained a philosophy of its own. it was spoil deceit. There can scarcely be said to be a trace IV n of tll( ' of the influence of current philosophy in ere- ating the beliefs of the Apostles. 19-21. or to be clothed in the new vestments the one hand.li <j" i i wisdom • t • of philoso- of this "world phy and canity. Testament already shows. tinctly declare that the is iii They i» disi i u. which reached their height in the middle of the second century. . But as the new religion came into closer contact and conflict with pagan thought. as a revelation from God. i. 3 2 Col. Cf. total perver- On the other pagan philosophy began to be aware of the existence and progress of the " new superstition. "was the young church imperilled by teachers who gave speculations under the guise of Christian phrases but such teachers were condemned and denounced. hand. you through philosophy and vain was proclaimed as self-sufficient." wrote Paul.

V. is all of these far presented the question of By the tiifunitV^f the Church. produced division in the Church. involved there V. and by what means the Christian communities had become externally a unit. the only true religion. impressed with the universality of their religion and conceiving it of all show the was noblest in pagan thought and ethics. yet often perverted the Gospel . it was forced to declare its attitude toward previous pagan ethics and philosophy. the definitions of doctrine . but caused that portion which clung to the apostolic teaching to realize more faith perfectly the unity and the significance of the widened men's thoughts. it Claiming to be was forced to say how it regarded other religions and other types of thought. 10 solution of JUSTIN MARTYR. Thus in various ways Christianity and philosophy came into contact. Finally. The contact affected. sought to show the failure of all pagan philosophy to satisfy the mind and pagan religions to elevate life. in short. Freed from connection with Judaism. sought to affiliation with it of whatever well or ill as we may judge. some of the great problems to the which its own existence and its relation former history of the world suggested to thoughtful minds.. both their faith Church. by formulating and by developing the conception of the At the end of the second century there ex- isted the idea of a Catholic (in the sense of orthodox) . Others. emphasiz- ing the nevmess of their religion. created the first phase of the long effort of reason to explain and in of faith to apprehend the discussions contents of revelation. There can be no doubt a ^ m uch progress had been made since the how ^ apostolic age in giving expression to the original moral and spiritual unity of believers. as the revelation of eternal truth. Some of the Christian writers.

the nature of its earliest and the historical progress in ancient times ward the expression thereof in outward forms. e. 11 Church. through a direct line of bishops and presbyters. of the spirit conflicts with paganism and heresy and needs of the age and the ? It would appear to be of great use. to- In view of these questions belonging to the 1 first three quarters of the second century. Iren. as some cities.. 1 membership with which was often regarded as essential to salvation. consciously or unconsciously made. ible society with a definite creed and a prescribed organization was predominating. k. I propose to examine Cf. to study carefully the original idea of the Church. between parties originally opposed to one another or was it the result of the natural growth of Gentile Christianity. The pillars of this society were the churches of the principal which had been founded by Apostles and which preserved. and it is important to ask by what causes had this state of things been brought about. 1. by a common faith and order. affirm. of which were fidelity and the distinguishing features to the apostolic doctrine and the regular succession of bishops from the Apostles. a common danger and But the idea of the universal Church as a vishope. unity. IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. 4. the apostolic tradition. Not that these churches had been as yet formally welded They were only united into one external organization. . Was this Catholic Church the result. iii. in view of present movements toward the unification of Christendom. Of these the most conspicuous and influential was the Church of Eome. Evidently the progress and the conflicts of Christianity had united the scattered communities of believers into what was practically an external association. of a compromise.

T declares that Jus. . xlvi. more than Justin.. D. 1. is now known as Nablus. Ap. 163-167. . as we may what Justin says about himself. tin nn _ older critics placed L . collect. 1 2 We only know that Justin. 4 . 15. Epiphanius 4 it as early J . Ap. J Some as 89 A. sketch of the man and works will enable us to perceive his great value as a witness to early Christianity. D. 12 JUSTIN MARTYR. Dial. i. of age was martyred under Hadrian when only thirty years but as the date thus given for his martyrdom is . His birth can only be approximately placed in the closing years of the His birth. Our knowledge The life of of the life of Justin is derived almost entirely from the notices scattered through his little own writings . 53. since Rusticus was prefect A. as Eusebius 8 Ap. 1 a city founded not far from the ruins of ancient Sychem and named which it in honor of Vespasian. 1. 41. 3 cestors were colonists was not of Samaritan but of Probably his immediate anwho had settled in the new city shortly after its establishment. 2 quently a Samaritan by birth clear that his family was the same place Justin was consebut his language makes It purely Gentile descent. so the age assigned the martyr is wholly improbable. . 122. . He was a native of Flavia Neapolis. for Eusebius does do. 64. Epiphanius states that Justin died under Rusand when Hadrian was emperor. This is Justin Martyr his : and a brief IgC- tures. i. 120. certainly wrong. that his statement is confused and unreliable. first or the beginning of the second century. ticus the prefect. 130. ii. afresh the testimony of one of the most important wit- nesses from that period whose writings are Object of tllf:-'' still acces- sible. Haer. thus showing.

and " look upon God. E.2 from which it is natural to infer that he was born about the beginning of the century. 7). it iv. and lived at a period still when the remembrance of their teaching was strong and clear in the mind of the Church. 1 " flourished " 13 at Rome under Antoninus. p. ters of the ." and that he would soon attain the end of the Platonic philosophy. 11." It was while a Pla» H. found the Peripatetic. and gespiritual ometry was necessary to enable the soul to apprehend and invisible realities. 2 Cf. E. with iv.. 16. t . Aube (Saint Justin. . On the date of Justin's birtb. From his very youth he seems to have been of an earnest and religious type of mind. type which was not —a He He uncommon tion from the old to the new.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. 14 and 18. cf. and thought that he had indeed found " " wings for his mind in the " contemplation of ideas. not far from the time that he when Saint John passed away. When Justin came to manhood. first found the Stoic instructor to self whom he joined him- unable to give him any knowledge of God. — and in that age of transithis occasioned his dissatisfaction with the teachings of philosophy. who places in the first decade of the second century. he became a disciple of Plato. more con- cerned about the fee than about the truth. whom next he sought. He learned from the Pythagorean. gives _. relates. He thus belonged to the second generation after the Apostles. iv. with Trypho. he o Dialogue ° j r > jj ls studies a graphic account of his early efforts to find in phiiosointellectual peace in the popular philosophic schools of the day. Barth. to whom next he went. Eus. H. Finally. that a long course of discipline in music. astronomy. he gave himself with In the opening chap- enthusiasm to the pursuit of truth. and was probably martyred under Marcus Aurelius. pbilosophe et martyr.

He gathered pupils about him. and who were at that very time sowing the seeds of discord in the Christian Church. . Adv. Ap. There is nothing to show that he ever held any ecclesiastical office. 1G) states that Crescens actually brought about Justin's death but his statement ii. he peace. Ad Gra. where he became actively engaged in teaching and defending Christianity to all whom he could reach. 3 He distinguished himself in controversy with the powerful heretical teachers who had. 4 and who. like Like others. spread his doctrines. where death. 6. . v. 1. . previous love of philosophy. became a Christian but he passed over to any violent rupture with his To him. as well as honored by posterity. the absolute truth. other philosophic city to city to teachers of the day.14 tonist that he JUSTIN MARTYR. Tatian 1 Dial. as we shall see. 26. « 4 5 2 iv. he gravitated to Borne.c. is attested by the refHis influence. 5. Crescens. erences to him and to his works in writers so soon following as Irenseus 2 and Tertullian. to have moved from also. is evi- dently an inference from Justin's own language (Ap. Valent. He was rather a philosophical evangelist. 1 He appears. and from 3). he says that he expects Crescens to secure his Tatian's remark that Crescens " endeavored to inflict on Justin. He engaged in public debate with the Cynic philosopher. that he was highly influential in his own day. in the reception of which alone earnest minds could find And therefore. more after the style of But the philosopher than of the Christian minister. 3. E. after he became a Christian. 19. He always wore the the new religion without philosophic mantle. of whom he tells us. 5 speaks with an acrimony which at least shows that the debate had been a sharp one. 2. iv. 2. KpTj(TKfVTOS TOV (f)l\o\j/6(j)OV KCll (PikoKOfXTTOV. Eusebius (H. drifted to Rome. ii. like himself. Christianity was the true philosophy. did not cease to be a philosopher.

268. occurred.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. 28. 1. 4 even before his con- prefect Junius Eusticus. famous afterward as a heretic. Marcus Auwhen. i. 4 Cf. Borghesi torn. Von Engelhardt's Das Christenthum Justins des Martyrers. 2 Hippol. In the Martyrology. p. 75 (who follows Daniel and Yolkmar). though he there places Justin's death in 152. Refut. " I live above one Martinus at the Timiotinian Bath and during the whole time (and I am now living at Rome for the second time') I am unaware of any other meeting than his. 15 plotted to secure the death of his Christian antagonist." This at least shows 1 Iren. Cf. if historical. according to the testimony of His death. . cited by Otto. however. 9. Eusticus held the prefecture of It is thus evident that Justin. he suffered martyrdom under the Eecent researches show that Eome a. p. and not till after the martyrdom of the master did the pupil venture to express his peculiar views. antiquity. Tatian himself. Harnack (Die Uberlieferung der Griechischen Apologeten. 163-167. Justin is represented as saying.3 during one of which the dialogue with Trypho." Tatian's language. 8 . Eusebius makes the same statement in the Chronicon. the early tradition of Justin's travels. 142. was a hearer 1 or disciple 2 of Justin's. d. Leipzig. ((Euvres Completes). the punishment of death. viii. ii. With some intervals. and the Martyrology makes no mention of him. and that Eusebius understood it to mean that Crescens had then brought about Justin's death. 1882. he continued to reside in the capital until the early years of the reign of relius. rather implies that Crescens had failed in his plots. version. belonged to the class of sincere seekers after and indeed on me. note) supposes that Eusebius found in Julius Africanus a reference under 152 to the trouble caused Justin by Crescens and which partly led to the writing of the Apology. Justini Opera. p. and still more famous as the author of the first harmony of the Gospels. Thus we may imagine the meagre outline of Justin's life filled up with varied and courageous activities.

Justin defined phi" losophy as the knowledge of that which really exists. His conversion. and in earlier life afforded Christian writings we recognize the same sincer- and earnestness of which his indications. IV. Justin was a type. ophy. Dial. who. of venerable appearance. . He tells us that day went out to the seashore to meditate. as IV. though abstractly conceived. and a i 3 clear perception of the truth 2 is " and happiness. JUSTIN MARTYR. Lectt. hampered by metaphysical limitations which as made Deity appear and source of his ity all only the transcendent cause things. . 3. 3 and there met a man. The place of his conversion quite uncertain. the search for truth. was the supreme end Of this interesting and significant phase of knowledge. so far as 2 it was spiritual at all. this conscious yearniDg after Deity. may be a question whether his A seeker after truth. He calls it " our city. and his familiarity with Alexandrian speculations. fell into the subject dearest to both namely. In reply to the stranger's question." lis . Lect. Cf. Justin had made that city his home.engaged in the study of Plato he one when deep him in conversation.. and still more particularly It to the number of seekers after God. and that the dialogue with Trypho also took place there. . Cf. Their conversation . He gives an account of his conversion in the intro- duction to the Dialogue with Trypho. Some have supposed Ephesus others Flavia Xeapo- tion. but the latter was too far from the sea to answer the descripIf we suppose that it was Ephesus. we may infer that in early life The fact has some bearing on his acquaintance with the Fourth Gospel. later f Platonism does not color his statement 1 ODj ec tions to the rival schools of philos- But the current philosophy of the day. was theological in its character and the best minds of even the pagan world felt that God. and V. 16 truth. of philosophic thought.

. and is the cause of all other Thereupon the stranger. and more entitled to credence. Thus and as . " Thirlby and Aube read In the preceding question.\ ttjs o~o(pias yepas. and of those matters which the philosopher ought to know. but life dependent for continuance of on the will of God." he said. 3. "are still extant. av ri KaXe'is." IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. forced the young Platonist to concede that the knowledge of God depends on the moral qualifications of the soul. in quite a Socratic things. retains Qeov. confidence in his Having thus undermined Justin's philosophical teachers. and a love of the prophets and of those men who are the friends of Christ possessed me and whilst revolving his [the old man's] words in my mind. evdaifxovia 8e ravrqs cttio't^ fxi]s ko. and foretold events which would take " Their writplace." • 3 Xow. and he who has read them is very much helped in his knowledge of the beginning and the end of things. imorfjfiT} ttjs ecrrl rov 6Wo? koi tov akrjdovs eTTLyvcocris. I found this philosophy alone to be safe and profitable. " Qeov Se to ov for Qeov. or its reminiscence of a previous existence the reward of such knowledge as " that . 3-8. since they " spake by the Divine Spirit. . Dial. and which are now taking place. the stranger pointed him to the Hebrew prophets more ancient than the philosophers. God. 2 . Otto. " a flame was kindled in my soul. and in either case the ultimate meaning of the question 8 is the same." ings." 2 manner. rather than on either the nature of the soid and itself. . how- ever. says Justin. and in the same manner. (piXoaocpia fiev . tovto 817 eariv 6 Qeos. argued that the soul is not naturally immortal." Forthwith. 2 to Kara ra avra nai axravrccs del e'xov kol tov eivat nden ToTy aXXot? aiTiov. it is ques- Dial. for this reason I 1 am a philosopher. " 17 2 and wisdom and which always maintains the same nature.

So Von Engelliardt. Platonism to Christianity. whatever was the of their religion. suggest and that its evident imitation of the Platonic Dialogues. 20. 3 order of events. the narrative clearly exhibits not only Jus- continued fondness for Platonism. 80-84. He could not men who went cheerfully to such a doom could be the wicked people that they were represented This account. there . so far as they con- tained truth. and the which all former systems. 2 Justin declares that he was led to embrace Christianity by beholding the fearlessness of death believe that which the Christians displayed. that for him was the completion of philosophy. pp. have passed over. from Probably. 1 was a tin's basis of fact in the story but whether this were so or not. Chapter xii. to Christianity end to which all his writings testify. Saint Justin. naturally tended. . as itself. In the second Apology. Its unusually careful composition. this narrative was meant by the author to be really historical. not inconsistent with the story given in the Dialogue. and of the power At any rate. the conduct of the Christians and the study of the prophets were the two means of ets he observed Justin's conversion. We may suppose that his interest having been aroused in "the proph- and those men who [were] the friends of Christ. but also the fact." the Christians more closely. however. Das Christenthum Justins. p. is to be. and was further convinced of their sincerity. however. Here 1 * it is proper to remark that while the time of 8 So Aube". well as the character of the argument it may have been intended to be a vivid portrayal of the course of thought or would at least afterwards by which Justin passed over.18 tionable if JUSTIN MARTYR.

yet Thechro_ noiogvof his lite. Justin's principal activity at 19 Rome is undisputed. there is nothing in the Apology to show how long Justin had been a Christian . i. It is probable that . 2 143.. To my mind. The account which he himself gives of his previous search for truth implies that not until he had reached manhood did he find peace through believing in Christ. 132-136) Justin was a Chris- He admits. 2 that Justin 'IovotIvos 7rpoo-r)yop€v8r]. p. E. however. IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY." 1 — a statement which Euse- D." implies that then (a. he did not become a -.. . . note. despite the fact that Eusebius in the same place erroneously assigns the Apology to that year. Moreover. 31. difficult questions. Justin tian. Die Uberlieferung. p. . that Eusebius (H. he must have immediately thrown himself an's reign. d. then " Justin was called. So Harnack. Ap. 8 H. iv.. Christian until early in the reign of Antoninus. 8. . 24) thinks that the statement of Ap. 131). coincides with his evident belief. was still a heathen (cf. d. 8) understood that at the time of the apotheosis of Antinous (a. iv. Harnack thinks that both Eusebius and the Apology prove that Justin was a heathen in Hadrian's reign. 1 his History.. the Chronicon of Eu- sebius had. note. . Aube (Saint Justin. according to Syncellus. E. 29). Harnack well exposes the errors of Eusebius in his chronology of Justin's life and his explanation of the was . that " Barcho- chebas gave orders that Christians alone should be led to cruel punishments.. that the Apologist was already in middle life at the time of his conversion and if so. 3 We may assume. as quoted by Syncellus. i. under the year 140 A. seems to me plausible. etc. cited by Harnack. then. as expressed in was still a heathen in Hadriand probably indicates the date of his conversion. Chronicon. Die Uberlieferung. the statement that bius probably took from the earlier Chronicle of Julius Africanus. .. p. but the introduc- tion to the Dialogue proves that his conversion after he had reached manhood. and which. the details of the chronology of his life pre- sent _ many debated and . etc. 143.

naek's Die Uberlieferung. 139). _ anient in his History of the martvrdom to the reign of Marcus Aurelius would seem the more to confirm the antiquity of the tra- Dr. 163-167 he sealed his testimony with his Justin blood. torn. As already observed (of. p. Harpreserved. as Epiphanius does. show a tradition independent of Eusebius. p. xlvi. to the prefecture of Patsticus. It is not only given by Eusebius in his History. and iii. . 1*2). 1 but is also independently sup2 .20 JUSTIN' MARTYR. and Sacred Philol g Tbe Martvrology states that Justin was beheaded. p. 88. iv. which relates the death of Justin and his companions. note) supposes that Eusebius asrain misunderIf so. and the absence of any reference to Creseens. and which is an unusually trustworthy document for one of its kind. of Canon. Xevertheless. On the other hand. .. the oldest church tradition assigned his death to the first of June. 2 Ha?r. dition. 3 For an account of the manuscript in which the Map-Cpiov is See also. 1 H. Justin's death to 152. A later tradition made him die like Socrates. ascribes the martyrdom. The time of Justin's arrival at Eome is determined by Eixing that. ported by the testimony of Epiphanius and the Martyrology. 3 W~e may therefore assume that for about twenty-five years continued to teach and defend Christianity. his stood the language of his source (Julius Africanus). etc. of Class. Epiphanius erroneously places Justin's death under Hadrian. 193. the date assigned to the great Apology. and asskrns Har- nack (Ibid. contradicts his History. ii. Proleg. in the Chronicon. p.. 1. Otto. cf. d. Justini Opera. above. note 4) as assigning Justin's death to 148: but I have not been able to obtain his article (Journ. and that at some time in the period covered by the years a. into the thickest part of the battle in behalf of the cause which he had just espoused. Eusebius. Hort is quoted by Westcott (Hist. his mention of Rustieus. the traditional report that Justin was martyred under Marcus Aurelius may be accepted with reasonable confidence. 16. 142. E.

4 Justin had thus become a vigorous champion of the orthodox faith. " Die Theologie des Martyrers 2." Jahrb. 1855) had also fixed the date of Justin's writings from Marcion's coming to Rome. Ha?r. etc. on the other hand (Zur Quellenkritik der to 147.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. 26. p. and which threatened most seriously the peace and unity of the Church." He book of own which he had already written against all the heresies that had existed. crvvrayfia Kara iraaaiv tcov yeyevrjp. 2. and. Apology has been used to fix the date of Marcion's Rome. in the year 147 (or 148). p. 39) concludes from the notices in Eusebius (H. 4 So Weizs'acker. assigning the Syntagma to 145 at the earliest. and the Apology Harnack. perhaps. Justin's activity in knew Geschichte des Gnosticismus. iv. L Time of his actively engaged in theological controversy. i. . Trpbs i. 5 142) makes them separate works. 25). 61. Previously Volkmar ("Die Zeit Justins des Martyrers. 26. Tubingen. 1 at this He says of . E. which is quoted by Irenaeus. arrival at He singles out Marcion as the ous living heretic. most conspicuhim that he . 10) as to Marcion's appearance in Rome. dwelt several J years in the capital.. Mapuava avvrayfia. " is even day alive and teaching nation his to and has caused many refers of every to a speak blasphemies. v. Aube (Saint Justin." Theologische Jahrbiicher. for reasons of 21 which I will speak presently. it is certain that the author had already and had been _. fur Deutsche Theol. 5 so much so that in the folhis 1 2 8 Ap. on the ground that his descriptions of Marcion's errors do not show the influence of . 58. 2. and the latter in turn to fix the date of the former. Ap. and had especially contended against that dangerous heresy which had recently been transferred from Pontus to Eome. that the Apology was at least written after 142. Just. iv.. and probably about 150.3 may have been a part. Adv. concludes that Justin only of Marcion's work in Asia. 26.cva>v alpetrecov. 6. p. 2 and of which book against Marcion in particular. 1867. note Harnack (Die Uberlief- erung. p.

adv. lowing generation he was as famous for being the op- ponent and historian of heresy as he was for being an Apologist. however. It was the lull before the storm. nevertheless the prospect was such as to seem Cerdo. even as into her also poured the commerce and the ute of the world. Justin's references to Marcion. to merit the epithet of " golden age. decline of the long Eoman day and though the causes were already at work which shattered the splendid spectacle. cited above. philosophic curiosity of Hadrian and the culture less work of the Antonines stimulated the growth of intelligence and allowed the utmost liberty of thought. It was a ^ me an(^ a P^ ace which afforded large opporortunity for his active afforded mind and polemical spirit. 5. had enjoyed under Hadrian. It was the high noon of Imperial greatness preceding the . though below the outward prosperity the the Antonines society was steeped people were impoverished by taxation. and after the conquests of Trajan had enlarged its limits until nothing more remained to be conquered. seem certainly to imply an activity of the heretic and a spread of the heresy so considerable as to be scarcely applicable to the period before Marcion was separated from the Roman church. since in 1 Cf. Into Eome trib- there poured an increasing flood of teachers and scholars.22 JUSTIN MARTYR. and though be- low the fair lives of in depravity. 73) thinks that Marcion cannot be used to determine the date of the Apolit is not clear whether Justin referred to his activity Asia or Rome. ogy. Valent. Tert. the blessings of The restIntellectual activity was quickened. 1 We may of The o tunities of thus certainly affirm that early in the reign Antoninus Justin fixed his residence at Borne. . p. peace. The Eoman Empire was at the height of its splendor. Irenseus." Von Engelhardt (Das Christenthum Justins. and expected still more to enjoy under Antoninus.

Hcer. There were to be found representatives of nearly every type of professed Christianity. as the church of the metropolis. leaders of speculation as well as the witnesses of apostolic tradition. and her voice the clearest utterance of the universal faith. ship with those who did not observe the law and between these two extremes. . caused the Christian community at Eome. as Irenaeus said a little later. already become famous throughout the brotherhood for her charity. Valentinus and Cerdo began to teach their heresies at Eome in the Episcopate of Hyginus. and hence. to walk in the spirit and doctrine of the Apostles. we may suppose. with charity toward one another.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. was already great. the rays of Christian light converged. the law Jewish Christians who would have no fellow. tians who would have no . her poured the streams of Christian thought from the churches of the Empire. Into . Marcion flourished under Pius and Anicetus. — did the faithful from everywhere resort so that she was already becomThither came the ing the mirror of Christendom. she had not for a The Roman church had long time suffered severely. We shall study hereafter the attitude of the Government toward her but we may here remark that despite occasional persecution and local outrages and general contempt. counted not a few wealthy people in her membership. that to her count of her pre-eminence * — a pre-eminence which was on ac- due to her situation in the capital . the greater number of both Gentile and Jewish believers who strove." — Adv. 3. all She was the focus where Already it was true. 1 "Propter potiorem principalitatem. 2. itself Even Ebionism could make Gentile Chrisfellowship with observers of heard in the church of the capital. iii. Her influence. The Christian Church at the 23 affected capital was by these circumstances.

Cf. E. But not only were both the now extant Apologies certainly written under Antoninus. It is even probable that Eusebius himself was mistaken in several particulars of his life of Justin. Justin became an but of the many works which in various have passed under his name. but. 18. What place more likely to be sought by our philosophi? cal evangelist Where could he find a wider arena for the combat with error in which he was anxious to en- gage ? From what portion of the ancient church ? is testimony more important than from this author. 2 « nep\ fiovapxlas and npbs "EXXtjvcis. . iv. cannot be considered his. indeed. i H. of Eusebius mentions work against heresies. Irenseus. but Eusebius quotes from both of them as from the It would thus appear that what are now Jlrst Apoloriy. to an attractive field to the controversialist as well as to the earnest missionary. known as the two Apologies of Justin were in Eusebius's time one and that the second Apology. 18. offer even at this early period. E. iv. of Justm. 3 — one under Antoninus He explicitly affirms that Justin wrote Pius. . on internal grounds.2-4 JUSTIN MARTYR. and adds. two of which 2 bear the same titles as works mentioned by Eusebius. He certainly had not read Justin's sidered his. Other works. only 1 The writings periods three remain which can certainly be con" nine books by Justin which he knew. H. There are also many other works of his in the hands of many of our brethren. for he quotes it only through two and the other under Marcus Aurelius. to which Apologies. As might have been expected. are found in the manuscripts of Justin." Of those named by him none are now extant except the Apologies aud the Dialogue with Trypho.

During the Middle Ages attributed to mistake by the later Church. pp. Harnack's Die Uberlieferung." Harnack (Die Uberlieferung. 12.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. enumerating Jus" There is a discourse of his. E. he quotes Ap. 1. addressed also other -works. as from JusIn iii. etc. . Senate of Rome. 16. The work Adv. In iv." Eusebius quotes from Ap. 29 and 31. the successor of the preceding. 12. he says Antoninus Pius and his sons and the Roman Senate." after having quoted. that he was not known by his genuine writings at all. 11. as "in the Apology already tyred. as from "the Apology to Antoninus. was so prominent a character in the remembrance of many writings were purposely or him. he cites Ap. In iv.) argues with plausibility that the work now known as the Supplicatio of Athenagoras was mistakenly regarded by Eusebius as the second Apology 2 8 of Justin. a srenuine work of Justin's which has been or else (and more probably) some other work of similar charac1 In fact. 148. Gentiles is added in the manuscript as an Cf. Justin ter which passed under Justin's name. he says: "Justin.. after having contended with great success against the Greeks. 18." In iv. Ap. 13. but he shows who and whence he was in the following extracts in his Apology: " then follows Ap.. also another work. he says that Justin. 25 but from which he does not quote. ii. ii. He also had his residence at Rome. in defence : of our doctrines faith.. was either lost. . etc. i.e. containing a defence of our faith. 26. etc. as from the same work. 3. 172. quoted (eV rfj Bedrj^cofievrj a7roXoyta). i. 2 Our earliest manuscript of Justin's works dates from the fourteenth century. ii. 12. Marcus Aurelius]. as from "the first Apology. pp." which seems to refer to his previous citations of the longer Apology. 1 7. but by a number of these spurious 3 ones. In iv. Antoninus Verus [i. "having given a second defence of our doctrine to the abovementioned rulers [viz. Aurelius and Lucius Verus]. and contains twelve 1 works alleged to have In II. comprising a defence of our which he addressed to the emperor of the same name. addressed to tin's books. he refers. ii. tin's "first defence addressed to Antoninus." was marThen he quotes Ap. he refers to In iv. etc. i. to the Emperor Antoninus Pius and to the the same passage as containing a notice of Menander. 8.. 26.

2 Cf. et M. 26 JUSTIN MARTYR. 1883. note). which was taken in 1824 from Paris to England. to have been much corrupted (cf. and the Codex Claromontanus (now Medioniontanus). Apologia?. . 135.) has argued that the Cohortatio Tiberias). to which the tract Adv. ibid. The works assigned to Justin by the Paris manuscript are.. 294). In both manuscripts the shorter Apology precedes the The text appears. his come from pen . Schiirer (Brieger's Zeitschrift fur Kirchengescb. . ii. More recently Volter (Zeitschr. ii. any 1 There exist only two complete manuscripts of Justin. etc. by longer. however. . pp. following Ashton (Justini Ph. over. etc.. according to Otto: (1) Epistola ad Zenam et Serenam. xx. or both were — from a common exemplar. comparison with the quotations in Eusebius. Gentiles is appended. and assigned it. the Codex Regius Parisinus. p. The question of the spuripp. (2) Cohortatio ad Gentiles (3) Dialogus cum Tryphone (4) Apologia Minor (5) Apologia Major. Theol. i. ousness of most of these works is so well settled that I have not thought it necessary to discuss it. to the middle of the third century. 1 may be reasonably consid- Most of the works contained in the 2 manuscript are indeed easily condemned as spurious by their internal characteristics and none are now Aristotelis. 3. Either the latter. Otto's Justini Opera. and it has been only modern crit- icism which has by careful examination separated from out of these those which ered genuine. proleg. 319) has pointed out the apparent dependence of the Cohortatio on Julius Africanus. 96) had already taken the same view.. Harnack's Die Uberlieferung. 154. of Christian Lit. Cf. More. (6) De Monarchia. p. torn. and which was written in 1541. was copied from the former. without appendix to the Confutatio Dogmatum inscription. . and Africanus drew from a common source (Justus of and that the Cohortatio is a work of the second cen- . etc.. 180. p. The Cohortatio most closely resembles Justin's genuine writings but the absence from it of the doctrine of the Logos is alone decisive the other way. Harnack. fur wis- sensch. and the latter is called Sevrepa.. 450. Donaldson (Hist. (7) Expositio recta? fidei (8) Confutatio dogmatum. therefore. (9) Qusestiones Christianorum ad Gentiles. (10) Quajstiones et Responsiones ad Orthodoxos (11) Quasstiones Gentilium ad Christianos. . written in 1364.

77) as is quoted by Von Engelhardt holding that the shorter Apology was the original conclusion of the larger but as Von Engelhardt says. tury. The Apolat least from before the time of Irenceus. 1 The shorter longer.. fur histor. As to the genuineness of the Dialogue. M. 1842) (p. and them alone can we appeal to learn the testimony of Justin. to 27 the and The genuineness of these is undisputed. per- haps the most notable monument of Christianity which has been preserved from the second century. his One cannot but express a passing regret that work against heresies. apart from the testimony of Eusebius. Gildersleeve (Tntrod. then. and no it. " Apart from the historical allusions to the secp. L. these have little weight in comparison with the remarkable coincidences in tricks of speech and . and which would complete our knowledge of Justin's testimony to early Christianity by bringing out plainly his attitude as an orthodox Christian to the teaching of the Apostles. place for the insertion of the shorter can be found in or indeed . to his ed. The two extant Apologies of Justin form. xxiii) writes : ond century. of the Apologies of J." 1 Boll (Zeitschr. the language is evidently the same and though there are slight variations in vocabulary. . as might be expected from the difference of theme.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY.. Prof. considered Justinian except the Apologies Dialogue. as has been alread}r stated. ogies " By Eusebius. is complete. probably regarded as one work cally are such and that they practi- may be considered quite certain. apart from the general agreement with the Apologies in doctrine and thought and want of method. both were . irregularities of syntax. has not escaped the ravages of time. was in all probability a sort of postscript to the added because of certain events which had just first and probably the part of the treatise irepl dXrjdfias by Apollinaris of Hierapolis. the present conclusion of the larger Apology elsewhere. Theol. B. from which Irenasus quoted and probably derived much of his own information upon the subject.

. Lollius Urbi- cus was the legate of Antoninus in Britain when the famous wall of Antoninus was constructed. ii. p. 1 and by its it references to the longer conclusively indicates that was written shortly after. d. author speaks of the Jewish war as recent. pressions. The far from the middle of the century. 1 This was reign. Like the longer. we said before. and places its date late in the reign of Antoninus. Aube (Saint Justin. 46. also i. i. 15 " Would that you also would for your own sakes judge worthily of piety and philosophy." etc. Most critics now take this view of the shorter Apologv.. however. Aurelius "To thee. J this was not Their date. "We have before stated that [God] takes pleasure Cf. " who imitate As we said is his properties. ii." is conclusive for the reign of Antoninus. But if the shorter Apology was written soon after the longer. etc. So. : . So c. a new element as it is introduced into the calculation.28 occurred. 67. pp. became man according to the couna clear reference to Ap..4 and of Christ's birth as having occurred one hundred and 5 Both these. Heracleitus.). Q. cf. etc. sel of God. he ing as yet has been said of the incarnation.. for in Ap. fore. 4 Ap. 4. are elastic exfifty years before. 6. " etc. also. ii nothbefore. 2 We regard it. the Emperor. and different critics have assigned the larger Apology to dates ranging from 13S to 150 a." seems to be a reference to i. 8. thereand if so. as a supplement to the longer Apology in fixing assistance the date at which of some it becomes 3 Certainly both were written. 47. Cf. probably refers to i. p. as 8 In ii." In the subsequent and Lucius Verus were co-emperors till the death of the latter in 169." 2 In Ap. in- asmuch states that at the time of its composition Urbicus was prefect of Eome. 77 Harnack (Die Uberlieferung. i. his son. . Now.) still holds that the shorter Apol- ogy was that mentioned by Eusebius as offered to Marcus Aurelius. it betrays by its expressions that it was written in the reign of Antoninus. 145. Von Engelhardt. i. " This judgment does not become the pious Emperor nor the philosophic Ccesar. 2 : : in those In ii. Ap. 10. " We know 46. 31 5 ^p. JUSTIN MAETYR.

16. 78) follows Aube.. . we may and most probably in 147 or 148. there would be reason for accepting that date for its composition. 4 Dialo s ue This agrees very well with what we have already learned of the time of Justin's conversion. if it were so. who is described by Justin as a philosopher and lover of instruction. drawn from its opening address. 108. and is misled ship in 145. " Wall of Antoninus. all the probabilities converge. in 140 A. 1. as Harnack supposes (Die Uberlieferung. If. Aube's Saint Justin. See. introduces elements into the calculation which are unwarranted. note).IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. however.. by him. and since the Dialogue refers 2 to the Apology. Not insists 2 4 c. the article in the Encycl. Aube. when Eusebius in the Chronicon assigned Justin's death to 152. he was misled by a statement of Julius Africanus. cc. cf. since Julius Africanus would be likely to have known the facts. A. 70) on the statement of Julius Capitolinus that Antoninus genEven erally left his legates that length of time in the provinces. since he might have gone to Britain as early as 139. 68. 3 cc. 1 5 necessarily. however. 29 and several years may reasonably be sup- posed to have intervened before he became prefect of the capital. To this date there is . etc. pp. 1 safely say that Without presuming to be between 145 and 150 exact. etc. because of the possibilities of textual corruption .. 142. d. on the other hand. 120. and yet 3 of the Jewish war as recent. and of his - probable controversy with Marcion at Home before "the composition of the Apology. Urbicus might have returned to Rome as early as 146. however. d. For Urbicus. that in that year Crescens gave Justin trouble (meaning thereby that in that year the Apology was written as a result of the debate between Justin and Crescens). the Apologies were written. yet as Aurelius was not fully associated in the government with Antoninus until 147. was born in 130. Britan. 9. and as Lucius. cf. an earlier date for the Apology than 147 seems improbable. On it. and errs in saying that Antoninus took his third consulVon Engelhardt (p. are uncertain. as Aube (p. in fact." 5 All arguments on the date of the Apology. also. it D ate of the still speaks must have been composed shortly after. p. seven or nine years.

except reading Kaiaapi 2e8a(TTa> for 2e/3acrr<5 Kaicrapi. 1 M. Eusebius (H. Let us briefly The longer Apology text. Eoman people. E. a lover of instruction. p. son of L. Justin. Von EnOtto. and to Lucius 2 the philosopher. except the references in the Apology and Dialogue to the Jewish war as recent. — have — being one petition. 72). men I. who had been adopted by Hadrian. in behalf of the of every race who are unjustly hated and abused. a city of Syria. 2 8 L. ' Some Evaepel. has. iv. this introduction . Aovkico <fiikoo~6(pov Kaiaapos on the ground that Lucius was only born in 130. perhaps to the very plots of which Tatian speaks. . observe their character and contents." 4 are of Flavia of It made this address and no objection. which make it undesirable to place the writings any later than possible but Africanus may have referred to some subsequent action of Crescens against Justin.3ei 2ej3acrTcp to 2e/3acrrw Evcre^el. then. Commodus. . . was really a private citizen (cf. instead of Aovkico (fivaei vlco.. the son of Priscus and grandson of Bacchius. Analysis of the longer and to Verissimus. Ceionius That is. Cave. written at such a time and at such a place. Hadrian called him Verissimus. and to all the : . Volkmar. 4 Various parts of this address have been called in question by critics. but died before the latter. read. . . wbile nominally Caesar. Aurelius Verus. These works. who Neapolis. Cf. " according to our present To the Emperor Titus iElius Adrianus Antoninus Pius Augustus Csesar. Cave) iraidelas spurious Kai Aovkico (Ritter.._. however. by birth the son of Caesar 3 and adopted son of Pius.. them. and to the sacred Senate. Aurelius Antoninus. in Palestine. 12) quotes it as above. that Justin could as well have called Lucius a philosopher as his <fiikoa6(fia>. . after many inscriptions and Volkmar also thinks coins but Otto cites others like our text. afterwards L.30 JUSTIN MARTYR. Otto's note. quotes Schnitzer to the effect gelhardt. iElius Verus.. . 2e/3ao-r(» Ka\ Kaicrapi Ov-qpio-criuHd. 1 his philosophic son. and. Uberweg) would read Avrcavlvca Volkmar would change Eucre. while others (Neander. his original name having been Marcus Annius Verus. demand our attention. .

but only after examination of their lives and conduct. and alleges (5) that such unreasonable hatred as the Christians experience could only be due to the instigation of demons. immorality. who. — namely. and the Spirit of prophecy. and love only what true. — and proceeds atheists. He simply asks He demands. Justin then (6-12) enu- merates three principal charges made against the Christians. the incarnate now war against Word Himself. belief is innocent.DIPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. however incredible may be while spirit- their rejection of the popular divinities and their ual worship and imitation of the Most to appear to philosophic rulers a crime. for meet them. 31 2) with a bold appeal for justice. it Their . evidently " imitating Plato's Apology " of Socrates. as they slew Socrates." says Justin. the Father of righteousness and virtue. Hence they die the more willingly. High ought not Finally. came forth from Him victed of crimes. . and briefly to disloyalty. atheism. and that the added clause. they are willing that such should be punished. " a lover of instruction. and remarks that the title " philosopher " was used very loosely. . those who are truly pious is and phi- losophical to honor will not Hatter. for the . 4). they kingdom which they seek is a heavenly one. together with the Son who and the host of angels who follow and are like Him. In fact. their refusal to lie in order to live should commend them to all thoughtful people." indicates of itself that Lucius was not a philosopher as Verissimus was. lteason di- rects. They are not immoral or if any be conto teach us. should not be punished merely for a name. that men for justice. Christians are not they worship the true God." He and he does not fear. licentious father . that they may partake in it and their doctrines would make are not disloyal. therefore (3. opens (c.

he says. being His Logos and First-born and Power. He begins to do this by describ- ing the reasonable worship which the Christians offer God (13. to show how irrational was the honor bestowed on them.1 . The nature of Christ X. some. that Jesus Christ was alone and in the proper sense begotten as a Son to God. Apology was to disarm unbelief and. He some of the pagan fables about the sons of the gods and their marvellous exploits. that before Christ came. but in the hope of convincing some of the actual its truth of Christianity. influenced by the demons. by proving that Christianity was neither novel nor contemptible. and is older than all other writers second. /j.32 JUSTIN MARTYR. taught us these things for the conversion and restolife : . he undertakes to show positive worth and to credibility. 22). ration of the human race. Xo'yoj dvvafj. to preThat argupare for the positive argument in its favor. this appeal for justice good citizens of all men.is. Justin says that he might con. resurrection and the end of the world and the teaching of nature and recites also philosophy (18-20). aim to establish three points first. related through the poets mythological tales intended to travesty the future revelation (23). third. 1 *I. With clude and refutation of slanders.6i'os iSico? vios tg> 6ed> ycyevvr/Tai. and by giving examples of the lofty ethical teaching of Christ (15-17). These were Justin's main points in his defence of Christianity. avrov vrrdpx av Kai irpaiTOTOKos ko. as well as by pro- ducing analogies between the Christian doctrines of immortality. 1 and having become by His will a man. 14). that the teaching of Christ and the prophets is alone true. and how still more unreasonable it was for believers in these tales to persecute believers in the alleged facts of the The object of this part of the of Christ (21. ment will.

the antiquity of the prophets and the nature of Christ." His birth from a virgin in Bethlehem His crucifixion the preaching of the Gospel to the Gentiles. . as the incarnate divine Logos of his thought 33 was the starting-point and the central truth by which Christianity was commended and its relations to previous thought and life explained. centuries before life Jesus lived. . . and second advent and the future resurrection and judgthe certainty of the last two of which may. inferred from the fulfilment already of the other predictions. he says. impostors like Simon Magus and Menander honored. ascension. Christ's session in heaven the hostility of the world to Christianity the desolation of Judaea Christ's miracles His rejection by the Jews and acceptance by the Gentiles His humiliation. As contained in the Hebrew prophets. . and heretics like Marcion allowed (2^-29). religions of other kinds permitted. they predicted the main facts of his and the mission of Of these predictions he the Apostles to the world. be ment. After descanting again on the unreasonableness of persecuting men who merely and yet differ from others in re- ligious opinion live pure lives. Whatever in them was true and good was derived from it. and whatever was evil was originated by the demons for the purpose of opposing it. was the chief aim of his argument. gives a number of examples. To establish. Christianity from the fulfilment of prophecy. . of the preser- vation of their writings in the version of the Seventy. 3 . 1 following for the most 1 He cites predictions of Christ's advent. — . His triumphal entry His "cleansing by His blood those who believe on Him. . while idols of lust are worshipped. therefore. and in- cludes a large portion of his book (30-53). Justin at This consists of proof of last takes up the argument. majesty. . the call of men to repentance. Christianity antedated all philosophy and all pagan religion.. He begins by giving an account of the prophets and and relates that. IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY.

the shape of a ship's a farmer's plough. Justin next (54-58) endeavors to show that mythol- ogy was a device of the demons to imitate the future Christ. part in his explanations of arbitrary — tament as either a prosaic writing beforehand of cealed meaning. From of all these fulfilled predictions he concludes (53) that the Christian's belief in Christ as the First-born God and the universal Judge is completely justified.. as for instance in sail. g. understand. them that ingenious and method of interpretation for which the exegetes of the day and especially those of Alexandria a method which regarded the Old Teswere famous. the son of Jupiter and discoverer of the of vine. they failed symbol of their attempts. while those who lived irrationally 2 were enemies of Christ. e. those since Christ who lived before his and does so by maintaining that the divine Logos was in the world from the beginning. of whom they had learned from the prophets and he points out some of however (55). the tools of the mechanic. coming were irresponsible. the is predictions of the Cross. as the greatest prevalence in nature may be learned from its and human life.. and heretics 1 in recent times pera Xoyou. and that men of every race who lived rationally 1 were really Christians. and wicked. 3 to One thing. against the charge He came pauses to reply to the objection that so late. binding his foal to the vine. 34 JUSTIN MARTYR." imitation of the coming Healer. persecutions. 10 : " He shall be the desire of the Gentiles. and defends belief in of fatalism. xlix. etc. Bacchus. 8 Thus. later history or else as oracular utterances of carefully con- He explains also the different it modes of prophecy. 2 avev \6yov. and the features of the human body. although this Christ's power. rise of To the same demoniacal source he refers also the impostors. iEsculapius was an . namely. was a travesty Gen.

. and our next lecture. The Apologist so adds. the account of the brazen serpent. For that he pleaded on the which will appear in Nor was his argument intended to for reasons exhibit the only authority on which Christians themselves rested their belief. With a final appeal for at least liberty of opinion and a solemn reminder of God's judgment of all men. 1 Then follows the closing Apology (61-G7). ii. 60) 35 himself He then tries to show that Plato count of was directly dependent on Moses for his acthe origin of the world and of the second and third powers in the universe. 23) sees also in the same phrase a reference to the Spirit. (5G-58). Thus the proof on which Justin relied ment for Christianity was its fulfilment It should be carefully noticed that this in his arguof prophecy. however. a proconsul of Asia." which Justin con- siders a reminiscence of the Spirit brooding over chaos. for the purpose of removing the false impressions which were current among the populace. that he de- pended not much on Hadrian's letter as on the justice of his cause. ' not the ground on which he pleaded for the ment toleration of Christianity. in which Justin describes Christian baptism. ground of justice. i ts was argu. Justin concludes his xVpology by appending Hadrian's letter to Minucius Fundanus. occurs an obscure phrase." Justin thinks he took from personal Logos. (59. " ra 8e rpira nepl tov rplrov. in which that emperor part of the directed that Christians should only be punished after a legal trial. identifying Plato^s World-soul with his own In the Ps-Platonic Ep. Athenagoras (Supplic. The assertion that it was has been a 1 fruitful cause of error in the understanding of What it placed like a Plato says in the Timasus of the "World-soul. " He ^ in the universe. the celebration of the Eucharist and the proceedings at the weekly assemblies of the Christians.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY.

It de- was being used as a charge to Of this a most outrageous incover private malice. if they were so willing to tians. . His argument was simply an apolitself of outlined the course of thought along which his credibility of the own mind travelled in assuring new faith. rebuked his vices and having for his Christian wife finally left him.36 Justin and his age. that God made the world for man. ogetic one. Ptolemseus. . opens abruptly It is x c J and vehementlv. The simplicity of the Christian ceremonies. 21). were meant to remove obstacles from the minds of his readers. the nobility of Christian ethics. and the course the along which he believed others would be led to the same conclusion. dignation at a Analysis of the shorter . A dissolute man. fall a victim to the whom he had publicly shown to be an ignorant demagogue (3). Justin replies (4). He then briefly discusses two more popular objections brought against the ChrisThey were asked why. with being a Christian sentenced to had charged her teacher. It by Justin's innew outrage which had just occurred. To kill . in order that the marvellous fact of prophecy and its fulfilment might lead to the conviction that Chris- tianity was the absolute and eternal shorter Apology truth. Justin adds that he himself expects to malice of Crescens. die. angry at stance had just taken place. the analogies with paganism. because they confessed their religion (1. called out was addressed to the Eoman people. It JUSTIN MARTYR. they did not kill themselves. and is who do the things which are like pleased with those Himself. though it appeals also to the emperor and the Csesar as the highest representatives clares that Christianity of the people. The . and the prefect Urbicus had death Ptolernseus and two others. simply .

IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. and His begotten Logos who became man to deliver men from the demons (6). Justin Christians (7). then." Justin . this Justin replies (5) by declaring that God placed the world in charge of angels. late the People should remember (11) that vice may easily simuappearance of virtue. too. but now He is completely manifested. to end the race and prevent the spread of the divine docAt the same time. when examined. 37 themselves would be. if Christians are ? But the time of judgment will come (9). the way Christians regard death is a crowning proof of the truth of their religion and of the falsity of the slanders reported about them. Having determined to save men through Christ. also. therefore repeats his favorite idea (10). why God did not protect them. these demons whom the wicked serve. because it reveals the whole Logos (or Eeason) of God. but only the completion of that which Plato and other philosophers taught. In fact (12). and with such power over men as to demonstrate His claims. he sets forth the and that to God whom the Christians worship. they confess trines. Others have known Him in part. are responsible for their treatand hence God allows opportunity for repentance before the final judgment comes. " I am a Christian. are In contrast to the evils endured by good men due. because it is wicked not their to tell the truth. so far as they were concerned. "and I find in Christian- ity nothing hostile to Plato. the demons. that Christianity is superior to all other teaching. God spares the world for the sake of the one ineffable Men. ment of the truth. They were To fell. asked. What wonder. In all ages those who followed Eeason have been persecuted by the demons (8). but that on really obeying and suffering for virtue does the future reward depend. but that some of these them and their offspring." he concludes (13) .

pp. but deals with is two popular sneers cast at the Christians. 3 Saluted by Trypho as a philosopher. and asked for his opinions. 1. and remarks with no little sarcasm that his writings were at least not so injurious to the public morals as some others which were authorized and popular. as we have already described. 8. When now we Analvsis of the Dialogue . 141. He distinguishes himself from the Simonians. addressed to a certain Marcus Pompeius. 18. xii. . It more passionate than the longer Apology. it in a gymnasium. and far ten utters a conviction of the truth so intense as to be will- ing to face popular hatred without flinching and even death with indifference. It breathes a pathetic and indignant sense of injustice. He declares that Christianity is the true philosophy. It attempts no Its charac- elaborate proof of Christianity.38 JUSTIN MAETYE. 8 "Weizsacker (Jahrb. Justin refers the Jew to the prophets of his own nation. . and points Trypho to Jesus as the Messiah 1 whom the proph- Cf. He met them while walking in the xystus 2 of a certain city which Eusebius says was Ephesus. fur deutsche Theol. E. It is clear that this supplement to Justin's Apology was called out by a special occasion. 2 Or covered colonnade H. 60-119) thinks was Corinth. cc. . x ° led to relate. the story of his conversion to Christianity. iv. and is of the Apologies.. with whom he was afraid that he as a Samaritan might be confused. then (14) prays that his book may be authorized. and his subsequent de- light in the prophets as inspired teachers of truth. 1 of a debate which Justin says he had had with the Jew Trypho and some of Trypho' s friends. we find ourselves in a quite different atmosphere „ from that The book is a recital. turn to the Dialogue with Trypho.

with many repetitions and quotations from and explana- tions of the at first Old Testament. and note 9 on c. and urges him to obey the ritual law. it is yet possible to recognize in the Dialogue three principal topics. The Jew does not indeed credit the infamous reports about the Christians. in the judgment of some scholars. While the progress of the argument is often interrupted. and has read and admired dis- the " precepts in the so-called Gospel. The first (9-31) concerns the Mosaic ordinances. 2 85. Otto's note 7 Cf. . spirit to increase but generally with a rather too docile our confidence in the historical character of the narrative.IMPORTANCE OF ets foretold. The debate appears to portions of it have been lost." but thinks nev- ertheless that Justin ciple of Plato might better have remained a than have believed in Jesus. this a matter of small consequence. after- Perhaps did take place. 1 have lasted at actually least is two days. which Trypho represents as perpetually and universally binding. which conducted on the part of Justin with great elaboration. sometimes with earnestness. and on the part of Trypho with amusement. that the prophets themselves predicted a Thereupon Justin declares new law and covenant which have been revealed in Jesus. tends that the Old Testament itself required 1 He conmen to Cf. and yet. but the recital of was wards elaborated by Justin. 74. while tedious repetitions occur and no careful the plan is laid down for the debate. JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. 105. 39 is This leads to the discussion. The work is much longer than even the large Apology. since our interest in work consists entirely in the view of Christianity and its circumstances expressed by the author. is Fortunately. on c. c. it question to it answer. however. 2 a difficult How far the dialogue occurred.

proofs of the Messiahship of Jesus and this subject. as in the case of circumcision. eternal. has power (30). and typified the Apostles. . moral decrees rather than the cerehe says. the true Sabbath is repentance and obedience Such rites are useless to those who have been witnessed to by God and have been who baptized with the Holy Ghost. cf. or else. prefigured . and infers from them that the law was to have . — one He shows also that Christ points out various types l of Christ and Christianity (40-42). evil demons and of whose greater at his second advent Daniel the prophet to the nature of spake The remark turns the discussion Christ as taught by the Hebrew prophets. Justin shows that the prophets foretold and the other of glory is called by the prophets God and Lord as well as Jacob (36-38). were given to the Jews sin. . (32-34). were twelve in number. -which typified spiritual circumcision wrought in believers by Ilim who rose from the dead on the eighth day. He of humiliation two advents. xxviii. Exod. -which. he says (incorrectly. The latter. . . with several digressions. of 1 He mentions as types the paschal lamb the goats of the day atonement the offering of fine flour. because of that nation's persistent disposition to God thus sought to remind them of Himself. which. to mark them out for pun- ishment. 33). When Trypho objects to the hum- ble lot of Jesus. JUSTIN MARTYR. occupies the larger part of the Dialogue (32-129). the Eucharist circumcision. The true fast is is abstinence from evil (15) the true "circumcision that of the heart (24) (12).40 keep the monial. liver Christians have learned the true right- eousness from Christ (28). he says. Justin appeals to the example of the patri- archs for proof that righteousness does not consist in these observances. the bells on the high-priest's robe. and to the . now to de- them from the power last (31).

who was. 1 The debate then turns to Trypho. 8 Explaining 10-17. 1-7. 2 and still more particularly from Isaiah. Ps. in accordance with prophecy. and viii. not as appearances of the divine Father. . Messiahship may — explains still the mission of John the Baptist. insists When. how- Trypho that he prove plainly from the is Scriptures that the Christ God. ex. maintains that the Jews had cut out certain He words of Gen. and to the i. " Let us make man. 1-6. 8. in- cluding the birth from a virgin. 4: xlv. xlix." 3. but of another person. After a digression (45-47) in which the salvability of those who lived in pre-Mosaic times and of Jewish Christians tained. 41 an end in Christ. vii. to the Incarnation. xix. 6-11. Justin undertakes to do so (55-62) by arguing that the Old Testament theophanies explain themselves. that before the ond advent Elias will appear in person (48-51). was specially offensive Justin proves it (63-88) from the Psalms. and whom all must believe and obey in order to be saved (44). which. Isa. is main- Trypho declares it absurd to believe that one a man. 26. however. adduces also Jacob's prediction (Gen. and of the fact that is indeed the promised one (52-54). . who was subject to the Father and Maker of all things.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. 3 In doing so. lxxii. 4. he also defends the doctrine from the allegation of the Jew that it was on a par with the tales of mythology (67-70) 1 . Thereupon if put in the caution that even be held the his divine pre-existence of Jesus be not proved. xlii. xeix. called Angel and Lord and God and Beginning and Wisdom. Jesus ever. 2 appeals also to the eighth chapter of Proverbs. adding. bom of a virgin (43). and contends who existed as God should be born was also that Elias Justin — having to precede the Christ. sec- He 10-12) in proof of the two advents of Christ.

1 and adduces other passages to prove the 1 Dial. being in a difficulty about it. however. 18). and descended to them to preach to them His salvation. hpfiakaipev £v\ov els tov aprov avrov Ka\ enrptyuipev avrbv eK yrjs £o>vtg>v ko\ to ovopa avrov ov prj pvrjaBrj ovueri).. with iv. and his name shall be remembered no more (AeOre. is still found Jeremiah xi. plotting to crucify and slay Him. then this place [Jerusalem] shall not be forsaken for- ever.: 42 JUSTIN MARTYR. Div. and elsewhere (iv. led as a sheep to the slaughter. they cut out the following as a [harmless] lamb led to be slaughtered. 4) as from Isaiah. Xeyei fir)8e 6ebs ra>v dvvdpecov eav 8e prj 7Tiarfvcn]Tf ai/ra elaanovcrriTe tov Kr/pvypaTos avrov. and your heart has taken it in. important passages from the Scriptures which bore on the subject. Ha?r. iii. kol eav diaiorjd^re /cat dvefijj vpa>v enl rrjv p. that we are about to humble Him on a standard. they likewise cut out the following The holy [so Otto. by cutting the passage out]. 20. 22. ov ipr)pu>8fi ' 6 tottos ovros els tov anavra Xpovov. They devised a device against me. saying. by it Lactantius (Instt. said the listen to tions " Kai r) God of Hosts. ye shall be a laughing-stock to the na(accu elirev "'Eadpas rw Xaw Tovro to nda^a 6 o~urrjp fjpcov ' KaraCpvyrj f]pa>v. I [was] "And from the things spoken by Jeremiah. and is here represented as a harmless lamb. e. Its source is not known. and so.erd KapSiav. but (2) reads like a Christian interpolation attributed to Ezra. But if ye will not believe Him nor His preaching. reading ayios for the ami of the manuscripts] Lord God of Israel remembered His dead who lay asleep in the grave. He is himself declared to be. 71-74." This passage is quoted by Irena?us (adv. slight verbal differences. on peWopev 6 avrbv rarreivovv iv pr] arjpeico koi ravra i\Trio~copev in avrov. Come. 19. . (3) "And from the words of the same Jeremiah. This passage also quoted. as was also prophesied by Isaiah. and let us blot him out from the land of the living. they [the Jews] gave themselves to blasphemy [i. is still And since this passage from the words of Jeremiah in the written in some copies synagogues of the Jews (for it is only a short time since they were cut out). ecreaBe eirixappa is to'ls 'ddvecrt). and again (iv." in all our manuscripts of This passage. 1) as from Jeremiah. And if ye have understood. Justin says the following passages had heen cutout: (1) "Esdras said to the people: This passover is our Saviour and our Refuge. let us lay wood to [for] his bread. and since from these words it is shown that the Jews deliberated concerning the Christ Himself.

—a and the forth in the Old It was He who . In the remainder of the Dialogue (130-142) Justin shows that other prophecies foretold the conversion of the Gentiles. " Say among the heathen. and the ease with which words " textual corruptions could be introduced. xcv. scripts of Scripture by the early writers. of the resurrection. 1) without God than mention of the '' -writer's name. and maintains that they are more faithful The synthe Jews ever were (131-133). The Christians. to 33. 41. It was Christ and the Christians of whom the prophets spake as Israel and sons of God (123-125) is set many names under which Christ Testament show his double nature. . 120) is and the converits fulfil- sion of the Gentiles a crowning proof. (xcvi. are the true Israel. and adv. by ment of prophecy." So Justin quotes it in Ap. 19. as of the 1 They show. 1. 31. 85-88. also. The words which he claims were cut out are not found in any manuscript of the Psalm. as well Xew Testament. 43 He then brings forward predictions and types of the crucifixion and its attendant events (89-105). but church in agogue the Eachel (134). he repeats. Marc. which should therefore read. the fact of textual variations in the manuscripts of the LXX. . 10) and by later FaThese passages. states that the (4) He from the wood (drro rov gv\ov) were taken away from Ps. Cf. iii. In fact. The Lord reigned from the wood. It is found. itself. show the uncritical use of manuthers. however. Dial. second divine person begotten by the Father's will from His all creation own (129).) 1 0. at least. in no ancient version of the prophets. Jud. 75. and the conversion of the world (106-118). the Christians. 76. the call of the Gentiles. appeared to the patriarchs substance (128) before (127). that Jesus is the Christ (121. 83.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. 1 divinity of Christ as well as His incarnation. v. They are quoted by Tertullian (adv. was typified in Leah. according to the Old Testament the holy people promised to the patriarchs (119. 12. 122). i. not the Jews. are.

he adds. 81) more charitable view. may yourselves also in is spects agree with us that Jesus the Christ of God. he declares that God created men and angels free. all of any race who seek Him. logue three important digressions occur. and Justin parts from them with the remark. — the of the ancient latter of whom Justin admits will be saved if they do not com- pel Gentiles also to observe the law. perceiving that by way it is given to all re2 man is to be happy." and may inherit the promised possession for God will receive. water. as the prophets and Christ declared." Such a rapid survey of the course of thought in It should be Justin's books. Some. The second pertains to the salvation Jews and of Jewish Christians (45-47). with what they have heard. One of these (35) pertains to Christians which had been —a who ate practice meat which Justin strenuously repudiates as heretical and impious. faith. and crucified that they who Him were unable to act other- wise. manuscript. like Noah. while the Jews have rejected in Christ both prophets (135. God and the He therefore exhorts his hearers may be saved. added that in the Dialectures. was necessary. while he to be converted. . With this the The Jews express their gratification discussion closes. 136). " by and wood. The third digression pertains to the millennium. that it own fault (137-140). 1 Justin expects a visible which happily emends the We have followed Otto's text. having been thus predicted. that they that perishes does so through his Finally. . every " I can wish nothing better for you this than that you. of which particular mention will be made in the following offered to idols. will not fellowship with them but he takes a (80. .44 JUSTIN MARTYR. might not be said that the crucifixion of Christ. and that repentance is open to all (141). however.

and that the power which he wrote was a living reality But besides this. thoughtful. . His inquiring andcharacter > mind. they affected injuriously his theology. trustworthy witness to the broader Christianity — made him a which relations . was beginning to acquire while his sturdy honesty and his hearty devotion to his religion assure us that his testimony of the Gospel of to him. j™tin*a he seems to have done. tional value to the testimony and brave spirit that gives addiwhich he offers in them. 45 reign of Christ in Jerusalem for a thousand years. as a witness of the highest value. bear evidence to an earnest. 4. 1 As an * Apologist. of special interest to us and the natUre ° f aiS writings. serve that as Justin himself lived in the very centre of the turmoil and conflict. 5 but he admits that manygood Christians believe otherwise. The importance tianity of Justin's testimony to early Chris- we shall now be able to perceive. 1 in the second century. so his writings. his acquaintance with philosophy. his love of truth. it is sufficient to ob. and quotes for it Rev. the books of whose substance we have given an account evidently bear most directly upon the questions . A 1 • .his life . the perils and the progress of early Christianity. whatever we may think of the worth of his arguments. to the great cities of {J™°"^ the Empire residing.IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. and thus at the prin- cipal focus of the literary and religious as well as of the social and political activity of his day. he was likely to know Christianity. not in its local peculiarities. — though. as he certainly did dur. as we shall see. The external importes- features of his life do of themselves make him The Travelling. xx. is sincere. in the capital itself. of ing many years. but in its universal and essential features. But without dwelling at present upon these points.

Church. writings. as a world religion. first. . a philosopher. mentions. or quoted with approval. Tatian ad Grsec. the ceremonies of the Christestifies to tians. Ha?r. Justin throws light upon the civil and social relations of early Christianity. indeed. And all classes of critics." Irena?us (adv. not a section. the punishment of death." or " Gospels. being contemporary with the Gnostic heresiarehs. inflict . but the majority of the Christian com- munity. also. 19 (" Crescens endeavored to . moreover. the relation of Christianity to pagan thought." and thus becomes an important factor in the discussion of the canonicity and authenticity of our evangelical narratives. As As the author of the Dialogue. Tertullian (adv. 2) rpiotes from Justin's book against Marcion and . find him referred to i i with honor. by proclaiming the truth. " Justin. 1 Qavfiao-LcoTciTos t i 1 Cf. taken in connection with what has already been mentioned. 18 ("6 "iovcmVo?") and on Justin and. Talent. the Finally. speaking of those who. he quotes frequently calls " the In the course of his from what he memoirs of the Apostles. in the generations immediately succeeding his own. he illustrates he throws light on the mutual relations of Gentile and Jewish Christianity. the influ- ence of older systems upon the rising theology of the Church. and the dawning sense in the Church herself of the problems with which. (v. and thus the institutions of the early .46 JUSTIN MARTYR. his attitude toward the Apostles his agreements with and differences from the teaching of New Testament epistles. Not only do we . philosopher and martyr. iv. 6. Christianity would have to grapple. 5). on me because. He describes. his claim to represent. he [Justin] convicted the philosophers of being gluttons and cheats"). Estimate of Justin by the Church. make Justin a witness of the very first importance to the origin and character of early such a witness has Justin been considered by Catholic Christianity. had refuted them.

pars ii. 11. Photius depends on Eusebius in his account of Justin. 28. Scbriften. 16-18. 9) mentions Tatian as a disciple of Justin the Martyr. called out. Von Engelhardt's Das Christenthum Geschichte der Christlichen Glaubenslehren. in the Introduc- tion to S. Cf. 4 Cf. while the Roman Catholics defended him. Hippolytus (Refut. for the pur- pose of destroying the authority of the Church Fathers generally. 7 1752-1827. his theology They pointed out his more Platonic than errors. found him ami mo dern a prominent factor in the solution of the problems of early Christianity. H. Baumgarten's keiten. in a different spirit. 130. pp. in AmerNorton's Genuineness of the Gospels. 26. iv. pp. and show little or no acquaintance with Justin's writings. i. p. 8. etc. in d. Otto's Justini Opera. . 1762 but 6 it still followed the old lines of crit- debate until Eichhorn and Credner 7 brought the 26. J. 9. iii. index Also Har- nack's Die Uberleiferung. 4 The Protestant attack acquired writings 5 new in vigor with the appearance of Semler's . 6 Untersuchung theologischer Streitig- ica. IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. 1832. 150. 1 Cf. not only do not only do 47 we we find Eusebius at a later date giving a careful account of the man and of his writings l find his statements repeated. he seems lieferung. Cf. E. 5 to have read.. Harnack's Die UberJustins. and mostly taken from Eusebius or Irenseus.2 and his reputation as an orthodox father and a holy martyr cherished by all the later Church 3 but modern cntlclsm - criticism has. Beitr'age zur Einleit.. v. 2 ii. etc. 2) from a writing of Justin's. His Einleitungin das N. 12. 8 The post-Eusebian notices of Justin are scanty. T. viii. etc.. and declared Christian. the first to assail Protestant writers were the reputation of Justin. etc. bibl. the title of which is not given. and his arguments used by his contemporaries and successors. of the so-called Justinian books named by him. 9. iv. . torn. 13. except that he mentions three (spurious) writ- ings of the Martyr which alone.

Leipzig. later. Otto. and Pauline. trans. For the present. Theol. 4 a representative of a so-called free Petrine party. Eng. in reVon Engelhardt (Justin Martyr und sein neuester Vorur- theiler. as Hilgenfeld puts 6 of a Jewish-Christian or original-apostolic heathen . Overbeck. He has been called Ebion1 2 ite. If the Tubingen school and their followers have labored to assign him to his proper place in their various schemes. question of Justin's relation to our Gospels into the foreground. though his language was colored and his heart won by Christianity. 1860. Can. it is sufficient to remark that the most opposite opinions about him have been held by modern critics. 1872. 7 While Credner considered Justin Christian. essentially Jewishcritic. and. or. others 8 have labored to show that he grew substantially Neander.48 ical JUSTIN MARTYR. 8 ply to As Semisch. be positively assigned to any of the early but marks the transition from them to Catholicism. overlaid with naturalistic took a wider range Paulinisin. T. his latest considers him to so essentially Gentile that his thought declared have been substantially pagan. . Christianity while Baur declared that Justin cannot parties. Credner. 6 Credner. A little basis. Weizsacker. fur wissensch. Semisch. St'ahlin. the Tubingen school of critics undertook to reconstruct early Christian history on a and forthwith the study of Justin among scholars of all schools. 3 a degenerate Paulinist. Most of the above classification has been taken from Von Engelhardt. 146.5 it. vol. an Ebionite at bottom.. p. 1880). is Von Engelhardt. and his entire relation to both the formation of the Canon and the development of the early Church came into consideration. i. Geschichte des N. 6 Zeitschr. more recently. 8 1 2 Scbwegler.. 4 Kitsch]. Dorner. 7 Christianity of the First Three Centuries.

at the dangers which threatened the influences it which to rest. guide. indeed. whatever the estimate of the man and his position. in taking the testimony of one witness. to glance at the external and internal conditions it. 490. "For the historical understanding of the second Christian century. Of course. of the Christianity of the first half of the second century. to discover from him a typical one. we shall be careful not to consider him as representing more than we have reason really does represent. however. the foundation on which it claimed and the living power which possessed. other testimony related to his but with him as a ." IMPORTANCE OF JUSTIN'S TESTIMONY. all a^ree that he is one of the most important witnesses for the times in which he lived. 49 on the soil of the orthodox apostolic tradition. p. to believe he „ Plan of . he first of all forms and the very diversity of opinion concerning him shows him to be still a fit subject for renewed 1 examination. to the testimony of Justin. In confining ourselves these lec- we shall not ex- pect to learn the whole story of his age. the key . the chief forces which were operating in post-apostolic Christianity. affected it. ness is His wit- "We shall not neglect. . But. It is possible. and the problems connected with them. will be the object of the following lectures. 1 Von Engelhardt's Das Christenthum Justins.

TUSTIX ** is best known. as an apologist for Christianity to the Justin as an apologist. against it. met the slanders which were circulated demanded its toleration by the State. he pleaded the cause of the despised religion. with evidently deep conviction and trustworthy information. Antoninus Pius. pp. therefore. as we learned in the last lec- Government and people of the Eoman Empire in the reign ture. He may be regarded as n most particulars a representative apologist.LECTURE II. and He addressed himself to both the magistrates and the people. With great boldness of speech. and others. etc. . He pleaded for Christianity both before the law and before 1 Cf. While the defenders of Christianity in the second century often differed from one another in the positive exposition of their religion. Aube's Saint Justin. Not only was he the first whose writings are extant. THE TESTIMONY OF JUSTIN TO THE SOCIAL AND CIVIL RELATIONS OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY. were perfectly agreed in their defence of Christianity and in the exhibition and refutation of the charges 0I " i — brought against it. like Justin. 1 From Justin. 276. took they a kindlier view of previous human thought. we may ac- curately learn the social and civil relations of the Christianity of his time. while some fiercely denounced paganism in its philosophical no less than in its practical forms. but he paved the way for those who followed him.

" for. it . 51 His Apologies." 4 The sacrifice of thanksgiving was offered in the Eucharist "in all places throughout the world . X. race. Ap. Yet i. 3). 24. 53. in his note. of the Government and of the popu- and its attitude in turn toward both. Otto. " there is not one single race of men. 21 iv. 32. 33 20). JUSTIN AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. Jul. 480. that nomads. 30. Justin. Od. place. such as lived in India (Plin. 8 5 Dial. Hist. rj 4 Dial. the tribunal of popular opinion. 52. 2 They were " sion of Chris- from " all nations . 12. fj a/jLa^ofiiav doUoov KaXovfievcou fj iv aKTjvais KrqvoTpocpaiv oikovvtcov. using tribes of Arabia (Plin. 91. Ap. v." 1 Chrisdiffu- were " men of every J Thev " The compnsed representatives of both the educated and the ignorant classes. Polyhistor. are called Soikoi and that Genesis 6 iv a-K-qvais KrrjvoTp6<pot. or what- ever they may be called. 42. vi. much 10. and literally. 40. and Xumidia (v. Ethiopia (vi. has been filled with the glory and grace of God and of His Christ. oIkovvtcs are especially the tent. 56. says that Scythians are called ana&Pioi in Horat." says our au- thor. he adds. whether barbarians or Greeks." Such language of course haps to be taken too 1 tells nothing as to the actual is numerical strength of the Christians. 6 not perearlier Even 2 in ii.. quoted in Lightfoot's Igna- tius. Justin speaks of the diffusion of In the tians first Christianity in strong though general terms. 1. iii. in tents. ii. 35). Dial. " 3 and " all the earth. 10. 25. exhibit both the civil and the social relations of Christianity in the middle of the second century attitude toward lace. 2 . 17. 20). Solin. . The terms thus show how broadly Justin meant to speak. H. iv. 121. 24. i. . 25. Plin. the Epitaph of Abercius. 5 herdsmen living — nomads wanderers — among whom prayers and or or giving of thanks are not of the universe through the made to name the Father and Maker of the crucified Jesus. therethe fore. 117. cf.

. It is true that Justin does not testify to any organization of these separate vincial communities into prosays nothing of the . 23 . It is impossible to express the result but the fact of a diffusion. Ign. i. He relation of one " church " to another after 2 and we shall here- infer from his language that the Christian com- munities faith were bound together only by their common and mutual sympathy. 2 Lect. ures riod. Negative evidence . 1 But the frequent employment tin of such language by Jus- does indicate in the Christians of his time the sense of growing strength. . of course less weighty than positive but inasmuch as in this par- ticular Justin coincides it with other writers of his day. or imperial leagues. assoc i a tions. We do not find in him to a universal any allusion church externally organized into one association. The moral Col. used. the members of which were bound together by what seemed to them the strongest bonds. 3. however. but only to a now is universal faith professed by separate communities in all parts of the known world. only. 6.52 JUSTIN MARTYR. if Christianity generally to Such language could not have been were not proving its adaptation the various races within and beyond the by fig- Empire. VI. but Chris- he also represents the Christian communities as forming a collection of close tian societies. the consciousness of being an aggressive power which had already diffused itself through all classes of society and had representatives in all known nations. does Justin represent Christianity may certainly be assumed. times similar expressions had occasionally been used. ad Eph. at even this early pefitness wide enough to to demonstrate the universal and promise the universal triumph of Christianity. Not The as widely diffused. may be 1 so far considered trustworthy.

82. Ap. 80. Now. i.. Dial. is represented as encountering the intense . represented by our Apologist as associations the bers of which were very closely united. enmity of the 1 Roman world and the principal causes 2 Cf. as he claims. . as dress Christianity was not merely the diffusion of new truth or the progress of a of a new idea. 4. Christendom was 53 spiritual unity of real. 35. assembled weekly for stated worship and in- one another in time of need. its relations to the law and to popular sentiment were necessarily different from . always 5 together assisted " 5 . 26 . and outward manners were concerned. 61-67. VI. Lect. Ap. i. Ap. i. they lived like other people 6 but they had their officers and meeting-places and ceremonies. 10. 3 5 7 'Opdoyvafioves. to our Apologist it very but he gives no indication that was ex- pressed in external organization. Dial. Thus deed. at popularly heretics were so called local dox 3 and the division between them and the communities which in Justin's view were orthoThese latter are was evidently severely drawn. but was also the spread new society. cally held their possessions in mempracti- They were " common 4 . Christianity. 14. 2 though not Christians all. 4 e Ap. Dial. thus locally organized and widely diffused. 67. 67. 7 and thus formed in the strictest sense a brotherhood. To him the held to the true and apostolic doctrine. 1 But at the same time Justin distinguishes sharply between heretical Christians and those who. JUSTIN and AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. . It was the establishment of churches which gave to the new faith local habitation and organized power and as such. i. 5 So far. what they would have been if it had only spread as a new opinion from one individual to another.

i. enmity are explicitly stated by Justin. long as paganism remained the ruling power It sounds strangely enough in an age of the State. ii. Ap. however. that the Chrisof the State. effective cry by which occasionally 2 8 6 Ap. Justin complains 4 that the charge of being a Christian was often used as a means of gratifying private malice and these infamous reports were evidently invented by an enmity which itself rested on deeper reasons. Ap. three charges in particular which were commonly made against the Christians. 6 Particular beginning and so from the made was which against them: (i) Atheism. was an l." 2 It 1 was alleged that in hideous crimes were committed. Ap. unjustly hated and abused. 26. their secret assemblies — that human victims were sacrificed and their blood drunk by the worshippers. and that this impious banquet was followed by indulgence in hideous and lustful orgies. and tians denied the gods thus it in- volved a charge of want of patriotism as well as want of piety. tred with the popular prejudice. i. the suspicion and hawhich the Christians were regarded. He mentions. i.. ii. It meant. ridiculed by popular writers and neglected by the people. i. of course. " He complains that the Christians were TT . 3 Such charges were manifestly born of the impure heart of paganism They indicate. and it was probably little more than a battle-cry against — the hated sect. 2. 12: 6-12. 3. 54 of this JUSTIN MARTYR. 4 6 Ap. 2. 5 a charge The first was that of atheism. 10. and found in such slanders an easy means of increasing itself.. Dial. . when the gods were denied by philosophers. i It i.." Hostility toward the and that report charged them with the utmost " impiety and wickedness. 1. Ap. 6. however.

42. Ap. . 10. 12. and that all should not be con- demned because bear the name. and often fought in the army. i. Apol. i. Ap. 17. that " The second charge some Christians (2) wkkedevilness " have been arrested and convicted as doers. Ap. vain did Justin argue tianity 5 that the principles of Chriscitizens of all would make good charges of atheism it 2 men. etc. i. 11." To this the Apologist replies. JUSTIN to AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. and their denial of the gods with whose recognition The third charge Government. 6. of the wrongs committed by some who that every accused person He demands be examined. disloyalty 1 was added. not as to the name he bears. and to the when and licentiousness that of evident that the popular i. so are there various nominal Christians. of Christianity as a widely In vain did the Christians reply that they obeyed the laws. 9. but as to the life he has led. being apparently confident that no or- thodox Christian will be found guilty of wrong-doing. 4 In as well as by the appearance diffused secret society. The suspicion of the growing society remained. political duties were often involved in the ancient world. prayed for the emperor. mob 55 kindle the fury of the or excuse oppression and the Christians could only meet it by showing the folly of worshipping gods who were made by men and which few of their professed votaries really believed. as Justin puts 2 it. 3 It * . 1 was. that as there are various kinds of philosophers. paid their taxes. Tert.. and by declaring the deeper sense in which in they were anything but atheists. was that of disloyalty to the (3) Disloywas apparently justified alty by what the Christians said of their King and his future kingdom but it was doubtless confirmed in popular opinion by their refusal to worship the emperor. 7. Ap. is 4 Ap. of. « * i.

3) called it ^tXr v . ii. cf. etc. the Christian communities appeared in several ways dangerous to the public welfare.4 and spread abroad the worst misrepresentations of it. as significant And . 1 2 Ap.56 JUSTIN MARTYR. 5 Despite the progress which Christianity was making despite the fear with which the name of Christ. 1 7. 2 Xeither could paganism understand why the Almighty purity to be a rebuke to society. ambition. The ability to punish them seemed to their enemies a quick and decisive settlement TYith such demented of the whole question in debate. xi. 2. „ Popular lmpatience with * ' which Justin likewise bears witness. Lucian's De morte Perigrini. 6 despite the recognition. . ii. 121. ii. 4. given here and there even by unbelievers. 131. quite as these formal charges it against Christianity was the popular impatience with . 6. The Jews in particular led the Gentiles in hatred and ridicule of the new sect. 117. Dial. 8 4 5 6 — mere 5. . Ap. as the name of a mighty spirit. 1 God whom disprove the Christians confessed did not protect His worshippers. 3 their Their very sufferings seemed to religion. Dial. prejudice against Christianity was such as to be ever liable to break out into acts of open violence. . of the moral grandeur of Christ's teaching and . people society in general had little patience while. . Ap. Marcus Aurelius (Med. as we have seen. TrapaTa^iv. was sometimes invoked by the superstitious. . Dial. was felt by individuals who knew its to It real The willingness of its confessors to die rather than deny it was in the eyes of even a Stoic like Marcus Aurelius a piece of senseless obstinacy with which neither the rabble nor the philosophers had any sympathy.

1 the moral enthusiasm of his followers. i i i • i notice. as Tacitus informs of hatred of the us._ tion is mony of the preceding and following periods scnption « confirmed -r^ we should expect to hear. ecclesiasti- "When. . . appears on the pages of secular or cal history. JUSTIN AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. though the sentiment of the pagan world toward Christianity there comes but little into Christianity . 2 Clemens Dial. Xero made the Christians the scapegoats because they were. then. 39. Ann. at last distinct from Judaism. . iv. Such was the disposition of pagan society toward and we may remark that Justin's descripprecisely that which from the testi. 10. the rabble at Ephesus cried out against the injury done by Paul and his companions to their patron goddess Diana 8 and Peter warned his readers 4 of the reproach and suffering which was impending over them as Christians at the hands of the Gentile world. 12-17. the hostility against it is found to have of his crime followed the same lines. impatient hatred. we can recognize the substance of the charges which Justin mentions already beginning to appear. Lven in the iSew brother Testament. xv. Xero. . to Diog. Ep. 4 6 Pet. 23.. 16. " while Suetonius. to death Flavius 1. 44. The Jews in Thessalonica accused the Christians before the magistrates of " doing contrary to the decrees of Caesar. 6 speaking of the same petheir religion a calls "new and mischievous su- perstition. though with increasing force. Acts xix. Acts 1 xvii. 57 — the Christians were looked upon in Justin's time by the mass of their fellow-citizens with either haughty contempt or blind. . Christianity. saying that there is another King. . 7. 5 * convicted human race " and " detested for their crimes riod. one Jesus " 2 ." 1 8 6 Domitian put cf.

the common testimony of the whole century Society was suspicious of the to which he belonged. Domit. cf. on the and Clement of Eome. pp. the wife of Clemens. scribes Apology of and the Octavius of Minucius Felix. the love of the rabble 1 Dion." while in his prayer for rulers 3 he proves how law-abiding and loyal they really Pliny in his letter to Trajan. they deserved punishment on account of their obstinacy 4 while the silence concerning Christianity on the part of such writers as Plutarch and Dio Chrysos- tom. Cass. about the same time. on the other hand. 23. 44. who had it so much in common with it. a flame which the sceptical philosophy had been too ple in the Supplicatio of Athenagoras. 4 Ad Cor. His description of the popular enmity toward the Christians is. 257. and on Clement. it and who could scarcely have been ignorant of shows with what contempt as well as must have been regarded by the cultured by the popular paganism of their day. — theoretical to kindle. 8 Ibid. testifies that he and his fellow-Christians were " hated wrongfully. below. " 1 2 judge the Christians leniently. Cf. Sueton. of That Flavius CleCommentary Rome. religious zeal were kindled into fresh outbursts of flame by the Christian's practical contempt for the old gods. 22. etc. The dying embers of political aims of the Christians. charge of " atheism . therefore. 60. we turn to the writers subse- we find the same hatred which he deand the same charges which he refutes described and refuted with even more elaboration. nevertheless betrays the temper of the age when he affirms that whatever their character.58 JUSTIN MARTYR. though inclined to were. Christians. 15. mens and Domitilla were 2 Lightfoot's on Philippians. the traditional enmity of the Jews. Individual hatred of goodness. 61. as for examquent to Justin. i. pp. the Tertullian.. lxvii. And when. and banished Domitilla. . 60.

supported by political considerations. Manifestly the main charge against populace. tian The former could not understand the . of it. and this not only because of the deliberate policy of statesmen. the charge which caught most quickly the ear of the The charge . They were thus ineviThe slanders invented against of the feeling that to the Christians. because these involved ways a recognition of the itself.JUSTIN AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. two „ Explanation explanation of this popuobservations may be made m . of political charge. combined in various and to make them the objects of un- proportions to impute infamous deeds to these quiet. mi „ "atheism" was itself a A ° The ChrisEeligion and politics were formally united tiansunpaEeligion was chiefly in the pagan world. interpreted Their necessary separation life from much of the daily in countless little to and from many of the gods. added the charge of disloyalty the impression that they were at war with society tably objects of dislike. Their refusal to sacrifice was naturally disloyalty. them. ical And and life. pleasures of their fellow-citizens. was a political one. As we . 59 for cruelty. world against the followers of Christ. them were but the expression ever was unhuman belonged what- and in any popular outbreak they were the natural victims selected to gratify the anger or satisfy the terror of the mob. isolated people. consider this social prejudice of the Eoman . the terror caused by national calamities. . and superstitions of the The habits as of the Christians lent plausibility to the charge. hence it is equally manifest that this polit- social antipathy was ultimately due to the radical difference in character between pagan and Chrislatter. but because of the political fears people. reasonable hatred to the mass of their fellow-men. the ill-will or fanaticism of magistrates.

as Justin himself felt and said. Pride of race and the conquest could not understand universal love and the spirit of self-sacrifice. the inevitable repulsion of fundamentally opposed moral forces . a society J to which divinity. of an hostility too deep and radical to be due to any causes save those which determined the very foundations of To the historian. Attitude of have had not been for the Government. "We see. of women and children and had too often bowed in the temples of the gods whom it denied . to understand the firm refusal of the Christians to live at the cost of a lie. might little. as well as the contempt of the cultured classes. and the vulgar hatred and slan- ders. Immorality could not but hate morality and there was a profound truth expressed by Justin in a crude way. fact that in the eyes of Roman law ChrisThe attitude tianity was. availed if it . and force the only real and pub- religion only a political safeguard. almost of necessity. The enmit of the new and the old ideas inevi- wnen ne this attributed persecution to the rage of the demons. Even pagan culture had been too much accustomed to regard itself as the privilege of a select few to understand a philosophy of artisans and slaves. of the ideals. were but the results. illegal. standards. and principles of the old world character. the outbursts of violence.60 JUSTIN MARTYR. to those of the new. could not understand the immediate responsibility to God and hope of a future life. lic and ethics only a Christian's sense of practical spirit of law founded on expediency. the clash of natural foes. . therefore. the vengeance of private malice. however. All this popular prejudice. world was the only real place of happi- ness. no less than to the theoloexplanation lie in the necessary antipathy must the gian. in the antago- nism of pagan society toward Christianity. Besides this.

if at least the letter of the law had not proscribed the professors of the new religion. Hadrian. Finally. rather complains that the Imperial rulers did not ac1 8 6 Ap. Lightfoot's Ignatius. Eoman Government 61 in toward the new religion of the general. 2. Justin complains that the Christians were condemned merely for a name. the us first examine on this point the testimony of Justin. 4. own It was itself a crime in the eyes of the law. 8. While individual magistrates may have acted arbitrarily in their proceedings. 7. Of this letter I shall it speak in a mo- ment. i. 4 He relates that the prefect Urbicus put to death three persons on this ground alone.JUSTIN AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. governmental persecution. Christianity was according to Justin's illegal. such action as Justin describes could not have occurred. 2 3 The Christianity llle simple denial of Christianity was sufficient to secure the release of the accused. and compare it with other known facts of history. 2 4 i. At the same time Justin does not complain of any formal. directed from headquarters. ii. a proconsul of to Apology a letter written by Hadrian to MinuAsia. i. 460. Ap. 1 and that no investigation was held as to their moral character or conduct. Ap. Cf. . he appends to his larger about twenty-five years before cius Fundanus. and has long been a matter of dispute. and shows that in the enforcement of the law much depended on the caprice of the magistrate. persecution. Ap. For the present should be observed that. Let Antonines. testimony. To the Noformal outrages prac fact of outrages he bears explicit testimony. and particularly that of Trajan. which Justin seems 5 have considered favorable to at least fair treatment of the Christians. i. but not to a systematic war against the Christians. &a1. He 2.

ii. form preserved by Eufinus in his translation Qf EUS ebius 8 may find that it reasonably be considered genuine. while he lays the blame more on magistrates like Urbicus 4 than on the Imperial rulers themselves. cf. Of any organized or systematic perse- cution he does not speak. 12. If we examine the letter of Hadrian which Justin appended to his Apology. 2. Ap. nor does Justin speak as if such cruelties had 7 recently occurred. E. 2. and which in the Latin Hadrian's letter. Ap. tortured to procure evidence against the Christians but this may have been no more than the work of occasional fanaticism . tively interfere to prevent such outrages. is to represent persecutions as outbursts of popular or individual anger. where the history of opin2 . 57. 6 Pliny (Letter to Trajan) says that he tortured two women to learn from them the truth about the Christians. 1. 4 6 Ap. 9 Cf. He speaks of "unutterable cruelties. 460. ii. i. i. how far this is representation of the state of the case con- firmed by other evidence. permitted or abetted by magistrates. 8 7 Dial. The scope of his testimony. death and torments" (Dial. iv. 5 weak women " had been .62 JUSTIN MARTYR. How far Justin's complaint justified by other ^ ne 1 uest i° n therefore arises. 10. i. 4. 16. and rendered possible by the existing laws. ii. that " children or He declares.6 and he intimates in one place that the Government prevented the hatred of the Jews from venting itself as it would otherwise do. in short. indeed. 3 Ap. Lightfoot's Ignatius.. too 110). H. etc. 1 He 2 certainly writes as if these latter were not infrequent but the example of them which he adduces in his smaller Apology 3 illustrates merely the way in which private malice was sometimes the cause of persecution. 9 1 we was directed merely against Ap. 18.

112. Pliny the Younger was propraetor of Pontus and Bithynia. is briefly but satisfactorily given. and the argument for its genuineness. selves severely punished but he assumes that Chris- may be itself a punishable offence. d. and shows that the emperor intended to follow the already established usage. he had asked a second and a of Christian ion concerning the letter. " If any one make an accusation. . G3 upon the Christians made without observance Hadrian allows process against of the forms of law. Light is thrown on that usage by the earlier corre- spondence of Trajan and Pliny. and it evinced a disposition on the part of the emperor it. As it was. favorable to the Christians. you shall adjudge punishments in proportion to the desert of the offences. given of where an account is based on the recent discovery of an inscription. The was. his if there be a regular prosecutor. but rather to restrain Still. them. He prohibits officers from yielding to the cries of the mob. 1 it and wrote correspondIn ^janand it he expresses his ignorance of how far for the Plin y- was customary the Christians." left the existing laws unchanged. themletter and further tianity directs that false accusers shall be . When they confessed. i. not to encourage persecution. or only the offences that might be added to the name. It protected them from mob-violence and brutal assault.JUSTIN assaults AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. and prove that the said men do anything contrary to the laws. Government to punish or seek out He had hesitated as to whether the age . he had asked the accused if they were Christians. note. in a certain measure. the sentence. by which the date of the correspondence is accuCf. 1 532. Lightfoot's Ignatius. his famous letter to Trajan in a. Mommsen's investigations. rately fixed. of the accused should affect his sentence name whether the was to be itself punished.

which. this treatment of the only shown him the difficulties of his position. especially in view of the large number of Christians in his province. had his action revived the worship in the temples. 1 3 The ay ant}. however. they should be punished unless they denied Christianity and adored the gods . classes of accused persons came before him. Others confessed that they had been Christians. and cursed Christ. threatening them with punishment." .64 JUSTIN MARTYR. they should be set free. found Christianity to be merely a " perverse. he had been told no true Christian would do. in which case. obedience to the emperor's prohibition of clubs. " Superstitionem pravam immodicam." He therefore. he had ordered them to execution. No anonymous accusations. and called on the gods. if severity were tempered with mildness. but had — — ceased to be so . consulted the emperor as to what course he should pursue. and adored the image of the emperor. When they persisted. who were Eoman But citizens he Those of them. although suspected of having formerly been Christians. Trajan commended Pliny's action. Already. accused. in Pliny. practice of celebrating an and that the Christians had even abandoned their evening meal 1 together. In reply. He directed when even that Christians should not be sought after. but that. yet these assured the governor of the innocuous character of the Christian doctrines and habits. howhad ordered to be sent matter had Various to the capital. he de- clares. Those who denied Christianity. third time. Many were anonymously accused. should be received. 2 in short. whatever their belief might be. their obstinacy deserved punishment. not doubting that. ever. It seemed to him possible to correct this superstition. he had dismissed. extravagant superstition. Pliny adds.

601. Trajan had refused eyes. sal > was not recognized. Ignatius. Christianity. only be viewed and De Eossi 2 has and Chris- shown first 1 2 that at a later period the church was crime". Under this prohibition of "hetserise" as soon as Chris- the 163 Christian communities tianity came The Christh^eTore' ille was clearly separated from Judaism. cited by Lightfoot. Only such associations as Determina- had been mitted. 20. 5 . and was wholly as a political matter that they viewed religion in general. to sanction even a small association which it was proposed to form in Nicomedia for the purpose of putting out fires. iv.. 1 the times of Julius as early ^authorized to check societies. As a religion. etc. But they were determined all subjects of to insist on the loyalty of the Eoman Empire. To them the first it of all duties was obe- dience to the State. as a secret association. had strongly enforced the earlier laws directed against secret associations or clubs. to more than They had no wish it as be religious persecutors. Trajan. Cf. and Christianity in particular. which had been injurious to . re- and did not consider a transient phase of superstition. i. Mommsen's Hist. as specifically authorized were per- Government Such was the law passed Caesar. the State in the later it days of the Eepublic and the emperors found necessary to watch the formation of such associations with jealous In a previous letter to Pliny. Rome. from these letters that neither 65 Trajan its nor Pliny cared anything for Christianity in ligious aspects. It could not be. 10. recognized by the law as an authorized burial-club. of i. since it It could had no national or local habitation. unlike Judaism. note 2. moreover. Roma Sotterranea. the political influence of the clubs.JUSTIN It is evident AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY.

and discharged their ties. ch. to Trajan and Pliny the Christian societies were illegal. Position taken by Trajan. ch. and had been treated as such. Trajan. were of necessity proscribed and amenable to punishment. to Pliny's mind. etc. not to be considered. i. This requirement. of the emperor was part of the of allegiance and these men. that they prayed for the emperor. and adore the emperor's image. Hence. The worship of the emperors was the one cult in which the Eoman world was united. . civil protest that they were law-abiding citizens. 2 Cf. 2 ever issued till He ISTor simply enforced already existing laws. as has often legalized persecution. unauthorized association. and membership in them a crime. Refusal to render such homage was. xvi. izens Whatever else they might believe. madness and invincible obstinacy. in this all loyal citIn vain might the Christians would concur. and magistrates all the more so in the eyes of those zealous for who were is what they deemed the public welfare. or as having ° is first There nothing to snow that such an edict was the beginning of the third century. duoath The worship . was simply a political one. 44. and was the universal symbol of political fealty. Gibbon's Decline and Fall. 7. it should be remembered. and to render the required who refused homage to the majesty of the Empire. therefore. . 1 l ° been done. of Introduction. who were joined together in a secret. Em- The latter must sacrifice to the gods of Rome. as having issued an edict against Christianity.66 JUSTIN MARTYR. was 1 either he or Pliny solicitous to destroy Christianity Cf. this subject discussed in Lightfoot's Ignatius. Aube's Saint Justin. To the emperor and his proprietor there was but one test of loyalty to be applied to all subjects of the pire. i. p. under which Christianity was illegal.

AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. corresponds the letter of Hadrian to Minucius Fundanus. unless (fyaivoiVTO Tt em rfjv rjyffiovlaf . 1 that he thought it granted the very thing which he demanded namely. letter. where HaPafiaicov eyxeipovvres. " Though from the letter of demand asked. the laws forbade membership in unauthorized societies." The Apologist could only appeal from the mild and just spirit of Hadrian to the still milder and juster spirit of Antoninus. Justin's interpretation. in their view. then. He could plead also the spirit of mildness and conciliation which is manifest in it. if such were really meant by him. as we have seen. . 1 Ap. in them was a heinous offence.JUSTIN as a religion. It is written in the same spirit as Trajan's to Pliny. while at the same time both assume that the Christian societies were illegal. 126. So he seems to have interpreted the direction of the letter that accusers should show that the Christians had done something contrary to the laws? But since. note 4) sees this interpretation of Hadrian's drian is spurious letter imputed by the Christians to Antoninus in the of the latter to the Commune of Asia. 68. Hist. and the law still left it possible for Christians to be punished " merely for a name. It would seem. from his language. i. i i tt i • appeal to Hadrian's He could plead it against all acts of popular or private violence. and was clearly intended Force of Consequently Justin's to continue the same policy. and that membership "With this. to as 67 mild- Both show a disposition much ness as was. consistent with the peace and loyalty of the community . would not stand. the trial of Christians only for what was generally esteemed criminal. Justin could not properly plead Hadrians letter as granting toleration to Christianity. i. quoted as forbidding molestation of the Christians." 2 that you order the judgment to be given as Hadrian we could we have Gieseler (Ch. indeed.

2 indeed of But with the accession of Trajan. cisely that But the condition of things described by Justin is prewhich from these Imperial letters we should have expected to find. 460-529. i. E. nor The Government not a persecu or.. . 26. -who quotes Hegesippus and Tertullian. E. and — princes who were neither jealous nor tyrannical nor serious enough to who were too just to countenance popular violence. 20. 1-69. therefore. 1. 17. cf. Christians were tion con- likely to be variously treated in different places and at The would naturally vary with the temper different times. . these emperors appear to have been more and more inclined to deal gently with the offenders. Ha- Antoninus took any active part in the persecution of Christians. to show that neither Trajan.. cf. ad Cor. Ann. Ixvii. \ t and acted con- i i letter to upon the Pliny which we have s i s tently lines laid down in the discussed. and to have insisted that their officers should only convicted by legal process. ii. during their reigns the Christian societies were unlawful. enforcement of the general law of officials and communities. iii. Eus. 14.-.68 JUSTIN MARTYR. This had not been the case in the previous period. 44 Eus. persecutions of the clear account first century of which were directed The two Eoman we have any by Nero and Domitian themselves. Dio Cass. 19. xv. While. H. and Nerva before him. and Eus. E. Cf. Ignatius. H. Rom.. persecute religion as such. iv. but sought rather to restrain all violent outbreaks. For Domitian's. For Nero's persecution. 25. 1 We condemn such as were are told by Melito 3 See this collected by Liglitfoot. It is easy to see that being thus under the ban of the law without being specifically proscribed. also CI. The evidence 2 goes drian. Tac. a new class of princes oc- cupied the throne of the Caesars. » i. H. 2 .

to the Thessalonians and Athenians and all the Greeks. its genuineness. We are to attribute toward and humanity of the reigning princes. " were the ordinances to the Larissseans. yet directed condemned when accused by a responsible party and convicted in legal form. 465^469 is a eulogy of the Christians." 1 By "strange movements" we are doubtless again to underIt stand popular or irregular assaults. note 4 i. the spirit of lawless persecution. . Hadrian still more emphatically laid down the same that Christians should only be rule. Hist. 126. -whether it be attributed to Antoninus or to Aurelius. 2 i. i. though he was to put down illegal and clearly though he recognized member- ship in a Christian society to be a crime. one form of -which is and another form appended in the manuscripts. cities " G9 Antoninus "wrote to the forbidding any these. is obviously It spurious. H. Hist. Neander's Ch. If the letter of Hadrian to the Consul Servianus be genuine. Gieseler's Ch. E.JUSTIN that AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. We are certainly not to suppose that for Christianity was regarded with any more respect not being officially persecuted. rebuked. If Trajan." Among he adds. who possessed a more amiable temper than either of his predecessors. i. 464) seems inclined to accept . 104. 13. apparently on several occasions." strange movements against us. together with the pretended letter of Marcus Aurelius to the Senate. false accusers should be se- verely punished and Antoninus. . Cf. 2 that emperor looked on at least the Christians of Egypt as merely one of the many varieties of fanatics which Alexandria contained. Lightfoot (Ignatius. letter to the 1 The Commune given by Eus. iv. resolved associations. even directing that . Lightfoot's Ignatius. would thus ap- pear that the mild policy of the emperors continued. the Imperial policy as to indifference much contempt for the Christians as to the of Asia. to the larger Apology of Justin.

They all. to Eoman after whom responsibility for active persecution first. note 10). also Lightfoot's Ignatius. on the contrary. It is he. H. 26). 2. while still nominally acting on the principles of his to predecessors. 4 These are quoted 486. the most serious of all the emperors and the ideal of obedience to one most devoted to the the State. be plausibly sufferings of the Chris- attached. H. is i. 8 127. which Neander (Ch. If. p. 105) thinks could not have happened without the emperor's permission. i. tion to Christianity can be laid at the Imperial door.. etc. iv. seems for offenders have favored the active search which his officials instituted in Gaul and " supersti- Asia 2 while his expressions concerning the Christians. Not only were the tians in his reign greatly increased. and as being as insincere as the rest. which he must have felt toward the rising His son Commodus. That new violence in persecution was begun in Asia by the 1. more than returned to the mild policy of his father's predecessors. i. money. moreover. 510. cf. i. so-called letter of Aurelius to the Senate (cf. and Antoninus the Imperial Government. quoted above. in Lightfoot's Ignatius. 1 But whatever the have one God was the policy of these emperors and it is such cause. 3. 33) but the emperor's contempt is none the less plain. 469. the evidence shows that under Trajan. Gieseler's Ch. Hadrian. 2 For the persecution at Lyons and Vienne. xi. while 1 " Unus illis deus nummus est. of the Christians can Domitian. Meditat. Hist. Die Christenverfolgung der C'asaren.70 JUSTIN MARTYR. lie says. namely. " Nummus." however. Hist. Weiseler's The i. 500. mus " (cf. E." 4 plainly indicate the posi- tive hatred sect. Cf. Eus. E. Roman officials is attested by Melito (Eus. v. a Christian fable Lightfoot's Ignatius. 3 and his decrees against what he considered tions " and " new religions. . but he himself. of Marcus that direct opposiAurelius not till the reign . is generally accepted." Some read " nullus " for " num. .

adv. This statement. 8 Ignatius and Polycarp. that only one known martyrdom can be confidently ascribed to the reign of Hadrian. we know of only two in of the reign of Trajan. at than the time of Justin's writ1 by the Christians to and Justin himself 2 speaks. 486. of Symeon . Rome. Bishop of Iren. Tele- sphorus. and quite accord ings. it 71 illegal. Jerusalem (according to Hegesippus. nor reckon to this early period the slaughters of the succeeding century. describes the attentions paid their brethren in prison. with the foot 3 spirit of the Imperial rescripts. is not to be understood as affirming that no other martyrdoms occurred. 137 or 138. regarding Christianity as ular outbreaks. after all. In con. sought to restrain pop- also seems to show that under these emperors the actual sufferings of the Chris. 4 iii. 4. we should critical not take too "^fy ^™ 5 statements of later Christian writ- time - nor accept without examination the martyrthe side of the evidence ologies. and. after a careful examination. E. Ap. not very severe. though a prisoner under guard. a period but little later Lucian also. of those in bonds as regular objects of the charity of the church. literally the ers.christians ceiving of these. 12. however. Bishop Light- concludes. probably in a. Thus Ignatius.The suffer6 tians were. Hser. By we may place other facts which show that oftentimes the presence and activity of the Christians were practically tolerated. 4 1 Under Antoninus the number 2 i. suffered. 32) and Ignatius. in Eus. 6 7. De morte Perigrini. i. etc. besides the Bithynian sufferers of whom Pliny informs us. and had apparently free intercourse with them. but only that they were fewer than has been supposed. iii.JUSTIN AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. Under Hadrian. for persecution. H. as do other writers. 3. d. on his journey to Eome. These facts certainly imply no great rigor of persecution. received deputations from the churches of Asia.

. 8 Dial. secution to return. private malice could always procure their imprisonment or death. 1 we hear of persecutions occurring about this time at Athens.. larger. . .72 . TT was Justin s own opinion. not to be so interpreted „ Persecution but just beginning. all this the testimony of Justin. the bishop had been martyred. 23. as to hide the fact that the era of real x persecution was but just beginning. as it is we have it. indeed. Such. 39. pending over them. imply that assaults upon the Christians had been renewed in violent forms and from Dionysius of Corinth. JUSTIN MARTYR. to which Melito refers. Suspected and hated by their fellow-men. in which Publius . _ . is also to be placed in 155 or 156. i. 110. coincides. they were liable to be made at any moment being the victims of popular fury. possibility of suffering " for a tians had been protected through being identified in Roman eyes with the Jews. 3 wax worse and worse until Christ should As things then were. Lightfoot's Ignatius and Polycarp. but . martyrs was The letters of the emperor to the Greeks. He expected per. The death of Polycarp. E. Thus measurably shielded while suffi1 2 Eus. Proscribed by the law. the name " was always imEnough had already suffered to But the justify the Apologist's complaint and appeal. so were they afterwards in some measure protected by the Providence which placed on the Imperial throne rulers too tolerant and just to permit popular hatred to express itself without the forms of law. H. . 629. 2 With sented . Their societies illegal. As at first Chrisgreat conflict was only beginning. iv. of Smyrna. where Wad- din^ton's researches are given. Cf. and pre- therefore in the reign of Antoninus. the Christians had truly reason enough to complain.

and that he was going to offer a deeper reason . appeal against that policy of the Government which. we are ready to apprefence of Christianity. short. liberty of opinion he appealed for and worship. J implied in what he did say. °pU' the Christian J Justin did not say but J this formally. and the latter upheld avowedly by emperors was in reality fought. He indignantly appealed to the equity of the rulers. against the injustice of condemning men merely for a name. for the toleration of Christianity and its protection from violence. the reply why he did not couch his demand in legal may be made that Justin was not a lawyer. In Justin's time the omens of the coming battle were beginning to appear. Justin's Apology was manifestly in substance an classed Christianity in the He appealed societies. ? ciate the defence of his religion which Justin „ . But it was not till the following century that the handthe to-hand conflict of Christianity and paganism former now strong in numbers and widely pervading society. He insisted that each man should be tried on the ground of his moral character and conduct. He demanded that it be placed on a level with other worships and beliefs which were allowed by the authorities. then. letter He interpreted Hadrian's as opposed to such treatment of guiltless men. emits Let us observe his plea. number of illicit It is true ' that it is fo^iegai'recf 0I °. by suffering. and consider implications. as we have seen. He complained societies. In If it be asked terms. Christianity 73 ciently disciplined was enabled to prepare for the later struggle. this view of the social and civil relations — — of early Christianity. estimate its force. and asked how they could permit such manifest tyranny.JUSTIN AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. -„ offered to the rulers and people ot the pire. and Government With.

He appeals to the ru- as philosophers. did Justin base his ? demand for toleration the He could not show that Christianity was f entitled to recognition as a national form o : ground that Christianity was phiioso- worship . such _ it . demons had always opposed. Why. On what n On . was not. 3 He 2 Dial. 5. On what eration. were the strongest grounds which he could have taken. 3.74 JUSTIN MARTYR. to appeal for toleration on what. Christianity was a philosophy. The second was meant to remove suspicion and give force to the first. real.. Ap. to be governed by reason rather than custom in their treatment of the Christians. then. could its apologist plead for tol- and the Christian societies for liberty of worship ? Justin was led by the bent of his own mind. and perhaps by a shrewd appreciation of the real force of the plea. grounds. 8. i. positive The first of these pleas constituted his argument for toleration. its It knew no locality ior p ' home. for . then.2 declares that Christ is He the incarnate Eeason of God. fundamental thought. least of all . Though it is in the Dialogue that he formally declares Christianity to be the true philosophy.1 yet this idea moulds the Apologies and forms their lers. 2. He presented Christianity as a philosophy. in Justin s mind. then. who had and formerly enlightened the evil whom 1 Socrates and others. no nation for its special possessor. and joined therewith a description of the moral purity of the Christians and the innocence and simplicity of their worship. should it be persecuted curtailed ? r ? Why should liberty of thought be That such w as actually Justin's plea will appear from his language. than could be given for the toleration of Christianity by any merely legal argument. ground. i. * Ap. . under the circumstances.

if true. 2 He 3 6 7 9 10 II Ap. 21. who.JUSTIN AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. Greek Philosophy. 6. ap . 18. Ap. Ap. p. 9 This may seem a method of proof little likely to have affected his pagan readers. 10. 6 8 i. 6 and even points out resemblances between the facts of Christ's life and the fables of mythology. i. i. 24. 8. however. 26 . 13. 22. 11. * i. 6 He reminds his readers of the varieties of heathenism itself. yet it was not so ineffective as we would suppose. Cf. i. 7 and endeavors to give a rational explanation of of idol-worship. ii. 13. Ap. Zeller's Outlines of ii. . to the mind of their age. Ap. 7. It would at least impress them as convincing. 1 of the Christian follies He dwells on the reasonableness 2 worship of God in contrast to the and explains the non-political character of his aims and hopes. We know ecy . 75 compares the differences among Christians to those among philosophers. i. 15-17. 31-53. In fine. 8 For the same purpose he enters at length upon the proof of Christianity from prophecy. i. 3 He exhibits the ethical teaching of Christ. Ap. i. that the Stoics attributed great value to proph- 10 while the frequent use of this method of proof early Apologists generally certainly implies that by the it appealed strongly not only to their own minds but represents of Reason. Ap. 20. Justin Christianity n as the complete manifestation accredited as such I by its fulfilment of prophecy. 4 frequently shows that the Christian doctrines were such as in whole or in part had been taught by honored philosophic teachers or schools. 59 . 254. 14. Ap. Ap. ii. 8. 8. the world's hatred of the Christians by attributing to the hostility it which in all ages the evil spirits had aroused against truth and goodness. are not indiscriminately condemned. i.

be alone condemned merely for its name ? Such. of . . it exhibits as the perfect philosophy.76 ." and he not unreasonably expected that the just and may have gentle Antoninus would agree with the young philoso- pher who shared his throne in granting freedom of In opinion and of speech to every school of thought. error as the final truth plain. which other systems had been partial gleams retribution certain. Lect. and to the philosophic as well as to the popular ear he addressed his words. which contained so many elements with which the most illustrious philosophers agreed. i Cf. If Christianity had really It was a plausible plea. 1 but simply t° P omt ou-t their bearing on his defence of Plausibility of his plea. and duty — the truth. ? If a philosophy. if I mistake not. It is not my purpose here to indicate the place which these views took in Justin's theology. why all should it be proscribed Were not philosophers of ? kinds free not to be to teach their peculiar doctrines Were they met in every city ? Did they not found schools ? Why should this particular set of opinions. and it is not hard to perceive both its force and its weakness. IV. therefore. Justin may well have felt that his cause his presentation of the case would commend For such he chiefly wrote. philosophy. was the real substance of Justin's plea. Christianity. to cultured readers. which had made God known. JUSTIN MARTYR. He ever had in mind the " philosophic Coesar " as well as the " pious Emperor. against and future which and evil had always waged war. and which must always expect to receive the blows and the sneers of a misguided world. it would probably never but a nothing been have been persecuted. He spoke as a philosopher as well as a Christian.

unless in the lost Apologies of Aristides and Quadratus. i • • • JN ever before. in view of the Apologist's sympathy with philosophical doc- trines and use of philosophical language. Tertullian. of the prevailingly theological character of nearly all why also should not the Chrispermitted ? tian doctrine of God be In view of the manifest affinity of many of Justin's ideas with those of the honored master of the Academy. could sni • admit that such teaching ought This was a -vr t not to be proscribed. 1 But was more likely to win for his cause a hearing and if his Apology ever reached those for whom it was intended.a one-sided tion of the case. For Christianity was more 1 So Tatian. had it been boldly claimed by an orthodox Christian writer that his doctrine of those of the was the superior on their own ground Academy and the Porch. because cause it was in fact only a one-sided presenta. if for no other reason than be. if it was ever seriously read by any cultivated heathen. who knew and i <• the real character of the Christian doctrine fail to life. it was hopeless. defending Christianity. And yet. new way p -i of I ts novelty. why? In view philosophy at that period. it was assuming a new and more intelligible form. and that its prayer for liberty was not wholly unreasonable. the reader must have felt that.JUSTIN AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. . why should he and his fellow-believers be classed with the superstitious.Its hopelessness. of Justin's successors the affinity of Christianity philosophy was openly repudiated. 77 should not Christian philosophy be tolerated view of the universal respect paid to philosophy. however incredible Christianity might be. Hermias. plausible and novel as Justin's plea was. By some and his position . later. and. and punished as enemies of the State ? Justin seems to have honestly felt that no reasonable prince.

Their Empire led them meetings It was vain. to say that the Christian societies. Christianity was more Without meaning to be disloyal. . It was an association. were but a collection of philosophers. he laid no little stress. on the purity of its followers. reports circulated against it were false. But if Justin's presentation of Christianity as a phiit losophy was not likely to obtain for His argu. It was by its very nature a social revolution. The plea. by its war with heathenism it was undermining the foundations of the State. therefore. the magistrates and the people were as little likely to regard him and his co-religionists as aught but a disloyal faction.. . was necessary for .78 than a philosophy. which rested upon heathenism. teaching. and was firm in its refusal to adore the emperor. philosophy did not prevent their insistence on desire to strengthen the unity of the to encourage it. The worship of the emperors was assiduously Their humanity and their fostered by the Antonines. with their unauthorized and their refusal to take in the usual form the oath of allegiance. on the morality of on the simplicity of It ceremonies. . . his description of the moral teachincr and living of the Christians was more . Neither friend nor foe could then perceive what was involved But while the in the progress of the new religion. real. . As we have argument its said. . It was a sowhich met in secret. with scorn his claim to be a philosopher. . positive its Yet. was rapidly spreading over the Empire. it was not the politically harmless thing which Justin innocently sought to represent it and while philosophers greeted facts were against Justin's than a philosophy.. his exhibition of Christianity as a phi- losophy seems to have been his in its defence. likely to impress his readers. ciety JUSTIN MARTYR. it. the toleration mentfrom the virtues of the Chris- he sought.

JUSTIN AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY.

79

him
of

to

do

this, in

order to meet the sneers and slanders

its foes.

In order to refute the popular reports, in
the
prejudices
of higher
circles, in

order to remove

order to appeal to the conscience of the better part of

the community, in order to dispel the prevalent idea
that Christians were dangerous to society, he set forth

the habits of his fellow-believers,

their moral ideals

and hopes, their lofty aspirations and pure practices. Thus he cleared the way for the positive presentation of the reasonableness of Christianity and its truly philosophical character.
Justin's description of Christian morals
is

well worthy

Of his particular replies to the charges of atheism and disloyalty, we have already spoken. Of his description of the Christian ceremonies an(j h e s imof attention.
t

it is sufficient

here to say that he represents

th'drcus-

them as very simple and entirely innocent. toms The rite of initiation 1 was but washing with water " in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit." This was to the convert a self-dedication to God, an
assumption of Christian duty, a new birth into purity

and knowledge. He describes in like manner the simple ceremony of the Eucharist; 2 and while he evidently regarded both baptism and the Eucharist as rites which conveyed some mystical benefit, 3 yet he was careful to

show

their perfect purity.

At

the weekly assemblies of

the Christians, 4 naught was done except to read "the

memoirs
officer, to

of the Apostles or the writings of the

Pro-

phets," to listen to an exhortation from the presiding

pray, to celebrate the Eucharist,

and

to

make

offerings for the needy.
1

Yet

it is

not so
2 4

much
65.
6
7.

in these

Ap.

i.

61.

8

Cf. Lect. VI.

Ap. Ap.

i.

i.

80

JUSTIN MARTYR.

formal descriptions that Justin exhibits the moral character of the Christians as in phrases
His
testi-

and

facts

are scattered through the Apology.

He

which shows

thef/noble
living.

us
2

men

an(^

"^o 111611

"

u^10

were absolutely

than

life,

scene of

who loved truth more and yet who, while willing to depart from the trouble, deemed it a duty to preserve life so
-u-ithout fear of death, 1
it.

long as God, the giver, delayed to take
persons

3

Here were

who lived in with God,4 who were

the earnest desire for fellowship

resting their hope of the future upon God's promises alone, who felt the duty of faithful obedience to Him and ever remembered that to Him

they were to render their account. 5
are "

Here, says Justin, 6

we who formerly

delighted in fornication, but

now

embrace chastity alone; we who formerly used magi-

now dedicate ourselves to the good and unGod we who valued above all things the acquisition of wealth and possessions, now bring what we have into a common stock and communicate to every one in need; we who hated and destroyed one
cal arts,

begotten

;

another and on account of different customs would not

even use the same

fireplace

with

men

of another race,
live

now, since the appearance of Christ,
with them, and pray
suade those
for our enemies,

familiarly
to per-

and try

who

unjustly hate us to live according to

the good precepts of Christ, to the end that they may become partakers with us of the same joyful hope of a

reward from God, the Euler of

all."

He

then cites ex-

amples of Christ's teaching, taken mostly from the Serdirections to be pure, temperate, mon on the Mount, and generous." He boldly 8 sets the Christian morals in
1

8
6

Ap. Ap. Ap.

i.

2.

11. 45:
*
7

ii.

2; Dial. 30.
i. i.

2

ii.
i.

4.

14.

Ap. Ap.

8, 14, 25, 49.

6
8

15, etc.

Ap. Ap. Ap.

i.

2;
8.

ii.

4.

ii.
i.

27.

;

JUSTIN

AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY.

81

contrast with the horrible vices of pagan society, and

speaks of the Christians' care for children, 1 their solemn
estimate of the value of

human

life,

2

their peaceable-

ness,3 their pity for their

enemies and desire to save

them,4 their patience and prayerfulness even
secuted, 5 their wide philanthropy. 6
self,

when

per-

He

evinces in him-

and he describes in others, a quickened sense of the inherent difference between right and wrong 7 and Through of man's responsibility for his moral choice. 8 all these virtues there also shines a strong, bright hope 9 of personal immortality, of divine reward, and of the Chrisfinal destruction of the devil and his works. tianity is thus shown to have been a real change of life, a practical communism, a universal brotherhood. 10 Justin, in

common with

later Apologists, does not hesitate

to assail fiercely the follies

and immoralities of pagan-

ism. He declares it to have been the work of demons u he scorns and ridicules its idolatry ^ he points out its contradictions, 13 and denounces its impure stories 14 and
;

shameless

rites.

writers themselves

even dares to
Antinous, 16 in

He could safely do so, for pagan had already done the same. But he denounce the more recent deification of
15

order to exhibit in

still

more glaring
but as the in-

contrast the lofty ideal of purity which the Christians
displayed.

He

writes not as the

satirist,

tense moralist.
for morality,
I

He was
this

himself

filled

with enthusiasm

and in

he claimed
2

to represent all true
29.

8
5

Ap. Ap.

i.
i.

27. 39.

*
e

Ap. Ap.

i. i. i. i.
i.

57
93)

;

Dial. 133.
.

Dial. 18.

D ia

110

7

9
II

Ap. Ap. Ap.

ii.

7,

etc.
ii.

i.
i. i.

14;
24.
12.

8.

5, 23, 54,

64

;

ii.

5.

18

A p.
Ap.

15

ii.

Ap. " Ap. *- Ap. " Ap. 16 Ap.

8

10; Dial. 124, 140.
14, 67.
9.

i.
i. i.

25. 29.

82

JUSTIN"

MARTYR

Christian?. Hiese men, therefore, were wholly different from what slander reported. They had totally repuHoliness diated the vices of pagan religion and life. was their aim. Universal love was their motive. Fidelity in all human relations was practised by them because of the fidelity due to God. Truth, purity, generosity, hnmil::;

with fearlessness, patience with courcharacteristic traits.

age,

were their

down

the barriers of class and nation.

to love even their enemies.

They had broken They sought They had risen above

the fear of death.

They

lived as in the presence of

the Almighty, and expected their reward from Him.

They might be

slain,

but they could not be injured, 1

since they believed death for Christ's sake to be only

It

is

evident that such a lofty morality would do
Christianity than volumes of learned

more to commend
?-~r
acter
-.:

-.Lii

Aicl: .rlrS.
to

Justni declares that his obser-

aigtuu£-~

varion in former years of the Christian char-

had much

do with his own conversion,2 and

that

many

others also had been converted

by the same
well believe.

practical demonstration3

This

we can

While philosophers disproved

Christianity,

while the

magistrates oppressed and the populace assaulted the
followers of Christ, while Apologists vainly argued for

power of the new religion was quietly impressing thousands of men and women, and slowly but surely pervading society. Such is the " No one," he says, " was picture which Justin gives. persuaded by 9 but in lie for this doctrine Christ, who was partially known even by Socrates, not only philosophers and scholars believed, but also artisans and people entirely uneducated, despising both
their faith, the actual moral
;

1

Ap. L

2.

2

Ap.

ii.

12.

s

Ap.

i.

16.

JUSTIN AST) EARLY CHRISTIANITY.
glory and fear and death, since
ineffable Father,

83

He

is

a power of the

and not the mere instrument of human
for toleration.
It

reason."
It

1

was in vain that Justin pleaded
in vain that

was

he proclaimed the true philosophy, and

furnished proofs of the truth of Christ's claims, and
described the pure ideal of Christian
consider the picture which he gives
of this moral enthusiasm
life.

But
in

as

we

of the progress
life

and godly

whence
ne^morallt

the face of hatred and persecution,
led to ask

we

are

what explanation can be drawn ?'from him of so singular a phenomenon in the Eoman Empire. How came it that men were thus not only
suddenly possessed of such lofty
to
ideals,

but were able
?

follow

such unselfish and holy practices

How

arose this vivid sense of
this

an almighty but personal God,

quickening of conscience, this confident hope not

only of immortality but of eternal happiness, this universal love, this

new

valuation of

human

rights

and huits

man

life,

this intense yet practical, this holy yet pitiful

religion,

with

its

bold defiance of suffering and death,
life ?

pure and patient very
clear.

The answer,

at least of Justin, is

All was due, he says, to the actual incarna-

tion of the

Son of God. 2 The divine Logos had always indeed been in the world, 3 but the suggestions of reason had been overcome by the power of the demons. It was by His actually becoming man that Christianity
arose.

We

shall find occasion hereafter to point out

what we think to have been errors in Justin's conception of God and of the Logos. 4 We shall observe, also, an incompleteness in his idea of the way in which Christ saves, at least as viewed by the standard of
1

3

Ap. Ap.

ii.
i.

10.
5,

2
ii.

Ap.

i.

5, 13,

14;

ii.

13. etc.

46;

13.

* Cf.

Lect. IV.

84

JUSTIN MARTYR.
Testament teaching.

New

Justin's faith

But there is no doubt that and philosophy, his doctrine and life, turned on the fact of the Incarnation and he declares the same great fact to be the foundation of all ChrisIt was the teaching of Christ which had given tianity. men their new ideal. It was the life, words, death, and resurrection of Christ which had created their hope, had brought life and immortality to light, had made them It was the historical Christ, as they fearless and pure. had heard of and believed in Him, who had made God once more real to men, and had united them to God in reverent love and to one another in brotherly fellowSuch, at least, was the foundation of Christianship. the mind of Justin. The actual appearance on in ity earth of the Divine Son had given the new doctrines which men were believing and the new rules which they were following. This was the force to which these early Christians were conscious of yielding, and which moulded their religious experience. It was the historical Christ who in their thoughts had created ChristiIn Him they believed, and Him they loved and anity. served and in view of the deep gulf which lay between their practical morality and that of the society about them, and in view of the proved inability of even the best philosophy to produce on such a large scale a similar moral life, is it possible to believe that they were
; ;

regenerated

by a

fiction

?

his expressions concerning the authority of the Apostles. more to the * interest has attached in modern times tions of Gentile evidence which he affords of the mutual rela. more clearly. He thus states explicitly the way in which he looked upon the old dispensation. and finally his claim to speak for the majority of the Christian community. . ustin 's tesand Jewish Christianity " timony to post-apostolic age.. THE TESTIMONY OF JUSTIN TO THE RELATIONS OF GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. also. "V\ 7HILE " Justin is best known as an Apologist. In the course of toward not only This appears still the Dialogue. mony as to the origin Christians in his day. he openly expresses his opinion If we add to this his testiand character of the majority of about Jewish Christians. In his larger Apology he the relations describes and quotes from the Old Testament.Value of in the J. we shall perceive that he is an important witness to what were the actual relations of these two sides of early Christianity. There he formally combats Judaism. his treatment of those doctrines Jew and which would naturally come into debate between Gentile. as we would expect. LECTURE III. and Jewish ris iam y " thus exhibiting his attitude to the Hebrew revelation while other expressions show incidentally his position Judaism but Jewish Christianity. in the Dialogue with Trypho. and expresses his valuation of the prophets.

— — which were antagonistic to each other. realizing the universality of the Gospel. that so from Christianity having been taught and the Church founded in the way set forth by our New Testa- ment. these were a growth which gathered around the simple moral teaching of Jesus. these two divisions began to come together. Christ being the end of the Apostles law to every one that believeth. The death of Paul was followed by a less determined hostility Concessions became to Judaism among. his followers. The value of of rationaiistic this part of Justin's testimony is. Original Christianity was. it is said. entirely Jewish. . and which combined to beliefs and societies of the first and The corner-stone of these rationalistic theories is the alleged opposition between Paul and the original Apostles. which is claimed to be proved from those epistles of Paul which are admitted by the critics form the Christian second centuries. however. the Pauline or Gentile. a na t ura i process. greatly increased by the modern critical theories the apostolic and post. Eawhich was conto tionalistic criticism seeks to explain the rise theories of the Catholic Christianity fessedly established by the time of Irenaeus on the supThe Tiibin- position that it was from beginning It alleges end far gen scheme. the original denied and thus there arose two types of Christianity. . Paul. of course. through the addition thereto of ideas which were already germinating in Gentile and Jewish thought. The spread of Pauline Christianity and the political calamities which befell the Jews led the Jewish Christians to make concessions. proclaimed that all faith alone. as genuine. that. they tell us.apostolic ages. and the apostolic or Jewish. men might be saved through and hence This. the Jewish economy was abolished.86 JUSTIN MARTYR. When the apostolic age drew to a close.

Along the lines. doctrinal or ecclesiastical or even personal " tendencies. Church organization became more fixed and ecclesiastical power centralized. 87 The need of unity in the face of the world's felt. and the development of early Christian thought and life is correspondingly described. Conse- quently the traditional origin of tament books has many of the New TesBy their supposed been denied. the books of the New Testament and the remains of post-apostolic literature are placed by the critics. The extreme views of Paul were toned down. was relegated to the background." they have been assigned to this or that phase of the formation of Christianity. Practical necessities dulled the edge of and personal animosities. mutual. of these two periods of conflict and reconciliation. and thus the truth held in common was exalted above The extreme views the points in which men differed. was the and the union of the two parties was so perfect that by the end of the second century all remembrance of the division of the Apostles had been blotted out. but Paul himself. but amid the scanty testimony which survives from this period. The value of the New Testa- . Of course it is result . and Peter came to be reckoned as the true founder of the Church. of some aided the coalition of the more moderate of opposition was more deeply both sides. The spirit of the Jewish law and theological rancor hierarchy united with Paul's doctrine of the uuiversalism of the new religion . Catholic Christianity.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. a con- fused medley of the originally opposing views. Finally. admitted that the facts should determine our theories . the union became complete. then. as the special object of Jewish dislike. the internal evidence of the books themselves has been chiefly relied upon to determine their dates according to the requirements of the theories.

e. meiit histories has thus been undermined. xviii. was not a mere collection of Christ's words. the earlier forms of this theory have now been generally abandoned. 1 date of the principal New Testament books than it would allow has been freshly exhibited. C. but as the expression by the human mind of certain religious and moral truths in dogmatic forms and historical narratives which were but the accidents of their birth. g. Theol. It has been shown that other forces besides those originally sup1 Cf . famous Tubingen reconstruction of early Christian history. to reaction from oppos- ing views. xxii. The resulting Christianity is represented not as a revelation. still TiibLgen scheme. Such in brief. 14 . . and to contact with outside philosophy and life. is the completest representative. of which F." published in 1853. JUSTIN MARTYR. and it is admit that the investigations to which the Tubingen theory led both friend and foe have resulted in a clearer conception of the historical relations of early Christian literature than Biblical scholarship sessed. Hilgenfeld's Review of " Supernatural Religion " in where he admits that that the to him pseudo-Ignatius used our Gospels. fur wissensch. Its extreme positions have in many cases been retracted by rationalThe evidence for an earlier istic scholars themselves. and that we can hardly distinguish his Mark from ours. Baur was but fair to joined by other scholars whose industry pursued the subject into the minutest details . that Justin used our Gospels with one or more others and that Mansion's Gospel was not independent of Luke's. that Papias's Matthew. though not ours. had ever before pos- Nevertheless.88 . Barnabas used cos yiypairrai of Matt. 5S2. of The phases to the New Testament doctrine have been attributed natural development of thought. . the Modifies6 Christianity and the Christian Church of the First Three Centuries. Baur's " The is. Zeitschr.

ii. I the standpoint of the rationalistic critics. Paul's teachiug ! and the period of the reconciliation of half of the second century.. Cf. on the other 1 Cf. g. fiir vvissenseh. pp.. posed must be admitted to have co-operated to produce Especially has the Alexandrian philosophy to been made play a larger part in the modification of . 1885. chap. Einleitung. p. 38. in should go further. vol. (on the Epistle to the Romans). etc. also Weiss's Einleitung. been firmly re-established. Ibid. 8 Cf. pp. But. I am speaking now from fact. 129. and said to have only originated after the events at Antioch described in Galaii. and the same author's " Influence Development of Christianity. is now recognized as having existed from the tians 5 . e. 14 and Pfleiderer's Paulinism. ch. etc. ii. See schools. g. . the antagonistic parties has been pushed back from the second to the first and 2 its beginnings assigned even to the apostolic age itself. 1886. e.. The Johan- nean authorship of the Fourth Gospel. 3 Still its essential spirit some writers carried to extreme ori- The antagonism between Paul and the ginal Apostles is now indeed represented as less violent is than was tians 4 at first maintained. first also. Theol. Pfleiderer's Paulinism. 2 3 Cf. Hibbert Lectures. Pfleiderer's Paulinism. remains. and the genuineness of the seven short Greek epistles of Ignatius have. 1883. 1882. 8. 89 the result. ii. 9-18. Pfleiderer. of the Apostle Paul on the bert Lectures. Holtzmann's " Der Apostelconvent. Hibbert Lectures. the authen- Pauline epistles. ii. for a brief review of the Tubingen and more recent 4 Cf. the composition of the Synoptic Gospels in the ticity of the later first century." HibVolkmar's Jesus Nazarenus.GENTILE AND JEWISH CIIRISTIANITY. ix. among the Jewish Chris- while among the Gentile Christians. and by lengths. ." Zeitschr. and Holsten. quoted by Weiss. etc.. and thereby the whole is Tubingen scheme overthrown. A moderate party. we believe.

distinguishes from the Paulinists a party which was Jewish-Christian in spirit and claimed to follow the original Apostles. the narrative of the Acts principles of is still held to represent the century were established throw light compromise or fusion which in the second and therefore whatever will upon the relations of primitive Gentile and . Hilgenfeld l JUSTIN MARTYR. Amer. it is the besides possible to detect in the development of Gentile Christianity in the second century 1 a tendency similar to 2 s Cf. etc. pp. in spite of mams.. Its spirit re- But in spite of these im- portant modifications of the theory.. 365. Die Entstehung der altkath. Catholic Christianity was wholly Gentile in origin and he thus took a position quite different from that of Already Neander 3 had declared that his master Baur. Hist. therefore. fur wissensch. and. types. 90 hand. Cf. 1872. 495. the fundamental thesis of the division of the Apostles and of the apostolic Church into two hostile or at least independent parties is still assumed . and has been widely followed by critics of Ritschi's view - various tendencies. influence of Judaism on Christianity. 8d ed. Another view of the second century w as adopted by Eitschl. by reason of forces acting wholly from within itself. Jewish Christianity becomes of the highest T service. ^iq additional parties into which the early Church has had to be divided and the admission of which gives the impression that the theory itself is in a stage of dissolution.2 who was himself reared in the Tubingen school. ed. and insisted that the former ceased but that the latter degenerated from the views of its founder. He denied that Catholic Christianity was the result of the union of the Jewish and Pauline to grow. . that its ception of religion. 1857. his Ch. i. Kirche. Zeitsehr. Theol.. descended to a more legalistic conEitschl maintained.

" Zeitschr. 1 but has also been fol- lowed in modified forms by scholars who wholly deny the alleged division of the Apostles. and Weiz s'acker's " Die Theologie des Martyrers Justinus. Judaism but 91 itself and the theory of show that there was not nearly so much need of assuming a compromise with Jewish principles in explaining the phenomena of the early Church as had been supposed. 1872. about turn. therefore.2 carries the Kitschlian to make Justin essentially pagan in his modes of thought. Erlangen. Before examining his testimony. to Justin. 1878..GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. however. made to fill in the various schemes We hold at least that this is often done in such wise as to be practically a begging of the question." Jahrb. Overbeck's " Das Verhaltniss Justins des Martyrers zur Apostelge?chichte. 2 xii. fur deutsche Theol. Theol. with more confidence whose date there is no serious doubt. 305. His testimony should go far toward determining our and we opinion of the condition of affairs in the generation preceding him as well as in his own. Thus Justin again appears most important witnesses in the question We find in him a witness whose importance specially valuable for the simple is °* e jjJJ£{|jr8 testimony is reason that the date of his writings ally admitted.. to repeat the caution that it is proper we should not expect too much from 1 it. critic The most recent on Justin. far as view so Von Engelhardt. . fur vrissensch. p. 60. The criticism of the New Testament Cf. Eitschl's view not only bom of paganism . and the Christianity of his day wholly unaffected by later Judaism. Das Christenthum Justins des Martyrers. p. "We strenuously object to the habit of determining the dates of early Christian books by the places which they are of early Christianity.). gener- statements. as one of the at issue. 1867 (vol. Kitschl served at least to influenced rationalistic scholars.

Estimate C i 11 He quoted it copiously. It may be reasonably expected to exhibit the effects of causes alleged to as w ell r as to have operated in the first. may contribute to our understanding of original Christianity itself. If it be not true that the Pauline Epistles contradict the Acts of the Apostles. so that the testimony of Justin to the relations of Jewish and Gentile Christianity. yet to be observed that he entirely distrusted the Jews' 1 Ap. reveal additional causes which modified those of an earlier time. if it be not true that the Synoptists and the Fourth if it Evangelist contradict one another. fers the readers of the Apology. It forms part of the historical evidence for the literature and history of the first. testimony. as preservers of the sacred volume. but also in the o er Apology. Justin that Ptolemy procured the makes the astonishing mistake of saying Hebrew Scriptures from Herod. But the condition of affairs in the second century is imcriticism melts portant. The oid Tes- l ar He after used the Septuagint r tament. not only the Dialogue with Trypho. with Justin's use and valuation of the Old Testament. though subsidiary. 31. can be shown that the evidence for the Pastoral Epistles and First Peter and the Hebrews points to a date agreeable to the traditional view. but to If the Egyptians. it be thought that he did this in order to increase the it is confidence of his pagan readers in the prophets. translation. or of Christianity and Judaism. then. . its and having described how re- Ptolemy procured translation from the Hebrew. From it we may logically look back. then the foundation of the rationalistic away and leaves it a castle in the air. not to the Jews. Let us begin.92 JUSTIN MARTYR books themselves must furnish the main source for our knowledge of the apostolic age. i.

33. the Septuagint was for him the correct expres- sion of the language of the prophets. Dial. Justin. however. etc." 15 14 Their writings do not contradict one another. 60. 38." "the Word from God. 58. Dial. 86. 112. is Dial. 2 3 4 6 7 8 T] Hebrew language. 9 10 Ap. 11 They w ere therefore " inspired " 12 and " inhabited by simply " tures." 4 7 the Spirit. Cf. collection of Hebrew Scripture.. 39. 62. Ap. 55. Justin considered infallibly inspired. though certainly his explanation of the etymology of 2aravas ("apostate serpent. 56. also Dial. ™ Dial. nor of the interpretations adopted Palestinian Jews (Dial. if their stood. Otto's note) and 'lo-paj)\ ("man conquering strength. 34. p. 181. 9 Elsewhere he says that " God " spake 10 through them. 19." through whom "the prophetic Spirit " spake. 137. G8). 12 13 Ap. and again that the divine Logos did. 5 ypa(pa\. This collection. 39. Trapa tov 6tov. 16 1 nor can any The i." calls "the He it "the 6 7 Word of God. Kaye's Justin Martyr. . 35. " Ap. copies of their 93 own Scriptures. 84." 2 or " the Scripi i and again j ts nsp ra . Ap. Dial. Dial. e. 119. 124. in fine. Dial. 71-73. I. 141. 129. 41. Ap. 68. to iv roit i. 56. 6 toO 6eov \6yos. was not ignorant Hebrew by the text (Dial. Trpo(prjTais irvtvixa. 124. 52. 1 At any rate. 103. 75. ypacpr)- Dial. 32. 15. the writers were "prophets of God. 33. Cf. 36. 31. 117. alleging that these had been altered through hostility to the Christians. also Lect. then. 38. tion> 5 holy Scriptures. Dial. Oeocpopovvrat. Dial." 13 or " filled with the Holy Spirit. 63. 102. i." 3 or Scriptures. 131). 37." Dial." and again simply " the Word. He calls it " the Scripture." 8 More particularly." Dial. i.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. fault be found with them. al ypacpat. 7. 40. 65. Dial. 92. meaning be underwas Cf. 7. 36. i. 137. of the Ap. 125) do not indicate thorough acquaintance with the Cf. 103. g. ipireTrvevo-pivoi. i. Dial. " Dial. i. 53. 56. 34.

i. preached the eternal truth which was afterwards to be taught by Christ. 59. 31. 44. or Spirit. Dial. 1 Justin the " writings of the prophets. 23. By the prediction of what had subsequently occurred as well as by the miracles which they wrought. Ap. maintained that the Greek philosophers had learned much of their wisdom. i.2 the divine Word. either when in trance or otherwise. 44. and he found these in the marvellous predictions and anticipations of the latter which were contained in the pro- was to Through them.. 136. where the special mention of Zechariah's eKCTTacrit shows that Justin did not consider inspiration as always a state The contrary in which the ordinary faculties were suspended. viii. like other Christian writers of his day. Dial. 60. 115. 8 Ap. 5 were they authenticated as messengers from God. as we shall see. i. 3 and predicted. 4 Justin. Justin. the events of Christ's life and of apostolic phetical writings. From them. The Old Testament. 136. etc. 31.94 JUSTIN MARTYR." history. Looking still more closely. 6 6 Ap. 6 The prophets appealed to his 1 Ap. therefore. 31. 31 Dial. He an approached the subject in the spirit of inquirer seeking reasons for belief in Christianity. and as having always been in the world making the truth those able to receive it. Dial. known to But through the prophets the Logos particularly spoke. i. passim. 7.. i. 2 . 23. regarded by Justin as in the highest sense an inspired volume. we find that Justin's high valuation of the Old Testament rested on his high Theprophets- valuation of the prophets themselves. explicitly or in figure. regarded the divine Logos as the only medium of revelation. 4 Ap. . which is not Justinian. 54. and even the demons had learned against what to direct their wicked efforts. 52. a series of infallible communications of truth from God by His Logos through the Spirit.. etc. in fact. 7. Dial. view is expressed in the Cohortatio.

" This. possession of the land. is confirmed by his use and interpretations of the prophecies. binding His foal to the vine. 54) Gen." for believers are " His robe. . as suits his pur• pose. nor a lawgiver from between his feet. " blood of the grape " called. to take one he quotes (Ap. triumphant entry into Jerusalem while the sentence " washing His robe in the blood of the grape " was prophetic of His " cleansing by His blood those who believe on Him. also Dial. or a plain declaration of Christian 1. typified or openly taught on every shape in 32 . he says.1 „ Method of interpreta- and acand exhibit later teaching or facts. . the continuance of Jewish civil power until the time of Christ. cf. mind as the most convincing proof of Christianity and while their prominence in his writings was no doubt partly due to the nature of the latter as addressed to pagans and Jews. and so because He came not of human generation. predicted. until whom it is reserved . or else mystical utterances tions intended to both conceal letter of Scripture for hidden meanings. first. 2 finds Christ and Christianity page 1 . " He shall be the desire of the nations " predicted the present expectation among the Gentiles " Binding His foal to the vine " predicted of the second advent. Then. like the grape. Thus. 1 His method of interpretation combined excessive literalism with a speculative search in the doctrine. xlix. washing His robe in the blood of the grape. : no less in the i. after whom the Romans took dah. of divine power.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY." since the Logos dwells in them and the Christ's . 95 . He finds in them. either a writing beforehand of Christian r history. . 2 Dial. was a symbol of His own blood. 68. He speaks of the intentional obscurity of Scripture. 10 " The sceptre shall not depart from Ju- He come for and He shall be the desire of the nations. yet it is clear that the miraculous testimony borne by the prophets to Christianity underlay the high estimate which Justin placed upon the Hebrew This Scriptures as a whole. but. sees the cross predicted illustration.

It rested on the same principle as the exegesis of It the Jews themselves. p. and in the These are but a few samples of his method of Nineteenth Psalm a description of the spread of Christianity. but 0lirS -" JcSan book." is not the Mosaic. i. 8. but the Christian law. for roasting itself. Cf. 2 Ap. 9 just The prophets taught what Christ taught. speaking of Zechariah's vision of Joshua. " Your Scriptures are not yours. Zeller's Outlines of Greek Philosophy." 6 Ap. 8 Ap. priest's 3 a prediction in the twelve bells on the high- robe" a symbol of the Apostles. 6 Nay. the Old Testament contains 11 some injunctions intended only for the Jews. 320. Dial. 29. 11. " 2 2 which the paschal lamb was dressed in the fifty-third than chapter of Isaiah " finds in Malachi's word about the " pure offering of the Eucharist. 117. But the important point The Old is that to Justin the Old Testament was purely a Christian book. We must judge it by the habits of his day. as Justin himself points out. Dial. 4 interpretation. . Ap. 112. 23. i. 44. i. 34.96 JUSTIN MARTYR. 44. 8 Dial. . 20. it was the common way the Gentiles as well 7 of interpreting prophecies as among among the Jews. the : high-priest. as may be implied in the fact that side Justin places the Sibyl and Hystaspes by side with the prophets. Justin says (Dial. but in his own estimation 1 Dial. i. Dial. 40. 50. He says 8 to Trypho. 44 ii. So. etc. 4 6 7 9 So the "Didache. 14. " The laW ° f the is Lord >" Which in the Nineteenth Psalm called " perfect. 116) lation 10 "I assert that even that revewas made for us who believe on Christ the High-Priest. 10 but in parts and by figures." u Dial. 5 was evidently the same method of which the Alexandrian Jews made use to discover their philosophy in the writings of Moses. True.

ix. the drift of these passages Hebrews show that Justin looked upon the The fact that the prophets were of that people indicated to him no is to as merely one of the nations. i. he significantly omits from the clause who shall rule my people Israel " the word " Israel. as examples of men who lived confor- mably to truth before Christ came. the question arises. and regard the Hebrew dispensation ? It - other Hebrews. as it is quoted 6. So also Dial. 1 He quotes Isaiah as declaring the constant unbelief of the Jews but the readiness of the Gentiles to accept the Gospel. » 2 Ap.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. 4 Ap. but on Jews did not understand In quoting Micah v. 3 in Matt. i. 2. his numerous slips of i. In the next place. Ap. tions Socrates and Heraclitus before Abraham. 53. Hebrew people to God. an example of by Justin are not found in Isaiah. special superiority of the Hebrew race. in describing the origin of the Old Testa- ment. How did Justin must be admitted by all. s Ap. 97 as a and use of it. 78. we think. 26. 7 ." 4 He classes the Jews and the Samaritans together in distinction from the Gentiles. that the prophets were Hebrews because of any special relation of the the contrary does say that the the prophets. 46. 6 Ap. 53. 2 He does not say. i. 5 Certainly. 31. 34. The words This is cited but in Jer. " ii. Justin passes over these to represent it book of Christian doctrine directing what Christians are to believe and do. i. that at least in the Apology The Hebrew dispens* 11011 he gives no indication that he looked upon the relation of the Hebrews to God as having differed He menin any respect from that of other nations. while the latter's inability to understand the prophets was a symptom of If distinguished their extraordinary blindness of heart. memory. Elias.

6. Dial." — a title sentence which is remarkable for and and which shows that the influence of Alexandrian philosophy had united with other forces in leading our Apologist far from the original Jewish view. 3 Ap. that God had specially favored the Hebrews by choosing them for Himself. 11. 6 Dial. 21. 5 The Sabbath. is the testimony must reply that here also Justin full rela- shows himself tion of the far from able to appreciate the Hebrew and Christian dispensations. Kara to Kf^pitr^at nai 8 Koo~firj<Tai ra iravra 4 7 8i avrov tov deov 2 Dial. indeed. deriving the of Messiah from the cosmical universal work of the Logos. . 130. It may be said. of the Dialogue ? We What. 132. 5 Dial. it JUSTIN MARTYR. Dial. by delivering them from Egypt. was instituted that they might not forget God. He knew. then. Dial. ii. and by pointing them to the coming Saviour. 4 Meats were forbidden or allowed solely to keep God before their eyes. 2 To this it may be added that in the smaller Apology Justin explains that the Divine Son through is called Christ " on account of his havall things ing been anointed and because God arranged Him. by protecting them in the wilderness.98 at all. that we should not expect to find in the Apologies a presentation of the peculiar vocation of the Hebrews. 20. 22. likewise. 6 keep them from joining in the idolatry of their neighCircumcision was instituted actually to mark bors. however. 7 them out beforehand for punishment when they should 1 covenant. as they were specially prone Sacrifices were enjoined on them simply to to do. 2 He knew that God had given them a national law and But he declares that the Mosaic ceremonial was given them solely because of their sins. 131. was for their unbelief.

Dial. Isaac. 4 Both were incumbent on the Hebrews but the ritual was designed to bring to their minds the religious and moral element. did not consist in performing the ritual." 1 n 3 6 9 Dial. 9 the rest live sinless lives. 2 " to In fact. repeated the ritual 8 commands " of Moses. however. 4 7 D. Dial. These rites never had any inherent value. 16. Dial. 19. were well pleasing to Him. God called the Hebrews conversion and repentance while in a sinful condi- and laboring under spiritual disease. 30. Di ai. and the Jacob. 10 Only those can now be saved who "become acquainted with Christ. but only those who. " ." 3 and their ceremonial was intended only for themselves. Salvation. partly as a restraint and partly as a punishment. 45. ai.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. 7 but taught salvation through repentance for sin and doing right- and as now we who have been led eousness . Dial. therefore. 44. Justin. 16. recognizes two elements in the Mosaic law. 2 7. 44. have as filled 99 cruci- up the measure of 1 their wickedness by fying Christ. Dial. finally." so in old time God's people were not the Jews as such. 43. like Abraham. nat- turally." 6 The prophets. spiritual Israel are to God through this crucified Christ. are washed in the fountain spoken of by Isaiah for the remission of sins. the religious and moral element and the ritual. 5 and of this purpose its prefiguration of Christ was a part. 2 6 s Dial. Mosaic law came to an end when Christ appeared and The Jews have been signally condemned for their wickedness. tion — . Hence. the true. and eternally good. Dial. 27. 74. indeed. and for established the everlasting law and covenant. 12 _i5. but in the doing " that which is universally. may be proved from the fact that the pious patriarchs did not observe them. 10 Dial.

but only the righteous among lain in folall them . Justin's knowledge. 2 Dial. Dial. He Christ. themselves alone and while these contained a typical is Christian element. and had predicted the latter. does tin's 1 view" °f n °t say> as Paul did. Hebrews had rejec- selected by J God as objects of J His tionof Juda- that from the beginning and with increasing . but from the standpoint of an always revealed duty with reference to which the Mosaic law was a reminder and a warning. 1 the rebelliousness of the people made to have been the chief reason for their enactment. though he mentions Abraham's 1 Nor does he. at the beginning of their history. statement from the former in looking at the matter. On the other hand. which the prophets had Christ preached. that the law to was a but the New of schoolmaster to bring men The Testament rather a schoolmaster of the Jews latter to remind them differs God and righteousness. like the Dial. Their ordinances had been meant for . were not Israel. that the Hebrew saints were saved through faith but through obedience.. but wilfulness they had as a nation rejected the divine teaching. respects from those ex- pressed in the New Testament. not from the standpoint of a progressively revealed redemption of which the Mosaic law was a positive factor. 23. favor. this it From „ Total . Otto's text. 2 cf. Christianity teaches. Nor does he say faith. . 40-42.. 44. appears that Justin recognized that the been. and which at last had fully made therefore. prophecy had always taught just what Jews.100 JUSTIN MARTYR. in certain notable Differences 13 " view of the Hebrew dispensation differs. and the way of salvation had always lowing those moral and religious duties of which men had some known. as such. 111. .

ment in revelation he . Of develophad no idea for he : Hisfailure to appreciate the positive worth of represents Christianity as having been taught as completely though not as clearly or per- suasively in the Old Testament as by Christ. hereafter. 101 Epistle to the Hebrews. Thus he is like and unlike the shall observe New Testament writers in his estimate of the Hebrew system. . . see in the ritual an harmonious system intended to typify the priestly work of Christ for his selection of types is arbitrary. . Justin declares the total abo- Jewish ceremonies since the advent of Christ. arraigns the Stephen's speech Jews for persistent rebellion very much as Justin does. That God for Chris- through the ritual had been educating tianity. 1 Acts vii. and he does not bring into sufficient prominence the idea of Christ's sacrifice. Even the points of apparent difference are found in subordinate writings. The cause of his differences we But for our present purpose it is significant that the point which Justin failed to appreciate was the positive. in perfect accord. with which the Christian had nothing to do save as it might here and there typify Christ. and disconnected places in his is. men was a thought quite foreign to his mind.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. With the Pauline rejection of Judaism he on the other hand. therefore. lition of With Paul. which had only been called out by the follies of the Jews an adaptation to their sinfulness an exclusively national law and a system. Yet to each of these New Testament ideas is Justin's akin. With the Epistle to the Hebrews he teaches the identity of Christian life with that of the patriarchs and saints of past time. educational side of Judaism. Judato him a now abolished law. or covertly reveal some truth which He had ism was .

We shall not be surprised. Dial. foretold the conversion of the tiles Gen- in such a way as to make it the characteristic mark of the Messianic predict. out of all nations Christ and His proselytes." 10 The Church was distinctively Gentile. Dial. 122. 49. Christian Church as a distincthe Jews. Ap. Dial. 10 13 Dial. 122. 9 a mere "remnant left by the grace of the Lord of Sabaoth unto the eternal salvation. 10. Dial. namely. i. 11 and so Justin describes it. i. if compared with the body of their nation. 120. Dial. 120.P iy sucn sympathy. 69. 40. 13. 16. 12 " " We. 109. 8 Yet they are but a few. 31. 76. Dial.102 taught and which observe. 31. 4 " Dial. 39. n 12 . 28. 32. So Trypho regarded it. 6 Some Jews. 4 but he speaks of Christians generally as un- circumcised. It JUSTIN MARTYR. says. indeed. to find him representing the tively Gentile society. 3 kingdom. ground. Christians in general do not observe the Mosaic ordi1 2 8 6 9 Ap. 1 Christ has been accepted. 117. us Gentiles " 13 . it was of to interest for Christians to must already begin of the appear that Justin was far His high valuation Old Testament did not in the least imGentnelod. 64. 5 the priest of the uncircumcised. 10. Dial. believe in Him. — . Dial. 7 and others are daily leaving the paths of error and becoming His disciples. Dial. — such s 8 are his expressions. he among the Gentiles rather than among Prophecy. therefore. 33. 120. 33. and his failure to grasp et }'the positive value of the Mosaic ordinances indicates that he himself stood strongly on Gentile The Church from sympathizing with Judaism. in fact.2 and so did Christ Himself Not only was Justin an uncircumcised man Christ is himself. 28. 15. though He will receive those of the circumcision who approach Him. Dial. 29.

which the apostolic Church maintained. 1 " along 103 The Gentiles are to receive the inheritance with the patriarchs and prophets and the just Jacob.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. . 39. Dial. So far. would believe in Him ." not regarded by Thus the Christianity which Justin knew was him as the development of Judaism. 28. clearly its With them. nances.5 and the distinctive mission of the Apostles was to the whole world. 32. But Christianity was the establishment of a universal faith. Though Jesus and the prophets were Hebrews. wXeiovas re nai dXrjdearrcpovs- . indeed." 2 men who have descended from and the colt. 10-29. Dial. It was characteristically a nonnational religion. Ap. was Justin beyond the idea. » 6 Dial. that the Gentiles were „.„ indeed.* Jews must become proselytes to Him or to Christianity. " 3 but He is now the expectation of all nations. i. and even in ancient times was known by some out of all nations and the prophets predicted and Christ instituted a religion into which Jews must come on precisely the same basis as Gentiles. The great bulk of Christianity It was a Gentile religion. many did so. that felt called he rather from Pauline admit that the Jews were Again we must observe. In the ass " which were brought to Jesus for his trium- phal entry. and of Judaism. Justin says expressly that " the Christians from the Gentiles are both more numerous and ' truer than those from the Jews and the Samaritans. adherents were Gentiles. were symbolized the fact that you of the synagogue. 2 « Dial. 1 Dial. 4 7 Ap. 53. along with the Gentiles. 53. 26. "efopment Jews were welcome to unite. yet the truth they taught was for all mankind. that Justin did not in this matter reproduce the ideas to upon fellow-heirs with the Gentiles. i. Differences fellow-heirs with the Jews. 6 Finally.

be- of the weakness of their mind. some. But the perception of the divine reason for both the enactment and abolition of Judaism was obscured to him. The essential universality of the Gospel he assumed. 1 Trypho asks if a wno man Relieves in and obeys Christ and Justin's formal judg. far more clearly ele- than Paul had done. The substance of Paul's rejection of Judaism he retained. besides hoping upon as this Christ and keeping the eternal and natural precepts of righteousness and piety. and that he rejected torical Judaism simply as an hisit system of national worship. provided that he does not strive to persuade Gentile Christians to do the same. and choose 1 to live with the Christians Dial. not because was a temporary and finished term in the revelation of the true religion. nor teach such observances to be necessary to salvation. that some will not have any inter" if course with those who observe the law. which we think were ordered on account of the hardness of the people's hearts. He was not even enough of a Jew to enter into Paul's thought of the purpose subserved by that which had been done away. Justin replies that in his opinion such an one can be saved. of Paul.yet observes the Mosaic ordinances can be " ment upon Jewish saved." he thinks cause differently. 47. He admits. a question which itself shows how — completely Justin's Christianity appeared to the Jew as Gentile faith.104 JUSTIN MARTYR. He distinguished. but states that " For. he adds. between the moral and ritual ments in the Mosaic laws. This brings us to the formal judgment which Justin passes upon Jewish Christians. wish also to keep much as they now can of the Mosaic laws. because the whole idea of a progressive revelation was wanting in Justin. also. however. .

" fortasse." . or to sabbatize. and fellowshipped to the law • — . and the faithful. to join ourselves to such.— GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. though not among the Apostles . as with kinsmen and brethren. not persuading 105 them to be either circumcised like themselves. may make from the Gentiles will probably 1 At the same time he would meet any Jewby a ish-Christian refusal to fellowship with Gentiles like refusal to fellowship with such Jewish Christians. that of these there those who merely held were two classes. which were never held by the Justin speaks of Jewish great body of believers. as I said before." Christians Moreover. ?o-o)j " sine dubio. however. • >• . any more than the Jews themselves who persecute the Christians. which had recently or combined or were then combining. testifies to the opinions . He evidently implies. even to the degree of causing ° ° the existence of sects." Otto inclines to . of Jewish Christians. then. „ Various The New Testament. — I hold that it is proper and to share all things with them. lingering prejudices. and we are only interested to learn whether Justin's description agrees best with the idea that the Church ically divided into had been rad- opposing parties.1 i i inn i t themselves. and offshoots of Christianity. in existence of such differences in the apostolic age itself. human speculations. also. he is even willing to admit that such proselytes as the Jewish be saved. From this passage it is evident that there were dif- ferences of opinion in the Christian community. Christians who continued to observe the Mosaic law. or with the idea that these sects only represent imperfect extravagant views. 1 generally translated. On the one hand. or to observe other such rites. and declares that those who go over to Judaism itself can certainly not be saved.

That he knew of Ebionites will appear in a moment. It is to be observed. all. whereby they had come into Gentile Christians. Ebionitic nor is there any reason to suppose it had ever been so. who a change in the theology of the Jewish Christians. therefore. so that they had not." They had only so far modified the observance of the ritual as their expulsion from Jerusalem had rendered necessary.2 conceded this point to the Pauline Christians. with Gentile Christians and those who considered " the law " binding upon Justin. it closer to union with the is fair suppose that Justin would have mentioned in some way such doctrinal orthodoxy. If there had been Christians lived in entire believers. . also. etc. as one of the conditions of his recognizing the Christianity of such Jews. 2 The Christianity of the First Three Centuries. except in its extreme form. pp. i. was not. and that this was demanded of the Gentiles by those Jewish Christians who sought to proselyte them. describes both mands. JUSTIN MARTYR. and doubtless they were of the proselyting and exclusive class of Jewish Christians to which he refers in the passage before us. while preserving their national customs. . 106. vol. and both refused to fellowship with non-observers of it and strove to proselyte them. . distinctly states that they still He practised circumcision. as Baur alleges. The fact that he only mentions the matter of the ritual certainly implies that 1 ret ocra Bvvavrat vvv in tu>v Mcoucretos. that he does not say that the Jewish Christians differed in general from the doctrines of the orthodox church.106. Their de- it should be noted. But he also testifies to Jewish harmony with Gentile The Jewish type of Christianity. classes as wishing to observe " as many 1 things as they now can of the Mosaic ordinances.

we have already found him speaking cases. where he repudiates the Ebionites as gently. yet neither does he so violently repudiate them as he elsewhere does Marcion and his followers. is distinctly anti-Jewish but he differ lenient in his judgment of those who with him. though they evidently called themselves by that name. is His own here as elsewhere. and refuse The extreme to hold intercourse with. He does not call sidered heretical were thus violently anti-Jewish. In some they were But they were a small body in comparison with the Christian community as a whole and . dissent from their opposition to Jewish Christianity itself. . 48. absolutely opposed to the observance by Chriswilling to for tians of the Mosaic ordinances. it 107 alone was the question between it is the two parties. He He regards Jewish is Christianity as weak-mindedness. 1 But allowing that some whom Justin would not have conMarcionites. law. On the other hand. observers of " the JJSSSh Christianity. he himself in this passage only expresses his disagreement with them on the question of the salvability and Christian character of the Jewish Christians position. Their fewnes3. . But he is make allowance 1 for the power of custom and hon- Yet see Dial. active proselyters. of them as comparatively few. though he considers their doctrines as human teachings. But also to be noted that while Justin describes the existence of such Jewish Christians. there were some in the Christian community who were so opposed to any form of Judaism as to deny salvation to. . he does not j us tin's d e' but firm position." Perhaps by these Justin meant the them Christians.GENTILE AND JEWISII CHRISTIANITY. indeed. the very indifference of Justin to their maintenance of their traditional usages shows of itself how small their number really was.

. Christian Jews. view. distinct from each other . there need judge hardly of indiJustin's charity . moreover. to maintain. to But if. a century the freedom of Gentiles had long been less established. "When. be charged with sympathy with an anti-Pauline type of faith. though they continue their national usages.-. that Justin had any sympa- N svm _ thy with Jewish Christianity. vidual perverts to Jewish Christianity. and the propriety of their opinions and conduct is another. as the Tubingen critics did. He is firm in expressing his conviction of the error and weakness of Jewish Christianity. To be a disciple of Christ was the sav- ing fact. and while he true that it covered the latter with the mantle of his charity. should not be excluded from the communion of the Church. on account of his charity. then. two sides. _ Gentile and Jewish Christianity stood. may have in this instance gone too far but the change of circumstances from the apostolic age was such that he cannot. there- with Jewish fore.108 JUSTIN MARTYR. or represents a doubtful position between the thy. in admitting the salvation of even those rites. who went over to the observance of Jewish But the salvation of individuals is one thing.. Questions of ceremonies were of secondary importance. It is he went further in his charity than Paul had found Gentiles possible to do... become Jews in order insist that if profit to be Chris- he might well Christ later. they were circum- would was them nothing. cised. and therefore believes that est differences of opinion. and his very charity is again a proof that this type of religion was too .. in his • ' . It would seem perfectly idle. Paul was first establishing the freedom of the Gospel against the previous opinion that Gentiles had to tians. he himself occupied no half-way position.

— he — that is.3 he says that " the Son of God. called Jesus. the proof of his Messiahship would yet hold good. So it is generally assumed. he siahship. but that most of those who thought as he did that is. name to the world but he rejects most strenuously." But it is fair to these expressions as due to Justin's desire to attain the main object of his argument. If he referred to Ebionites as of " our race. but hold " Him a man born of men and of these." some editors substitute " your race. if maj his In the Dialogue * he argues that even he should not succeed in proving the pre" existence of Christ. 22. has been inferred from two passages in writings. in the larger Apology. For the phrase " our race. since they had by which they were known their doctrine — — been commanded by Christ to put no faith in 1 human Dial." but needlessly. 48. 109 inconsiderable a power in the Church to be seriously feared.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. to be Christ. i. a fair representative of ? the majority of Christians That he was disposed to His position that of the take an ultra-liberal view of even the Ebionites. 8 2 Ap.2 he remarks. then. declaring that not only did he not agree with it. Fully as he believed in the pre-existent divinity of Christ. Otto's note. who belonged to the Christian Church would reject it likewise. as did but speak according to the ." So." Christians. even if only a man by is ordi- nary generation. yet on account of His wisdom to be called the worthy explain Son of God. who were mani- festly Ebionites. " with whom I do not agree. in all this. . _. Was Justin. Cf. and adds that race there are some of our to be who confess Him . if he could persuade would at least have both pagan and Jew confess His wisdom and Mes- them to admit no more.

doctrines.110 JUSTIN MARTYR. 35. to be charitably regarded. Such a result. but rather show that Justin and the Church stood together in opposition to both Judaizing ceremonies and Ebionite error. from so. but only in those taught Himself. there Bearin of this evidence no reason t° infer from Justin that they . And the evidence is strong that Justin did rep- resent the majority of Christians in his day. 8 2 i. 31. then. 3 Gentile Christianity was not only established. and given the final blow to Jewish national influence. 80. that so far as the formal relations of these two types *s of Christianity were concerned. and in most explicit terms as new and less numerous. 2 affirm If so. J tained their existence. . then we may from him that the great body of Christians in the middle of the second century considered Jewish Christianity as a vanishing type of the faith. Dial. tianity Tubingen SCtlGlllG was dying fast. no leaning toward Jewish Christianity of any type. again. Justin and the Church stood positively and uncompromisingly on Gentile ground. for the very reason that Gentile Christianity had become so overwhelmingly dominant that the old issues were dead. indeed. and the bitter dispute which had raged between Paul and the Judaizers had long since lost its edge. VI. for the second time placed the seal Both still mainBut Jewish ChrisThe Jewish war had of Providence upon the abrogation of Hebrew rites. etc. Lect. 1 the true and apostolic Church. by the prophets and These passages therefore indicate. on the had recently combined. cifically He spe- claimed to do separates the heretics. 1 Cf. but yet distinctly inferior to the full truth taught by Christ and His Apostles. Cf. We conclude. Ap. 47. but was assumed by the vast majority of believers to be the natural and apostolic type.

was there not a silent but actual fusion of Gentile and Jewish Christianity.toidols - 1 Dial. 35.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. is related in the New Testament. in spite of their apparently continued independence ? Had there 11 " been appealed to ^"chlis as evidence that Judaism had imposed cer. others. of Gentile Christianity of the New Testament books. be It is held with the purpose of explaining the alleged union of the originally divided Christian communities. it is said. important. be it HI observed. his doctrinal was lost in the fusion of his follow- ers with those of the original Apostles. 34. however. sults of Paul's missionary spirit. . meat which had been lieves that and evidently be.fusion tain of its views. and to inquire whether he does indicate that such a spirit was really at work in the Catholic Church of Justin his day. to examine that part of Justin's testimony which has been adduced to show the presence in him of an anti-Pauline or Judaiziug spirit. The mere fact of such a reaction may be held without implying doubt of the authenticity took place. It may. Appeal has been made to the fact that strongly repudiates the eating of offered in sacrifice to idols. While thus the rework remained. while it had at the same time accepted in turn from them the Pauline idea of the universality of the Gospel. is just that find. 1 This has been con. 1. therefore. has <' among upon the Gentile believers. it is A reaction toward Jewish views. Justin. and notably its prejudice against Paul. it will be said.The abhorno true Christian would be guilty ^"at* offered of such an offence. if the course of events in the preceding age which we would expect to had been that which But. alleged.

. 14. 1 and it has hence been inferred that the adoption in the second century of the absolute unlawfulness of eating meat which had been offered to idols its proves that Jewish Christianity had so far imposed shackles upon the freedom which Paul had claimed for the Gentiles. vii..3 but sees in Eev. with its "de- of abstinence from meats offered to idols and from blood and from things strangled and from fornication. that this question is mingled with that of the authenticity of the Acts of Holtzmann.. Recog.. 4-6 . 2 8 Cf. ii. 4 Horn. Zeitsehr. Cor. Rom. etc. It should be observed. 1883. . abstinence from idol-meat. 14. Theol. . x. 23-26 . where certain mem- bers of Asiatic churches are reproved for eating such meat and for fornication. . 28.112 JUSTIN MARTYR. assigns the latter. viii.. pp. that Paul himself He commended. . 8 7-13. asthe Apostles. the first step in the expression by Jewish Christians of the conditions on which they would recognize Gentile Christians. indeed. iv. 2 for example. under certain circumstances. of this with the authenticity of the suming that _ Gal. impurity scattered through the same books refers to the rebuke administered in the so-called Epistle of Bar1 1 Cor. He then points to the prohibition in the pseudo-Clementines.4 not only of eating idol-meat. account oi the apostolic council given in Acts cree " xv. Rom. _. 7 is inconsistent with the . fiir wissensch. 159. 1-6. 1 viii. and blood. to the second century. and to prohibitions of . 15. admits. -. x. and claims that it represents the fusion of Pauline and Jewish-Christian views to which the Church had gradually come. 24. 20. li.. x Connection . xiv. but also of the use of things strangled. also. xiv. 15. 36. trasted with Paul's doctrine of the inherent indifference of such an act...

as we have seen. and claims that Judaism. as well as Jewish Christianity. H. and maintains that by it a modus vivcndi was gradually established between Pauline and Jewish Christians. 8 . stress on these conditions of proselytism rather than on the 30. 1. and finally points to the fact." GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. 35. but simply through his ignorant assumption of the prevalent ideas of his day. 4 And Pfleiderer (Paulinism. while the extreme party demanded the observance of the whole law all. v. vers.. a view in which Holtzmann differs from the earlier theory of Baur. E. and supposing that what all believed to be Christian duty must have had apostolic authority. 3 " legalistic meat was He accounts for these facts by the movement which in the post-apostolic age took possession of all Christendom. According to Holtzmann. admitted by that in the second century abstinence from idolcharacteristic of Christians generally.). Orig. nabas J 113 against those who " " rush forward as if proselytes to the Jewish law . Just. The author of the Acts. claims incorrectly. 4 this was done without any conscious intention in the author of the Acts to misrepresent facts. ii. He observance of the whole law. 8 viii. of Gentiles these conditions. contra Cels. Zeller. and others that Acts was a deliberate attempt to reconcile the contending parties by re- — 1 2 Chapter iii. Justin (see above) does not represent any such difference in demands of the mild and extreme Jewish parties. The real was that the milder party claimed the right to observe the law themselves the extremists insisted on its observance by the difference . Lat. Dial. living not long before Justin. Gentiles. etc. and therefore when this state of things had come about. attributed the famous " decree " to the apostolic council.2 that according to Justin the milder Jewish-Chris- tian party demanded . laid refers to Eus. 228.

clearly abhorrence of ''idol- meats "not due to Jewishinnu- shows that the stress laid in his dav on abstinence from idol-meats was due to other causes than an inclination to Judaism. 6. : Cf.. cc. 3. sufficient for us to observe that Justin. He expressly affirms that it was at least partly because of his abhorrence of the Gnostics. 2. perhaps. Weil's Einleitung. 1 who claimed to be special followers of also (p. It is dictum of rationalistic that GaL ii.. . Dial. To prove the authenticity and historical credibility of the Acts would be beyond our purpose. been often done. writing the history of the apostolic age so as to give equal honor to Peter and Paul 1 Xow... unlike the Acts." he says.114 JUSTIN" MAIiTYE._. Xor can we here pause vanced in order to to disprove. os. 13. Ad Ad Phil. to be more faithful They cause and pure and steadthese hope announced by Him. . . the fundamental criticism. some of whom 6 prided themselves on doing this very thing. Mag.. is in- consistent with Acts Justin's xv. 560. we the Acts 2 are here concerned with these criticisms of only so far as they show the significance of All admit that the Acts and Justin Justin's testimony. * 6 Smvr. 4 and even in that of Clement of Pome 5 toward the close of the first century. Haer. Iren. Cor.." '•' 'who are disciples of the true doctrine of Jesus fast in the Christ. pp. i. The fact that they do is insisted upon by the '*' ad- show that the narrative of the Acts represents the ideas and usages not of the first but of the second century. s 3 T already worked up the account of the council. . T . adv. 1. stand practically on the same ground in this matter. 5." Xor were the Marcionites. 164) that the Judaizinsr source Holtzmaim admits •which the author of the Acts used may have etc. 3. Suffice it to say that traces of the book may be found in the Epistles of Polycarp 3 and of Ignatius. 35. as has " critics. and.

of making a firm confession of the faith. 28. No way of doing this was so often thrust upon them by their persecutors as the refusing to unite in sacrifice . 3 1 Justin (Dial. viii. is a view to which Justin. 31. gives this as the admitted reason why Christians abstained from idol-meat. stands utterly opposed. but that the cause of the abstinence lay in the requirements of Jewish Christianity as such. to the gods and Paul himself recognized 2 the duty under such circumstances of refusing to eat meat which had been offered to idols.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. . both by his explanation of the real cause of the abstinence and by his antipathy to Jewish ceremonialism. 8 The Clementines do not testify to the opinion of Catholic Cor. but as being blasphemers of the 2 Maker 1 of all tbings. of the Christians of the second century would seem in have been due to their abhor- rence of the moral laxity and general worldliness into which heresy often tended. Judaizing part of a feeling. Taiil. therefore. see Otto's note) and Saturnilians with the Basilideans and Valentini- ans. to see in this prevalent abstinence an anti-Pauline. contra Cels. Connected with this was the necessity. 35) includes the Mareionites (MapKiavol. So Orig. rather than to any reaction from Paulinism to Jewish Christianity. for 115 action. or in the imposition upon the church of a ritualizing and confessedly anti-Pauline doctrine. The circumstances led the Christian conscience thus to judge of its duty. That by so doing a possible cause of offence to Jewish Christians was removed. 1 The therefore. x. they did not eat meat at this matter to all. not as being eaters of idol-meat. as soon as Christianity became a public matter. is of course obvious . It is quite unnecessary. since the receiving of it would be considered homage to the false god. or to explain it as modus vivencli established between Gentile of the time and Jewish believers.

45. 40. Cf. 119. JUSTIN MARTYR. lxv. 2 Ap. " Tendenzschrift " and the difference between their representa. 81. he quotes. first. 42. even implicitly repudiates him as an Apostle. Origen says blood was the food of demons. 39. and as having been sent to all nations to be the founders of - the Church. Dial. all of which are in the Having affirmed his belief in a visible reign Dialogue. tion of apostolic history and that of the Acts is as great in tone and spirit as in point of fact. t Certainly. 67. 49. and . He had no reason to mention him. What. The abstinence from things stran- gled and from blood. and the sources from which comes the knowledge of His life and teaching. 31. 106. i. Justin makes mention by name in only three instances. 2 Of any of them. 66. is true may say that Justin speaks of the Apostles in general as tne messengers sent His mention by Christ to publish His Gos tne world. to which. then. manifestly avoids mentioning him. may be explained both by the "decree" of Acts and by the Christians' sensitive abhorrence of brutality. 33. there sibility would be plautheory of the in the rationalistic original mutual hostility of the Apostles and division That Justin . but of the Ebionite sect. Justin does not mention . . 118. 100. V. But we are told that Justin does not mention Paul nay. however. 110. 76. . and does his silence imply hostility to the Apostle ? Anticipating what will more fully appear later. Origen and Eusebius (in his report of the letter from Lyons and Vienne) testify. They are represented as the authoritative publishers of Christ's doctrine. however. 1 we does not mention Paul.116 2. 61. . that he . 109.« . 114. 50. They were a veritable Christianity. of the Church. Isa. if this be so. 17-25. as taught by Him P e l to tils'inten-" eral and endowed with power from on high. 42. are in this case the facts ? but had he any reason to mention him. 1 Lect. of Christ in Jerusalem.

100.2 in the course of an argument to show why Christ is called both Son of Man and Son of God. lypse The mention of John as is more formal yet even then the . alluding also to J " And further there was a cerPs." Again. two names was quite incidenthe author of the Apocacitation from it is the Apostle less as is subordinate to that from Isaiah. whose name was John. and briefly 117 comments on the passage. Justin mentions that He the " called one of His disciples known by nized Him to Simon be Christ the Son of name — Peter of — previously . and attributes to them The common 1 mission to all - nations. xc. But it is further said that Justin specifically calls the all a <« Apostles twelve. the purpose of Justin's writings called for no special mention of particular Apostles. 81. Was 3 not twelve. He was arguing for Christianity on ground which he supposed his pagan readers and Jewish hearers would admit. He was not narrating Christian history." of Simon's And again 3 he points to the change name to Peter and of those of the sons of Zebedee to Boanerges as an indication that Christ was the same who had changed Jacob's name to Israel and Oshea's to Joshua. made of him In fact. Dial. who prophesied by a revelation that was made to him that those who believed in our Christ would dwell a thousand years in Jerusalem. and is an apostle than as a prophet that mention at all. 4. since he recog- God by the revelation of the Father. 106. and then adds tain man with us. It would have been useless for him to have quoted to them the apostolic epistles or any other Christian authorities.: GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY." Dial. one of the Apostles of Christ. It is evident that in the last cases the mention of apostolic tal. . save so far as these were historical witnesses to the facts and teaching of Jesus. Dial.

was included in " memoirs " indeed. again. at least among those who were in the Catholic Church ? Is not of them Justin's language comparable with the ominous silence of the pseudo-Clementines concerning the same Apostle should be remembered. ii. is of itself sufficient proof of Justin's recognition of Paul's apostleship. . however. Justin refers to that Gospel in the occurs. Theol. though clearly acquaintance with most of them can be Cf. Finally. that Justin to is ? It admitted have freely used the Epistles of Paul. claimed his amended Luke as the original Pauline Gospel. In fact. an intentional omission of Paul and a transfer? ence of his work to the original Apostles Is not this an indication that Paul had fallen into disrepute even among Gentile Christians. though without fully reproducing the Apostle's thought. it should be remembered. as and Luke. tive articles Opera. 2 Lect. that Justin quotes none of the his 1 New Testament Epistles at all. zum Johannes-Evangelium/'Zeitschr. especially when we remember that Marcion. we shall see. 490. very passage in which the above expression But that Gospel was never referred in all antiquity to an Apostle. 383. whom Justin opposed. Y. 2 to " the 3 memoirs of the Apostles. Justin's acceptance of Luke. these it is certain that Luke's Gospel ." and states Christ's "Apostles that these were written by and those who followed them. pp. 3 Dial. and Thoma's exhauson "Justins literarisches Yerhaltniss zu Paulus imd fur wissensch. 103." This expression obviously means that some of the "memoirs" were written by Apostles. 1875. and others by their companions. 1 It Used the Epistles should be remembered also that he frequently refers. and the inference is plain that it was considered by Justin apostolic because of the author's known connection with Paul.118 this JUSTIN MARTYR. Otto's Justini .. Now. index iii.

In the one 1 he quotes. these two instances. 2 were hung to the high-priest's robe." He then adds " And that it did so come to pass we can convince you. ii. a symbol of It seems scarcely credible that the twelve Apostles. i. 39. therefore. Marc. from Paul as consistent with his habit of his readers. 2 Dial. to every race of men that they were sent by Christ to he is showing how the Mosaic ordinances prefigured Christ and Christianity. iv.: GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. which he teach to all says 3 the word of God. 3. " For out of Zion shall go forth the law. and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. as an example of the spirit of prophecy speaking in His own name. probably confounded these with the twelve precious stones in the priestly robe of Aaron. shown. view of the character His silence about the that of Apostle is quite a different phenomenon from the pseudo-Clementine Homilies and Recognitions. He . to cite as. 42. For from Jerusalem there went out into the world men. Otto's note referring to Tert. 119 is His failure. When. when Justin often speaks of the Apostles without any specification of number. 13. should be thought to prove an intentional omission of Paul. and sees in the twelve bells. Nor does the fact that he speaks of the Apostles as sent to all nations prove that he had transferred to the original 1 8 Ap. Isa." In the other. the find to be only we them many references to the Apostles . adv. since these pretend to relate the movements and teaching of the principal characters of apostolic history. twelve in number. out of all then. we turn to the passages in which Justin two which occur in his writings. where that Father uses the same stones as symbols of the Apostles. and these illiterate and of no ability in speaking but by the power of God they proclaimed speaks of twelve Apostles. it in was natural. Cf.

Christians 1 who are of the pure and pious opinion do not 8 Dial. 2 Dial 81. 117. number twelve. told The " memoirs themselves nations. It only twelve the Gentile work of Paul. so far as our present inves- tigation is concerned. " many of those Wide]v diffused. following facts : — we need call attention to but the (1) Chiliasm was widely diffused in the second century among Christians of both Gentile and Jewish affinities. etc. He believed in the triumphant establishment by Christ at the second advent of His kingdom in Jerusalem. many Justin states 3 that while he and others held this view. 138. 35. Upon this point. Unity of shows that when all Justin wrote. a. The first is his strong Chiliasm. 80.120 JUSTIN MARTYR. 1 and the settlement of the Church in the Holy Land during kingdom. can be even imagined to contain a slur on the great champion of Gentile Christianity. . which day we use without meaning to deny the apostleship of Paul. tian that the mission of the Apostles was to all The established Gentile character of the Chriscommunity rightly confirmed him in regarding this It is almost trifling to assert him as the apostolic mission. 110. 81. Dial. It remains for me to mention two features of Jus- tin's theology which have been supposed to indicate the influence of later Judaism. that Justin's occasional use of the to this 3. 113. there was no consciousness the Apostles of the alleged peculiarly Jewish work " of the other Apostles. 2 a thousand years. 139. 32. 81. however. 40. 51. 121. and to indicate in its advocates Jewish-Christian sympathies. after which would follow the general resurrection and judgment and the eternal Chiliasm has been supposed to have passed over into Christianity from Judaism.

trans.3 So widely Irenseus 4 and Tertullian. 8 9 was anti-Jewish in so far as indeed. 32. 2 Iren. 116. Hasr.. 52. In the Apology he says nothing of the millennium. 21. 8 c. therefore. as Dorner says. admit it. Adv.' Nor would tin in an antiChiliasm Jewish sacrifices ever be restored. Aube . 24. . History of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ. 30-36. and represents the rewards of the righteous as in the highest degree spiritual 10 and while in the Dialogue he expresses his belief in a eral lit- Held by Jus- millennium. 113. 15. 16. v. very noticeable in Justin. 11 affinities While. the millennium was conceived of as only an intermediate state between the present age of suffering and This is the eternal age of glory which lay still beyond. 10. v. II but he Dial. Chiliasm had certainly its with Judaism. (2) Justin held Chiliasm in a strong anti-Judaic form." 121 We find Chiliasm not only in the " " x of the Apostles as well as later in Teaching and in Papias.118 Dial. enly i. Marc. Eng. 105. Dial.6 but tit believed that the Christian Church as such would inherit the promised land. (Saint Justin. kingdom" which Christians expect. he also looks forward to the period after the final judgment as the ultimate object of Chris- tian hope. 6 7 9 4 iii. 32. i. is presence among Gentile no indication of a compromise with Jewish Christians on the points which had distinguished Christians I c. 5 scattered a belief cannot therefore be considered evi- dence of Jewish tendencies. Ap. GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. He expected no conversion of the Jews as a nation. pp.2 but also in Barnabas. 195-199) goes so far as to assert that Justin's idea of the future reward was even negative and philosophical neglects the testimony of the Dialogue. Ap. adv. 6 8 D ial. 10 Cf. 408. So see his description of the "heavi. 13. 11. Adv. 117.. Haer. 139. etc. .

of which we have given examples from Justin. Dial. . 6 Justin also often new law 5 and the new speaks of the way of salto vation in a manner which seems sins. Christians receive indeed in baptism forgiveness of past learned the truth.122 JUSTIN MARTYR. 7 show a legalizing. 8 Ap. to the millennium. Dial. lxv. with Dorner. 1 regard Chiliasm as an early and crude expression of the belief was to conquer the world. The other feature of Justin's theology which has been supposed to indicate a Judaizing tendency Christian legalism. They who can prove 1 God by their works that they Cf. Cf. 51. 2 where Justin fancifully refers 4 6 Isa. Dial. 24. 61 . b. 9 to wise. and so be saved with an Christ will clothe us with preSo. 4 Christ is a law- or else is himself the covenant. if we do His commandments. 18. unevangelical conception. 54. 122. another. i. 9 Dial. 81. 11. 65. salvation is represented almost entirely as future. 12. or we may was the original belief of all apostolic We must certainly recognize that Chiliasm Christians. 11. they everlasting salvation. is his representation of Christianity as the " new " jj e declares it to be the new law and j aw abolished. having their may by works be found keepers of the commandments. 43. 3 covenant which the prophets had predicted and by which the Mosaic had been giver. 116. was quite in harmony with that combined literal and mystical method of interpreting Scripture. cf. Dial. 118. 14. them from one We may. 11. 67. 8 but pray that. 110. above. 3 Dial. 6 7 Ap. especially Dial. 2 But we Chiliasm no J W cami °t ini er that its presence in him and fs^svm athies. other Gentile Christians was a symptom of that Christianity infer that it * " sympathy with a Judaizing type of Christianity. i. 122. like- pared garments.

it we think and ideas which imply the evangelical view of the way of salva- possible to collect from Justin other phrases tion. "If you repent of your sins and recognize Him to be Christ and observe His commandments. i. whereby God was led emphasizing as in 1 to send human liberty.. 2 In Hebrew times men were saved. this mode of speaking And it must be admitted that may be fairly said to be characmiss in his writings the clear teristic of Justin. 8 6 5. i. . 119. 121. are regenerated in and afterwards strive to live sinless lives. a finished redemption. His Son to earth. 11-26. 65. 2 4 6 Ap. 6 On is ground of these and similar expressions Justin to have taught a purely legal to way of salvation. i. . 42.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. baptism. So cf. 3 if they observed the moral as well as the ritual in Now. Ap. IV." 7 Cf. In pagan times Socrates and others were saved through will obtain the reward. Lect. 10. on the other hand. 10. then remission of sins will be yours." 4 true. 45. 32. 14. . Dial. 61. 5 Repentance. . 95. Christian times "as many as are per- suaded that the things taught by us are baptism. 9 some manner based on divine grace i. and obedience to Christ's law are the commonly named conditions of salvation. 1 is Him their obedience to reason. followed 123 Hence obedience predominantly made the condition of salvation. 8. and under- take to be able to live accordingly. law. 7 We expression of the Pauline doctrine of immediate justification and a full sense of faith as the appropriation of Yet. 48. and thus have been far from sharing the Pauline doctrine of salvation through faith. 10. Ap. Dial. 8 While he speaks of Christian life to individuals. Cf. He speaks of it as originating in God's goodness. 9 8 Dial. 55. 44. 30. 46. Dial. where this whole subject is further discussed. Ap. belief in the revelation of God the said through Christ.

sends us to that saving bath which is for those who and repent and are purified. irinrrei. 2." Justin.' " 5 The goodness as God holds him who re- pents of his sins. made of faith Justin's previous expressions than all of his critics have given him credit Isaiah. there legalistic Its tendency due ? A little earlier 7 we read. . ' Blessed " is the man to whom of the Lord imputeth not sin. 23 and 119. To what was his faith as the acceptance of truth. 2 Dial." 1 8 The Homily which goes (8m rfjv tt'kttiv) Dial. on obedience. 26. therefore.124 More. c. 3 lamb was a type of Christ." While. 1 justified and blessed on account of his The Gentiles who have believed on Christ and The paschal repented. in the pseudo-Epistle of Barnabas. he says. i. 13. Justin undoubtedly laid stress on the idea of Christ as a teacher. also. and Christian life as was evidently another conception of salvation imbedded in his language and thought. in proportion to their faith in Him. as 6 righteous and free from sin. He reveals through Ezekiel. Athenagoras wrote : " We than have a law which little later A makes the measure of righteousness to be dealing with 8 our neighbors as ourselves. which the yoke of necessity. 4 Dial. of " the is new law without the post-apos- of our Lord Jesus Christ." 4 " All who repent can obtain mercy from God. 4 7 Supplic. shall receive the inheritance. " with whose blood they who believe in Him. faith. or for. not by the blood of goats of sheep. is. 2 Abraham was anoint their houses. Dial. 5 Kara tou Xoyov 6 8 rrjs us avrov 7. is JUSTIN MARTYR and of Christ's blood than would lead us to expect. however. TrlaTeas- Dial. e. Dial. themselves. but by faith through the blood of Christ. growth in . 141. The present question. 32. even as the Scripture foretells. 40.

Gal. in the face of heathenism and persecution. 10. Gal. 11. 34. 5 . . it is at least . 2. Jud." and of the imperative necessity of good works. united as this legal- ism was with a thorough repudiation of Jewish rites. But for the pres- „ Not necesBarfly due to unnecessary to see in it a sign of the merging of Gentile and Jewish Christianity." 6 5 of " wait- ing by faith for the hope of righteousness. 6. ent we may observe that. 2 Adv. vi. etc. iv. 2. Haer. 5. also. v. These were Gentile Christians.. 9. stress thus on Christian duty and the employment of apparently legalistic phrase- ology due to a reaction of Gentile Christianity toward Jewish Christianity. 11 3.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY.. It should be remembered that Paul himself spoke of " the law of Christ " 4 and of " the law of the Spirit. etc. without a just 1 cc. 6 7 . v. 19-25. viii. It is quite possible that the use of the Old Testament as a book of Christian doctrine. by the name of the Second Epistle Irenreus or 2 125 of Clement of Rome x lays great stress on obedience and good works while and Tertullian laid 3 speak of the new covenant "Was the new law. in other causes ? or are we to seek the explanation Our full reply to this question must be deferred until with Justin's aid we have studied the influence of paganism on Christianity. Gal. that Gentile Christianity should not have been able to preserve the strictly evangelical ideas of of philosophy Paul against the influence and the natural tendency of the human mind. 13. Adv. 4. 8 4 6 De Prjescr. etc. 7 It is quite con- ceivable that in the second age of Christianity practical problems of duty would. 2. It is quite conceivable. cause the moral side of the Gospel and the necessity of obedience to the Gospel's requirements to be emphasized. iii. 9. Rom. 2.

tution. We rather infer from the testimony of Justin that JewSummary of Justin's tesish Christianity had become a comparatively lon) small fraction of the Church that it had. sense of the progress of revelation. with the same exception. and was It was content to leave the latter to its own course. and had thus revived a spirit similar to that of the later Jews but it is surely not to be inferred that this was a sign of the blending of the body of Gentile Christians with the body of Jewish Christians to which they had formerly been avowedly hostile. if superficially which the old understood. long since been reconciled to the claims of Gentile Christians. show themselves unable even to appreciate the worth of the Hebrew system. create. may have contributed to a revival of the forms of thought dispensation. " . believers. with the exception of the Ebionites. and that both Gentile and Jew. dition It was meeting the assaults of heathen traand philosophy. not by repudiation of Paul. was likely to But when the authors who represent this tendency vigorously repudiate Judaism. consider Christianity an essentially Gentile insti- and speak of Jewish Christians as weak-minded may be true that they had themselves lost the clear apprehension of immediate salvation by faith alone. But Gentile body who lessening.126 JUSTIN MARTYR. acknowledged the authority of all the Apostles. . . contending for independent right to toleration under Roman law. it . To many of its members the . The bulk of Jewish Christians were distinguished from Gentile believers simply by their observance of their national ceremonies. Christianity was the advancing. growing side of the Church. and the importance to still it of the smaller clung to their traditional rites was daily The Church was grappling with wider questions than that which Jewish Christianity presented to it.

127 claims of Jiulaizing Christianity were perhaps unknown. among the still The extreme . faction of the Ebionites and the excesses of Gnosticism. we think. indeed continued tably the as the alleged followers of the original Apostles. in the light of the evidence of the second itself. who continued to unite. Judaism But both entered into the life of Gentile Christianity. may in some quarters have caused reactions in the opposite direction. In some such way may the anti-Paulinism of the Clementine Homilies and Eecognitions be explained. and the theories which would make them have exerted so great an influence in the second century as to unseat Paul from his apostleship and to recast the Church's remembrance of the apostolic age and to dictate the controlling spirit of the resulting Catholic Church are. as we shall see. through the Alexandrian philosophy. and who. noundue exaltation of Paul by Marcion.GENTILE AND JEWISH CHRISTIANITY. These were in which was being to rapidly swallowed up in the growth of Gentile Christi- anity . Through the Old Testament also. century entirely baseless. Certainly the Church believed in no division Apostles. have been made to play in critical theories so important a part in the formation of the Church. . Justin's time a dwindling minority. Christianity with observance of the ritual law. of these sources of influence must be distinguished from the body of Jewish Christians. and.

4. Col. iv. 2 Tim. freedom of opinion. 3. like other philosophies. 23. 16. vi. i. ii. were no doubt Jewish and ritualistic in their immediate origin and character. 8. . 20. but were ultimately derived from pagan speculations. TTe have men- tioned. 16. . Such language Contrast is in marked contrast with that of the Xew " ^J. ii. and should therefore be allowed. . In the latter the word philosophy " is only once used. and was being affected by. Cf. i. 1 Tim. ii. We have already seen that he pleaded for the toleration of his religion on the ground that it was not only elevating to society but was a philosophy. 1 as The rising heresies. r I *- "*HAT Christianity had come into contact with. the philosophic thought of the Gentile world. 9. and seem to have been the first movements of the mighty current of Gnosticism which afterward poured in upon Later indications of the same general the Church. and himself a philosopher because a Christian. that in the Dialogue he formally declares Christianity to be the true philosophy.LECTURE IV. 4 Tit. ^gs of Justin. 4 . also. 16-18 iv. is Justin shows U ce obvious from the writ- ofphUo s^ phy. 2 1 - Col. iii. against which the later Epistles of Paul warned the churches. ^tament - Testament. THE TESTIMONY OF JUSTIN TO THE INFLUENCE OE PHILOSOPHY ON EARLY CHRISTIANITY. 8. and then a probable cause of peril to Christians. 18.

IV. Cor. 4 1 Lectt. 22-31. " Saint Paul Cf. 2. and expressed ideas with which some of his auditors may have agreed and which seem to show the Apostle's acquaintance with Stoicism yet even then he spoke of the previous ages as " times of ignorance. ii. 15." and evinced no real sympathy with the popular philosophies themselves. 3 Rev." wholly rejects the 9 He Philonian source of the Logos doctrine. 1 6. p." and thereby declares that Christianity already possessed. 2. 22 and V. 591. Aube's Saint Justin.. ii. 9 . Cf. 1 ii. 4 It is true that Paul says "we speak wisdom among them that are perfect. . a philosophy of its own. whether Saint John took his Logos doctrine from Philo or not. . and implies that eventually it would elaborate. note 1. 87. 6 The coincidences which have been often pointed out between Saint Paul's phraseology and that of the later Stoics 7 may show that in Tarsus he had learned at least the ethics of that system. and in the Doketism combated in the First Epistle of John. but he adds "yet not the wisdom of this world." 5 and thereby rejects what was currently known as philosophy in the pagan society of that day. 8 Whether. in addition to this. Cf. 5 7 8 John i. 1. iv. note. p. Weiss's Einleitung. PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. Lightfoot on Philippians. Cf. 3. 2 Jude 4. 12. 6 Acts xvii. movement may be observed 3 129 and Jude. 2 in the Apocalypse. 24. 4. and Seneca. there are any Alexandrian elements in the Epistle to the Hebrews or not. 19. 18. ii. but do not show that pagan thought had moulded any of his conceptions of Christian doctrine.9 it in Second Peter x must be admitted that the New Testament writings as a whole belonged to a circle as far removed from the speculations of their day as philosophy itself was as yet 1 2 Pet. While at Athens he quoted from a Stoic hymn. Mansel's Gnostic Heresies. 10.

If 3 Em- to have cited the place so early it we may the Epistle to Diognetus. and. while Cf. nians Quadratus and Aristides. Already in the so-called Epistle of Barnabas. new religion or contemptuously established. 8 Letter to Magnus. torn. Gnosticism sought to unite the Christian idea of a revealed redemption with the speculations concerning absolute Being and the origin of evil tonic which had already been elaborated in the Plaand especially Jewish-Platonic schools and in the religious philosophy of the East. it of the pagan ° r ° was necessarily affected by the currents of J J the new atmosphere in which it found itself. 2 we may see a Christian reflecting on the deeper meaning The lost Apologies of the Atheof the common faith. for account of opinions as to date of the Epistle. Lect. habits ' ' y On the one hand. The way accordingly soon opened for a philosophy of its own. began to meet the . 1 On the other hand. II. .Beginnings of the union of philoso- phv and ni and thoughts world. which were forced on ChristianThe new religion had to explain its position toward pagan antiquity as it had already done toward Hebrew antiquity. writers who had no sympathy with Gnosticism began of the age. It began to be defended either by or against philosophy.130 JUSTIN MARTYR. . But when Gentile Christianity was firmly _ . proleg. lxii. are said by Jerome writings of philosophers. presented to the peror Trajan. to realize the problems ity by the culture — for an effort to present it in such wise as to satisfy the intellectual needs of converts from thoughtful pagan circles. either ignorant of the indifferent to it. 4 Cf. conscious of a universal mission. Mansel's Gnostic Heresies. Otto's Justini Opera. ii. 4 we learn from the interest which a cultivated pagan took in 1 Christianity. 1. 2 c.

" and of the tree of knowledge as a symbol of the true Christian gnosis. so in the Epistle to Diognetus •we find paganism set forth as a proof of man's inability to attain to 1 God and righteousness. but in the Epistle to the Hebrews the fulfilment of the old economy in the new . as will appear from Justin himself. and explains the late let appearance of the Saviour by God's determination to man Yet his description of the benefits which Diognetus would obtain from Christianity such as the knowledge and love of the Father. for. He passed from the former to the latter as to a higher stage of culture. him not merely the development of preparation Christ. and similarity of character with Him is such as would have appealed most strongly to a religiously inclined philosopher. . own — — we ~ _ find it for the first time. carried into Christianity to many Paganism was of. of the author as a teacher of the Gentiles. of his previous ideas. They speak of Christianity as not contrary to reason (ov napaXoyoos C^tco). 1 Thus the contact of Christianity and philosophy But in him T T had begun before Justin wrote. i i among xt anti- Gnostic writers.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. 131 the Epistle itself bears evidence of having been the The author does not indeed follow the philosophers. but in Justin we The last two chapters of the Epistle to Diognetus are prob- ably by a later hand. . the superstitions of the people or the ritual of the Jews. He was In Justm the union avowed. openly avowed. and are more in Justin's style. He is truly scriptural in doctrine. It contained also a positive and anticipations the revelation of As in the earlier Epistles of Paul we find set forth the difference between the Gospel and the Law. ° discover his helplessness. of the Logos " who ap- peared as if new and was found old. He did not break from philosophy in be- coming a Christian. a student of philosophy as well as of Christianity. any more than he does product of a well-educated man. He evil.

but was all. at this period. peoples consequent upon the Roman conquest of the civilized world had caused Greek culture to spread among alien races. and observe Justin's acquaintA and the judgments which he . and for this very reason a far better mirror of the intellectual forces to which he was exposed than if he had been an original genius. who appropriated it in parts and combined it with elements of their own. Moreover. A ance with passes it . together with lurking scepticism as to the possibility of real knowledge . theological spirit. He was certainly not a genius nor an original thinker. upon its various types. The result was a search by cultured men for the truth in all schools of thought. . while still continuing in name. The great schools of Greek philosophy. long since been followed by that of doubt. mind. us. then recall the condition of pagan thought Philosophy at tins period. and anxious to obtain light on the great questions of life and re- God. first.. He went T from one teacher to another. by Christianity of the partial truths and gleams of light which in the pagan world had prepared for it. eclecticism and We should remember that the two marked characterthe culture of that age were its its istics of Eclectic ism. He was naturally serious. He had an inquiring and an impressible Justin's mmd. the fusion of and mutual approximation. a general acceptance of philosophy as life the only guide of and valuation of the popular . soon dissatisfied with ceived ideas Yet from nearly all he w hich continued to germinate in his mind. had long ceased to maintain in purity their origiThe age of discovery and conviction had nal doctrines. . comparison. is He was a true eclectic. He appears to have been a man of moderate culture. Let „.132 find the fulfilment JUSTIN MARTYR.

It modified and mingled with nearly every other school of thought. not only approached the same practical spirit which other schools were showing. who was not unlike Justin in his travels from philosopher to philosopher while searching for truth. Greek thought acted upon the Christian mind of a century later. quiries The Eoman Stoics. taking from all schools what. The Epicureans held most loyally to the tenets of their predecessors while on the opposite extreme from them such men as Plutarch and Maximus of Tyre stand as the attractive representatives of eclecticism pure and simple. the eclecticism of the age of which we are speaking For was . erted greater influence over others than Platonism. and by his deliberate comparison and criticism of the various schools. through the medium of the Hellenistic Jews. by his sense of 'the supreme im- portance of ethics. and to overthrow the scepticism in which the men of the so-called " Middle Academy " had fallen. the rising spirit of the The later Platonists were especially They mingled with the doctrines of their master ideas taken from the Stoics and from Aristotle. At the same time there was no philosophy which exage of the Caesars. and immortality in a manner more Platonic than Stoic. Cicero. eclectic. exhibits by his scepticism as to absolute knowledge. depreciating physical inand turning attention to ethical problems. ever subserved their moral and religious purposes. together with a refusal to follow exclusively any of the historic philo- sophical systems. and sought in this way to build up a system of universal knowledge.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. and had produced a mixed system by which. Meanwhile Philo of Alexandria had deliberately fused elements from both Platonism and Stoicism with faith in the Hebrew Scriptures. but often spoke of God. religious for political 133 purposes only.

ii -i. Moreover. ot which J uclaism was was a not unimportant factor. to regard inquiries con- cerning the possibility of knowledge and the ultimate nature of things as hopeless and useless. . Cf. Philosophical and caused attention to be turned to the direction of conduct. t p y ' The influence n .134 JUSTIN MARTYR. the speculative spirit of some.' life. Aube's Saint Justin. Many J • produce this feature. take a mystical ch. alike laid stress on questions of ethics. The human mind stood on the brink infinite. The influence of scep- ticism united with the speculative spirit itself not only to lay stress on practical ends. and sought to exhibit wherein consists a truly rational and noble doubt was widely diffused. part . At the same time the sense of dependence and of man's abject need of divine help of the gave a deeply religious tone to the best writers of the period. in spite of interests. Wherever also the Roman temper was prevalent. mainly governed by a desire to serve practical and moral There was a general disposition. finite and the More and more did philosophy 1 itself iii. It is easy to select from heathen authors passages which seem to 1 utter an almost Christian spirit of faith and resignation. iii. human logical . T ental thought. The i i • a part. there philosophy natuHence Platonist and Stoic rally took a practical turn. but also to emphasize the divine transcendence and to represent God as the unknowable First Cause. . closely connected with this was the theo- aim and re- religious spirit of the whole period of forces united to of Ori- m Theological aim and ligious tone of phiioso- ancient eclecticism. fall of polytheism before the advance of philosophy led to general belief in the unity of God. impassable gulf which philosophy placed between the and inconsistently but necessarily talked of God as if He had been found.

Aube's Saint Justin. Doubtless he read into Plato much of later thought as well as of Bible doctrine but he was certainly acquainted with most of the Platonic books. 2 Greek Philosophy. 3. Of of his early search for truth in the spirit Justin shows the spirit of . Cf. 57. Zeller's Outlines of 274. The necessity of finding God was The truths which had been disequally demonstrated. His- tory of Eclecticism. 2 How far Justin grasped the real system of Plato is a question on which there has been difference of opinion. 1 covered needed to find a full to be properly adjusted istics of In Justin's writings. i. 3 (Rep. v. of which Justin was the earliest representative. part iii. To our minds it appears that was comThe inability of reason clearly to make God known was manifest. yet with an increasing stress on His transcendence and on the need of intermediate beings to reveal Him to mankind. direction. 212-262. x. . by the actual revelation of God. also. etc. 473. ii. 2) . In proportion as the Platonic influence was predominant was a real belief in God maintained. p. We find in Justin. by which Christianity was set forth as the reconciliation of the terrible discord between the conclusions of reason and the needs of humanity. 135 Neo-Platonism it actually became a In the second century this varied process was in full movement. eclecticism mention has already been made. Apology of Socrates and the Introduction to the Dialogue seems to have been moulded after the Socratic Dialogues. 58 ii. 2. and and orderly exhibition. the preparation of philosophy for Christianity plete. passim i. . 1 He yielded finally to the charms of Platonism. . then. Reminiscences appear in his Apologies (i. p. 44 (Rep. and as the expression of all that the human mind had learned to be good and true. T *• . lic [Ap. tlberweg's History of Philosophy.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. until in religion. pp. Steph. clear traces of or quotations from the Repubof the . The time was ripe for that movement.). . ed. 617) . we recognize the characterthe period which we have described.

Laws [Ap. however. torn. 8 1. (Phaedr." 4 he was questioned by the aged Christian who was the means of his conversion as to what philosophy is. 6 . Ibid. and appears have taken from the Stoics one of his most charac- teristic phrases. p. "The duty of philosophy. . 5 (Phaedr. 30)] the Timaeus [Ap. and alone commends us. as well as the i. . 28) i.-Platonic Epistle [Ap. 543)] the Philebus [Dial. p. ii. 5 questioner evidently understood " the real mean God. 26 ii. 4 5 6 Dial. [Ap. 4 (Rep. "But what do you call God?" That which always maintains the same The old man immediately to which Justin replies. "is to investigate concerning the divine. finally. p. at least 2 originated with them. 3. i. Dial. 107)] . " is the end of the Platonic philosophy. p. and. Cf. 10 (Rep. 3 (Phaed. x. . p. below. and Pythagorean teachers he was unable to learn of God and hence the pleasure which even before his conversion he found in Plato. 5. Peripatetic. the Gorgias 65. ." he pected " henceforth to look upon God." he says. 5 (Tim. 66." 136 JUSTIN MARTYR. 92). e£erd£eiz/ nepl rov Beiov. 312)]. " . p. 2. 127)] ii. 18 (Phaed. praises its ethics. does he echo the mind of his age in his conception of philosophy itself. p. 12 (Clitoph. 43)] the Phfedo [Dial. Jus. p." When adds. 85). 246)]. and though rejecting its philosophy. p. ibid. i. the ii. 60 (Tim. 3 (Parm. 8 (Phasdr. p. Cf. p. also But he was acquainted to with Stoicism." From his Stoic. . 72.). Otto's If Justin did not take the phrase from 2. Xoyo? Dial. 28)] the Phsedrus [Ap. and Ap. i. i. 67. 509)] the Critias [Ap. " Philosophy is the apprehension of the real and the cognition of the true true " to . 661)] . pp. 1 Most of all. 249) Dial. 76. vii. i. 1 the Parmenides [Dial. Justini Opera. ii. and the Clitophon [Ap. since by his aid he ex" for this. 4 (Phaad. So. the Stoics. p. p. 4 (Phil. 68 (Crit. . 9 (Legg. 407)]. . 595) Dial." 2 3 " Philosophy leads us to God. . perhaps. a-n-epfiariKosit 60 (Ep. 4 . 36) Dial. — tin replied. p. i. 10 (Tim. index iii. second Ps. cmcrrfifir) rov ovtos kcu tov aXrjdovs eniyvcouisasks. 8 (Gorg. and both he and his " and " the he was led to accept .

1 Dial. deov. and believed that he had at last found its realization. 2. ii. When. we read the judgments which Justin here and there expresses from his later Christian standpoint schools. then. Ap. 7. as we would expect. 8 5 Ap. 1 Thus Justin was reared in the idea that philosophy was theology. Otto retains. deutsche Theol. 12." and in the same manner. ii. . 3. 15. „. 127). this strong religious and moral aspiration. Christianity 137 because in it he found God revealed. and in the argument concerning the natural mortality of the soul (Dial. therefore. 7. and is the cause of all other Thirlby and Aube read to qv for 6eov. and that the grand aim of speculation was to attain to the knowledge of God. things. and be- trays little of his influence. pass over into Christianity.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. a fair representation of both the eclectic and theological tone of the best culture of the pagan world. 8. we find. His Peripatetic 4 teacher was more concerned about his fee than about the communication of knowledge to his pupils . and so to learn how He came to Christianity with life should be regulated. fiir 4 Dial. combined with evident tinued influence. 2 with most editors. 5 Of the Pythagoreans he nature. . He carried over into Christianity the same conception of philosophy. upon the various philosophic x L His judg. 5). a free criticism of them ments upon .. He affords. and of the natural course if at all. and does not appear to have thought teachers of these schools worth seeking.. by which that culture would. traces of their con2 Of Cynics and Epicureans 3 he speaks only with contempt. 60-119) sees Aristotelian influences in Justin's idea of God dwelling immov- ably in his own method of place beyond the heavens (Dial. xii. AVeizs'acker (Jahrb. but Justin nowhere mentions Aristotle.

i. taught the future by fire. 221 Zeller's Outlines of 5 Greek Philosophy. This 6 8 one of Justin's mistakes. as we have said. 1 2 Dial. Ap. Justin referred. speaks with respect. Neither Heraclitus nor Musonius was really put is to death. he hoped. Zeller's who were and had borrowed Outlines of Greek Philos- ophy. and he expresses it freely in the Apologies. 5. T Ap. of course.. 7rept . and to Musonius Rufus. 6 his opposition to the Stoic philosophy was very decided. Caesar. more a largely from other systems. p. 60. p. 2. 233. He distinguishes the Christian doctrine of the conflagration of the world from that of the Stoics. as examples of those who were hated and put to death because the Logos dwelt in them. who " has been called 4 " the spiritual ancestor of the Stoics. 8. 8 but most of all to their doctrine of fate. 138 JUSTIN MARTYR. 20. would read his book. ii. who was banished by Nero. to the Neo-Pythagoreans religious sect than a philosophic school. 1 but objects to the long course of intellectual discipline required by them before their scholars could be even prepared to behold the beautiful and the good. 7. ii. ii. appeals to Heraclitus. Cf . s 4 Ap. 7. . 20. Apologies of Justin Martyr. Gildersleeve's note. 7 He materialism. p. Ap. but the cess latter as a natural and necessary proobjects to their and including God Himself. i. daajidriop from their apx&v kcu and says that the former. Stoicism and still more Platonism which attracted him and his judgments upon these systems are frequent and often elabHe admired the ethics of the former. ii. 306." " philosophic no doubt remembering the who. 3 and orate. like the Christians. point- ing out that the former represented it as a divine act of judgment. 5 destruction of the world He Yet points out also that the Stoics. 7. He distinguishes the Stoic Xoyor Xo'yoy 7rfpi rjdav. 2 It was. 7. Cf.

When. i. 2 and derived his doctrines and of human responsibility 4 and of " the second and third Powers in the universe " 5 from Moses. 1 edge of God nor desire to spiritual aspirations and his know Him. on the other is not less . he says. 59. 2 but he seems to have felt no necesmetaphysical doctrine of creation ex nihilo.. Ap. hand. p.. free in criticism. 6 that the Timeeus the statement concerning the World-soul God "placed it like a ^ ing that Plato referred to the Second according to which nothing 1 4 6 Power in the is is real which is not material. 146. the expression in Gen. Either he did not realize that the eternity of matter was opposed to the Christian doctrine of world. he speaks of Tlatonism. 20. and his own deep sense of human re- sponsibility led him to see the radical hostility to these which. 60. creation. 137. Ap. i. 8. 2 6 44. 123 . and to destroy the inherent difference between virtue and In his Stoic instructor Justin found no knowlvice. . Justins. . Outlines of Greek Philosophy." declar- matter a practical negation. Ap. or he understood Plato to mean by formless So also he quotes from in the universe. Justin does not seem to have thought that the Platonic doctrine that God made the world from formless matter of creation 3 was inconsistent with God's absolute authorship of the He rather maintains that this was the doctrine of Moses too. i. the Stoic philosophy logically involved. taught a future judgment. sity for the i. Justin was misled both by his Platonism and by . 139 and declares their philosophy to be destructive of spiritual ideas. PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. Ap. pp.. Von Engelhardt's Das Christenthum p. to merge God iu the changing universe. ii. Zeller's Aube's Saint Justin. Cf. he . Plato. s incon- sistent with the spiritual directions of the latter. etc. Ap. . like the Christians. in spite of its lofty ethical teaching. 7. but his sympathies are clearly exhibited. i. M Platonism.

2 Old Testament. a reference to the Holy Spirit. s 6 2. it into a cross. Cf. 3 and as he now perceives that reason No longer does he believe in the pre-exist- ence of souls. Uberweg's History of Philosophy.-Platonic ra 8e rplra nepl tov rpirou. he would be enabled sion. i. and seeing who approached most nearly But. i. 5 4 D iali 4> 5> 141p i. etc. 60) in the obscure expression of the Ps. Athenagoras (Supplic." Moses took brass and made Ap. or by subduing the hindrances offered by the body. likewise taken from Gen. . 127. 2. (i. thus reading into Plato. that to apprehend God . punishment of the wicked for only a limited period of time and in other bodies than their own. with apparently the same view Dial. 23) quotes the of it same passage. on the other hand. He no longer imagines. 60. he says. 3. as he did before conver- by intellectual discipline alone.. 6. In the introduction to the Dialogue. nor even in their natural immortality. 5 a view which indeed Plato approaches in the Timaeus. Ep. 6 Justin exlatter The he claims is to that whatever created — 1 Justin says : " set it in the holy tabernacle. but which was not his main argument for immortality. immortality solely to the will of God. moreover. Dial. his Christian ideas. he freely differs That philosopher. 4 deny on the Platonic principle Hence he refers is perishable.140 universe. Justin evidently indicates his points of conscious departure from Plato- nism. and took the idea from the account of the brazen serpent. and 2 So he finds ii. JUSTIN MARTYR. 1 He appears to have considered Plato's to "World-soul" as an attempt into the teach the doctrine of the personal Logos. as Justin's. as he did in that philosopher the one to the truth. but he has discovered the moral con- ditions of this blessedness as they had been taught by itself revelation teaches. teaches the from Plato. whereas Christians teach the everlasting punishment of the wicked and in the same bodies which they now have.

and how it was possible for the latter to take into itself ideas and forms of thought which had been elaborated outside of the sphere of revelation. would rep- appear that he resented in to knew Platonism mainly as it is the Timceus. represents the religious and moral af- ele- ments of pagan culture finding religion of Christ. then. Jowett's Introduction to the Timams in his translation of Plato's Dialogues. 2 Cf. 13. it." all neither are those of the others. finities their satisfaction in the We see in him what The influ- there were between at least one side f^. as he understood the nearest approach to Christianity. of paganism and Christianity. First. have fully grasped the real system of the philosoBut he found in Platonism. but because they are not in historians. Let us now examine his presentation of Christian theology with the particular purpose of noting the continued influence of the philosophical ideas with which we have found that he This will show the approached I. . presses Lis conscious attitude to Platonism says. take his idea of God. 2 it. ii. — that " light which lighteth every his quotations man coming into the world. not because respects similar. required with its spirit and princi- ples to pass into the clearer light of Christian reve- Justin. as the teachings of Plato are different from those of Christ. and hence cannot be said pher. 1 141 when he "I strive to be found a Christian. and felt that no break was lation. Stoics and poets and To him Plato was a theist who had learned much from Moses and had been peculiarly receptive of the divine Logos." Despite it from other of Plato's works. 1 Ap.phvcm" his theology.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY.

" 5 " the real. 108.. .67. i. u0 Ap. ap . 10. 127. i. ii. 44. 11 So is He the Author of is " good. God's independence. 6 Ap. as an Apologist. i. i. i. Ap. 9. God is not to be worshipped as if He needs anything. i. " 142 JUSTIN MARTYR. He is " the Father of righteousness and temperance and 6 other virtues. ii. He is called " the Father and all. 13. 12 13 15 12. Ap. 1 On the other hand. To show that he had truly found God was. of His Christianity. 61. Ap. God As its How." 12 " the Father and Lord of "the Father and King of the heavens. " Ap. i. i. does Justin represent God ? against polytheism he sets forth the divine inde- pendence. 8 Di ai. Dial. 115. . 6eov- . against the abstractions of philosophy he sets forth the reality of a living God. 7. required of him as a phitmilk losopher." 18 Maker of all. found in the idea controlling principle. rov ovtios Ap< j. Dial. i. He is represented. 6.65. 40. of course. 10. 12. likewise. then. 105. Ap. 14." " He especially to9 ward men the righteous observer of all things 10 cornpassionate and long-suffering.32. « tne mosfc true. 16. G d was required of him. 12. 12. ii. 32." . including Christ and 2 4 s s io man as Ap. 6 7 9 II Dial. cising every noble moral quality. a11 - absolute author of all things. as exer- Morai qualities. which his idea of religion intellectual foundation on The idea was To set forth the Christian doctrine of I of God. Ap> j. 2 but He is 3 reality. Ap. 45. 63." i having alone life in Himself." 14 or sim15 ply I 8 " the Father of all 10.56." tice In Him " reside temperance and jus- 8 and philanthropy. 74. in view of his conception of philosophy. 36. . A living ln Hiin Not only do Christians believe more firmly than others. Ap. 6. 18. 6.

Dial. 9. vidual But at the same time Justin speaks of God in ways which hardly seem consistent with these expressions which have been cited. s A. but for each indi. 44. 43.est in man He spares the wicked world forcing His moral law. i. 5. 16 114. 7 requiring their obedience 8 and and for it world. 6. in particular." Ap. He all is therefore the Creator. He men . ii. 1 and Cause of all. ii. 16. 53. Ap. 12. i. He no impassive observer of human life. 14. 84. 57. 9 and that the hopes of the Christians may be fulfilled. 12. 16. 37. 4 6 6 8 10 12 14 15 Ap. 141. 142. 116. 12. 6. 12. 7. & tt> His interest j. ±. i. foreknows everything shall act as all events. 5. 4. Ap. not merely for . 7.Ye t emphacially fond of calling J " 14 Him the " unbeo-otten & ' ed on 52 P laced His transcen- the " passionless. ac- s inter _ - and en. Ap. 3 He wills. i. the universe in general. 1. 12. that more may be saved. i. finally. 5.p. or Brjfiiovpybs. 9 ii ii. 16. Ap. 13. 7. 102. Ap. 7 28. 49. i. yet not because events are necessary. ii. . Ap. 16. . 12 He > cares. 2 Dial. i. 37. Ap. 6 but tively concerned in the conduct of His rational God is is . anadfc- Ap. ii. 143 well as the universe. nilLOSOPIIY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY.. ii. 84. Dial. 12. ii. 25. 10 It was out of goodness creatures. 10. Ap. 7. 28. Dial. Dial. 127. . 5 . Ap. i. is ii. 5.And „A care „„ M of d 13 individuals. i. He is not only spe. i. i. 2 He knows both the His 4 actions and the thoughts of can do whatever He cause creatures. 19 Dial. Dial. 34. nor be- He has decreed that they do or be what they are but foreseeing • • He i ordains k reward or punishment accord• ingly. 58 . 11 His was in accordance with His counsel ness man's sake that He made the d_ - that Christ came. No fatalism. 126. 16 the dence ii." 1 iroirjTris lo the " incorruptible. • in man is unceasing.

"

144
" unchangeable,"
*

JUSTIN MARTYR.
but he describes the divine transcen-

dence in most extreme terms.

God

is

exalted above all

the universe, and has an ineffable glory and name. 2

He
God,"

can be called by no fixed name. 3
gotten,

In

fact,

being unbe-

He

has no name. 4

The terms

" Father," "

" Creator," " Lord,"
is,

and

"

Master " do not describe what He

activities. 5

but are mere appellations to set forth His manifested These expressions, it should be observed, are

capable of a meaning quite unobjectionable from a New Testament point of view, but they are used by Justin with a partiality which shows that the transcendence of

Deity occupied a controlling place in his mind.
appears
still

This

more

clearly when, in

arguing that the

God who appeared to Abraham was not the Father and Maker of all, Justin insists 6 that the latter "remains
ever in the supercelestial places, visible to none, and

never holding intercourse directly
thinks
of
all,

"'

with any."

He

also

it

absurd to say that the Father and Maker
left

having

the supercelestial places, was visible

on a

little

portion of the earth,8 and declares that " the

ineffable Father

and Lord of

all

neither has

come

to

any

place, nor walks, nor sleeps, nor rises up, but remains in

his

own

place,

wherever that

is,

quick to behold and
ears,

quick to hear, having neither eyes nor
indescribable might
all things,
;

but being of

and knows and in the whole confined to a spot He is not moved or world, for He existed before the world was made. How, then, could He talk with any one, or be seen by any

and

He

sees all things,

and none of us escapes His observation

;

one, or appear on the smallest portion of the earth
1

?

9

8 6
7

Ap. Ap. Ap.

i. i.

13.

2
4

Ap.
Ap.

i.

9;
61
;

ii.

10, 12, 13.
6.

10.
6.

i.

ii.

ii.

Dial. 56.
8

bC iavrov.
Dial. 127.

Dial. 60.

9

PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY.

145

God

therefore

is,

according to Justin, the eternal, imDistant from
creation,

movable, unchanging Cause and liuler of the
universe,

who
is

resides

afar

off

above

the

heavens, and

incapable of coming

into immediate

contact with any of His creatures, but is observant of and interested in them though removed from and un-

approachable by them.
cause
is

He

is

the universal Father, be-

the author of all existences. He Need of in... . most real, yet most distant ; living and ac- termediate

He is

tive,

act

yet so transcendent in His nature as to and be known only through an intermediate being. We think it evident that two conceptions of Deity

were struggling with each other in Justin's mind.

God

had
only
in

become a living reality to him.
so,

Not

Twoconcep-

but

human human life.

a living factor peitynot history, a real and known force in harmonized,
Christ had revealed the character and will
all,

God had become

and had brought Him practically same time Justin had not freed himself from the philosophical conception of Deity as simply the unknowable and transcendent Cause. He had not learned the other truth of God's immanence, and had not been able intellectually to adjust the fact, which
of the Father of

near to men.

But

at the

he nevertheless

felt to

be true, of God's intimate rela-

tion to believers.

In the introduction to the Dialogue

he defines God as " that which always maintains the same nature, and in the same manner, and is the cause
of all other things."
scription of that "
1

He

also appeals to
is

Plato's deall dis-

Being who

the cause of

cerned by the mind, having no color, nor form, nor

magnitude, nor anything visible to the eye

;

but It

is

something of
1

this sort, that is
3.
ira(rr}s

beyond

all essence, 2

unut-

Dial.

2

ineKtiva

ovalas.

De Rep.

vii.

509.

10

146
terable,

JUSTIN MARTYR.
and inexplicable, but alone beautiful and good,

coming suddenly to souls that are naturally well-dispositioned on account of their affinity with, and desire to It would appear that this conception of see Him." 1 Deity, which he obtained from Platonism, and with which he united the Aristotelian idea of the immovability of the First Cause,2 remained substantially with Justin after he became a Christian, and that his doctrine of the Logos, to which we shall next refer, by occupying the place which would have called forth an expression of the divine immanence and by removing the Supreme Deity from immediate intercourse with men, left the doctrine of the transcendence of

God

in all

its

bareness, and

unadjusted to that practical revelation of His personal
nearness and constant activity in nature and

human

life

which had been given by
seen

Christianity.

Justin did not

merely say, like the fourth Evangelist, that "no

man

hath

God

at

any time."

He went
me
;

further.

He

did not

fully appreciate the other

words recorded by the same
hath seen the Father,"

authority, "

He

that hath seen

nor those of the Apostle to the Gentiles, "
live

In

Him we

and move and have our being for He is not far from any one of us." God is indeed described by him as a person would be. All things issue not from necessity, but from the divine will and for a divine purpose. God is the free and sovereign Creator of the universe. On the
one hand,

He

is

a living reality, personally watchful

regulative of His creation, the author of all holiness
salvation as well as of all
is
life.

and and

On

the other hand,

He

far

removed from the world, and necessarily disconit,

nected with

save as

He
is

operates through that Logos,

1 2

Dial. 4.

The passage

a summary of Platonic ideas.
xii. GO, etc.).

Cf. "Weizsacker (Jakrb. fur deutsehe Theol.

PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY.

147

whose existence alone bridges the gulf which would Yet otherwise have been impassable and inexplicable. more natural than that one what was coming from Platonism to Christianity should have been unable to adjust the idea of God to which he had been accustomed to the new revelation in which he had
believed
1
?

1

Cf. "Weizsacker, Ibid.,

pp. 75-77;

Von

Engelhardt, Ibid.,
M'artyrer

pp. 127-139

and 231-241
;

;

Stahlin's Justin der

und

sein neuester Beurtheiler (a criticism of

Von Engelbardt from
Darstellung
merit of

the orthodox side) Justins (Zeitschr.
of

Hilgenfeld's Die neuorthodox

fiir

wissensch. Theol., 1879, p. 493; a criticism
It is the

Von Engelhardt from the rationalistic side). Von Engelbardt to have shown the influence on
of his abstract, philosophical conception of

Justin's theology

God.

He

does not

deny that Justin believed practically as both Stahlin and Hilgenfcld seem

in the personality of

God,

to suppose

;

but he thinks

that Justin did not realize the full idea of divine personality.

God was

to Justin

an individual being.

I believe that Justin

God's personality (so Weizsacker), but had not freed himself from phrases and ideas inconsistent with it. A similar fact may be noticed, not only in Philo, who strove to combine the abstract conception of the Infinite with his Jewish monotheism (cf. Zeller's Outlines of Greek Philosophy, pp. 321, etc.), but also in the Roman Stoics, who spoke as if God were personal,
fully recognized

though

in fact

writers as

Maximus

they merged of Tyre,

Him
who

in the universe,

and

in such

united the doctrine of divine

transcendence with belief in Providence and a most religious spirit. but Justin found through Christ a real, personal God
;

Platonism only by removing him far from pantheism, and leading him to regard God as a single, independent, but in Himself wholly unknowable being, the author
this affected his previous

and governor
his doctrine of

of creation,

existence, can be philosophically

and yet of whom no predicate, except and absolutely affirmed while the Logos not only kept him from modalism and
;

emanationism, but increased his sense of the Father's transcendence by making all divine activity to be mediated by the Logos.

Von
tian

me to understate the Chriselement in Justin. Hilgenfeld still clings to the alleged Jewish-Christian character of the Apologist.
Engelhardt, however, seems to

148
II.
II

JUSTIN MARTYR.
"We pass next to Justin's doctrine of the Logos,

The

which plays

so

important

a

part

in

his

Logos.

system of thought.

The term occurs oftenest in the Apologies, but the most important points of the doctrine are brought out Justin introduces the word as a familin the Dialogue. iar one to both Christians and pagans. He uses the
doctrine in the Apologies to explain the real nature of Christ, and

why He

is

called

Son of God and worits

shipped as divine by the Christians, as well as to explain the real nature of Christianity and
to

relation

other truth.
Christ

He

uses

it

in the Dialogue to
to

show

that

was the God who appeared

Abraham

and Moses.
It is
first,

then, to be observed that Justin used " Lo-

gos
d

"

in the sense of " Eeasou,"
the

and conceived of the

"Logos"
sen S ?of

divine Logos as the personal Eeason of God.

Thus we read

1
:

"

Not only among the Greeks
were
these
things

"Reason."

through Socrates
reason,2 but also

con-

demned by

among
form,

the barbarians by

the Eeason Himself,3

who took

those

and was called Jesus Christ." who have lived reasonably 5 were

and became man, So he maintains 4 that
Christians, while

those

who

lived irrationally

6

were wicked.

Christians

live " according to the

knowledge and contemplation of

the whole Logos (which
to those

who

is Christ)," being thus superior formerly lived " according to a part of the
7

germinal Logos."

Christ

is

the whole Eationality, 8 the

complete Eeason. " God begat from Himself a Beginning
1

Ap.

i.

5.

4

virb Xo'you.

3 vtt
5
7

avTov tov Xdyou.

Ap.
9,

i.

46.

fiera Xdyou.

6

dvev \6yov.

o-ntpnaTtKov Xdyou.
Xo'yos.

Ap.

ii.

8

:

cf.

ii.

where Christ

is

said

to

be the 6p66s
8

to XoyiKou to SXov.


PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY
before all creatures, 1 a certain rational Power,2
called

149

who

is

by the Holy
is

Spirit,

Glory of the Lord, Son,
3

"Wisdom, Angel, God, Lord, and Logos."
Logos, therefore,

The divine

essentially akin to reason in

He
in

is the active, divine

man. power in the universe, which

corresponds to and perfectly realizes the rational element

human

nature.

He

is is

therefore the perfect Reason, of

which human reason
idea of the Logos.
to explain the

the copy.

I

need xotthe
-

hardly observe that this

an not the Johannean ££^! nte he term It manifestly was an effort
is

Johannean doctrine by the philosophical
Justin, as will appear

idea of the divine Logos which Philo had elaborated

out of Platonism and Stoicism.

more

fully in the next lecture, presupposes John.

The
the

philosophical,

rationalizing explanation followed

statements of the fourth Evangelist, the absence from

whom
of the

of this

Platonizing conception

is

notable evi-

dence that the famous Prologue was not the product
mind.
this

same influences which wrought upon Justin's The latter, on the contrary, already betrays, in

fundamental idea of the Logos as Reason, the phi-

losophical forces which were affecting his intellectual

conception of Christianity.

As

to the nature

and work of the Logos,
to

Justin expresses himself as follows:
First, as to

The work of the Logos.

His relation

God, the Father of all things.
Hi? relation
ther.

Justin teaches that the Logos was begotten by the will

and power of God,
to creation.
1

at a point of time previous

He

is

the

first

begotten of God,
all

4

Or, " at the beginning before ndvrav rav KTio-pdrcov^).
2
3

creatures "

(dpxtjv irpb

6 Beos yeyevv^Ke bvvap.lv riva e£ iavrov \oyocrjv.

Dial. 61.
irpcbrov ye'wrjpa.

4

Ap.

i.

21.

npcoroTOKOs-

Ap.

i.

23, 33

;

Dial.

84, 85, 100, 116, 125, 138.

but not eternally. 105. 61. 5 Svvdpei Kai ftovXrj. 128. 9 Trpotro/xtXei. like the rays of light from the sun 10 nor did He proceed from God by abscission. The opposite view is taken by Weizsacker and Yon Engelhardt. 11 so that by begetting Him the substance of the Father was diminished. 105. n 13 Kara anoTcpTjv. 61.X. 3 creatures He from . then the is Lo^os was "begotten " at the moment of creation. teal 6 : 6 8i Aoyos avTov npb raiv noLr/pdrcov . Dial. Dial. according to was not personally Ap. If the former. 12 Justin illustrates the generation of the Logos by the production of a word by speech. i. He was begotten by the Father's in a peculiar way. ii. 23 but as a person was 1 buvapis. 61. Dial. ivpoiXBovTa. 10 13 14 Dial. Cf. 8 and with whom the Father communed. so neither was He an emanation from God. in quite a Philonian manner.t. airb tov Dial. 129. out of the Father Himself. fiovoytvr]s yevvrjfxa Oekfjaei. and the kindling of Justin. 14 then. besides the references given above. Dial. 62. . naTpos npoftXfjdev. 13 The Logos eternal. before creation. k. <tvv<ov ical yevvcopevos ore tt)v apxyv navTa eWio-e . 9 As He was not a creature. . 1 will. who think Justin conceived the Logos to have dwelt in communion with the Father a long time. 105. . Dial. Ap. XP 1(TT0S ^*Vrat - ^his is tlie raost di '^ cult passage in Justin's doctrine of the Logos. and Justin creation is said to have regarded the Logos as evSidOeros before and npo(popiKbs at creation. 2 ano tov Trarpos avrov. is described as proceeding 4 before all the Father. o-vvrjv t<5 Dial. p. 3 I8ia>s e'£ 4 6 7 8 Dial. The clause ore ttjv may qualify yewupvos or Xeyerai. 100. fire by fire.150 a divine Power. 107). by the latter's power and counsel 5 the only-begotten by the Father of all things 6 the Offspring who was really brought forth from the Father 7 before all creatures.. 61. This view taken by Semisch and Aube (Saint Justin. and who was with the Father. 2 JUSTIN MARTYR. ra rw ovti TrarpL irarpi t£>v o\a>v.

d7rooToXoy. 128. 37. 63. — mind. moreover. 5 and divine. evftiddcros and npocpopiKbs. 128. which God " conceived and made by Him. i. the product of the Father's will at fore 151 some period be1 creation. He is "in number" all things. He was not an emanation. 86. 6 Dial. other Begotten in than the God who made 2 but not ^J^ will > 1116 "in but begotten. So Dial. i. 63 Dial. as as He was not created. 56.cp. speaks of the latter's deity and divine powers as depending on the exercise of the Father's will 7 is The Logos. 56. 34. Dial. however. i. 10. 58. not tinctness from each other God." 8 He is also the Father's messenger 9 and minand redemption. 56.. Dial. As. the cause (curios) of His power i. ayyeXos. and their numerical dismust have been as to perHence He is called substance. 64 ii. 34. 128. on the one hand. Dorner's History of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ. 36. 76. one with the Father of sonality. there nothing said by Justin of a distinc- between Xoyos erepos dpidp. 1. 93. nor a mode of appearance. 6 os Xoyos kcu TrpcoroTOKOs &v tov 6eov <a\ 6e6s vndp)(€i. the the Logos. Contrast this with John i. 8 i.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. Ap." Yet. 86. . and the sentence and then ordained tion to be the agent of creation is Elsewhere. thinking of the generation of the Logos. 4 while at the same time . . and 8 of 9 His being Lord and God. 63. 5 Ap. 129. 126. 126. 125. Ap. 270-273. . 128. . the agent and servant of Agent the Father of latter all. so is in creation - communes with the Logos the organ of creation. 3 — he must as to 6 have been to Justin essentially all. does not require that construction here. 1 2 Or will. nor a temporary effulgence of divine glory and power. 115. Ap. 62. 63. i. yet divine. Dial. yvcoprj. Ap. i. 63. 87. 113. The Father of all is the Father and God of the Logos. Justin. Ap. 129. 84. . 4 Cf.

and as evidently departed from others. by the philosophical ideas with which his earlier training had brought him into sympathy. and undertook to cany out His will. 60. who ap- peared to the patriarchs and spoke through the prophets. and which were widely diffused in his age. bevrepav pev yap \d>pav 6(ov Xoyco . His theory evidently contained New Testament elements. 126. Dial. 1 JUSTIN MARTYR. brief." tu> irapa VI. and should not expect the earliest theologian to escape mistakes. nXdrcoi/).152 ister. He is God. He is therefore the medium between the Transcendent One and the tial finite universe. says Justin. host of other good angels and the Cf. and if Justin we should remember the larger made what we amount all what we consider truth which he maintained. and His worship by the Christians. in to our author. Especially was this part of his theinfluenced ence of phi1 2 Ap. Effort to 5 dmmtVof Christ. both as to His person which was begotten in time and as to His He is worshipped. We see in him the earliest effort of the uninspired Church to think out the doctrine of the Trinity consider errors. 61. " Him and the Son i. 125. Lect. He was made numerically from Him. by the Christians office. who came from Him and the prophetic Spirit we worship. i. The Logos is thus the manifested God. 13. capable of immediate self-revelation to His creatures. 57. was the nature of the Logos according Such was Justin's effort to explain the doctrine of the divinity of Christ. in the second place after God the Father of all. of . . So Ap. vTnjptrrjs. 2 Such. 8i8co<Ti (scil. But with his relations to the later Trinitarian discussion we are not now simply to observe that his . i. ' vtbp avrov rov ovtcos 6(ov paOovres Kai iv bevrepa x^P a iX 0VTes . He is therefore subordinate to the Father. Ap. 6. 113. . Our point is doctrine of the Logos was concerned. Consubstan- with the Father of distinct all. 56.

and as rfjv pera rov Trp£>Tov 8ebv bvvap. ral bent of Justin's That philosophy was A x ^ especially of sufficiently Platonic to accord with the natu- Alexandri- mind. A. i. 55) than God. 6) the names applied to the Logos (Dial. . 1 2 Nevertheless. tin It is even probable that Justhe literature was directly familiar with of the Philonian school. all of which can hardly have been accidental. and the writings of Philo himself. Modern Review. and the phrase itself was of the namelessness of God. Dr. Philo's doctrine of the Logos was sufficiently like 1 in reality utterly different — though — to the two were affect naturally the thought of the Church. 61). It is enough here to remark again that the presence of these Alexandrian elements in Justin and the absence of them from the Fourth Gospel would seem clearly to indicate that the latter was not the product of the philosophical influences betrayed by differently Stoical origin (cf. p. Abbott has pointed out a number of striking literary coincidences between Justin and Philo. that of the fourth Evangelist Further- more. below) . 59) compared with Philo's devrepos 6(6s and the illustration of the generation of the Logos by the kindling of fire from fire (Dial. 12G) the description of the Logos as erepos (Dial. note 5. ii. 1882. For Dr. E. The other coincidences mentioned by Dr. "Weiss's Einleitung. an exaggerated idea of di- Cf.iv (Ap. Abbott seem to me doubtful. : the former. . see Lect. V. 591. 2 It is indeed true that Justin differs from Philo more than he resembles him.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. and in its turn deeply affected Justin's use of philosophical thought and language. that God is older than all other things (Ap. and the reason for it. The most striking of these coincidences are the use of the phrase Xdyoy aneppaTiKos. though Justin uses from Philo. namely. . 153 ology influenced by the speculations of the Jewish Alexandrian school. Abbott's argument against Justin's use of the Fourth Gospel. it July. It was also suffi- ciently Biblical in its form and pretensions to accord with his valuation of the Old Testament. Christianity made that difference.

1 But whatever was the nature of this relation. 55. includ- ing the whole rational and moral intelligence of man. hold upon his mind. Jus- toman. and through the human mind so that whatever of truth men possess comes from their relation to the divine but especially makes Himself . The Logos is represented not only as the agent of God in creation. etc. 13. well is He did not regard the the manifestation of the divine. tin expresses very obscurely. and of the need of an intermediate Being or Beings to unite the Infinite and the maintained its finite.154 JUSTIN MARTYR. Justin's we next serve the relation in view of the Logos man. He is everywhere present and active. 2 was so akin to the divine. it was the Logos who spoke through the prophets. point. 46. so universally present with the more. and the divine Eeason was human. On this latter He commonly says that the prophetic or i Holy Spirit Cf. What that relation precisely is. ii. "We can only say that to Justin the human reason. and led him to introduce into the very foundation of Christianity an element which was nut only unchristian itself. the Logos was The theophanies granted the medium of revelation. Justin's expressions vary. 8. that the dictates of reason were revelations of the Logos himself. . indeed. He was certainly for no pantheist. 5. affected his whole apprehension of his if This latter fact will appear. i. . vine Transcendence. but as the organ of all divine revelation. 2 Ap. Ap. f The Logos au%°vda-° tion. but obto which seriously religion. as we have observed his relation to the divine Father. Still to the patriarchs were appearances of the Logos. 63 Dial. for Yet human men reason as to reason them to partake of the divine Logos. i. known to His relation Logos.

141. 155 But he meant to also speaks of the prophets as inspired by the divine Logos we do not think that Justin and while deny the person] ality of the Spirit. for through the sowing of the implanted Logos which was in them. 39.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. 2 and while he doubtless regarded the the fundamental fact. or Eeason. 13. Spirit as the organ of the Logos. cf. 8. . On * 6 the other hand. i. 7 "Whatever philosophers and lawgivers said or discovered well was done by them through a partial disgenerally through men Logos to imitate covery and contemplation of Eeason not recognize is . 2 Cf. 5. 3 and quite But - more widely operates. VI.8 9 who Each Christ. such writers were able dimly to see the realities. na- Of Him "every race partakes." philosopher. i. Ap. 10 This doctrine of the seminal Logos. spoke well. 60. 10. \6yos cnrepfiaTiKos- . ii. etc. 6 the God teaches Him. Aube's Saint Justin. 8 T(5. 5 The Stoic were admirable because of the seed of the Logos is which implanted in every race of men. io TO £i x<fy ou ii. still He regards does he teach that the Logos The seminal Him as active every. 11 is the one most characteristic of Justin. Lect. i. 33. Ap. ii. spoke through the prophets. yet the activity of the latter was to him threw into the background the work of the Spirit. i. 8 Cf. ii. 65. Ap. 1 The term itself was Ap. 46. 6. 6 7 9 11 Ap.Lo « os all where. pp. 9." 4 demned the ethics errors of the Through Socrates He conGreek religion. 61. Ap. but since they did all the teachings of the Eeason. Ap. and as having been always present in tions revealing the truth to receptive minds. seeing from a portion of the seminal divine Logos what was congenial to all it. they often contradicted each other. 36. Ap.

He declares not only that man was same created intelligent and with power but that he 1 to choose the true and do the good. 8 4 Ap. according to him. The "seed of the Logos" means with him the rational apprehension of truth. 230. of the manifested Reason of God. why men had apprehended TTT III." because He imparts these seeds of truth. . He calls it a " seed " or " sowing. avre^ovalovs 7rpos SiKaLonpatjiav. i. 2 Justin uses the term in his own way. previously been III. Uberweg's History of Philosophy. 241. and had so gen- Justin's x . "When.3 still retains the ability. we inquire of our author so little of the Logos. known in scattered fragments. i. then. being everywhere diffused Christianity. The Logos. 1 but had been adopted by Philo to designate the copies of the archetypal ideas which exist in the world and. Dial. 88. that is. failed to follow the teaching erally J ° of divine anthropoi- Reason. 28. we not only discover the weakest still point in Justin's theology. thus modified. and active. 141. Cf. as apprehended by philosophers and others. but rather the perfect revelation of what had .156 JUSTIN MARTYR. ." because it was but a partial or dim apprehension. p. i. He was the formative principle of right knowledge and right living. 4 Each man Zeller's Outlines of 2 \6yos irpofopiKos- Greek Philosophy. yet was capable of germinating into the full truth. But. and because. of Stoical origin. but perceive more clearly how much his philosophical premises led him to differ from the teaching of the New Testament. 10. Justin calls " seminal. the doctrine was to our author the link which united Christianity with all that was good and true in human thought so that he could claim that it was not a novelty. — its portions. Ap. constitute reality. namely.

he 4 says. by his own free choice does right or wrong. 10. 2 ii. Ap. . but he goes so far to the other recognize any responsibility extreme that he fails to unless founded on full individual ability. 3 Justin was arguing against fatalism . also Dial. i. Cf. 10. 5. 'Abaft. i. 2. 7. i. men work out death for themselves. 43. 88. " Since Adam. ano tov Dial. 6 To inborn depravity there is barely the slightest allusion. koto. 141. in their power to receive the truth from the Logos. 100. Adam's transgression is indeed spoken tional faculties in included of as marking the origin of human sin and death. have been endowed with ra- which the power of free choice is and the condition of salvation has always been the apprehension and imitation of God.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. ii. bdvafxiv. Ap." 9 Being made like to Adam and Eve. Dial. Ap. Dial. 14. 9 10 napa. 1. neither rewarded nor punished and the fact that they do change from evil to good. Ap. Ap. ii. 11 and Justin speaks with particular emAp. but apparently as the beginning rather than as the cause of it. 141. 4. where he says the demons have as their /cat ally ttjv iv eVucrTO) Kaxrjv Trpos irdtrra 8 ttoikiXtjv (pvcrti emdvplav. 7 and of a universal guilt he says nothing. 124. 10 Men 1 differ. 7. " Ap. 13. 8 the race has fallen under death and the deceit of the serpent. it is true. each through his man having done evil own fault.. 8 6 43. 6 7 46. Men. 8. * Ap. 10. Dial. i. and each by his own fault is what he will appear to be at last. 140. 7. 2 If they 157 are Men had it not. proves that they have the power. ii.6 or the living according to reason. 1 responsible because they have the power to choose. Human fr they could be dom and . and from good to evil. i. and represents man's moral choice as the unassisted work of each individual. ii. 28. ttjv I8lav alriav.

1. ch. vidual conduct. and © . and . 6)." and are therefore easy victims of the demons. The possession of reason. 1 are individual variations. also Lenormant's Les Origines de l'histoire.accept the legend. all men stand or fall according to their indi. but makes the demons wicked because opposed to He believes also in good angels (Ap. Ap. their offspring. of sin as destroying man's ability to please God. but says lit- of them. as well as with his recognition of the at least partly historical character of the latter. 58. made belief in this belief. who " cannot rise from the earth. and declared them to be the great foes of the Gospel. then.) shows. Aube is certainly wrong in making demonology to have passed to the Christians from the Persians. the demons. Christ. 10. ii. and was confirmed by the popular paganism but Christ and the Apostles taught the reality of evil It spirits. Commentaries on Gen. since the Logos occupies his thought as mediator between God and man. . and is represented in some of the manuscripts of the LXX. 6. vii. i. on the contrary. vi. of the union of the angels who had been placed by God over the world with the daughters of men. The legend naturally accorded with Justin's desire to show analogies between Christian and heathen traditions. 2 What. Moreover. vii. as Aube (Saint Justin. The form in which it appears in Justin came to the Christians from the Alexandrian Jews. pagan philosophy 1 8 . It is elaborated in the apocryphal book of Enoch. founded on Gen. ch. i. involves the power of moral choice and since reason is possessed by all men. i. was the origin of ? human wickedness it > hostility to the truth Justin replies that was first _ The demons originated caused by the power of the evil angels. 2.158 phasis of some JUSTIN MARTYR. tle Justin coincides with tai/xoves very prominent. He is the of the Church Fathers vi. 3 These fallen angels and demons 2 Ap. Cf. to . . Ap. This interpretation of Genesis had been adopted by the Alexandrian Jews. But these Of a guilty world. he says nothing. hi. Philo found in it another point of connection between Judaism and heathenism.

i. i. i. i. i. 64 ii. 57. Ap. 13) represent them as angels also human though the Homilies form. 12. 159 subdued them by fices. 19) interpret "the sons of God " as " righteous men who had in lived the life of angels. therefore. noteworthy that the Clem.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. he speaks of the that souls of the dead took possession of men. 30. 14." not 2 Ap. 57. popular belief Ap. 21. i. 1. 3 their hostility to the Christians. and sung by the poets. taught them to offer sacri- blinded Reason by terror." 1 make the offspring " giants. 23. 58. In Ap. 83. and referring to actual apparitions from the spiritworld. 18. 13. . as proof of the truth of Christianity. 5. i. 10. 76. Ap. 8 Dial. 23. ogies between Christianity and paganism. 6. Dial. 5. ii. ii. and have ever waged war against Reason. and by fomenting followers stories. or the Logos. Recogg. they taught to their and themselves performed deeds in what the Christ would do. 26. overcame them with fear. 54. Both Rec- ognitions and Homilies " demons. 50. as gods. 7 At any rate. too. 9. 2 Having learned from the prophets of the coming Christ. thus showing what the Ebionite view was (viii. magical writings. Hence the analHence. 8 6 7 i. 79. 58. polytheism was the product of the demons. which they expressed by raising impostors and heretics. the world of spirits was very real. 5. ii. . i. 25. 9 ii. 23. 12. He considered the stories of the poets largely historical. and * 6 . Ap. 1 The demons thus originated polytheism. 85. 8 Ap. Ap. 5. Ap. 8 He appeals to frequent exorcisms of demons by is Christians. 13. appeared to men. 7. and were adored by the people. 5. 5. the Logos 5 unreasonableness of the and the utter which Christians are evil treated proves the demoniacal origin of persecution. imitation of persecution. ii. 6 To Justin. 4 Had it not been would have restrained men from way in for them. 9 (i." . 56. Ap. 10.

105. i. His view of man is essentially that to which a ration- the demons have imposed. the evil under which humanity suffers is not inherited guilt. testifies that the influences which modified Justin's Christi- anity were philosophical. In Dial. „. pp. unappears to modern eyes. their appearances. Their dominion due to human fear and igno- Bat at the same time the dominion of the demons is represented as due to the terror caused by j J L . 5. but that Christians are The righteous ancients. It must thus. « Ap. 3 it Even his demonology. With. to the blinding of reason . It thus. 5. 99) but of His then delivered from such. etc. he says that in .160 JUSTIN MARTYR. was in his all age shared in various forms by writers of nearly inevitable that Justin it was would represent Christianity in a correspondingly defective and one-sided way. alizing theology usually comes. Ignatius ad Mag. but did not remain there (Dial. and to man s ignorance of the real nature of the supposed gods. delivering the Hebrew saints. on the 8 Ap. these premises in his mind. 111. we think. . philosophical as schools. . Christ went to Hades. i. ancient times the souls of the prophets and the righteous fell at death under the dominion of evil angels. then. he apparently shared in this belief himself but probably he regarded these souls as themselves under the power of demons. Justin says nothing. or corruption. ii. 1 Apparently Cf. 12. none would choose wickedness. p.. be again manifest that Justin's conceptions of human freedom and need were determined by his conception of the Logos as reason. . again. . but ignorance and fear. will be saved through Christ in the resurrection (Dial. . Cf. they were not to be delivered until the resurrection. To him IV. Aube's Saint Justin. contrary. however. Kaye's Justin Martyr. 45). 1 And hence reason can break the fetters which If all knew the truth. 2 In short. 224. by passion at their suggestion. ix.

4 fore. ii. through that was crucified. 13 Ap. i. 13. was He came to destroy the Christ's power of the demons. ° 1 The Logos who believed. 66. ii. 63. Ap. primaniyTo He conquered death. Dial. 45. 70. 5 By dying and rising. Ap. 84. and spoken through the prophets. 63. and been partially known to all mankind. 54. ii. i. 64. 7 By His blood He cleanses believers. Ap. 13 Our teacher is Jesus Christ. Dial. on all races of believing men. Dial. 10 i. 88. - endured our sins. 50. Consequently the object of Christ's coming was. Dial. The full manifestation of truth. 11 Him By His blood But while these and similar is laid by Justin on Christ as a teacher. Dial. 48. Ap. the greatest stress 1 He us.\ fivcrrrjplov tov crravpov KTrjcrdfievos avTois. 105. indeed. had voluntarily 2 and according to the will of the Father 3 become incarnate The whole Logos had thus rein the Virgin Mary. 23. 32. 88. 113. 103. Becoming man. St' aljjiaTOi ko. 68. 34. 74. TV Justin IV. 131. i. i. who was bought expressions are frequent. positively most * * . 6 . 2 * 6 8 9 11 12 Ap. 63. 103. 43. This. i. 98. 99. ii. 10. 11 . 100. 134.: PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. s had previously appeared to the patriarchs. i. 10. 6. 33. 6. there- had at last been made. 8 He not its only object. i. Dial. 1G1 the grand fact of Christianity was the incarnation of In a real incarnation he the divine Logos. 46 . primarily to teach. He taught us for the conversion and restoration of the human race. Dial. 91. 40. 3 6 7 Ap. ! ' one-sided rcpresentation of Chris- vealed himself. 105. 23. 12 Ap. 5. 13 . 75. Ap. 54. . Dial. in Justin's thought. 66 . 33 63. . 23.6 By His suffering He teach saves us. 32. all 10 things for our sakes 9 and on account of the mystery of God has mercy.

Dial. 22. cf. 10 Dial. 4 5 opposed to 13 . 32 . « Dial. 11. 61. from the context. and Christianity is therefore the complete While previous " writers were able sowing of the impossess the participation 4 to see realities darkly through the planted Logos. 8. 14. 141. Dial. So cf. 76." Christians and active imitation 6 of the Logos Himself. too. 6 8 Ap. i. 9 If tations he quotes 10 the Psalm. 102. The clean raiment of the saints is not the robe of imputed righteousness. ii. Ap. 11. which the heathen had. but to the exhor- and revelations of the Logos made externally to us. 11. Ap. i. 14. ii. born for this very purpose. Ap. 12 Thoma's article in the Zeitschr. 83. "When he says 7 that " Christ through sharing our suffering brings us healing. When faith. 383. i. i. but the future reward with which we shall be invested if we do His commandments. He proves Justin's use of Paul's epistles. /xi[xr]ij. etc. but . and to So." he also understands include only the sins previously committed.162 JUSTIN MARTYR. fierovcria. 8. xviii.. 100. 1 Ap." he says 8 that " God persuades and leads us to he seems again." the context makes it clear that this healing was conceived of by Justin as the correction of our errors through giving us the truth. 2. 1 He is the true lawgiver 2 and law. 13. 18. 13. 20. fxifirjo-is. 9 10. 2 Dial. 43. 116. expressions which apparently belonged to another type of theology are often rationalized by Justin into harmony with his own mode of thought. 121. to refer not to the work of the Spirit in the heart. 3 revelation of truth. 12 1 remission of sin to be received in baptism. 10. 9. 6 Moreover. 116. 12. Cf. i. fur wissensch. 13. according to the grace which is from Him. also " Ap. " Blessed is the man to whom n the the Lord imputeth not sin. ii.a. 113. Theol.

He believed also that Christ a King. ii. 14. Ap. 1 Christ by His death and resurrection had won a victory. and as not meaning that Christ was cursed by God. 36. who hopes be saved through belief in Christ's teaching. 3 Faith is belief in the truth of Christ's word rather than the acceptance of a finished redemption and with it not merely repentance but . but was due to Justin's desire to meet an obvious Jewish misapplication of the phrase. and truth. 74. . 95. 2 . 92. . At the same time his Pauline doctrine. admit his proof. for Justin teaches the same doctrine himself in the same passage (" The Father caused him to suffer these things in behalf of the human family"). 102. 10.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. 51 8. 116. The passage (Dial. 111. Dial. power itself. though we think that he points out many resemblances which are doubtful . III. is no rationalizing of the Pauline doctrine. and actually reigning in the unseen world. ii. baptism for the remission of past sins. 53. 65 1. his idea of salvation He commonly represents is it as future. over the evil His spirits is and over death. 2 8 Ap. 45. . 100. . We but we think that he gives the wrong reason for Jus- tin's modifications of Cf. and VI. 96) explanation harmonizes with his disposition to find external items of the fulfilment of prophecy. Lectt. i. 113. 42. 10. 121 Ap. where Justin explains the sentence " Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree " as fulfilled when the Jews cursed Christ. in the power of This tendency affected. 44. 2 in spite of such expressions the manifest tendency But of his thought was to find the real centre of Chrisits tianity in its being the revelation of truth. Christ's 163 power is chiefly represented as consisting in Justin certainly believed that mighty word. and with his inability really to appreciate the 1 Hebrew economy. i. Dial. as The Chris- tian not so to much a saved man one His idea of salvatl °n. Dial. and subsequent obedience. in which His people are to share. contends that he rationalizes their thought. 35. finally. 40-42.

joined as the condition of obtaining the future reward. . 47. but 1 Ap. 19.164 obedience is JUSTIN MARTYR. Kaivorroir]6(VT€s bia rov xpioroO. 4. by our works also to be found good citizens and keepers of the commandments. . 8. 1 tin's Most notably does : this " appear in Jusas account of the sacraments As many teach are persuaded and. 28. we may be saved with an everlasting salvaMaking allowance for Justin's evident effort to represent the Christian doctrines and ceremonies in the way most likely to commend them to his pagan readers. with of their sins that are past. 41. i. believe that what undertake to be we is true. are instructed to fasting. i. side of his theology Of 7 we shall speak hereafter. Lect. 13. 4 3 5 Ap. 61." 5 Then. 44. i. that we may offer prayers. "after we have thus washed him who has been convinced and has assented to our teaching. 1. expressions can be quoted which seem quite inconsistent with his prevailing theory. 129. as has been this already said. 7 Cf. and. ." 6 learned the truth. we yet cannot but see that his whole idea of the way of salvation was strongly affected by what we may fairly term his rationalistic tendency. 65. tya>Ti(Tix6s. 65. and are regenerated 2 in the which we ourselves were. VI. 8. 12 . Lect. 15." 3 The of those who learned the Christian was evidently the sense in which they were "made new through Christ. that we may be counted worthy. 66 . us where there is same manner "illumination" doctrines in 4 Then they are brought by water. for the remission pray and to entreat God. 28. VI. 6 Ap. now that we have so that tion. able to live accordingly. Cf. To be sure. ii. 2 avayevvaivTai. 32. Dial. we bring him to the place where the brethren are assembled. .

but the Two elements coexist in theology dominating ran. though proper. freely paucity of evidence. into combination with Gentile Christianity amid the answer. a difficult question to Doubtless the more liberal Hellenistic Jews. our very point is 165 his that he was thus inconsistent in presentation of Christianity. we have found both his exegesis By what road they entered is. who . These were the channels into These were the utterances which his own thought of his real intellectual And these all followed from the fundamental conception of the Logos as the Eeason of God mediating between transcendent Deity and the created universe. We see in it the elements. does not enter the region of theology But in Justin these philosophical influences appear in full vigor. which we m Justin's heol °gy con it as a wellhave studied. several inferences bearing on the history of seem to be warranted. and the kindred philosophical premises with which Justin approached Christianity. orthodox Christian writer not the first who betrays these influences. We recognize © tained two t known type of speculation. One was the philosophical element. The first is that Justin's theology evidently contained two elements which did not entirely harmonize. as and his theology to testify. The so-called Epistle of Barnabas contains Alexandrian elements. As now we review early Christianity (1) these features of Justin's theology. The prologue of the Fourth Gospel implies their existfirst ence in the churches of Asia at the end of the century.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. self. his language. though we hold it that it was not their product. influence on early Christianity of the cal systems of that day. traits of his were as we have stated. mixed philosophiand particularly of Platonism Justin is and Jewish Alexandrianism.

the tendency of Justin's the- ology provides. Lect. the key to the modifications 1 Cf. united at their conversion with Gentile churches. entered to modify the faith of the Church. the Valentinian and Basilidean and so must have become acquainted with other forms of Egyptian speculation. We have found reason. together with the whole philosophical movement in the early Church to which he belonged. however. write like a elties He J does not. testifies. to the previ- ous existence of the non-philosophical beliefs of which he affords us a sight as the original faith of the Christian Church. It must have preceded in Christianity the philosophical tendency. the same influence was clearly at work quite widely explain the means in the Church. man who was Christian consciously introducing nov- into thought and while his of own phi- studies may have augmented the influence losophy upon him. However we may its of contact. explain Christian doctrine philosophically.. was the from a previous age. as we know that he wrote against heresies. by his manifest effort to element . had But whence ? did Justin obtain the other element of his theology It was certainly not the product of philosophy. also. 166 JUSTIN MARTYR. for to explain it was the very object of his philosophizing. furthermore. to infer that he was acquainted with the writings of Philo or the teaching of that school. (2) But. the fact is certain that this philosophical element. . while. of the combination . we think. VI. It it was. the genuinely Christian belief of the Church handed down Hence Justin. were the principal means regards Justin himself. which even in Alexan- drian form was quite a different force from the attach- ment of Jewish Christianity to historical Judaism. therefore.

as i • in the second century. to explain corruptions doctrine is which not a . On the contrary. latter. but. do not spirit. i i •! apprehen- sion of chrisiani He renders it. their very inability to appreciate the real worth of the inability Hebrew economy seen. highly probato y ' ble that the forces which operated change apostolic doctrine were derived from paganism. Legalism Natural religion is legalistic and when the vast majority of the Church became composed of converted heathen. of course. J x we . certain but Alexandrian Judaism. so far at least as it affected Christianity. The phenomena. of rauline.. his times. with its philosophical. habits of thought Gentiles the of Church are apostolic age. (2) Philosoliis M . or. nor that the Christian life." which in the apostolic age was so strongly felt. That the prevalent view of the Old Testament as a book of perfect Christian doctrine aided this tendency. the . and also helped to impose a hierarchy on the Church. have seeu. infer He is only an illustration of we think. therefore. by him were the But we may which the sufficient only ones in operation. of apostolic doctrine Justin came. that the influences betrayed We do not mean.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY.. as a type of came to exert a controlling influence on the former. from him that the brought the into a typical one. not of Judaism.. That Alexandrian Judaism. therefore. is to be reckoned a Gentile rather than a Jewish influence. to a legalistic theology through phy modified the influence. may be admitted. is rationalizing . Justin which. pagan thought. require us to suppose a blending of anti-Jewish and Jewish Christianity. affected the post-apostolic church. began in the post-apostolic peculiarly Jewish thing. to 167 speak correctly. but of philosophy. as we have shared — an — between would tend to blunt their perception of the difference " law " and " grace.

Justin. Human- had failed really to find God. these and similar causes may be most probably assigned as the real causes of the failure of the second century on the complete doctrinal ideas of the first. Christianity in the succeeding period. the new called for stress to be laid on Christian morals in opposition to heathen manners. and to reach at the social righteousness and inward peace of which it so sorely felt the need. But humanity had If in least discovered that its need was God. It was when the apostolic age ended that the development of Christian thought toward the apostolic standard and fulness began and the superiority of the teaching of the Apostles appears most plain when we observe the fall to a lower and fragmentary apprehension of it which immediately followed. we think. could only slowly and partly appreciate. sentiments which seem that the almost Christian. wholly without these inherited ideas. in Plutarch and Maximus of Tyre. we are to infer dawn of a better day was drawing and these exceptional spirits were like high mountain-peaks . (3) Finally. the training of the Apostles in the Hebrew system must have religious truth led them to definitions of which Gentile converts. we read near. circumstances which and speculative ideas of the day. Seneca and Epictetus. it is impossible not to see exemplified in is Justin the fact that Christianity was and gospel for the tiaVii-ythe reaiization of the best aspirations of not only a lost.— 168 political JUSTIN MARTYR. but also the practical realization of the unattained ideals and un- satisfied longings o G of the ity human soul. Nothing was more natural than this. To say nothing to carry of inspiration. testifies most clearly to the direction in which we are to look for the causes which modified original . and had learned to distrust its ability to find Him.

implies the already established belief in the Church of those doctrines which his philosophy strove to understand and explain and as we shall see duct of the forces which larger sense . hereafter. came to the new was trodden by others and if these Gentile believers sometimes brought error into Christianity. their loftiest and purest Certainly the path by which Justin . save in that which Justin crudely taught when he spake of the Logos of which all men partake. which catch the first 169 It is glow from the rising sun. very certain. the latter was the satisfaction of the hitherto unsatisfied needs of paganism. indeed. but had failed to satisfy. as we have seen. religion thoughts.PHILOSOPHY AND EARLY CHRISTIANITY. and is thus witnessed by Justin as the truth for which a thinking moral world as well as a guilty lost world was unconsciously waiting. Justin. . But while the spiritual side of paganism did not aid in the creation of Christianity. that Christianity was not the pro- moulded them. they also discovered in it the divine light whose dim reflections and broken gleams had already awakened. those beliefs originated among the Christians in the apostolic age itself.

. . It is generally admitted that at the close second century our four Gospels and nearly The prob- the remaining books of the New Testament were universally regarded by the Church as aposand authoritative. and a cor- responding blending of their respective literatures into one sacred collection authentic.LECTURE V. bearing upon the ' New in Justin's position T L Testament. °' as he does. pp. whose writings are of any considerable is — Justin of the all naturally a witness of first importance on this most important subject. pp. yet churches of other acquainted by travel with the . midway J makes the second century describing the customs . etc. Standing. "T" •*- HE . 303. cities the first post-apostolic author size. which was the best mirror of the whole Christian also community. 1 ? Are any of these books unand did the reception of them as authentic Cf. / . and were placed on a level with the sacred scriptures of the Old Testament. 1 Was this tolic a new opinion ? Had there been a fusion of originally antagonistic parties into a Catholic Church. portant wit- and defending the speaking for the itself beliefs of the Christians New Testa- Eoman Church. THE TESTIMONY OF JUSTIN TO THE NEW TESTAMENT. Westcott's Testament. next phase of Justin's testimony which deattention is its mands our . Reuss's History of the Canon of the New Canon. 103-116.

either in such wise as to indicate that our four were not known at all. of the find real 171 course of grow out apostolic of a mistaken view history ? Or can we evidence of the existence and recognized authority of these books at a much earlier period. has been that which has in modern times attracted the most attention. . had it quarried and cast in confusion on the ground or did build upon a foundation already laid by apostles and apostolic men ? For the answer to this question we eagerly interrogate Justin. 2 Ap. 67. Does he show that in his day other Gospels than our four were used. so as to be warranted in concluding which prevailed at the close of the second century had always been the substantial opinion Did Christian life and thought in the of the Church ? that the opinion second half of the second century lay in order the foundations of the Church out of the stones which a previous age. if known and used." but which. were held to be no more authoritative than others tolic still. or. Justin refers frequently to certain books. i. This phase of Justin's testimony.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. . which he describes as " memoirs of the * Apostles. 66. animated by quite different ideas." and were read in the weekly assembly of the Christians interchangeably with " the prophets. and especially the question whether he used our Synoptic Gospels. ? authorship of the Fourth Gospel Did he recognize the apos? More widely did he recognize the authority of apostles. and does he testify to the existence of a sacred Christian literature comparable with the Old Testament ? It is manifestly of the utmost value to examine accurately and interpret fairly his testimony upon these points. were " called Gospels. however. i." 2 and from which he adduces events of Christ's life and examples of His 1 Ap. he says.

" 1794. 177. Schrr. he used chiefly the " Gospel of Peter." Marsh's Michaelis. 2 Similar views were introduced about the same time into England by Bishop Marsh 3 while. Cf. his " Allgemeine Bibliothek d.. bibl. 4 . JUSTIN MARTYR. 1842. j^ Eiehhorn." which he held that while Justin knew our Gospels. Kaye's Justin Martyr. 6 views were answered by Binclemann which The new Germany. in reply. 9 Justin Martyr. Lit. 8 178). Die apostol. Einleitung in das N. referring to In 1777 Stroth maintained that Justin's citations were from the Gospel according to the Hebrews (cf. 1848.. Paulus and others sought problem by maintaining that Justin took from a harmony of at in least his citations Mark and 5 Luke. pp. 6 7 8 Cf. 4 Interest the question increased after the in publication. Denkwiirdigkeiten des M. and by Bishop Kaye 1 9 and Semisch 8 in in England but the . 172 teaching . p. and the question of the identity of these crit- books with our Gospels has been one of the great ical battles of the present century.. 5 Beitr'age zur Einleit. bibl. p. p. Paulus was among the first to maintain that the Gospels were based on oral tradition while Gratz simplified Eichhorn's theory of an original written Gospel (Credner's Einleitung. in 1794. T. Weiss's Cf. Studien und Kritiken. in d. J.. and that Justin's quotations are from a previous recension of the same. 41). 3d ed. in to solve the Germany. criti- previously been denied by several writers. of Credner's "Essays. 2. below. quoted in Credner's Einleitung (1836). . Norton's Bolingbroke. in 1832. 1832. 2 Cf. The identity had 1 Modern cism. 1853. Genuineness of the Gospels. leitung. 1795.. He maintained that our Synoptics were secondary recensions of an original Aramaic Gospel. 176 also Eichhorn's later " Ein." a reference 7 to Credner claimed to find in the Dialogue. was the first to give wide currency to the denial.

584. 147. 1875." In England. 1876. began in time to prevail. fur wissensch. trans. Zeitschr. which Schwegler identified with the Gospel according to the Hebrews. he has named none of them x but Schwegler 2 denied that than tin . 2 8 4 5 Nachapost. two of which he used. however. 240. declared that "Justin meant by the memoirs our Gospels. while maintaining Justin's principal use of the Gospel according to Peter. to New Test. Zeitalter. probably the Gospel according to the Hebrews. More modIt was erate views. Dr. 1861. Gospels in the Second Century. according to which the Gospels were written in the interest of certain " ten- dencies" the operation of which was alleged to have extended far into the second century. and only the question remained whether he had also used one or more extra-canonical Gospels. Introd. T.. . & T. 1846. ii. Christian Church of the First Three Centuries." 1 i. Clark. i. Eng. alleging that he used only the Gospel of Peter.. and if so. Theol. whether he had relied on them chiefly or merely incidentally. p. On the other hand. but that we still find him to have had recourse to anof the canonical Gospels. Eaur himself merely remarks that while Juswas acquainted with one or more of our Gospels. Bleek.4 to take an example from the more conservative writers. ' ' other evangelic history. Hilgenfeld. 173 was so intimately involved with the theories of the Tiibingen school of criticism. 335. against the denials of the author of " Supernatural Eeligion.JUSTIN ON THE subject NEW TESTAMENT. recognized his use also and has reproved 3 the author of "Supernatural Pteligion" for denying the fact. that after the appearance of that school the controversy became sharper ever. Justin knew our Gospels at all. Sanday 5 has defended though Justin's use of the canonical Gospels. generally admitted that Justin knew our Synoptics.

and the approxihas contributed mate solution of the criticism difficulties suggested by earlier concerning his quotations much to the overthrow of the rationalistic theories of early Christianity. p. Paulus advanced this view. Long since. thinks the hypothesis of a harmony plausible. 136. as briefly as possible. Jus- tin's testimony to the first obtain space to notice his testimony to the Fourth Gospel." 2 supposed that the Gospel of Peter was a harmony of evangelic sources. while Westcott holds that the canonical Gospels alone. together with oral tradition. Engelhardt 3 now maintains not only that Justin used a harmony. has been written upon this part of my subject. 345. Das Christenthum Justins. it has been suggested that the prob- lem of Justin's quotations may be solved by supposing him to have used a Gospel harmony. 4 Sanday also (Gospels in the Second Century. 1 — and his testimony to the a way 1852. that. as we have stated. alleging Justin's harmony to have been formed from Mark and Luke. supplied Justin with his knowledge of the evangelic history. pp. I shall discuss. in accessible books in view of So much. and of the rise of the Catholic Church itself. also. in Canon of the New Test. in order to am confined. note) .174 still JUSTIN MARTYR. but that this was none other than a har- mony based on our Synoptics themselves.. the limits of a single lecture within which I three Gospels. — the discussion of which has lately assumed an interesting phase. Credner. inclined to think that he also followed an ex1 tra-canonical source. 3 p. 4 Justin's quotations from the "memoirs" have thus been intimately connected with the larger questions of the origin and mutual relations of the Gospels. 66-70. in his " History of the Canon. with apocryphal additions and Yon . 1855. Finally. however.

" descriptive one." 7 Finally. 1.1 Dial. 106. The data by which Justin's relation to i." was a is Justin the only writer to." 8 by which. Ap. Dial. are called Again memoirs composed by them. " It it written in his memoirs that if so happened." 1 memoirs of Four times. 107. Justin's I.oi'evficKTii' avrov yeyevr]- . Once in the longer Apology.X. fjfiav I. in the Dialogue. 6 aTrofjur)- p.ovevpacnv a vrrb ra>v dnoaroXcov avrov km rwv eKelvois napaKoXovdrjaavrcov (rvvreTaxdcu- Dial. 175 which apostolic literature. i. a KaXelrai evayye'Ata. or of His. 1 This term. Dial." 2 Elsewhere he uses other expressions descriptive of the character Speaking of the Annunciation or origin of these books.t. l. fievov KOI TOVTO.vr]p.vrjp. he mentions the Apostles. Ap. ibl8a£av. 5 an-doToAot lv rots yevop-ivois vrf avrtav 7rep£8coicau k. 66. he The "memoirs -" speaks simply of " the memoirs. 67. "the memoirs. as oi oi diro/jLvriiiovevcravTes irdvra ra irepi tov crcoTTJpos X. briefly as follows: Gospels. our Synoptic Gospels must be determined s^op^ are.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. the text be correct. 100-104." 4 in the : that the Holy dove flew upon " Jesus after His baptism. Ap. 6 Still again " In the memoirs which I say were composed by His Apostles and those who followed them. speaking of Apostles wrote 5 Spirit as a : the change of Simon's is name to Peter. 106 (twice). thus handed down." " The Apostles. to the Virgin. 105 (three times). he says : " As those who related all things 3 concerning our Saviour Jesus Christ taught. 103. 88. " and seven times in the the. we must understand known to "Peter's memoirs. in part or in whole. which Again " The Gospels. (prjp. was regarded by the Church of his age. Justin says.oi>€vfiara TWV 2 aTTOCTToXaV. Dialogue. 33.ovevp. then.vr)p. yeypd(pdat iv rots dnop. Dial.aaiv. dTrop. ovtcos eypayp-av. ev roTy <mop.

ad Grasc. rates in view of his frequent comparison of Soc- The term. It is perfectly arbitrary to regard the words as spurious. 1 with probably one exception. by Eusebius (H. 3 which he quotes in his Apologies. apparently in contrast to those of the Chris- own Cf. to the evangelic narratives. though the corresponding verb was used by Papias to describe the composition of Mark's Gospel. pupil. would well describe pagan readers what these Christian narratives really were. ' ' AiropvrjpovevpaTa. Justin is the more noteworthy because the " Gospels.. however. Justin's use of the term in the Dialogue. 3 Sevofpavros ii. . also 5. Justin says." is not found. 1. pti> . Von Engelhardt's Das Christenthum. revoeare in memoriam. TLerpov yevopevos ocra ipvrjpovevcrev aKpifHws eypai\rev uxrre ovdeu rjpapre 'MapKos ii. ii. 6 The latter term was its evidently well established. as well as in the Apology. too Clem. audieram.4 and the resemblance between which and the Gospels must have impressed his own mind. to his "Gospels. " the memoirs. where Peter says quae ab ipso also used : " In eonsuetudine habui. Yon Engelhardt. 336) that this term for the Gospels was widely diffused. then we may assume that the term " Gospels " was the usual one employed by the Christians themselves. where he bids the Greeks look at their ajropurjpovevpara. p. Eus." are called Gospels. Cf. 21. i. shows that he did not merely use it for the sake of his pagan readers. Recog. 2 from the well-known Most probably Justin took the phrase " Memoirs " of Xenophon. E." v. ovras evia ypa^ras as arropvqpovevcrep. is not justified in saying (p. 2 Orat. cf. 337. The term is though not of the Gospels. 10." r . also.176 have applied it JUSTIN MARTYR. 5 If so. vi. 8 . 66. but that it was his own favorite term. iii. . etc. which with Christ. 25). i. E. appears to 1 and Tatian. 4 5 11 . H. 6 Ap. 39. verba Domini mei. and use by plural. tians. Justin's have been familiar with his master's terminology. MapKos epprjvfvTr]? .

15. xi. T. Basilides's language. testifies 1 Our Apologist. etc. frequently find. except in Phil. Church as it to the single written narratives of ever since has continued to be. 15 tu evayyeXua. w? e^ere " Do not pray as the c.). tin. In the Didache. with evident consciousness that the Gospel was written (cf. 10. 5. Gospel " spoken meaning the Christian revelait tion. In the New sense of the Gospel message or dispensation. July. and in the In Clem. quoted John as 9. 7). Testament. 47. is probably later than JusEpistle.JUSTIN ON THE in earlier writers. Books by Earliest Writers. where there evident reference to Phil. vii. Bib. c. so do. Warfield. Sacra. or message. as e^ere iv four times. but as ineXevo-ev 6 Kvpios Iv ra evayyeXla avrov. where it means the message given to the the word does not occur. ample be it observed." B. Apostles to preach. If they desired the Epistles of Ignatius. though Harnack (sub cap. however. probable. In Barnabas we find only the singular (v. he furnishes the earliest exof the plural. is we read tov (vayyekiov (Tlavkos) iv. 9. (where we read evayyikiav maris tSpvrai) is an addition to the The Epistle itself. eypatyev. applies 12 it to the Fourth Gospel. 40). 9 Smyr. adv. Kara to boypa tov fvayyeX/ou. much more would they use and collect the writings of the Apostles). and flay." used in both places in the same sense. and gradually having attached to the idea of a written document.lv iv dp\rj is Cor. 5.. In Hermas the fragments from Papias. " the NEW TESTAMENT. 1885. and let every Apostle coming to you be received as the Lord " (cf. ad ri irparov vp. that in his day the term was commonly ap- plied in the Christ's life. and. 8. c. . Rom. x. and viii." Then follows the Lord's Prayer. before Justin. nor in In the Epistle to Diognetus. Haer. Matt." "Your prayers and alms. True. In Ignatius we find only the singular (of. in the Dialogue. . 1 1 : "As to Apostles and prophets so do. 1 we find the singular also employed. These seem to imply a written Gospel. ovra Trpoo-evxeo-de. but. 15) denies it. we find only the singular. to'is we learn that Basilides If this be. From is Hippol. c. we find the singular " Reprove one another in peace. "Descriptive Names applied to N. — : : hypocrites. Philad. as to \eyoptvov iv evayyf'klois. B. Polycarp's collection of Ignatius's Epistles surely proves also the valuation of Christian literature by the earliest churches. i. however. 177 We of. 8 iv tu eiayyeXia tov Kvplov fjpav.

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cf. one hundred and fifty years ago (Ap. 49 Ap. and the events of His infancy. massacre of the children in Bethlehem by Herod (Dial. 39 Dial. 46. 76. i. the confession 75. Jesus born in a cave near Beth- lehem." etc. . i. 8 7 the fact and variety of His miracles 9 quotations from or references to the accounts of the healing of the centurion's ser- and Matthew's feast 10 the choosing of the Twelve n the naming of Zebedee's sons ^ the comvant . i. i. the 3 star of the Magi (Dial. John. 51) . 32. flight to Egypt. 106.4 together . 185). 49). He dead). 2 His waiting in obscurity " until about thirty years of age. 88. 10 Ap. the last of the Jewish prophets. Dial. 66. 63. 67). 33." etc. 106). Ap. the misS on i f j i m tne Baptist. John imprisoned and beheaded by Herod (Dial. Dial. . 12. the circumcision (Dial. 125. 22.125. 35. 19. by which confuted the Scribes and Bharisees (Dial. shall come from the East and West. 11. iii. 14 Ap. Cf. 18 Ap. 16 Dial. 16 Dial. 14) power of His word.). the herald of Christ (Dial. Matt. 88). 2 . Brief and concise utterances (Ap. 11 Ap. 100. 8 Dial. 51. 120. 48 . with the baptism 5 and temptation 6 of Jesus acteristic the char- features of Christ's teaching. 43. Dial. the parable of the Sower i. and waited thirty years more or less John appeared"). 30. quoted. 82. 106. laid in a manger. 42. 103. mission of the Apostles 13 the discourse after the de14 parture of John's messengers the sign of the prophet 16 Jonas 1 15 . 21. Dial. 102). 84. 63. 9 So Ap. 6 i. Dial. 69. . 100. 16. i. 76. 140 ("Many . 22 (healed the lame and paralytic and blind from birth {Ik yeverqs irovrjpovs:." 3 Remark- ably fun. hem at the time of the census . i. 88 ("He grew up till like other men. 12 Dial.).180 gin. 4 John. 31. 102). 5 7 Dial. p. Dial. Born under Cyrenius. 15 ("I came not to call the righteous. i. and raised the . 107. Dial. 78. where the Magi found Him. 1 (l) JUSTIN MARTYR. 46) visit of Magi annunciation to Joseph journey to Bethle. Christ ended John's ministry (Dial. below.

28. 95. i. 106. 99). the resurrection on the first day of the week (Ap. . or quotations from. 61. i. index iii. Pilate's sending Him to His crucifixion under Pontius Pilate (Ap." etc. baptism in the name of the and His ascension (Ap. 27. 15. 97. 37. (2) Now. 112. a house of prayer. l. 16. 51. 181 announcement of the Passion. 6. 41). 16. ii. 103). xxiii. Christ's . 82. . 22. the mockery of the Jews (Dial. ii. and sometimes to portions of considerable size 4 also to portions of all but seven of the chapters of Luke's Gospel. and especially the last week of Christ's life. 76. The evidence. 6. is upon which to base a comparison of Justin's account of Christ's larger than life with that of the Synoptists might have been expected. 17. . 1 " 35 . 31 (Dial. Trinity) . the two commandments rebukes of the Pharisees (Dial. tribute money (Ap. 21). 112. 15. (Dial. the discourse (Dial. we may obtain from him passages fulness. the institution of the Supper (Ap. 66) the agony (Dial. 51. 32.) . 108) His last commission (Ap. 1 NEW TESTAMENT.JUSTIN ON THE of Peter. 30.. the 122). 103). i. 35. 103) . Justin's account of Christ's 1 life agrees in Dial. i. 103) . 103) v. (Dial. 29. i. 24. 16. 35. . on the Mount 125) . Dial. 99. 4 As. the triumphal the entry (Ap. 13. 16. 8 We 7.5 therefore. Apostles sent to all nations. 34 Dial. 105. 96. 34. 1. 39. 17. Dial. 103). g. 23. i. 133) . with a few items to he men- tioned presently. 35 the parting of His garments (Ap. the cry on the Cross (Dial. 53) . 100. Herod . torn. e. 102. 6 Dial. 93) . 17) . 101). 2 while of the later period. i. 40-42. Dial. 7. 85) 13. the second cleansing of the temple My house shall be called i. 85. 5 Cf. 95. . 122). 28. find references to. 31. Dial. and of the events which immediately folthe lowed the resurrection. i. silence at His trial (Dial. 116. Otto's Justini Opera. Dial. the report of the Jews that Christ's body was stolen (Dial. i. and the exception of sufficient to yield positive results. of Olives (Ap. 8 Dial. . i. Matt. 78. 3 which correspond in substance to portions of every chapter of Matthew's Gospel. the trial before the Sanhedrim (Dial. Justin speaks with still greater In fact. 11-23 (Ap. 44-46 (Ap. 67. 5. 20.

agreement " account taken from the (3) memoirs " between Justin's with that of our small particulars. Dial. 88. Dial. 103.8 are examples of the slight Ap. as is. 35. exceptions. and fi rs ^ so far as the events narrated are conis Agrees. 1 refers to the He enrolment under Cyrenius. Luke iii. "When he appeals (Ap. ccrned precisely with the account given by our three Gospels. Dial. Dial. i. <W<. exactly the same if as theirs so that we may ready affirm that pels. 46. 3 and He was thirty years old. 182 substance (2) JUSTIN MARTYR. 78. Cf. they at least life. 34." he probably merely takes for granted that such registers 8 6 7 had been preserved by the Government. memoirs " were not our Gosrelated substantially the same story the his " of Christ's (3) Furthermore. Dial. save that he states that Christ was born in a cave near Bethlehem. is identical with that of our Gospels. we shall see but his story with a few : trifling excepal- tions. " more So the naming of the sons of Zebedee. 102. 106. 108. identical with theirs. appeals to the " Acta Pilati " (i. . disciples. Thus his account of Christ's infancy. 48). thirty-five stadia from Jerusalem. significant because of their very smallness. 4 6 8 So when he 23. 103. 6 Pilate's sending Him to Herod. 34) to the " registers which were made under Cyrenius " (t<ov anoypcKpaiv tu>v yevofievav eVl YLvp-qviov) for proof that "there is a certain village in the land of the Jews. unlike that given in the early apocrypha." 4 growth from infancy to manhood. 7 and the Jews' story that He was stolen from the 1 2 tomb by His Dial. and that the Magi were from Arabia. 5 Christ's silence at His trial.. The Gospels often extends to agreement extends to small par- which are the more . 2 He speaks of Christ's natural says that at His baptism or less. His language not al- wa y s with ^tol our Gospels. in which Jesus Christ was born. i.

Justin is silent. p. . 183 coincidences in matters of fact which continually occur in the accounts of Justin (4) The differences betiveen the two accounts arc the first (4) following} . 120). i.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. " He went up from ?jv. 3 Luke i. 7) referred both to Joseph.Gospels. was universally believed in the early Church (cf. 30. 21. has avr-q dnoypacpr] 7rpa>T7) eyivero rjyep. 34. Isaac. points to why Luke Christ iii. Sanday (Gospels in the Second Cenfrom the fact that Justin derives Christ's Davidic descent through Mary (Ap.ovevovros 8 Ttjs 'Svplas Kvprjviov. . quoted by Westcott's Canon. which may be defended from Acts ii. 2. 91) to infer . p." Mary. 52) genealogies adopted by Africanus (Eus. Dial. 32. ancestors later than David. 100). was not the first " governor. pedigree). to David Luke ii. 38. all which names occur in both Matthew and Luke. and Justin says the Magi found Jesus laid in a manger. E. 91. Phares. Of the course of descent from 2 Ap. 4 : " 8ia to a. Mary was supposed and is expressly said by Africanus Justin refers to none of Mary's to have been of the same tribe. to Luke ii. i. at least her legal. odev This is obviously a reference to .vai avrov e£ oikov Kai irarpias Aauet'8 " but the fact is stated by Justin so as to apparently imply that Joseph in had lived Bethlehem previously. 100. i. 78." Caves were often used as stables. i. Cyrenius. and the Synoptists. Judah. the ancestor of these patriarchs. Justin says that Cyrenius was the 2 pro- curator of Judcea that Joseph was " of Beth- The lehem " 3 that Jesus was born in a cave near f^'o"^ 3 Bethlehem 4 that the Magi were from Ara. though "NYestcott goes too far in saying that Clement "distinctly refers the genealogy to Mary") apparently understood even Matthew to give Mary's pedigree (if not her lineal. Andrew's Life and while the explanation of the Gospel of Our Lord. eVtrpoVov. Rom. and Abraham." Bethlehem. . Dial. 78. David. H. Jesse. in giving his reason called himself the Son of Man (Dial. Clement of Alexandria (Strom. Jacob. i. 4 Dial. where he dwelt. while his reference to Adam as It is hardly fair with 1 tury. " Since he could not find lodging in the village. Nazareth. whatever his precise office. Her Davidic descent. note 1. 32. p. and mentions as her ancestors. that he had a genealogy of Christ different from those of Matthew and Luke for he may have understood one or both of these to give Mary's pedigree.

15. p. 'Paipuv crbv §dwTiff/jLa. and when He had stepped into the water. Haer. 82-84 . v. 13). where John was baptizing. he says that Herod. Dial. 'Itjctov KareXdovTos tov iv tc3 'lopSdvrj. "et cum baptizaretur lumen ingens circumfulsit de acpia ita ut timerent omnes qui advenerant" (cf. vii. Otto. ed. 2 He speaks of John the " Baptist sitting " by the Jordan." In the Gosin the Predicatio Pauli pel of the Ebionites (according to Epiphanius. 78. a fire was kindled in the Jordan and the Apostles of this very Christ of ours wrote that when He came out of baptism. referring to Isa. ignem super aquam esse visum. He adds that there is a similar addition in g' (San Germanensis)). 3 and states that when Jesus went down to the water to be baptized. by others to Cyprian. 78 but in Dial. Cf." So he does in Dial. Sanday (Gospels in the Second Century. 49. His language is. : — fis ere \oyov yewycre ira. 110. when Jesus came up from the water a great light (c^tof) shone round the place (irepie\ap-fye tov toitov) and the old Latin Codex a (Vercellensis) adds to Matt. . 2. slew all the children born in Bethlehem about that time (ineivov tov Kaipov) cf. 4 and that the Voice from heaven aspect. in the narrative of the "quo tempore adscendit ab aquis. OfiV aTray/eXTTJpa \6yiov. Sanday. 103. 51. 121. \6yos. 88. di! vda. and that Jesus was deformed. a fire was kindled in the Jordan." the legend. dei8r/r. 108." .au> ayvols ov Trvpbs i^e<padi'8r]s) and the Liturgy of the Syrians. . or not of comely had been predicted. 88. Otto also cites Oracc. " When Jesus had gone to the river Jordan.T7)p. on to vScop koi Trip dur/cpdrj The same legend was found by the author of the tract De Rebaptismate (ascribed by some to Ursinus. Justin does not say that the " memoirs " related this legend. 6G5). . liii.. ii. which. sol inclinavit radios In this last case we may perhaps see the original form of suos. " cum baptizaretur. xxx. Ante-Xic. 3 4 Dial. 14. 16. p. as 1 Dial. 2 Dial. 93) makes Justin say that Herod " ordered a massacre of all the children in Bethlehem.. 100. Ibid. iii. " 184 bia 1 JUSTIN MARTYR. 85. Trvevfi' 6pviv atpTJice. Cf. KaGe^optvov. sub loco. Amer. "when He [Christ] was born. a monk of the fourth century. Matt. "from two years old and under. Sibyll.3. has . 88. Fathers.

) Augustine." The words viii. Gildersleeve substitutes avan-qpovs. it should be noted i. dumb. rbv pkv aXXeudai. . Either Justin's manuscript had this Western corruption. 2 Ap. of the Spirit as a dove. " Thou art my Son this day have I . Kai Koxpovs Kai xcoKovs idaaro." In Ap. Could Justin have had in mind. however.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. in Thee I am well pleased. 88. rbv 8i kol aKOveiv. (Cf. Otto. To-day I have begotten Thee. " rovs in yeverrjs kol Kara tt)v adpKa Trrjpovs 8e Kai opav 69. Psalm are referred to the baptism by Clement Methodius (Conviv. Discourse i. 9) . ff2 ' 1. 69 22. rbv rw Xdya> avrov Troirjo-as. 29 but there seems in that place to be no reference of the words to the baptism. and that he includes the dumb and lame by a pardonable inexactness of statement. ii. virgg. accordThe Gospel of the Ebionites my beloved Son. also. and it and from the latter passage is (and therefore probably in Ap. Whatever the reading. the " lunatic " boy is said to have been afflicted ek naidiodev. 22. 22 by Trovrjpovs suffering)." 2 He states that Christ healed those who "from birth were blind. and (Epiphan. i. ing to D. ch. however (Harmony of the Gospels. 21. The manuscripts of Justin read " x&Aouf kol 7rapaXvTLKovs km in yeverrjs rroirqpovs" 363) . c. Ev. b. . begotten thee. of the And again. 14) says the reading was found in some codices of Luke. 2. iv. the blind. or he had heard it thus quoted and relied on his memory. and confused it with Christ's miracles ? clear that Justin meant by = rrrjpovs . 15) Juvencus (Hist. c. but was said not to be found in the more ancient codices. Acts iii. a. et Pauli. i. Most editions substitute for novrjpovs Trrjpovs." 2 but carefully 1 the water the Holy Spirit as a dove lighted on Him. 185 which followed the baptism repeated the words of the Second Psalm. where we read. and Augustine (Enchiridion. Hence I infer he had in mind John ix. of Alexandria (Paedag. Div." Thus he makes the " memoirs " responsible only for the descent Dial. . He also refers to Acta Petri 88. In Mark ix. i. . chiefly with mjpovs in Dial. c. i. 1. Our Gospels contain no examples of the healing of those dumb or lame from birth. sub Dial. 49). following Dial. xxx. 103. These words are found mss. 22. lat. that Justin connects i< yeverrjs only with novr/pavs in Ap. 13) had "Thou art in Luke hi. and lame. where the quotations are given. 6) Lactantius (Instt. 22.

Ap. . in his Diatessaron. " sanguinis. 58. 103. 103. substantially the same with that mentioned in the Gospels (Matt. Recog. etc. Justin undertakes to prove that Christ Dial." .&ot. This charge was. ix. not Bpopfioi alparos." 2 a vine at the en" He cites from the memoirs " that in Gethsemane CJirist's sweat fell like drops when He was Jews came upon Christ "from the Mount of Olives" 4 and that there was not a man to aid Him.). see Matt. Justin." In Ap. incorporated in the Acts of Peter and Paul. 103. which I say were composed by the Apostles and their followers thus no doubt referring the story to Luke's Gospel. Ap. 69. 24.Tatian. which is translated by Moesinger from Ephraem's Commentary. Kplvov Tjpiv. 32. xxvii. however. ii. ano. Tvkavov. 5 Pilate sent Him hound to Herod as a compliment . . 6 and Justin apparently represents Herod Antipas as a successor of Archelaus in the dominion of Herod the Great. 103." So in the report of Pilate. see Notes on Select Readings in Westcott and Hort's Greek Testament and on the bear. had the passage. xi. in fact. i." * et factus est sudor ejus ut guttas Dial. Dial. however. i. 103. x a P l Cop-tvos. 48) attributed them to sorcery. 7 He says that His praying . of Luke xxii. did not do miracles paying re'^j^. " . that he cast out devils by Beebzebub. we read that the Jews asserted Jesus " magum esse et contra eorum legem agere. see below. 63 2 8 and John vii. 186 that the JUSTIN MARTYR. 35. 6 7 Dial. 34 For \aoir\avov. has only 8p6p. and . i. 30. Celsus (Orig. 12. 3 that the persecutors said. On the spuriousness. Justin significantly cites it "from the memoirs. Jews ascribed these miracles ass's to magic 1 also that the colt used at the triumphal entry was to found by the disciples "bound trance of a village. 6 8 Dial. 44. contra Cels. a scribe declares that Christ performed " signa et prodigia ut magus non ut propheta. " Judge us 8 and that at the crucifixion the Kai yap pdyov eivai avrbv iroXpcov Xeyeiv Kai \aoIn Clem. 1 placed Christ on the judgment-seat. ing of Justin's text on the age of the Gospels. i. 43. Dial.

By John Climachus (died 606). eaovrai o-yiV/iara Cf. 222) but Hippolytus seems merely to state a similar idea. 19. and from lapse of memory ascribed it to Christ. Cf.. 6 venpovs 3 Dial. elnev' 'Ev ois av else at- vpas Kara\aj3a). 47. let Him. 103. 50. " . 187 mocking bystanders not only shook their heads and shot out their lips. iv tovtois tributed to Christ. and J. 18. etc. or an oral tradition or perhaps a gloss (Otto). Salv. without indicating its source. Justin cites. " Justin. Dial.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. i. Otto refers to Hippolytus (Kept rrjs rov navros ahias. in these will I also judge. 7 Dial. reported To these items by These are. perhaps confusing it with John v. quoted by Otto. 30." 2 and cried. Recog. 1 but "twisted their noses to each other." 4 forsook are to be Him come down and walk He was crucified. i. . Dial. . <ai aipeoTftf. Others consider it an inaccurate quotation of John v. or Matt. 'with . v. Otto). 30. tols fiv£a>Trjf)criv iv aXkrfkois hiappivovv. Aib Kai 6 fjpeTepos Kvpios kcll 'i." But with these we have enumerated 1 the substantial Ap. as words of Christ. trans. . 38. Ap. Fathers. Amer. it was attributed to Ezekiel (cf. Apocryphal or interpolated writings of Ezekiel were known in the early Church. . 2) u whatever manner of persons they [were when they] lived without faith. having denied Him. summarizing these passages. Credner. dveydpas pv<rd<j6a> iavTou. Clement of Alexandria. 5 Dial. etc. 35. Ap.) suppose that Justin obtained it from the Gospel according to the Hebrews. Let deliver Himself After " 3 and " Him who He called raised the dead Himself Son of . 101. Others (Grabe. all His added two sayings of let God save acquaintances Him." 6 and " There shall be schisms all and heresies. B. but not found in our Gospels. 5 Christ's. viii. 30. God . 1 Cor. xxiv. Tertullian. Lightfoot (Clem. ad Cor. 40) a slight variation of text. 38. from that source." The sentence is found nowhere else attributed to Christ but similar summaries to the same effect are numerous. and xxv. as such they shall be faithfully judged " (Ante-Nic. 1. Rom. We find this nowhere quotes c. Clement of Alexandria (Quis Div. note 12) supposes that Justin obtained it it. Kptvia. In 7 whatsoever things I take you. xi. X. Clem. 8 4 6 i. 103.

he says that Christ came and put an to (e-avcre) John's preaching and baptizing. 98) u There is nothing in Justin (as in Luke xxiv." and in Dial. where. ." He taught the symbols of righteousness and an active Mark vi.) to show that the ascension did not take oned." But neither . •• and made ploughs and yokes by which life. that He preached. that for none of the points in which he and not cited from the ''memoirs. except the does . sweat. as Justin's own language shows. the " .. Dr. Indeed. and on the third day rise again. iii. The tradition that He made ploughs and yokes evidently grew. . which would seem to imply that some time elapsed between the resurrection and the ascension. . Sanday says (Gospels in the Second Century. reads oux oSros eo~nv 6 t£kto>v . 3. say. Luke 19." Justin cite the . : place on the same day as the resurrection. and would appear again in Jerusalem and would eat and drink with His disciples . Christ did not enter on His Galilean ministry till John was impris- 26-30. . . it must be evident amount of agreement The . authority of * .. 1 If. p. "saying that the kingdom of heaven is at hand and that He must . " bloody . 35.188 JUSTIN MAKTYR.„ differ- between Justin and the canonical Gospels. he seems carefully . differs from our Gospels. we review these items. encesare the differences arc most trifling. however. 51. memo irs. Cf. be crucified. moreover. But this can hardly be called a divergence from our Gospels for though John did not immediately cease working after Christ's baptism.." . 51. Dial. 106). 50.. In Dial. ." . is there anything in either Luke or Justin to show that it did and Justin speaks of Christ's instructing the disciples in the true meaning of the Old Testament after His resurrection (Ap. yet end . according to the correct text. that in comparison with the large „. In Dial. while relating that a 1 Justin (Dial. 88) states that Jesus was a carpenter by trade." but these passages are so easily "Many false Christs explained as amplifications of the statements of our Gospels that thev can scarcelv be cited as extra-canonical savings. i. then. 20: John hi. to avoid doing so. of Christ's life differences between Justin's account and that of the canonical Gospels. as may be seen in his acfire count of the baptism. from the desire to exhibit the symbolical import of His work. It is to be noted. . Justin makes Christ and false apostles shall arise.

In other cases his recital is colored desire to show the fulfilment of prophecy. but they are also found scattered in other works and while the words spoken at the baptism are doubtless to be regarded as an early textual corruption of the canonical account. 2. may be drawn from the was "from Bethlehem.JUSTIN OX THE NEW TESTAMENT. but also those born lame and deaf. as Cyrenius procurator of when he makes Judsea. and when but'^adTiy explained. . he makes the Apostles responsible only for the fact of the descent of the Spirit like a dove. according to Epiphanius. only two can be plausibly adduced as evidence for Justin's use of an ex. and civil positions held under the when he shows ignorance of the Eomans by the Herods. tra-canonical document. These are his account of the and the words spoken at the baptism. in the case of the bloody sweat and the words spoken from heaven at the baptism. ably represented Christ's persecutors as us. as that Joseph Others are general statements with perhaps a mixture of exaggeration. 189 appeared on the Jordan. he states that the Jews went to arrest Christ from the Mount of Olives." and that Pilate sent Jesus bound to Herod as a compliment. Both were found with variations. as when he seems to say that Christ healed not only the blind from birth. Others are inferences which Gospels.) " by his Thus he probsaying " Judge They ask of me judgment " and Christ Himself as deformed. the story of the fire was probably a mere tradition cur- . Of all these differences from the canonical Gospels. because he read (Isa. in the Gospel of the Ebionites." In two cases Justin conforms to textual errors which are still represented in manuscripts of our Gospels namely. a nd mav be some are obvious mistakes. " He was without form and comeliness. liii. fire in the Jordan. 2). As first to the differences themselves. (lviii." because he read in Isaiah .

and by a later writer is attributed to Ezekiel. it initems from some document. xi." 2 So Justin shortly after adds "many false prophets shall Similar warn- the words " and false apostles.190 JUSTIN MARTYR." As first to the is neither — "In elsewhere found attributed to Him. two extra-canonical sayings of our Lord. 1 Cor. are by several early writers. which states that when Christ ascended from the water. together with is corruption of the Gospel text. Of course it is possible that Justin obtained these If he did. The second " There shall be schisms and heresies " reminds us of Paul's words." stantial expression in Paul's language of Christ's warnsaying — — — . xxiv. are Interpolated writings of Ezekiel known to have been current in the early Church. Matt." ings. to Christ's prediction that arise. "the sun bended its rays. The is whatsoever things I take you. however. in various phraseology taken from later times. 18. its but without hint of source. — ings against false prophets. oral tradition. and must have been a document which merely added to the common canonical narrative a few legendary details. 11. and I partly believe it for there and looks like a submust be heresies among you. is The marvel that so little legendary matter 1 is 3 found in Justin. 19. quite suffi- cient to explain all the points of difference. ^ nis 1S possible. fluenced him but slightly.1 "I hear that there are schisms among you. in these I will judge " — repeated by Clement of Alexandria. and Justin may have confused this phrase with our Lord's warnings to the disciples of the suddenness and decisiveness of the second advent. Its earliest rent in various quarters. But while Oral tradiattributed to Christ textual corruption. form seems to appear in the Syrian Liturgy. .

that the extra-canonical ele- ment in Justin. Haer. for example. therefore. v. 1 we cannot but remark the sobriety of Justin's narrative. unadorned story of the Gospels. 19. We life are sure that which claimed the authorship of apostles or their companions. 32. perhaps. then. 36. it is absurd to suppose that in so short a time they had displaced others which had already received the veneration and moulded the faith of be- The facts which Justin presents throw the whole burden of proof on those who venture to deny lievers. the identity of his " memoirs " with the canonical It is based Gospels. On what. which we are forced to draw this substan- from his agreement with our Gospels.JTSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT.2 and always in the direction of the simple. in the generation immediately following his. and which gave the same story that is preserved in our Gospels and since. recognized. . our four Gospels were. In the same way his account differs from the fragments of Papias. 2 Iren. It is certain. adv. which were publicly used in the Church. v. 1 is such a denial based ? Ad Eph. 191 When. we compare his account of the Magi with the fanciful account given forty years earlier by Ignatius of the Star of Bethlehem. that ment with our Gospel3. recognized as apostolic and universal authorities in the same way in which they are now Justin used narratives of Christ's . so far as it concerns matters of fact. and. is so insignificant that it does not in the least af° feet the inference _ Tho force of ." This general and really conclusive argument should not be forgotten in subsequent questions of the relations of texts to one another. these latter were identical with the " memoirs. by the testimony of Irenseus and others.

and to p assuming his use of our Gospels. r~. 19 : Ta a^vvara . ask 1G 1. p. from source. i.1. trapa dvdpamois 8vi>ara napa icrnv). 13 omits i\fj\vda. ix. /caXeVat Cf. . Gospels. Luke (Is xviii. in part as in Matt. and Luke v. 1 The rest differ from it. ix. vii. He also (p. sometimes slightly. btnalovs etc. passages as I reckon. 6eco.. Ap. and the question arises whether the variations are such as to lead us to suppose that Justin used another Gospel. : Ou^i irds 6 Aeycoi/ pot Kvpie. then. 9. i. either alone or in addition which he took this variant text. Kvpie. results of points. i." because either citing some instance of Christ's teaching or relating some event of His life. perdvoiav. an examination of the evidence upon these with a few illustrations. on the textual differences between Justin's quotations from the " memoirs " and the narrative of the Synop^ic Gospels. 115) cites Ap. some- times considerably. this question we have to inquire into Jus- tin's method it. . 21. 15. 27 (. thirty-six which may be regarded as taken from the " memoirs. and which he therefore regarded as an apostolic and authoritative to ours. To answer Justin's habit of quotation. a\X 6 noia>v to deXrjpa tov Trarpos pov tov ev ruls ovpavols- Cf. men t of his quotations with those found in I can only give the certain early uncanonical writings. where Justin quotes Zech. ivapa. i. But only two of these agree exactly with the language of our Gospels. xxi. 32 reads ovk 35. there are. Ovk rfkBov aXXa dpaprtoXovs «'y perdvoiav] but the correct text of Matt. a fact that Justin's quotations from the " memoirs " differ considerably from the text of our They are considerable. 1 Ap. Matt. (1) It is. and on the alleged textual agreeThe textual differences.192 JUSTIN MARTYR. for example. raS 6ea> Sunday (Gospels. In the first Apology." . 113) cites Ap. 5 but I include only quotations from the " memoirs. elo~e\evo~eTai els ttjv (3acn\eiav tu>v ovpavwv. that • of quotation elsewhere.

i. "'AXX' ovn ye npb rfjs dvfjp. ovk av rets noXeis ev8aipovfjO-ai. phrases.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. i. Ap. 595 C (Plato has dXX' ov yap rrpo ye dXrjdelas. familiar . 60. " e^laae v Tim. 5.-Ep. two from Xenophon. Ap. Socrates said. Eur. ra 8e rplra nepl rbv rplrov. d8vvarov Xeyeiv. 28 C. 4 The familiar opening paragraph of Xenophon's Memoirs he cites inaccurately." Plato." 2 Again Justin quotes even his favorite Timreus loosely. 44. ovk eo-n Kanav iravXa rait is expressed in Ep. 10. vii. will explain his variations from the canonical Fortunately we may test his method. 312 E. rbv pev ovv ttoit]tt]v Kal irarepa rov8e rov irdvros evpelv re epyov Kal evpovra 4 els Trdvras i. e(pTj yap nov Kal ol ris ru>v TraXaicov e'lr) "Av pfj ol ap^ovres (piXoaocprjcracri Kal dp^opevoi. eXopevov. and His classical q uotatlons - one from Euripides. Hippol. De Rep. 473 D.Xels (piXoao^fjaao'tv. 8' 39. HXdrav elir&v " Atrt'a Ap. Xeyovres " Kaiva i. Five of these are mere and most of them quite and these Justin repeats accurately. ' 10. 1. pfj fj ol (piX6o~o(f)oi ($ao~iXevo-a>o~iv ev rats ol (3ao-i. 8e (ppfjv dvaporos" 3. Mem. i. — these. since his writ- ings contain a few quotations from well-known classic authors and abound in long quotations from the Old Testament.5 and gives 1 Ap. Justin changes the order of the clauses as well as pfj fjyelcrdai. etc. 60." fj Xen. . Ap. dvalrios" dXrjdelas De Rep. elcr(pepetv avrov 8atp. is quoted very freely. Kal rplrov trepl ra rplra. u t) yXao-a i. ii. &o~re Kal 10." De Rep. Another. Ap. I have obtained the fol- In the two Apologies there are nine quotations from — six from Plato. noXeaiv noXea-iv. i. 3. iav . ii. The same sentiment 10. riprjreos G17 E. Tim. very short. . 3 and varies the text of still another Platonic sentence. opapoKev. the tense. Ps. 607. Ap. 36. deos Ap. 326 B. Ap. and for ov vopl£eiv substitutes 13 . "rbv 8e narepa Kal 8rjpiovpybv navrav v ovd evpelv pa8iov ovb evpovra els irdvras elnelv do-cpaXet. though a familiar passage from Plato. avrov ev tw navr\. 5 ii.6via. 193 method text. and its author is simply called " a certain one of the ancients. Examining : lowing results the classics. ii.). 3 r) 5.

. 1-3)." Ap. different text of the LXX. liv. traditional. Of the that these. from the same book a condensed account of " Hercules's It thus appears that whenever he cites from choice. 6. . x were. 20) i. 21.) . i. differing in only one word from 1 . i. he fails to reproduce the exact text of the original. i. i. 37. dif. 2. Confining our to the I Apology. xix. i. iv. with slight variations) 11-15). 38 (Tsa. 40 (Pss. 14). translating. 45 (Ps.2 and in eight the variation so slight 3 the quotations may be fairly called accurate. 1. Avvtos Ka\ MeXrjros anoKTelvai pev bvvavTai. 3. i. of course. i. 64 (Gen. 2) i. fering in order of clauses from Isa. 33 (Isa. 5' To " the above passentiment sages might be added Ap. 18 2. 10. 3). It is Quotations more important. a very mixed quotation of clauses in confused i. veavla-Kos rjp'iv aneBudr] for vlus ko\ fdodr] Tjplv) verbal differences) i. though here Justin may have used a i. i. " Immanuel . which is sufficient to test Justin's method. 17. 30 C) ' epe pi~v yap ovdtv av jSXa^eief ovre MiXnros ovrc "Awtos ovde yap av hvvano. Diss. with several 35 (Ps. Isa. i. 4 Ap. ix. 37 (Isa. 48 (Isa. 59 (Gen. 1). i. 15. Enchir. 3 ." 1 a Greek author a passage of more than a few words. i. however. 55 (Lam. : $' ov. Ap. 11. 35 (Isa. Ivii. 1) . have found forty-seven quotations from the Old Testament. to examine quotations from the Old Testament. 6) . Socrates says (Apol. xlix. 63 (Isa. 8 2). 40 (Ps. xix. introducing tVyupof as explanatory. 3. i. i. 29. 54 (Ps. 2. i. 53 (Isa. i. and ii. 35 (Isa. . . vii. be classed as more or less variant in text Cf. however. xxi. 1. i. Twenty- two 1 4 may ii. . (3\d^rai Be ov. 2. taken translation . 15). i. Xen. On this Gildersleeve's note The is found in Plato. Justin's These from the Old from the Septuagint and while the text of the Septua- gint is itself sometimes uncertain. six agree exactly with Van Ess's text of is Septuagint. lxvi. 1. Epict. Mem. yet results examination still may be reached with approximate accuracy. Ap. 21. 194 JUSTIN MARTYR. 18. 32 (Gen. ovtcos for the second $ws. 3 2 i. ex." . . i. is. and lviii. with Se its effective rhetorical position.) . . 53. is The 'Epe language. i. vpels airoKTeivai pev hvvavBe. ii. Ixv. /3Xd\//-ai 2. etc. 13). 37. i. twice .

i. 1. xi. 32). xxxvii.. Did he combine them. . 53 (Jer. 15. 51 (Dan. v. quoted three times freely. referred by Jus- tin to The quotation also slightly varies from our text ol of Daniel and Justin adds " ko. 26. Isa. but retaining the important words of the freely . 2. 38 (Ps. xxxii. . p. 24. order. for diriAij\//-eTcu) ii. . mixed with Numb. 37 (Isa. i. liii. lxiv. He seems to have combined verse 5 with 1 Chron. i. quoted very and said to have been spoken by God to Adam) i. i. however. i. . lxvi. 16-20. 51 (Ps. 44). 9. xxi. with varia- . lviii. Sanday's Gospels. 60 (Deut. . 12 differs from the in c. 5 (" idols of demons "). 14. . 23. 5) i. . 3S (Ps. iii. or were they combined in his text ? He claims also that the Jews had cut out the last verse of the Psalm. and di/reXa. The text of Daniel. with several variations) Jeremiah. . 2 Ap. 50. with slight variations. iii. with navdrjaeTai for . i. i. vii. . 1-3. xcvi. with aviarqv for (geytpBrj. was specially TeXevrrja-ei) . 22) i. xxi. original). i. with slight variations from the quotation in c. 61 (Isa. ayyeXoi avrov <rvv avrS. no manuscript authority for the verse in the LXX. 47) i. 1. xxv. 19. LXX. 44 (Isa. 17). with the same variations as in c. 11. 13-15 liii. 10. 195 as very free quotations and three 2 are maniIn fest cases of free combination of different passages.3ero . 16. xlv. but in c. 7. i. two clauses united as in i. 50. variable) i. 7) i. 20) serpent (Numb.. etc. 10-12. 38 (Ps. 5. quoted with unusual accuracy . "6 Kvpios efiao-'iXevo-ev cmb tov £Chov. 1 . Ap. 54 (Gen. 35. ix. 49 (Isa. introducing rimco and Trioreuqrf) i. with variations of text and transposition of clauses) i. l. quoted as . i. 8. 51 (Isa. i. with slight variations) . 12 lii. xxi. 7. 47 (Isa.w. i. and from the quotation of the same verse 7. i. 53 (Isa. 62 (Ex. lv. with slight variations) i. iii. for the most part. with slight variations) . 49 (Isa. 41 (Ps.1 i. 47 (Isa. 1-12. 13. i. 19). 32 (Isa. with slight variations) i. 52 (Isa. however." There is. 60 (a free recital of the story of the brazen i." proba- bly from Matt. . 63 (Ex. . 6-9). 51) . liii. indicating lapses of memory). but in opposite order. The Christians may have used a Targum written in the Christian interest. JUSTIN ON THE eight l NEW TESTAMENT. quoted freely and followed by Isa. 31. 44 (Deut. xxiv. 6. 17. quoted freely. xxiv. xvi. . i. xxx. 3. . with slight variations) i. and in both places reading " feet and hands " for " hands and feet " of the LXX. xlix. 38 (Tsa. 8. quoted freely and mixed with a reminiscence of Jer. 6. from Isaiah. with slight variations) i. 9. 3) i. 2. 52 (Ez. . Cf. i. though Justin's text may have varied from ours. 39 (Isa.

35). . the quotation appears to five of these instances. based on Credner (Gospels. as Matt. 9. however. ii. to Isaiah (Ap. i. as John xix. of Zech. 10-12. 53) and the statement that Deut. 5. xxxv. 10-12. 37. ii. 13. xxx. 9. since three of these liable to are Synoptic accounts and therefore specially be commingled. 1 also.j still more freedom in his use ie Q 0S p e i narratives. as if it . usually itself a quotation of the same Old Testament of text. 15. 52 (where a passage is quoted as if from Zeehariah. to Jeremiah (Ap. and from even His textual variations Gospels not sui prising. . The quotations from the Old Testament in the Dialogue are more numerous and longer and somewhat more accurate than in the Apology 3 but the same general characteristics prevail in them. lxiii. 51). 1 v. 41). as Matt. 5). etc. 13. 5) . with additions from Isa. ix. 6. 44). to Zephaniah (Ap. It and several evident appears that while slips memory occur. 6. and since he lived near enough to the apostolic age for oral tradition to render less necessary formed part of Ezekiel) i. ix. xxv. have been modified by the remembrance of some passage in the Gospels. xliii.. we ought not to . 37). i. 19. vii. influenced by Matt. and an evident dependence in many cases upon memory. which he declared to be inspired. 12. xi. xxi. . 31) i. 26. of Jer. i. xii. p. 48 (Isa. 6. i. with reminiscences of Isa. with reminiscence of Matt. which is a mixture of Zech. was spoken by God to Adam (Ap. and xi. 52 (Zech. i. predictions of the verbiage ° of which he drew J Christian truth and history. there is so much freedom in Justin's quotations from the Old Tes- tament. vii.. 2. and Zech. 6. 8 Cf. of Dan. and Ixiv. If. Ap. quoted as in John xix. i. be surprised at Q£ j. i. 196 JUSTIN MARTYR. 11). tions. 17. ix. i. but omitting T 6v 'lapdr]\) 35 (Zech. 51 (Dan. 2 thus the agreement of Justin's quotations with the text of the Septuagint yet there is is greater than with our text of the Gospels. 2 Such as the reference . Sanday's Table. 34 (Mie. more variation than agreement. xii.

15 (Matt.. but the . i. . 22 abbreviated. what good thing 17 (Matt. Lord. 18. 16 (Matt. v. v. memoirs " contained in the Apology. 14-17 . 17. evvovxoi repeated. transposed as in Matt. with shall I do. with verbal variations. 22-25. and oh ap w eav j3ov\r)Tai Cf. 63. 28. bv depend- . npos to 6ea6rjvai The following clause is the same in Justin and Matthew) 16 (Luke vi. vi. v. with the order of the two clauses changed. but putting the indicative for the subjunctive tense. . using the same words. "Master. paraphrased) i. cpioted quite freely). 6 noifjo-as to. with very slight variations) 7roietre ravTa npos to 6ea6fjvai vnb twv av8pcona>v for 7rpocre^ere rf]v diKai- dvSpos for clearness) first . the thirty-four variant quotations from the anu may be explained . 16 (Matt. Luke xx. 100. 29. 16. 6 vlos aiTOKaKvtyai. meaning) . xii. . 197 the exact quotation of the Gospels than a later age would " require. 17-20. 16 (Matt. ing with i. Justin has for the various readings of this verse). 41. twice (Matt. i. v." instead of " let your light i. 15 (Matt. 2 yiv<x>o-K. In Dial. 48. and the clause " Let i. 16 i. A good example of many will say to this class is found in Ap. navTa added to 6 deos (the correct text of Matt. influenced by Jas. below. L oj ' fifteen 1 may in be explained as textual variations of pasquotations from the Old Testament. 1.ei. sages in our Gospels." etc. liim who can receive it. 39). i. and xirava and IpAriov v." etc. slight verbal variation) with slight variations. with p. Of. but agreetovtoov in tov TTovqpov ") 16 Matthew in " to Se nepto-aov (Luke xviii. . 12. . v. JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT.. with 16 (Matt. with slight verbal variations. xix. but the principal words retained. 17 (Luke xii.T) 20. and " let your good works shine. reads. 27. 15 (Matt. 15 (Matt. oavvrjv i>pa>v prj noiiiv epnpoo~dev tccv dvdpa>nu>v avTols. xix. and irapa tw deep added to make the meaning clearer) i. xi. i. then. 15 (Matt. Mark i. vi. with verbal variations. 19. . 16 "But me. i. ence on fifteen 2 ex- 1 Ap.)). i. yet so as to give the substantial . 12. and indicating that Justin quoted the Gospels from memory or else changed the language to express more briefly or clearly the sense . 34. xxii. and adding d<f>' irepov . v. quite similar to the variations found many . v. Lord. i. shine"). last verse nearly exact) i. Mark x. the 6 vlos airoKakvtyr} for clauses transposed. 32. did we not eat and drink and : . . quoted with Zyva for imyivvo-Kei.

with «s ptravotav from Luke v. 24. 16 (combination of Matt. and 19). howi. 32. 4 1 Tim. . and Matt. as if also spoken by Christ. v. try) kcu i. with Matt. ii. Matt. perhaps. which he gives in the Apology and in Dial. 28. i. i. 30). 43. i. 16. due to an intentional perform miracles in Thy name? And then will I say to them. i. 32. . 47 "If : thy right eye offend thee.1v Ae'yco ayanare tovs ptaovvTas vpds kcu cvXoyc'iTe tovs Karapuipevovs . xii. vi. or the latter with eXrjdvda changed to rjXdov from Matthew. 15 (Matt. 63 (Matt. 29. " For the heavenly Father wisheth the repentance of the sinner rather than his punishment." etc. xxii. 37. and. 13. 35. vii. he . . xi. 47. and Luke vi.198 or by combination. 85. 10). iii. JUSTIN MARTYR. and Matt. with oKpeXelrai and d-n-okecrr]. when the righteous shine as the sun and the wicked are sent into the eternal fire. "Jesus commanded us dyanau kcu tovs e\dpovs). ix. Luke xii. 19 (pff <£o/3e?cr#e k. xviii. Mark ix. 15 (Luke vi. iii. x. 27. xiii. * vpiv kcu cii\ca6e vnep tg>v enTjpca^ovTcov vpaslike Justin's text is most Luke . xii. xii. 9). 21. workers of lawlessness. 1. 2. 30. ii.t. with variations) i.) . Horn. x. i. 5 with vii. i. attributing all to the angel Luke who appeared . 1 Polyc. 4. So cf. 15 (Matt. though Justin's text agrees with D in Luke. and Luke xiii. 15 Ev^ecr^e vnep to>v i)^6pa>v vpaiv ('Eyw 8e vp. 26-28. xxiv. Justin adds. Depart from me. also have axpeXelrai) . Athenag. That this passage was early confused and appears from the Didache." a reminiscence of both Old and New Testament passages (Ez. v. CI. 19. 1 1 Rom. 16 (combination of Matt. xi. 4 and 2 Pet. 133.. Luke x. 15 (freely cited). 15 (a combination of elements from Matt. . followed by a reminiscence of Matt. and the patristic quotations were freely and variously made. Supplic. variously cited. 46. 23. Matthew's text was early corrupted from Luke. which gives the spirit of Christ's minis. ad Phil. 24). has. 42. vi. where the quotations vary from each other and from Justin and from the Gospels Apost. i. i. Either he combined the two Gospels. 16 (with ck for dno). plain themselves as a combination of parallel passages in the Gospels. 33 (combination of 31. follows Matthew. or Luke vi. 28 and i. i. apparently from Luke ix. 25. Mark . 40 or Luke x. 16. . D and latt. who. 42. xviii. vii. ever. Constt. 32. though introducing a clause from Luke. 8. Matt. 36. i. 9. There shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. John xiv. 26. In Matthew. In Dial. 32. 15 (quotes Matt. 27 . vi. Ap." where we have a combination of Matt. . or they had already been combined in his copies. 45) 29 . Justin himself omits the fourth clause. c. 22.X. 23 xxiii. xvi.

. Sanday's Gospels. tI aaivbv TroieiTe So Westcott's Canon. on Justin's testimony to corruptions of the text). el pf] povos 6 6eos. text of our 199 In one r or unintentional mingling of their language. as Justin points out. " Where 5 the treas- ure is. xi. i. 3 and Matt." he omits the closing words tov 'lo-parjk. and i. added to bs yap. xviii. 8 Kai yap ot tropvoi tovto Trotovo'iv. p.. 35. JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. So cf. or "according to His word" (cf." 3 we recall the mention of Christian chastity with which he had opened his description of the new morality. when he continues.el dno\e\vpevr)v for clearness. 15. 6). which he had just expressed in the preceding chapter. 1 6. 31) the words of Micah (v. 11). he was led what new thing do ye ? " and it is not improbable that to do this by the thought." But if we add two instances 6 in which he appears to to give merely So too reads the Protevangelium of James (c. 25 below. 15. on Justin's use of John) i. 61 (John iii. there also mind of the man. Isa. 2 So. eVeet i<a\ 6 vovs tov Ap. in which Justin stands is the alone. Justin combines Matt. perhaps a trace of his ant i-Marcionism. which Thou shalt conceive of His word " (cf. 66 (in the account of the institution of the Eucharist. Ei dyaTrare rovs aycmG&VTas vpds. the cause of which reasons - can be probably assigned. : He cites our ye love them who love you. added to ouoVis dyaOos. no particular reason can be assigned for the phrase. 26-28 also has. 129). 22-24) with Luke xxii. p. 4 Also. 2) from Matthew (ii. 4 On the other hand. " Judge us . in quoting (Ap. Ap. 3. Justin's Ap. xxvi. d<f> ere'pou dvdpos. Ap. that they might be interpreted of the Jewish people. or 1 Cor. : see 15. i. "who shall rule my people. 23. 6 l. and which Lord's language thus " If may serve to show * the freedom with which Justin quoted. " fulfilling. Mary. fearing.. " For even the fornicators do this. 2 i. 124. i. i. no doubt. onov yap 6 drjaavpos icrriv. 17-20. (Mark xiv. 6 Troirjaas ra iravra. etc. 33). i. of the new morality which Christianity had introduced. " . instance a variation from the by other Gospels is introduced. dvdpa>Trov. with variations: see below.

. variations we suppose " been identical with his ^° ^ ne Gospels ^ ne memoirs if " but it iioroverthrow from'the'substantiai al so as certainly appears that we extend agreement of Justin with tion same methods of quotawhich he used with the Old Testament. etc. Cf. It thus certainly appears that Justin is more exact in these to have . i. 38." In giving merely a statement of the results obtained from a comparison of his quotatexts. and if we for remember that Justin's object did not call so much the precise repetition of the words of the "memoirs" as for their substantial sense.. all his variations from the text of the Gospels may be reasonably explained while maintaining his principal use of them and their identity with the tions " memoirs. evidence tin has in the large amount of matter which Justhe first common with The three Gospels. Partial agreements with the texts given by Matthew and Luke are continual. ask of me judgment ") 7. as would appear from a study of the itself. xxi..200 a JUSTIN MARTYR. agreements and disagreements of the Synoptic Gospels themselves (which must have contributed then. and if we take into consideration the verbal . pp. 118-128. of events recorded in the Gospels. through the show the fulfilment of prophecy. . with the canonical we have necessarily failed to show. 1 2 (" variations we have noted imply mockery of Christ on determined by the wish to lviii. his quotations from the Old Testament than in those if from the Gospels. . conform more to the Old Testament than to our Goswe shall have classified the various types of quo- tations from the " memoirs " found in the Apology. where Justin's language is show the 1 fulfilment of Ps. as they do now. desire to summary and in which. he makes the language of Christ's persecutors pels. to inaccuracy of quotation). the the Cross. Sanday's Gospels.

having gone out everywhere. 6\r]s rrjs laxvos <rov). 103) says Jesus was reckoned as a carpenter. i. with all thy heart and with all Perhaps. but as he adds that He made ploughs and yokes. . If so. 2 Cf. 45). preached. . Reuss's History of the Canon. is rather an agreement in matter than in language. " the mighty word which from Jerusalem His Apostles. he would seem to have also relied in this instance on tradition. pp. but even they are Justin gives us a text which has so much in common with our Synoptic Gospels that it may clearly have alone are indeed itself so been derived from them. 3 has also. having gone out everywhere. which has become canonical. is to But what be said of the alleged fact that in the peculiarities of his quotations Justin agrees with a Gospel text used by other early writers This fact has been often affirmed so strongly . 93) " Thou shalt is . etc. 16 Dial. : worship the Lord thy thy strength (c| God . " Is not this the carpenter ? So Justin (Dial." etc. 4G.JUSTIN ON THE that the element that which is NEW TESTAMENT. to both is 201 common much larger than peculiar to each. i. 30." is a reminiscence of Mark xvi. 47 in Justin's quotation (Ap. . better for thee with one eye to enter into the kingdom of heaven " (though Mark has " kingdom of God ") and with Mark xii. 20. the Lord working with them. the expression. in the quotation (Ap. because that Gosmuch in common with the other two pel has not wholly wanting. to overthrow The variations cannot be used. it would follow that Justin had the conclusion to Mark's Gospel. which " It Besides the mention of the naming of Zebedee's sons (Dial. See below. and the infer1 103). . preached. Agreements with Mark much less frequent. too (i. moirs (2) " — that his "me- were our Gospels. Mark vi. " and they. therefore. on Justin's testimony to corruptions of the " Gospel text. we note an agreement with 15) : Mark ix. ? Are gaid to agree with other postapostolic 2 as to convey the impression that represents Justin t • usually and closely a different type of text from that of our Gospels. the conclusion already drawn from their agreement in substance. 1 At any rate. .

Another example v. 8. " Let your yea be yea and your nay nay. 37. iii. " Let your yea be yea. 101. to 8e Trepiaaov tovtcov e< tov novrjpov. 2 One of the best examples of this is the form in which both cite the saying. xviii. Takr)6r} 8e Xeyeti> Xevaaro (xp-) to ov ov ' M^ 6p." The Homilist has 7 " Do not call me good for the Good is one. •• tt> and Kecognitions been emphasized. 9. 344. terra) vp. 3. 11. 12. v. Ap. ovrats irapeKe/cat 7rept 8e tov fir) ' o\cos. which is quoted by Clement of Alexandria as our Lord's words 4 while. the Father who is : : 1 2 8 Das Christenthum Justins. 16 . for that which is more than these is of the evil one. 57. i. on pages 205-207. Horn. . Strom. " Why callest thou me good ? One is good.. Justin has. cf. Cf. 122. Sanday has observed. is James — Justin's quotation 6 of Christ's reply to the rich young man. Clem. 14.6o-rjTe SXcoy. 13. 202 eiice JUSTIN MARTYR. Ka\ So the Homilist gives 4 6 it. Dial. ^ i -i-» i 1 • i those in the Clementines differ as much as they agree. and it corresponds exactly with the expression reported by Matthew. Even Von Engelhardt 1 thinks these sufficient to imply the use by Justin of a written source other than our GosYet the fact is that the quotations in Justin and pels. to vai vat. original narratives i. as Dr. Sfxvvvai iii. 55 . Especially D J especially with the Ps. Matt. indeed. del. my Father who is in heaven.ments with the Pseudo-Clementine Homilies Clementines. etc. Horn." 3 But the modification of Matthew's language evidently came from and your nay nay. pp. p. agreement." a sentence. has been drawn that the latter do not give the upon which the faith of the Church have Justin's agreewas built. v. is true.a>v to ov ov 6 7 * to yap irepio~o~ov tovtuiv e< tov novrjpov eariv. How far this That there are a few instances of striking is so.. 343. Gospels. "Ecrrco de vpa>v to vai vai. Examples 2. 5 the second clause has no force when joined to the language of James.

first 203 But not only do the clauses differ in the two quotations. p. ." first Justin reverses the 1 two clauses. vi. twice 7 has " No Cf. 15. Thus Justin 2 has. For your heavenly Father knoweth that ye differences. 4. iii.JUSTIN ON THE in heaven. Isaac and Jacob. Horn. etc. have need of these things " the Clementine Homilist 3 has. 120. But however striking these occasional agreements. 76. 140. 'Aftpahp. For your heavenly Father knoweth that ye need things before ye ask Him. (9). 'la(ca>/3. 55. Kai IcraaK not 'laKco/3 iv fiaxrCKeiq tcov ovpavcov ol 8e viol rrjs /3a(Tt\eias eKftXrjQrfcrovTai els to ctkotos to e£a>Tepov. viii." NEW TESTAMENT. but traces of 1 . ttoAAcu fXeva-ovrai dno dvciTo\a>v kcu 8vap. No one knoweth the Son save the Father. " all these has. Ap. quoting Matt. and shall recline on the bosowis of Abraham and cluding clause. mingling Matt. by the side of them can be placed examples of difference which effectually disprove the theory that Theapree8" Justin and the Clementines followed a com. 27. the last and most peculiar clause are widely scattered in early Christian literature so that it is not improbable that both Justin and the Homilist found it in their text of Matthew. " In citing the saying reported in Matt.6 Many shall come from the East and from the West. but the sons of the kingdom shall be cast out into the outer darkness. with slight variations.Jjnandthe mon uncanonical source. vi. 32 and 8.a>v. Kai tov re Kai 'IcraaK Kai 7 ixea-r^fxfipLas.. note. 2 8 Ap." omitting the con- the North and the South. and shall sit down with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom " of heaven. 32. 206. apKKa\ avaKkidrjo-ovTai etr koXttovs 'Afipaap. i. 5 "Htjovcriv drrb avaroKccv Ka\ dvo-pSiv rfj Kai dvaic\i6r]<TOVTai p-cra. 4 Dial." 5 the Homilist has. xi. 6 Horn. 63. i. Glanced by " ." Justin three times 4 " They shall come from the East and West.

final clause " " 2 one knew l the Father." but gives the the Son "to whomsoever may will to reveal Him. and which was the source of their variations from It is far more probable that the the canonical text. 11). 33). Thus." and gives the to and 3 whom the Son reverses may reveal Him . 4. yivaxTKei. or by the copying of one writer by another. Sometimes. in the Protevangelium of James (c. The Protevangelium also (c. 4 ofs iav (3ov\t}tcii 6 vlos 5 aTTOKaXv^ai. and the reference of the " Word " in the Protevangelium was to prophecy." Thus the agreements and differences between Justin and the Clementines fairly balance each other. way into apocryphal tin's text to that of but the relation of Jusdoes not by any means such contemporaneous writings as it we 1 are able to compare with eyva). Horn. 88) thinks Justin used the Protevangelium but the mingling of Matthew and Luke was too . 100. variations from the Gospel text which are scattered throughout these early writers are to be explained either by corruption of the current text. or by traditional modes of expression which had arisen in the Church. 21 are united as they are by Justin (Ap. Cf. and reads last clause 4 knew " for "knoweth. easy to prove this. while Justin meant the personal Logos. and we certainly cannot conclude that Justin depended on an uncanonical Gospel which was also used by the Homilist. 2 8 oi? av 6 vlos diroKakvyjfr]. 35. i. note below. i. 32. xvii. also. Justin has xviii. Tischendorf ('"When which "overshadowed" were our Gospels written?" p. 4 . The Protevangelium also has the phrase " Thou shalt conceive ac" cording to His word. In Dial. the " Homilist likewise the clauses. Luke i. 31." and Justin (Ibid. 18) places the birth of Jesus in a cave. . the dences. phenomena appear to present mere coinciIn some instances these variations found their Gospels 6 . and Matt.) explains the " power the Mary as Logos.204 JUSTIN MARTYR.

Justin . but the by introducing vii. 8 the Homilist agree. . 8. vii. kol avrq> XaTpevcreis p. Horn. (3) Matt. i. 103. It was an easy error. God (Kvpiov tov dfov <tov (pojUrjdrjcrT) . 4. e£a>6ev piv iv8e8v p. Justin agrees (1) Matt iv. last clause. i. 16. 39. (5) Matt. seems to show a reminisiiceivT) rfj cence of Matt. 21 Dial. i. 16. 35. 32 Matt. vi. as Christ's word. 34. and in 32. v. xxiv. Jas. v.. xv. 125. Horn. combines Matt.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. " Let your yea be yea. 28 (Luke xii. which he has in common with the Homilies Horn. Ha?r. 6. . v. xxiv. 35. The Homilist has. Homilist has iXevo-ovrai for tfgovo-iv. viii. 5) for rjgovcnv. 203. irpos pe. 4) Horn. Justin thus here latter. 120. but with va- riations (rjoXAol yap tf^ovaiv eVt r<5 ovopari pov. 15. 5 xix. viii. adds " from the North and the South. 35. v. and omits the i. Justin agrees with (4) Matt. 5. i. 2. viii.). Horn." etc. 55 Ap. Justin and Matthew. The Justin follows Luke mainly. Homilist gives a free recital rather than a precise quotation. Justin. See p. that his we may "memoirs" were identical with our Gospels. note 3. hi. Ap. 10 with Matthew. Ap. " Thou shah fear the Lord thy : — . 20) also quote. fjpepa act. Alexandria (Strom. 205 point to the use of an extra-canonical document. xi.evoi be p p. 19. 202. except ekevo-ovrat (as Matt. iii. 37. x. . A. much freer in his quotation than the Homilist. The Homilist has is '"TroXX'/t iXevuovrai rrpos ' p. 40 (Luke vi. See 16. 15. Dial. with variations. Ap. vi. (6) Matt." substitutes dvaKki8f)o-ovrai (Is The k6\ttovs 'Aj3paa/x for dva<Ki6r](TOvrai pera 'A/3paap. Horn. vii. ecra>8€v 8e ovres Xvkoi dpnayev e'/c rav epycov avrZv iiriyvaHTeo-Qe avrovs). 5 with 16. (7) Matt. 15. notes 5 and .e iv ivhvpao-i Trpoftdrcov. Dial. The Homilist combines Matt. eoa>6ev oe etcrt Xvkoi apwayes dno raiv Kaprrav avra>v iiTiyvuxjeaBe avrovs. xvih 5 Ap. 14) and Epiphanius (adv. 140. 12 with Both combine Clement of . 32. i. 1 1 The evidence for Justin's relation to the Clementines will appear more clearly by an examination of the following passages. Justin agrees with Matthew.ara 7r po^drccv. Ap. So in Dial. but substitutes pacpopiov (a head covering) for ^fi-wra (tunic). 203. Horn.6vat). 76. p. 29). 16. vi. so that again affirm that the few instances in which he our text and agrees with other authors do not from differs weaken the conclusion to which we have been alreadyled. See p. i. 22 (iroWol ipovaiv pot iv 11." (2) Matt. but combines with Matthew.

-- Ap. ~~ z ~~ 1 _ - £ : 1 . :\:_\.—.. -.. :'.r wh j n ra •«.. eombiz 111 -— r-T :"_:fr>. •-.'. - r on -: jkesim. 11-: '-.. • -.'. - <_ The HoeqIIIsl. likewise.:... :1.z JUST1H MABTFB. ~ . howeve r.i-'.:: <z.-. • . (3) Oor discussion. -: ?.- Tl. I: v.::. 13 :-•--. :-. B.: : . vtuitU.---. must before exhausting Justin's testimony - ~ ~- : ".- z .. L 63 : DiaL 100. -: — -= :.•= : . /of z: i'. ".'•... : oiijii M.

on Justin and John. bat in quite independent ways (13) John iii. The Homilist speaks of the Scribes and Pharisees as having been intrusted with the key of the kingwhich is knowledge. 103.'' Early Latin manuscripts and Syriac versions and later nncial manuscripts added "6 0eos. except that both followed a widely spread reading.xptotos/* the union of the two words was easy. : H . The above note is based on the list of parallel passages given by Westeott (Canon. xix. . In Dial. therefore. Ap. idan fittsfx els owopa ib uiptn tnov ayiou weiftarosBeeog. 37. xL 26.me * Harwtmf impossible it is placed in the estimation of the Church the " memoirs " of which Justin speaks. It is NTW TESTAMENT i. rots 8e fiovkofiewots ettrdk&eur oi vupejfOomM. . Textual corruption. perhaps. can be inferred from Justin's agreement with. (11) Luke vL 36: Horn. and rm ifuium for rm So 1 he Homilist. xxv. DiaL 96. and ye and them that are entering ye hinder" (rois elo-epxpfievovs KarXvere). Justin substitutes : mom to e£*rrepow for to vvp to almaiow. Justin says the devil was called Satan by Christ. i 15. IS). but adv. "AXAa rm. but the Homilist adds. 11) read " 6 Geo* 6 varijp. J . Cels. non introibh in regna cadorum. his introduction of the word here.(ptjoir (xp-)? Kparmtn Both fiiv rrfw kSelv. "~ 1". 3. and was an easy error.01 : I'liL. 1-51 :-: 6 Tfroifincrev 6 iraTTjp for to qrotfuurafurow (12) Luke xi. Ap. will account for the texts both of Justin and of the Homihst. Both Justin and the Homilist have " xpqoroi ml oucnpfutmes . '. p. (10) Matt. 9 has Amen dico vobis." not only incredible on histori- cal "rounds that these latter should have re.. " but as Luke vL 35 has . therefore. except that he retains SwifloW But both vTrar/ere and 6 ^rolfiaaer 6 warf/p have ancient Western manuscript authority for them in Matthew. Scribes \ : r ye have the keys (ras xXeis e^ere). Westaott and Hort's Xotes on Select Headings. v. Hi. 5 Horn. 76. Both read arayevVTjGrjTe and -r-y SamXelav rim ovparmm . refer to Luke. 2 to : Dial. do not enter in yourselves. the Homilist. Both show John varied by fusion with Synoptists and by the influence of technical theological lanr See below." Nothing.v. hence. with some corrections and : : additions. L 61. nisi quis denuo renatns fuerit ex aqua. and adds. p. X.g. 8. 160). : unto vou. after az-aytzrzrrrrs.JUSTIN OX THE Gospels. -il iiraycre for nopevorde : Horn. while to o-kdtos to egarrepov is not without later attestation by confusion with e. vi.

and which had received some few legendary From this he believes that Justin took his quotations and statements. . to regard on textual grounds as them as later recensions of the evangelical narrative witnessed to by Justin. so his textual peculiarities show as clearly a later stage of narration than our Gospels. his quotations bear all the marks combination and addition. For. of we have seen. He is certainly testifies to there any reason to be- lieve that in his quotations he followed a written form in text. which was based chiefly on Matthew.208 JUSTIN MARTYR. p. Justin. This theory makes Justin testify not merely to the existence of our Synoptics. presupposes our Synoptic Gospels. which was based upon them and yet varied from them and which contained such slight additions to their historical matter as we have found in his statements ? This is the view of Von Engelhardt. 1 He supposes the existence of a brief Gospel Harmony. sition not but also to the fact that they were already in his time so old and so well established as to have been made the foundation of a Harmony. then. the Synoptic narratives were made. The suppo. . 345. The -. or them himself in his own memory and did he follow in his combinations and vari- ations their some previous work ? use by the Church but . fact As the few statements of which he adds to the narrative of the Gospels are manifestly legendary accretions. But did he combine recital. 1 Das Christenthum Justins. To suppose that out to reverse all that of the evangelical account as represented by Justin. and was a " practical aid for the use of the three evangelical writings." additions. is we know of the tendencies of the second century as well as the laws of literary relationship. The theory is certainly not in itself incredible.

36 of his edition of the " Teaching " (" The Teaching of the Apostles. Charles Taylor " to been made by show that Justin was acquainted . succeeds in pointing out a few striking points of contact between our Apologist and the manual. most recently. Cf. 93.JUSTIN ON THE Diatessaron of Tatian predecessors. 2 earlier chap- ters of this ancient In any view Justin throws 1 2 est Cf. p. Ap. i. all thy heart and with ere. ev^ecrde vnep tg>v ej(dpa>v vpa>v Ka\ ayaTrare tovs pierovvis ras vfias Kai evXoyelre tovs Karapcofievovs vplv. also.. In Ap. 1887. 15. 1887). which precisely in the Gospels not found (Luke vi. Justin unites the Great Commandments with the Golden Rule. " fast for those who persecute you." all : thy strength. but in nearly the same words (Trpoo-evxeaBe instead of evxeade). Xewly Edited. yet thinks that Dial. the attempt has 1 Dr. but is found in the " Teaching " (c. thy neighbor as yivecrdai eroi Kai erv aXkca pfj Trcivra 8e oera eav In Barnabas (19) we read. Sin. and says "He that loves his neighbor will both pray and endeavor that the same things may happen (yeveerdai) to his : neighbor as to himself. He doubts whether we have any direct quotation from the " Teaching " in Justin." November. i. and : Him way ere" only shalt thou serve with of life this c. : So Barn.but as the Gospels do not. as the " Teaching " does (c. we read. 28 has tovs KaTapufievovs vpas). however. with Fac-simile Text and a Commentary for the Johns Hopkins University.). " The Expositor. Kvpiov rov 6eov tov is : 7roiTjo-avra. 19 ' Ay (nrqere is thou shalt love tov Qebv tov notr/cravTa In Dial." thyself Troiei. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God. tov ere 7roifjcravTa. Justin seems to show a knowledge of the negative form of the Golden Rule. i.. Prof. AiS." Cf. Rendel Harris's notes on p. " The first. i." Baltimore. The " Teaching " adds. 6e\rjerrjs i. NEW TESTAMENT." : Cf. 16 " The greatcommandment is." In Dial. recovered with the substance of the lately * Teaching of the Apostles " and he certainly Justin and the " Teadi°' „ . also. less 209 complete may have bad Mare recently. The most evident are the following. AtS. reads " as "] thine own soul.) in a different order. 35 (" From the fact that there are such men who selves Christians and confess the 14 crucified Jesus to call thembe both Lord .rj : " Secondly. i." and " Thou shalt love thy neighbor more than [Cod. "Thou shalt not take evil counsel against thy neighbor. 93.

Thus. pp. . " None is good hut to. he thinks that it was a written Teaching. the disciples of the true and pure Xpio-rov kcu Kadapas teaching of Jesus Christ 8c8aa-KaXlas) are (riy? dX^ii/?}? 'irjaov made more confident. Justin quotes differently in different places the same Gospel passages. a Harmony. also. light upon the " Teaching. Ill (6 ovv jradrjTos fjpoov Kai crraupco^ei? Xpicrros ov KaTrjpddr) tov vopov aXXa povos craxreiv rovs pfj a(pLO~Tapevovs rr/s avrov e8r)\ov) was a " memory " of Aid. in the Apology 3 he gives as Christ's reply to the rich young man. Of course. . but the " curse " in the two pasetc. pp.210 not a little JUSTIN MARTYR. and Christ. (rore rj£ei vtvo ktictis twv avBpcoTvoiv (U tt)v nvpaxriv rrjs 8oKipaaias Kai (TKavSaKiadrjcrouTai T77 7roAXot Kai anoXovvTai. 2 More- over. enelvov 8i8dy/xaTa 8iM(tkovt€s). which exists * between at least Justin and the so-called Epistle of Barnabas in favor of the Apologist's is knowledge of such a summary of instructions as is found in the " Teaching. It can only illustrate the supposition that he used a manual based on our Gospels. 2 Cf. also." etc. Cf. 3-12. written later in the century. xvi. ol 8e inropeivavres iv Triarei avrwv acadrjcrev- tm 1 vtt avrov tov KaTadepaTos) . after all. Von i." and the latter upon Justin. since it contains but few of them. . sages refers to very different things. But there is no reason to Again. and in even the passages where he connects with " it he also differs from it. the Teaching " could not have been itself the source from which he derived his quotations. Ap. very slight. 379. But it is a serious objection to this theory that we have no notice in early writers of the existence of such Objections to the theory. nlcrTfuis fj Dial. The relation.) implies that Justin knew assert that a written Ai8axrj tov Kvpiov. does not appear to have been known in the early Western churches. The "Teaching" was obviously ail0 l no ^ sucn • even Tatian's Diatessaron." Yet the evidence for Justin's use of the " Teaching " is. Zahn's Tatian's Diatessaron. we. 8 Engelhardt's Das Christenthum Justins. and yet do not teach His doctrines (p) . 16.

96 and 133." Cf. where 1 c. together with oral tradition and the operation of Jus- own mind.X. 16 "I say unto you. .JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. " Jesus commanded us to love even our enemies. cannot be positively denied. It is possible that Justin's pen may have been sometimes guided by the remembrance of expressions which were connected with the Gospel text in books used for It is purposes of instruction or worship in the Church. indeed. 4 : we read. 3 " all Thou shalt love the all Lord thy God with thy heart and with thy strength.. Ap. 16.) with Dial. but differs from Dial. i. Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God. 76. i. i. 93.) with Dial.X. there appears to be need of assuming nothing but the Gospels themselves." 4 It is. i. 2 8 c. and Ap. " in the ? Why is callcst thou me good One good. i. also Ap. not impossible that some of the parallel passages in the Synoptic Gospels may have come to be traditionally harmonized. 15 (yiveade Se xprjarol Kal oiKTippoves k-t. 16 (6s yap dicovei uov k. and thy neighbor as thyself. with thy heart and with thee . in order to account for the form of his quotations.) with Ap. al- lowance being made for the corruption of their tin's texts. which agrees with Dial. my " Father who in lieaven" In the Apology 2 we read.X.t. Pray for your enemies. any other written document than our Gospels. 16 (noWol be epoxxri pov Kvpic. and all Him only shalt thou serve. So Ap. 96. i. etc. 85." etc. and Ap. who made all things . Dialogue. tations are . Kvpie k. 1 " is 211 God alone. 101. the Lord God who made " in the Dialogue. 63. all thy strength. that document was itself based upon the latter but while the possibility of his occasional use of such a document writers. possible that in this may occasionally lie the explanation of his agreement in quotation with other uncanonical But we think that the phenomena of his quomore consistent with the view that he cited It is certain that if he used freely and from memory.t.

times with readings given by " old Latin " manuscripts.i 212 (-4) JUSTIN MARTYR. D. although these verses appear to have xi. p. p. ovtvs irapihcoKav ivre-d\6ai ai'Tois tov 'ir/aovv Xafiovra ciprov k.1v K. upon Luke says ." but which "Westcott and Hort expunge from Luke as a "Western corruption 3 and in Justin's evident dependence. xi. cf. p. posed by them. 45 (tov \6yov tov lo~)(vpov bv dzro 'lepovaaXrjp ot Xot a tov etjeXdovres 7Tavra\ov i^pv^av) ottoo'to- compared with Mark xvi. £f2 ' 1.T. 4 He show acquaintance with the verses which a. Sometimes they agree with readings given by the Codex Bezse somevarious readings of the Gospels . b.t. seems. 8 103. 64. self combined 1 Cor. mss. his quotations testify not only to the existence. as we have several times observed. for example. original " They correspond not infrequently " to which are attested ^y other early evidence.. 2 xxii. which are called Gospels. 20. . may have himwith his remembrance of the ac" the Apostles in the Memoirs com- yap TTapekaftov ano tov Kvplov b kol irapehaxa vp. etc. 23. 5 A p. New Testament Notes on Select Readings. But whether Justin used a Harmony or to not. above. 1 was mentioned in the " memoirs. 185. 66). ' contain what appear to be corruptions of the text. Gospels that. i. i. 5 to 1 23-25. were textual corruptions. xi. 2 Dial. See Westcott and Hort's Justin. Luke 22... The report. which Justin gives of the words is spoken from heaven at Christ's baptism found in Other examples of probable corruption may be found in the reference to the " bloody sweat. 63. and lat. but which certainly Textual corruption. count in the " memoirs " cf." which Justin explicitly iii. but also (4) His quo- the already considerable antiquity of our They do this by the fact Ihfsvnopdc Synoptic Gospels. note. 19 b. iya> ' however (Ap.A. been introduced into Luke from 1 Cor. also.X. 15-18. . they J already anciem books. according to these very authorities. in his account of the institution of the Eucharist. c. 23." with 1 Cor. 4 See Ibid.

took place even in the century immediately succeeding that in which they were written. So far we have said nothing of Justin's rela- tion to the Fourth Gospel. this be our Synoptic Justin not only that Gospels as existed in his day. and were regarded as apostolic and authoritative records of the life of Christ. but that he gives evidence of that corruption of the canonical texts which. II. in the end confirm his apostolic authoiity. and were used by the Church public documents. according to abundant testimony. But what witness does he bear to that other Gospel which find in the next generation placed we by as all the Church side by side with the complement ? Synoptics their apostolic It may be fairly said that Justin's use of the Fourth . culties which at first sight present themselves in his quotations. he testifies plainly to their antiquity and established use in the Church.JUSTIN ON THE -were early NEW TESTAMENT. appears in those manuscripts which textual classified as " have then Western. and which most plainly critics so. Xo more explicit testimony to our Synoptic Gospels could well be asked of him and the very diffiproves." testifies If. that these latter were in the middle of the second century already ancient books. but he also by the incidental character of his quotations and by their very variations from the text of our Gospels. to 213 added as a conclusion Mark's GospeL We do not mean that Justin's text is now represented in its entirety by any one manuscript or class of manuscripts. Justin and the Fourth ' we have seen. evidence for their II. . ' The vast majority and as of his evangelical references were undoubtedly de- rived from the „ first three Gospels . handed down from the apostolic age. however.

" and therefore did not believe in its apostolic authorship . Abbott's views. who maintains that while Justin was acquainted either with the Fourth Gospel or with the " Ephesian tradition " out of Dr. In come £jie of late the fact. The evidence for its existence and use has gradually pushed the date origin farther back. amoug themselves but few it will be now found who do not assign to a date considerably earlier than the writings of Justin. his Die Genesis des Johannes-Evangelium. He declares that their relation is such as to amount of goods. he carefully avoided citing it as 1 Justins literarisches Verhaltniss zu Paulus und zum Johannes-Evangelium Zeitschr. 1875. critics. Abbott. fur wissensch. side has Thoma's view. : . that to Justin the Fourth Gospel was a book of doctrine. even avoids doing so that he did not include among "the memoirs of the Apostles. 1S82. which the Gospel grew. Theol.. At the to " a literary it same time he from it ." plifies He holds that Justin the statements of community comments on and amthe Fourth Gospel.214 Gospel early is JUSTIN MARTYR. assigned for still differ its Critics. have been genhistorical His use of ai°iy that Gospel in the middle or even in the secou(^ ^alf °^ fdmit- ^ e seconc ^ ted - erally abandoned. history. from the rationalistic most energetic assertion of Justin's use of it. . Edwin A. Albrecht Thoma 2 goes to extreme limit in maintaining the influence of this Gospel on our Apologist. declares that Justin never formally quotes as historical material. now generally admitted. not of whose forms of thought and expression he was saturated. but which he and the Church were far from regarding as a trustworthy narrative of Christ's life. also. See. in short. The views of the Tubingen it which placed the composition of century. of course. with Similar views have also been advocated in England by Dr. but it that he never uses .

that certain Greeks desired to see Jesus. he yet never borrows thoughts . 53). 1882. Julv and October. it is admitted by these same critics that he never quotes those passages. speaking of Christ's entry into Jerusalem. (7) he repeatedly associates references to the Fourth Gospel with teaching from apocryphal or traditional sources (8) even where he is said by modern critics to be remembering or referring to passages in Saint John's Gospel. 2 . 1 See " Justin's Use of the Fourth Gospel. Gospel. namely. we 2 think. when Justin (Dial. he quotes the words of Jesus. both in many Evidence for instances where he affirms where he denies it it.' " will The truth or falsity of these criticisms appear as we proceed. the mystery of the brazen serpent and the appearance of God to Abraham. in other words. (6) in all these points. he differs from the Gospel and agrees with Philo. ' ' ' . Thoma errs. Dr. ' ' ' Christ's pre-existence." Modern Review. So far as Justin's use of the Fourth Gospel is con- cerned. (5) where he treats of topics peculiar to the Fourth Gospel (as distinguished from the Synoptics).JUSTIN ON THE he cites the " NEW TESTAMENT. he differs from the Gospel. thus: "'That (1) Justin knew of the existence of the edly quotes Gospel or parts of the Gospel in some form (2) he never avowit as a Gospel or as authoritative (3) although it is one of his main purposes to prove Christ's divinity and pre-existence previous to the incarnation. it 215 as apos- memoirs. less developed than that of the Gospel. not from the Fourth Gospel. as Canon Westcott truly says. 20. Abbott summarizes the results of his study. and approximates to the Jewish philosopher Philo in his expression of his views of the Logos. do not declare trines . for example. or. but from those Gospels which. and especially in his doctrine of the Logos. (4) although tifying the . sees in the ass a symbol of Jews and in the colt a symbol of the as yet untrained Gentiles. but quotes the Synoptists by preference (9) even when he declares that he will show how Jesus revealed His pre-existence and divinity. or arguments from that Gospel which alone enunciates these doc- he agrees with the Fourth Gospel in idenLogos with Christ. Thoma finds acquaintance with the fact mentioned immediately after the entry in John xii. Thus. and in several and similarly strained JfSbBiraJJ." and did not regard 1 tolic or authoritative. his doctrine is more Alexandrine and less Christian. .

IV. 33. 97) quotes from Isa. lvii.. Church. etc. 723 (g). Justin's theory. but in his theology the philosophical and Christian elements often conflict. 2 See Lect. because the Fourth Gospel lacks the philo- sophical element found in Justin but contains the ChrisSo when Justin (Dial. by Dr. if I be lifted up. Abbott." Thoma finds it suggested by John xii. e. pp. 730." my etc. 1 but the it may be said to have been demonFirst of all. but without the impress of the prevailing philosophy. Critics have repeatedly refused such evidence of " apologists. Moreover. As we found Gospel is in the last lecture. that of the Fourth markedly devoid of this and it would be a strange phenomenon. 2. 3 is Some Chris- tian authority required to provide the basis on which Justin argued. " I. his by others. but there is surely no need to assume a reference to John's narrative. at a time when such influences as those which Justin shows were abroad in the strongly tinctured . Justin does indeed understand Isaiah to refer to the cruci- fixion. Thus. 733. Everything. we would maintain that doctrine of Justin's doctrine of the Logos presupposes acquaintance with that of the Fourth Gospel. g. references have been pointed out fact of his use of Irom strated. He 2 not only declares his beliefs to be those of the Church. while influenced by philosophy. differed essentially from Philo's in precisely those points which he had in common with the Fourth Gospel. VI. 8 See Lectt. 725 (j).216 JUSTIN MARTYR. will draw. is against the supposition that he knew himself to be introducing novelties into Christian doctrine." liter- ary dependence when used by 1 See the passages cited. Justin's doctrine is by philosophy. a work were composed. however. 32. if. and VL . involving the same theme. showing that he tried to build on that which he had received. and sometimes successfully refuted. "I stretch out hands to an unbelieving and gainsaying people. and the Fourth Gospel alone supplies this.

ance with the known tendency of the age to suppose that the Gospel preceded the philosophical movement its in the Church . but just the contrary and hence the production by it of the Fourth Gospel is incredible. iii. esides. 17. rots . an earlier authority from which the itself the Apologist partly diverged. 1 Passing. to create a strong it. cannot be regarded as the further development of thought represented as of the movement by Justin. however. 1875).. but on which at the same time This general fact creates of pre- sumption that Justin was not only acquainted with the Gospel. but actu- departed from views or reproduced them imperfectly. vii. probability that they were derived from is " the He calls the only spotless and just Light sent Christ only begotten " to men from God. since the Gospel and the First Epistle stand and fall together) and Papias (see Dr. Lightfoot's article. Justin. —a The reversal of this general argument appears to be Dr. but must be regarded he built. represents a middle stage between Philo and the Fourth Gospel. It is far more in accord. Dial. 217 element on which his it philosophizing theology- rested. Hser. Refut. if October." Contemporary Review. is decisive for the earlier date for the Gospel. let us turn to the literary evidence for Justin's use of the Fourth Gospel. "Papias. the evidence of Basilides (Hippol. 10) and of not of Polycarp (ad Phil. when taken all together. Abbott's fundamental error. He insists that the Fourth Gospel was the complete and self-consistent Christian elaboration of the philosophical ideas received from Alexandrianism and partially worked up by Justin.coincidences. Irenaeus (adv. 11). therefore. Kara ovu tov [iopov dpafxov K.a\ SiKaiov (poros. but also accepted its doctrine as apostolic. this general consideration.JUSTIN ON THE tian NEW TESTAMENT. This evidence consists of certain words or phrases which are so similar to the language of the Gospel Christ " as. But the philosophical movement shown in Justin certainly did not tend to throw off philosophy. apart from those passages From literary which involve the question of his direct ci." 1 2 of the Father. tation of it. which movement took ally that Gospel for its point of departure. vii.

knoweth not the counsel of God and he that revileth and hateth Him. 2 Dial. vjJw commandments of Christ. ii. ' t<ov tov irarepa tcov o\a>v (5pvovo~r}s Kai TroTi£ovo~r)s tovs fiovXopevovs to ttjs £<orjs vBcop ir i See John otto iv. you who make is darkness and darkness light " but his language at least in striking accord with John 1 i. 9 .6vos ISlcas vlos tS> 6ea> yeyevvrjTai.evos k-t. X. 6. Him in the New Testament only by the Fourth Evangelist and in the First Epistle of John. v. 1 John iii. xxi. So Ap." and to the natural exhortation of the Chris- tians to one another to be not merely " called. this is merely an effort to escape from the evident coincidence of Justin's and John's language. 6. e£ avrov \6yos 8vvap. The whole phrase. . 114.. Christ]. . Movoyevr]s yap /cat on rjv tco Trarpl twv o\a>v ovtos. vi.X. Justin light lias just quoted Isa. ol Tas evroXas tov xP l(TTn ^ tpvXao-aovres. 736) argues that . made by Philo between " being " called. "Woe 12 . 218 term applied to JUSTIN MARTYR. . Rev. 4 Dial. 6 p. e." " We from Christ who begat us unto and are the true children of God. and. 38 . p. 'O yap tovtov dyvocov dyvoel ko\ t>jv I3ovXt)v tov Beov Kai 6 tovtov vfiptfov Kai p. The fact that Justin does not cite John to prove the generation of the Logos does not invalidate the evidence of his language for his acquaintance with John's Gospel. . and who gives 2 to drink to those who will the life. Kai .6vos Xeyop.is yeyevvTjp.eBa Kai eo~p. still more.evos Kvpicos vlos.t. 46.X.a to ttjs v8a>p rais Kapbiais tcov 8i avTOv dyaTrrjaavel v. 20. 8 Dial. 1 He is " the good Rock which causes living water to Ireak out from the hearts of those who through Him have loved the Father of water of all. etc. 2. Abbott (p. Dial." 3 " He that knoweth not Him [i. " Beov fyvkao-o-avres" is Johannean in all its parts. 10 . True. I8la>s I. xii. to the antithesis common source." 4 It was predicted that arc both called keep the avBpanois 7re /j. KaXrjs TtfTpas Kai £a>v as Kai x a L P etv anodinjaKOvras 8ia to ovop. manifestly revilcth and hateth Him that sent Him. See John i. 136. Ap. 23. 123. 1.<pdevTos God napa tov Beov to k. 15. 105.ev. v. viii. ovtoos Kai fjfiels tov yevvrjo-avros fjp-ds els Beov Xpio-Tov Beov Teuva d\rj8iva KaXovp. 12 xiv.2." but to be God's But . . Justin and the First Epistle borrowed from a and appeals and " being children. vii.ia(ov Kai tov nep-^avra drjXovoTi Kai . 17 . i.

and. 6 curb rov rvarpbs (p. 17. o-(o6r)o-(o-6e. Abbott evrokrjv ekafiov Trapa rov rrarpos pov. the least in striking agree- ment with worketh fiiael tea] Christ's 4 reply to the Jews. . the serpent of Moses. 20) " If the mind. ye shall be saved. 6. . ravrrjv rfjv 18. spirit and truth. Dr. oil mcr- revei toIs ra>v Trpofprjrav KT]pvyfiaui rols avrov evayyeXiaapevois Kai KTjpv£ao-iv els ndvras. to this when he " erected the brazen serpent. Abbott (p. . So. 23. See John : 15.''' l 219 Christ would rise from the dead. which. So. . 18. See John v. against Judaizing Sabbath as — that God governs the world on on other days — is at The argument. 575) quotes Philo (Allegories. i. 'Avayeypa7rrat • . quite after Justin's habit of speech. mistakes Justin's purpose in immediately quoting iMatt. avrov \aj3a>v ex el ^ ee J°hn. through this. also. is able to discern with the soul the beauty of Temperance." believe Moses people. (Allegories. i. Hence his quotation of the former does not invalidate the evidence of his x." So The true God and His Son and the prophetic Spirit we worship and adore. Xoyw Ka\ a\r)de'a Tipwvres4 See John v. Dial. ye look 2 image and in it. expression. "My Father hitherto.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. " " he lias received adds Justin. . x." where Justin says of the Logos Justin merely intensifies John's oil vj3pi£ei. i. Kai « tnarevei." " spirit " being changed " to " reason also.' 3 certainly must remind us of John iv. tis els avrov. 27. 8 Ap. when bitten by Pleasure. " They that worship Him must worship Him in the statement. said to the " If from His Father. Eve's serpent. '24:. 94. he will live " but this is insufficient to account for Justin's application of the brazen serpent to Christ crucified and his emphasis on mo-rev^Te. God. 60. since that which is by nature iii. 155): "That which rests is one thing only. \a(3elv rov Mcovo-ea ' x a^ K0V * a>l TTOirjO-ai rvTTOV o-ravpov Kai eiTrelv raj \aa> iav Trpoo-fiXeTTTjre ra> tvttco tovtco koX Trio-revere iv avT(p. God Himself. ii. 1 with which compare John v. 29. language that he remembered John 2 Ap. But by rest I do not mean inaction. 100. 577) quotes Philo Dial. Abbott (p. ' Dial. 724) xi. Justin regarded the saying in (jrdvra) of the particular fact Matthew as a general state- ment reported by John. 46. lionoring them in reason and truth'. also. He adds.

" which is so evidently an echo of Matt. nepcfidtVTos napa rov deov. . can never desist from doing what is most excellent. but the Father who sent me. in order to guard against a polytheistic inference from the doctrine of the Logos which is true. revileth 140. 1 Dial. He has willed Him to do and who made the universe declaration reported by Christ's speak. 2 Dial. also. the fourth Evangelist. He hath given me a command- and what I should speak. of the Xew Testa- a point of evidence none the less strong for being small. for it is characteristic of him to deviate freely from the terminology of even those Xew Testament books which he certainly knew. " I did not speak of myself. are ordered to offer sacrifices. that he five times active. nore fj MpiXrjKtvai [^ a)/wX. and is used by him twenty-five times of the Father " sending " the Son. rots avdpunoi? 91. fte(Sov\r)rai Abbott (p. so on this. 2 The likewise. 56." vov viov avrov nepL^j/avTi eiy rov Koo~pov. opiXijcrai. " and the priests." " Fly for refuge tu tov eo-ravpape" He that revileth 136. ovdev yap in (prjpi avrov Trcrrpa-^ivai. xii. 723) says that Justin's language was a natural remark. 5. but Justin adds. He has never done or said anything but what . as on other days. and hateth tov rrep^avra. . arrep avrov 6 top <6o~pov irpai-ai ical vnep ov aXXos ovk eari deos. See John 49. 17. xii. that the presumption is that in the previous clause." But not only is the application of the thought the same in both Justin and John. to 6eXrjpa and hateth Christ manifestly tov ne p^/avros avrov irarpos- . "The only spotless and just Light. is t) wanting <a\ the manuscripts." 1 and Justin's use of the same participle which the Fourth Gospel employs to designate the " sending " of Christ a usage which is pecuby the Father into the world ment what I should say — liar to ment — that Gospel is among the books fact. that which is the Cause of all things. 3).220 that " JUSTIN MARTYR. but restored by Otto] iroirjo'as." The word is a favorite with the author of the Fourth Gospel. but does not invalidate the inference to be drawn from the agreement of his thoughts with that of tbe Fourth Gospel. Xor is this inference invalidated by Justin's use of 6/xiXeti/. he follows an evangelical authority." we remember . Kara. viii. Elsewhere in the Xew Testament it is thus applied but once (Rom.

32. also. of which the first was written in the first half of the second century. 19 or xvi.. reminds is of Christ's reply to Pilate (John xviii. 2 the Gospel which ought not to go uncounted. Abbott (p. to show that Jesus charged the Jews with ignorance of God. 3. as not dvdpumvov. i. When Justin (Ap. xi. as in turn the noun was chosen because of the verb in Luke x." 63) quotes Matt. but the verb was here obviously chosen to correspond to the noun. 130. Dial. and Symmachus. vii. 52 . The following additional items of evidence for Justin's ac: quaintance with the Fourth Gospel are worth noting (rt) — Ap. twice (see is Luke xx. 24. " . i. 63.) tt)v pera. at most. 1 or. Kai vvv e'lprjKa vp. Keim (Gesch. 722) says that eKKevreiv is actually introduced in the passage of Zechariah by the versions of Aquila. Justin says . " No one knew etc. 16 (os yap dicovei pov koi noiel a Xeyeu. 221 John xix. 11) of the kingdom which the Christians expect. which Justin quotes. Theodotion. i. Jesu v. 13). besides Matt. 27. 40. In Ap. My kingdom not of while his whole conception of Christianity as . i. etc. as making it probable that this reading existed before the second century. 118. John viii. the Father save the Son. 64. Naz. tv dTnarqdfj aXX' of rov Tvpoeiprjadai TVMTTevOf) ") is perhaps an echo John (c) xiv. pr) e'/c phetic Spirit. i. 7. for he diroaTeXXerai to reveal. tva orav yewjrai TrurTevcrrjTe. through the proorav yevrjTat." 2 this item of evidence stood alone. 14. (ft) Ap. p. 16. as it is quoted in they " They shall look on Him whom perhaps a similar indication of his use of Finally. He refers also to Rev. 36. 45) think he had in mind. aKovei rov a7rocr- reikavTos pe) fie) and Ap. 16. quoted by Otto) and Ezra Abbot (Authorship of the Fourth Gospel. Luke vi. i.. x. but this world." Why not admit that he was acquainted with that Gospel 1 ? See Ap.JUSTIN ON THE quotes or refers to Zech. i. Abbott (p. aKOuei rov dnoareiXavTos 24. 33 (" God revealed beforehand.lv irplv yeveadai. 29. 6*ov. or may imply acquaintance with John xiv. NEW TESTAMENT." — 37. x. pierced. it but taken with the other items may be fairly mentioned. i. 63 (6 ipov aKovav. xii. 47. i. Probably he would be right in saying that " this passage if is useless as a proof that Justin copied the Fourth Gospel. Christ called dm'><rro\os. (d) Justin's explanation (Ap. 730) admits that Justin's use of ireptyas shows " that he was in sympathy with the later traditions embodied in [the Fourth] Gospel. is — 10." etc. that these things would happen.

In the 1 beginning was the Logos. Justin applies it to the second its advent. 62) dXAa tovto to tco ovti airb rov narpos irpoftXrjdtv yevv-qpa irpb ttclvtuiv Tav troiriparav xtvvtjV tco 7rarpl /ecu tovtco 6 Trarrjp npoaofiiKel. 542) insists that because Justin does not. (" For this end was I born. But in all the five places where Zech. a mind under philosophic influences reasoning on the fact stated to explain the in the Gospel. 37. xii. 1 separate airb Dial. Thoma 10 is quoted or referred to. and formed the basis of his theologizing. 76. Justin's use of o-u'et/H is another indication of the influence of philos- ophy on him. language under the influence of philosophy." (p. i. though 10 according to John xix.). Sri. See also Rev. 56. " Who." and of Christ's mission as one sent to teach (see i. 13. the prologue of the Fourth Gospel was Thoma evidently in Justin's mind.).a 2 John i. and does not enter on any explanation of clauses. 14. though he reproduces neither its language If the Gospel says " nor " its doctrine accurately. 37 " the truth. again. bs Xoyos kcl\ TrpcoroTOKos a>v rov 6eov <a\ debs vndpxei- Justin's expression tries ground of the deity of the Logos." Justin says that the Logos was begotten as a Beginning before all creatures.aTa>v rjv irpos tov 6eov. shows. 58. 4 John i. xii. 23. being the Logos and first-begotten of God. 1 has #e6j rjv 6 Xoyor. kcu y(vvr]p. 86. 34. he shows that he did not regard the Fourth Gospel as reliable history. 36. ii. Justin has (Ap." 4 So. mention the soldier's lance-thrust." Justin says " the Logos before the creatures both being with being begotten. etc. 8 Dial. 63." If the Gospel says " the Logos was with God. 62. 1 has 6 \6yos iroirjp. fj dp^f] But Justin probably departed from John's ttjs uriaecos rov 6eov. Kal apx^j Trpb navTcov tcov Troi-r/pdrcov tovt vno tov Beov eyeyevvTjTo. is also God. 3 yet gives the doctrine a different turn from the Gospel when he says. 63). Justin (Ap." 2 Him and If the Gospel says " the calls Logos was God. if we read in Ap. iii. xviii. etc. 6. It shows. . 37. for example. is in the spirit of Christ's words in John etc. quoting Zech." Justin also repeatedly Him God. 6) 6 Xdyos ivpb tcov km crvvcov kcu yevvoofievos and (Dial.222 as JUSTIN MARTYR.

especially. and that aapKOTroirj8eJ. But he declares that He was aapKoiroirjdels. but emphasizes the idea that this was His voluntary act. Dial. and ordered all 223 the Gospel "all things were tin declares that made through Him.rj8els vnepeivev yevvqthrough the Virgin (Dial. 6. i. i. God at any time the God] who is in the bosom of the hath revealed Him. rbv 6ebv 8ia \6yov tov Koa/iov Tvoirjcrai. He i. i. from his more careful use elsewhere of Sea Xoyou. 5 Dial." Justhings God " created through Him. av8pu>Tros vnep-eive yeveadai. So.iyevero. " X6y» 8eov the world was made. 33. 46 . The fact that in Ap.i. i. If the Gospel . He writes that He "became man'' (see Ap. i. nowhere says that the Logos oapf. ii. Ap." 2 and calls Christ " that If spotless and just Light sent from God to men.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. 64. that tov typ^totokov tS>v crapKOTroirjdevra akrjOais iravrav noi^pdrav . IV. 17. yevopevos avdpooTros. (rapKOTroi." is echoed in Justin's one hath seen [or Travra hi avrov iyevero. Ap. not only teaches the real incarnation of 4 the Logos. Lect. o-apKonoi4 Justin. 6. The Power which " overshadowed " Mary was the Logos)." Justin. likewise. only begotten Son Father. Alexandrianism. 45). ii. indeed. ore rrjv dpxv v Si avrov Travra kcu iicoo-uno-e. Ap." Justin has the doctrine of the Seminal Logos " of whom every race partakes. 59 Justin writes. 5 and. though p. 23. . 566) the influence of 2 '' may show 3 again (Abbott. 66). i. 5." does not destroy the evidence. and that He adpua kcu aiua ecr^ev (Ap. cf." and as "the which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. Tjdels civdpanros dijvai ysyovev (Ap. avdpco-rros yeyove). 7rai8tov yeveo~6ai (Dial. calls begotten of the Father. So he 84) teaches that the Logos incarnated Himself in the Virgin (see Ap. etcricre No 1 John 3." 3 having life true light the Gospel teaches that " the Logos became flesh. " all " 5 Him Him "the only " the only while the expression in . 105." Justin calls begotten of the Father of the Gospel. that the latter it expresses his real doctrine. 32).i." l If the Gospel sets forth the Logos as which "was the light of men.

and which. may J . The literary coincidences are too many not to imply the Apologist's use of the written Gospel itself. becomes perfectly comprehensible and this is the natural inference to be drawn . doctrine of the invisibility and transcendence of the Father. departed from the ideas of the Fourth Gospel though building on it. as there Thoma states was a " literary community of goods " between the two can writers. tianity and the union of philosophy and Chriswhich Justin shows as existing in the orthodox Church of the post-apostolic age. but takto it. and in the place which he assigns to the Logos both in communion with the Father and in the revelation of the Father to the world. . ing all together. as Justin also shows. which is wholly incredible. Once assume the non-philosophical Logos-Gospel as an established Christian authority. see Leet. Moreover. Nor. Exception ' . be taken to this or that item . The latter hy- pothesis supposes that the philosophical movement in the early Church eradicated from itself the philosophical element.224 JUSTIN MARTYR. are far more easily explained by the assumption that his philosophical theology proceeded from the Fourth Gospel as a basis than that the Fourth Gospel was a later theology and purified version of the philosophical which Justin represents. 62. we be with the view that Justin was " is merely acquainted with the of which the Fourth Gospel Ephesian tradition " out alleged to have sprung. even when in closest contact with the Gospel. IV. 61. 1 Dial. Justin's divergences of phraseology and of idea. as already observed. even satisfied at this stage of the argument. 1 These examples of the evidence for Justin's acquaintance with the Fourth Gospel will Weightof this evi- suffice. it would seem impossible avoid the conclusion that.

into John's mouth. 23. Those marks show on the one hand Justin's use of the Gospel. 88. ? How did Justin use the Fourth Gospel was acquainted with it Assuming that he and that he more or How did he less faithfully followed its cardinal ideas. while Luke in their hearts of not. however. but " he cried to them. for the further question. 2 1 Dial. clearly historical narrative of historical Thus. That Justin in a few instances does „ He uses seem to use the the Fourth Gospel. we are yet asked if he regarded it as apostolical Fourth GosP el ? and authoritative. whose shoes iii. 225 from the marks of literary relationship between that Gospel and our Apologist. and others it. but the voice of one men supposed John the Baptist I am not the Christ. assert that he never directly quotes historical material. (1) its . he states 1 to be Christ. This is precisely the phenomenon which from the relations of the thought of the two writers we should expect to find. : — „. as Justin does so far as he quotes them. Abbott. then. Thoma." and consequently could not have held to be the work of the Apostle John. The fact that in this the Dialogue Justin inserts traditions as 15 -well as facts same chapter of taken from . 2 See John i. To (1) this. 20." Now. for He that is stronger than that I me shall come.) and apply them to John. that " that he never uses its it he did not reckon among the it memoirs." etc. we reply . the Fourth Gospel alone puts them. am not worthy to bear. and on the other hand his attempts to explain it.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT." 15 states that the people "mused John whether he were the Christ or and while all three Synoptists quote the words of Isaiah (" The Voice of one crying in the wilderness. crying . literary We are prepared.

we read that the Jews called Christ " a magician and a deceiver of the people. 63. 1 Dial. (K yeveTrjs TTT)pa> eK yr)s Kal aieXov speaks of Christ as to Xelnov pepos iv r& dnobovs and Clem. 6 John vii. nor does the question of how the Fourth Gospel came to put these words into John's mouth affect the fact that Justin used torical. referring to the miracle of John ix. ably used in the same sense as indeed. '." latter phrase corresponds The most nearly with the charge (John vii. Again." So Ap. tov Se Kal bpdv Evidently Justin used 7rr)povs in the sense a> of " blind. 1 : rvqjXov eK yeveTrjs- See above. £a>v- . irrjpovs in Dial. when he was yet alive. but which is most easity ex- plained as arising from Justin's remembrance of the fourth Evangelist's account of the man born blind. expounding the Twentysecond Psalm. 1 In the same connection. but he deceiveth the people. So Apost. also. and another to hear. aWeadai. tov 8e Kal aKoveiv. and another a statement which. 7. xxvii. its account as hisLike the Fourth Gospel.226 JUSTIN MARTYR. "Nay. rovs eV yeverrjs Kal Kara rfjv <rdpKa nrjpovs Kal Kaxpovs Kal xcokovs lacraro. 69. Matt. 22. "That deceiver said. xix. Justin states that Christ healed those "who were from birth and in body blind and deaf and lame. 12). Dial. dXXd TrXava t6v o^Xov. 69. 185. p. 22 has.. Ov. making one to leap. 716) "knew "memoirs show that he regarded the Fourth Gospel as on a level with tradition. it.1 7rapa\vTiKovs Kal eK yeveTrjs Tvovqpovs vyteiy TTenoirjKevai k. when Justin. tov pev tu> Xdyco avrov noirjcras. i. Horn. note 2). amov Kal veKpovs dvayeipai Here eK yeverrjs qualifies Trovrjpovs alone.1 yap pdyov elvai avrov eroXpav Xeyeif Kal Xao- nXdvov. which Justin prob69 (if. as we have already seen. ko.t. v. p.t-X. nXdvos elnev en. 63." — is not entirely accurate." 2 Still again. to see.X. xxvii. the latter should not be substituted for John ix. declares that the latter part of scribes the it dethat how Christ before His crucifixion " does not (Abbott. 12." though it may possibly have been suggested by Matt. o&ev Kal StSdcr/caXos 2 r)pa>v irepl rov eK yeverrjs nrjpov k. also. 8e Xeyopev )(u>Xovs ko. Justin treats of John's witness to Christ rather than of his preparatory work among the people. Const.

X. it certainly implies accept- ance of the narrative as well as of the doctrine of the Evangelist. in spite of all the criticisms (2) tending to a contrary result. to be sure. but they accumulate evidence for the use of the Fourth Gospel's historical matter. and would raise Him from the dead. (2) Their testimony. . JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT.t. and that a quotation j?2an au^ 01 of such a form as to demonstrate practically ^h^tV " not only Justin's use of the Gospel's narrative. . are as much as under the circumstances we confirmed by what should expect. that that the Father had given that on the night of His betrayal Jesus." we note at least a striking coincidence with the fourth Evangelist's record. 106. Kai on r)Trio~raro rbv narepa avrov Travra napexeiv . These are. <w? t)£iov. 227 His Father would give all things to Him as He asked. 3 : el8a>s on Travra eScoKee avru> ds ras \ ( ^P as The coincidence consists not merely in the idea. also. ye shall not 1 Dial. unless ye be born again [or regenerated]. but also his acceptance of : it as apostolic. " knowing all things into His hands. slight indications. is we cannot but consider. a direct quotation He di- from the Fourth Gospel. where. teaching. Discourses form so large a part of that Gospel that tin's narrative it should not surprise us to find Jus- taken almost wholly from the other three and slight indications. Ka\ aveyepelv avrov £k rasv venpav ra XetVoi/ra tov \j/a\pov edrjKcoatv. such as these which have been given. xiii. Speaking of baptism." rose from 1 He came supper and proceeded to wash the disciples' feet if and the reference be allowed. however. 6 irarrfp John k. and apparently to the last discourse with the disciples. but in the reference of Christ's trust in the Father to the period immediately preceding the passion. . and from God and went to God. avra. John it.. records . he writes " For also Christ said.

" Reeog. 'Apr)v dpr)v Aeya> eav pr) tis yevvrjBrj avcodev. IIcoj 8vi>arai avTr)s 6pamos yfvvrj8r)vai yepwv uiv pf) 8vvaTai eir . non introibit in regna coelorum. 9. kingdom it is of heaven. " JUSTIN MARTYR.\ yevtnjOrjvai mreicpidr] Irjo~ovs Aprjv iav pr) ti? yevvrjdfj e£ vSaros Ka\ nveupaTOS. and corresponds exactly with the second clause of Matt. " Un. dicens ex aqua. of course. ov Svvarai toeiP ttjv (3acri\fiav tov 6tav. and he shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. yevopevovs ip^T)vai. 61. ttjv Koiklav 6 prjrpoi avrov Btvrepov dpr)v Xeya) croi. Ae'yei npos avrbv 6 NikoS^o? . iii." Moreover." and he immediately bare them. (pavepov 3-5. ye shall not enter \v prj Ap. xviii." for "he cannot see the kingdom of God. 3. regenerated It substitutes " unless " {dvayevvvdrjre) for " unless fir) man be born again" (or "from above. vi." iav " Tt? yevvrjdf) avcoOev). Speaking of the advantages of baptism. Kai einev alrco tort. " Unless ye be converted and become as little kingdom of heaven." The latter change looks like the introduction of a Synoptic phrase. but with additional peculiarities of In the Eecognitions we read." wombs who evident This. in the Clementine Eecognitions and Homilies similar quotations occur with nearly the same differchildren. nisi quis denuo renatus fuerit tatus est. ye shall not enter into the ences from the text of the Fourth Gospel that are here their own. i. he shall not enter into of heaven " 2 and in the Homilies. ye be born again with living water in the name of the Father.228 enter into the adds. dneKpidrj On 'lrjaovs 8e Kai ahvvarov eif rcis fj. See John rroi. is And 1 that impossible for those once born to of those enter into the to all. Son. is not an accurate quotation ye be a from the Fourth Gospel. the cum sacramento verus Propheta tesAmen dieo nobis. ov tvvarai elo-(\6elv els ttjv j3aaiK([av tov Oeoii.rjTpas tcov TfKnvcrcov iracriv rovs anaf. Kai yap 6 xpicrros' entev' * dvayevvrjdrjre. 1 and Holy Ghost. "Unless a man the less kingdom be born again of water. 2 writer says : " Sic enim nobis : . tlo'f\6e'iv ko. ov pr) (la€\6r]Te els ttjv (3a<ji\e[av twv ovpavwv. found in Justin.

etc. p. and 8 4 So Abbott. but from a tradition but. ov elcreXdTjre eir ttjv fiaatXeiav ra>v ovpavav. three are . Abbott (p. quotation has been assigned by some critics either to the assumed extra-canonical Gospel of which we have already spoken as a convenient receptacle for all difficult quotations found in Justin. we think. be thus set aside. and the tenth is the passage before us. quoted in Otto. out of ten cases where Justin introduces a saying with the preface " Jesus Christ " or " Christ " or " our Christ " " said. therefore. p." three are exact quotations from the Synoptics. els ovop-a Harpos. 740) argues that the introduction " Christ said " rather implies that Justin was not quoting from a Gospel. as we have abundantly shown. Aeyci>. 737. ^Nothing. even if it had become a traditional form. nor the resulting varia- tion from the Fourth Gospel of such kind or importance. as to demand any other explanation of its origin than the habit of 1 Horn.rj dytov Hvcvp-aros. 4 That Justin should not quote accurately is. . 3 But the testimony of this passage cannot. 26. pp. outm? yap rjplv a>p.JUSTIN ON THE into the NEW TESTAMENT. and should tuting " into the phraseology of the Synoptics to the extent of substi- kingdom of heaven " for " is kingdom of God. xi. according to his own showing. So Thoma. one is a free quotation from Matthew. others. Volkmar and Scholten. can be concluded from the preface either way. Ylov.ocrev 6 7rpo(prjTrjs elndav 'Afifjv viuv 2 iav p. That both he and the Clementines should mingle with a quotation from the Fourth fall Gospel one from Matthew. in accordance with his usual habit.fj avayevvq6r]T€ v8ari ^avn." On variation from the Fourth Gospel the ground of and resemblance to Matthew. two are the two uncanonical sayings of Christ.2 or to an unwritten or variously written tradition which was afterwards stereotyped in the form preserved by the Fourth Gospel. 1 229 its kingdom this of heaven. general statements of Christ's teaching." cannot be considered strange. 508.

and which was itself a technical term in the Church. " script. e. but that they modified of heaven " is also found in the Sinaitic Manutwo old Latin manuscripts." and thus the words of Christ were understood. 2 This may itself be a sufficient answer to Dr. 34). 3 Furthermore. the words of Christ were ambiguous." Hence the substitution for them by Justin and by the Clementines of the word which expressed their meaning.230 free JUSTIN MARTYR. was not unnatural. was understood to be a command to do this. 8 The same substitution was made by Irenaeus (Fragm. Ezra Abbot also cites for it some later Fathers (Authorship of the Fourth Gospel). and are regenerated (avayevvwvrat) accord- ing to the same manner of regeneration {avayevvrjaewi) by which we ourselves were regenerated (dvayevvqOrjfiev) name of God the Father and Lord of all and of our Saviour Jesus Christ and of the Holy Spirit they To be " regenerated " are then washed in the water. 741) objection that Justin ought to have quoted "born of water and spirit. "Then they the candidates for baptism] are brought by us to where there is water. memoriter quotation of which Justin has already furnished <yevvr)6f)T€ many for examples. he wrote." was therefore to be "baptized. " regenerate " meant to wash with water for baptism. 2 Secondly. and several early writers. which he quotes. Dr. Abbott's (p. 9). and is evidently implied in Clement of Alexandria (Cohort. . 1 The substitution of ava- yevvrjOfj dvwOev may The likewise first is be exthat it plained by two considerations. since they might mean either " born again " or " born from above. The language of Christ. therefore. in the name of the Trinity. for in the preceding sentence as Justin himself shows [i. had become a technical term." if he meant to quote John's Gospel as an authority To Justin. the differences between Justin and the Clementines show that neither author quoted : for in the their 1 common Kingdom source accurately. See Westcott and Hort's Notes on Select Readings.

2 That he does not name John as the author of the Gospel. but considered it true history. it The inference is plain. Though the when compared Justin considsrcd the Fourth Gos- for his use of the Synoptics. but ognition of the ! . quainted only with traditions out of which it grew. speaking of tbe variations found in tbe quotations of this verse in the Clementines. and if their tendency is evidently to lay less stress on the inward reality and more on the outward sign of regeneration. their minds. these variations of quotation from documents were possible. " It impossible for those once born to enter again into the bare them. quoted from the Fourth Gospel words of Of course this quotation settles the question in favor of Justin's recognition of the Fourth Gospel as a trust- worthy narrative of with that Christ's life. if he too used the Fourth Gospel. the acted in each case upon phrase which Justin adds.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. both in sub- stance and in connection. or was ac- apostolic origin.°. appears a thoroughly arbitrary and wilful re- fusal to accept the natural testimony of the passage. it is S/™n d henc ® f . even after the stereotyping of Christian doctrine by the rec: Four Gospels. with the remark of Nicode- mus. that to consider or to refer it it an original reflection of Justin's. that he also recognized as an apostolic authority. 1 is 231 Christ's language in accordance with the motives which Finally. to the ever-convenient uncanonical Gospel or to a traditional explanation of the doctrine of regeneration." is wombs of those who so striking a coincidence. evidence be small in amount. his " enough ° used it to overthrow the new theory J that he only as a book of doctrine. 753). Justin was not only acquainted with the Fourth Gospel. 2 1 Dr. how much more easy was it that changes should take place in the development of a still undefined and sometimes obscure tradition " The principle which he here applies to the Clementine variations is quite sufficient to explain the variations in Justin. We believe the only fair conclusion to be that Justin Christ's. says " If. Edward Abbott (p.

" I have already proved that He was the only begotten of the Father of all things. xi. 48. as we have evangeliall his narrative heroes the* seen > ^ na ^ ne takes nearly Synoptics. for the fact that Christ is Son of God. 105. 105 with confidence as a proof of his use of the Fourth Gospel. e. JUSTIN MARTYR. 106. he makes the " memoirs " teach that Christ is only begotten. that does introduce him as the author of the Apocalypse (Dial. .232 Nevertheless. caj quotations and nearly Thinking evidently of them. 100 seems to make Christ's p. Horn. 4. this would seem to be a reference to John (so Weiss's Einleitun^. that " brief and concise utterances " fell from Christ's lips. 1 memoirs or other writings. also Dial. See Ap. i. When. So too Clem. but as his argument in Dial. 14. 81). where he probably means our Mark. in Dial. " We proceeded before all creatures from the Father. In the latter place he is introduced as a prophet. 2 in the theory of which There is this much of truth we have been speaking. as we learned from the memoirs. 100 makes me question the right to appeal to John. 28. being begotten in a peculiar way from Him as Logos and Power. 45) pre-existence an inference from Peter's confession (and Matt. . where Justin appeals. he states of Christ's life. "his memoirs" (Dial. g. though the Homilist certainly recognized the 2 Fourth Gospel. It from them.. instead of. Cf. and Justin constantly cites the Old Testament prophets by name." etc. he speaks of Christ's pre-existent divinity as taught by Himself. So when. referring to Peter). and says. If. 27 to prove that Christ charged the Jews with ignorance of God. he says. to Peter's have understood {vfvofi<a^v) that He confession. I cannot cite Dial. xi. xvii. 63." the last clause may refer only to the birth from the Virgin. and afterwards becoming man through the Virgin. with the Ap. John vii.. But he never cites the Apostles by name as authors of either single exception of the phrase. in Dial. etc. i. 27). however. 1 Some of his arguments also are drawn from the Synoptic Gospels when the Fourth Gospel would have served his purpose better. where he quotes Matt. is no difficulty. 100. the argument in Dial. it is true that Justin does not use John's Gospel in exactly the same Yet he does way is in which he uses the all his Synoptics.

How widely that Gospel was published in the years immediately following its composition we cannot say. he Christ's sayings * for. pel which was intended may be ex- than for their opponents seen.. to explain this fact ? How. 233 Justin does mainly derive from the Fourth Gospel forms of doctrinal thought and expression. JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. as narrative. 46. . embodied in and perpetuated by the Synoptics. enough then. 95. pp. 2 Moreover. But the already established narrative. which. Testament. 2 See Weiss's Einleitung. seems to have continued to form the staple of the Christian recital of Christ's life for even half a century after the Fourth Gospel was added to them. was most deeply impressed on the Christian mind. . was natural that it should be valued more for its bearings doctrinal than for its historical statements. and none of its readers would be more inclined so to value it than this early Christian philosopher who found in its language the connecting link between his Christianity and his philosophy. They had already made this impression before John wrote his Gospel. the doctrinal objects of its narration are far It more obvious than are those of the Synoptics. are we It is not to say that the object of Justin's writings caused him to pass over the profound spiritual Gosfor Christians rather . We rather judge from Justin that the Synoptics furnished the evangelical narrative. 150. 1 "Westcott's Canon of the New p. while John's Gospel is strictly historical. as we have its might have found much in reports both of and of events of His life which would have harmonized with his purposes. Certainly at the great Asian and Egyptian and Eoman centres it was known before Justin wrote. Such was doubtless the purpose of its author.

29." . He included it beside Matthew's. the evidence for But while Justin appears Gospel clusive. 2 Iren. Tatian " called the Diatessaron. and more than one composed by their followers. Theodoret. . Hser. E. have been confirmed by ~ . me- Thus explained. and which consequently seems to compel us to suppose that Justin had another Gospel written by an Apostle — „. i.. this work of his on the Gospels in was used of for nearly two centuries the churches the far East.hearer. he adds.. 8 viii. — it is fair to infer that in the he not only recognized the Fourth Gospel as " memoirs. 1.• it in the " .. adv. to have valued the Fourth book of doctrine. writing in 453 A. . a statement which naturally implies that there was more than one " memoir " composed by Apostles.. of the Gospels.. replacing them with 1 Hippol. but included moirs." These he collected and put away. results by 2 Tatian's 'Dia. near the Euphrates. H. 28. Bishop of Cyrrhus. iv. It should here be added that these conclusions." In spite of sistent both with its canonicity and with own disposition the reputation of Tatian in later life for heresy. J of Tatian's J the recent recovery Connrmation of these Tatian was Justin's pupil 1 or Diatessaron.. says that he had found " more than two hundred copies of it held in respect in the churches in our parts.234 JUSTIN MARTYR." which work. whither Tatian himself retired from Eome. his his relation to it appears con- and apostolic authorship and circumstances. ." an authority. I know not how. and composed a work which Eusebius described 3 as " a sort of connection and compilation. chiefly as a his recognition of it as an evangelical authority is con- "When to this we add his description of the " memoirs " as composed by the Apostles and those who followed them.-> t -. D. 9. which have been drawn from Justin's testimony.

"

JUSTIN ON THE

NEW TESTAMENT.
He

235

the Gospels of the four Evangelists.

states also that

the Diatessaron cut out the genealogies of our Lord, but
that nevertheless the
tians

work was used by orthodox

Chris-

on account of

its brevity.
is

This information

of itself sufficient to justify the

conclusion that Tatian's

work was

a

harmony

of our

Gospels, and that therefore the Church of his day and

by

inference his master Justin accepted the authority

and these alone. Though Tatiau was a heretic, there is no reason to doubt that the Gospels which he used were the ones accepted by the church to which
of these

Justin belonged.

There

is,

however, the additional tes-

timony of Dionysius

Bar-Salibi,

an Armenian bishop of

the twelfth or thirteenth century, 1 in his commentary on

Mark, that " Tatian selected and patched together from the four Gospels, and constructed a Gospel which
.
.
.

he called the Diatessaron," and that Ephraem Syrus,

who died a. d. 373, " wrote an exposition [of it] and its commencement was In the beginning was the Word.' Nevertheless, Credner,2 and after him other critics, 3
;
'

have insisted that Tatian's work was not a harmony of
our Gospels, but was the uncanonical Gospel said to

have been used by Justin or one similar to it. They argued that Eusebius had not seen it, and declared that

harmony and gave They appealed to the fact that Epiphanius 4 states that "it is called by some according to the Hebrews,' " and that Victor of Capua called it the "Diapente." 5 But the contention has
the later Church assumed
it
it

to be a

the

name

of Diatessaron.

'

1

2 8

Beitrage, p. 444

Mcesinger dates his death in 1171 Lightfoot in 1207. Gesch. des Kanons, pp. 1 7, etc. See Supernatural Religion, ii. 152, etc.
; ;

4
6

Adv. Hser.

xlvi. 1.

See Li<rhtfoot's " Reply to Supernatural Religion," Contemporary Review, May, 1877. He shows that "Diapente" in

236

JUSTIN MARTYR.
settled.

now been

In 1876 there was published a Latin

made by a Venetian monk, of an Armenian translation of Ephraem's Commentary just mentioned. 1 This conclusively proved that Tatian's work was, as had been supposed, a harmony of our Gospels. More recently
translation,

an Arabic translation of the Diatessaron
differing in a

itself

has been

recovered by Professor Ciasca, of Eome, which, though

few

details

from that recovered through

Ephraem's Commentary, is still a harmony of our Gospels; 2 while still more recently, on the occasion of the
Jubilee of Pope Leo XIIL, the same scholar produced

yet another manuscript which he had discovered, and

which contains
that used by
tian's

an

Arabic

translation

of

a

Syriac

original of the Diatessaron, corresponding precisely to

Ephraem and thus giving us

at last Ta-

That Tatian composed a harmony of our four Gospels admits, therefore, no longer of doubt.

work

entire. 3

We

have the book

itself.

In

it

he welded the Gospels
alone,

together with considerable boldness, and omitted from

them the

genealogies.

But he used our Gospels

with occasionally a variation from them due to either
textual corruption in his sources or to oral tradition. 4

He
tin.

thus acted quite in the manner of his teacher, JusProfessor

Zahn holds
" it

5

that the Diatessaron

was

written in Syriac, and thinks that thus the remark of

Epiphanius that
Victor
1

was called by some

'

according to
im-

is

probably a clerical error, as Victor's

own language

plies " Diatessaron."

See Zabn's Tatian's Diatessaron, and
ii.

articles

by Henry Wace

in the Expositor, vols.
2 8

and

iv.

See Encycl. Britan., xxii. 864, note 17 (Amer. ed.). This manuscript is announced as in preparation for publication, and an English translation is being published by Prof. A. L. Frothingham, Jr. 4 See Zahn's Tatian's Diatessaron, pp. 240, etc.
6 Ibid.,

pp. 18, 220.

JUSTIN ON TIIE
the

NEW TESTAMENT.

237

Hebrews
explain

'

may

may be accounted for. 1 The same fact why so little was known of the Diates"

saron in the early Western Church.
these questions of detail
Justin's pupil

But,

however

may

be settled, the fact that

composed a harmony of our Gospels adds

the strongest confirmation to the conclusion which

we

have reached that Justin and the Church of his age
received these four Gospels alone as established evangelical authorities.
III. It

now

only remains to exhibit briefly the

way
Justin

in

which Justin regarded apostolic

literature in general,
in.

the degree of authority which he attributed
to
it,

and the amount of testimony which he

ew
Teft am en \ Canon,

bears to the existence of a collection of apostolic writings.

Besides the facts pertaining to his use of the Gospels

which have been already presented, Justin's use of the New Testament may be described in a few His use . words. from other New He does not mention nor quote * Testament any other New Testament book except the books than Apocalypse. Of it he speaks 2 as the work of " a certain man among us 3 whose name was John, one of the Apostles of Christ, who prophesied, by a

was made to him, that those who bewould dwell a thousand years in Jerusalem, and that afterward the universal and in short eternal resurrection and judgment of all men together would forthwith take place." At the same time, however, the knowledge and use of many of the other
revelation that

lieved in our Christ

Xew

Testament books

may

be inferred from Justin's

which we have found in his writings traces of the Fourth Goslanguage, in a

way

often similar to that in

1 2

Lightfoot thinks that Epiphanius simply blundered.
Dial. 81.
3

Trap

rjfj.iv.

238
pel.

JUSTIN MARTYR.
Satisfactory evidence

may thus

be adduced for his

acquaintance with the Acts, 1 the Epistle to the Eomans, 2
1

See,

e. g.,

Ap.

i.

49,

where the sentence

'iouSaloi yap, 'e'xovres

ras TrpocprjTelas Kai del Trpoa&oKTjcravTes tov y^piurov, ira.payev6p.evov
fjyvorjaav k.t.X.

seems clearly to have been moulded by Acts

xiii.

48 Ap. i. 50, where the description of the ascension and the outpouring of Divine Power on the Apostles (ko! els ovpavov
27, 28,
;

dvepxopevov I86vres Kai TricrTevo-avres na\ Svvapiv eiceldev avrols Trepcpdeio-av nap' avrov Xafiovres) is not explained by Luke xxiv. 49,

Overbeck (Zeitschr. fur wissensch. Theol., 1872, p. 313) mainbut is a distinct reference to historical facts, which occurred before the Apostles went forth on their mission, as given in Acts Dial. 16, where aTreKTeivare yap tov diKatov Kai irpb i. 8, 9, and ii. 33
as
tains,
;

avrov tovs npocprjras avrov
also
;

is

a reminiscence of Acts

vii.

52 (see

Acts iii. 14) Dial. 20, where we read, " But if we distinguish between green herbs, not eating all, it is not because they are common or unclean (kolvo. fj aKadapra)" after Acts x. 14. Compare also Ap. i. 40 (tt]v yeyevrjpevqv 'HpcoSou rod /3acriXeo)f 'iowdalaiv Kai avrwv 'lovbalatv Kai TliXdrov tov vperepov Trap avrols yevopevov inirpoTvov avv ro'is avrov o-rpariarais Kara tov ^picrroO Ap. ii. 10 (Socrates exhorted the crweXevaiv) with Acts iv. 27 Greeks irpbs 6eov 8e tov dyvu> o~tov avrols 8id \6yov ^rjTrjcrecos imyvmfnv) with Acts xvii. 23 Dial. 39 (ou peprjva ovbe Trapa(ppova>) with Acts xxvi. 25 Dial. 68 (where Trypho quotes 2 Kings vii. 12-16 (Ps. cxxxi. 11) changing Koiklas to oacpvos) with Acts ii. Dial. 120 (the 30, though the text of the LXX. may have varied reference to Simon Magus) with Acts viii. 10. 2 In Dial. 23, Justin's argument about Abraham's circumcision is clearly an echo of Rom. iv. 10, 11. Note iv aKpofivarlq. &v in connection with the quotation of Gen. xv. 16 and els arjpelov.
; ; ; ;

True, Justin did not grasp Paul's thought.
justified &id rrjv mariv,

He makes Abraham
not a o-qbpaylb'a;

and circumcision a
nvevpariKov Kai

o-rjpelov,

but he clearly had Paul's teaching in mind.
rj\iTt,KOV

So

in Dial. 11 ('io-pa-

yap to

aXrjdivov,

'ioilSa

yevos Kai 'laKw/3 Kai

'ia-aaK Kai 'Aftpadp, tov ev aKpofivo-rla k.t.A.)

we have
ii.
i.

a reminis.

cence of Rom.
ttjs

iv. 10,

17,

and

in Dial. 92 (irepiroprjv exovres

.

KapBias, with the context), of

Rom.

iv.

and
(Isa.
ix.

29.
9
;

In Dial. 32,
x. 22), as left
xi.

55, 64, the description of " the
icard x<*p lv i

implies

remnant " remembrance of Rom.
its

29 with

5

;

while

Dial. 44
of

(ko.\

e'^anardTe eavrovs k.t.A.) seems to be a reminiscence

Rom.

ix. 7,

not only in

general thought, but in the intro-

JUSTIN ON THE

NEW TESTAMENT.
and the Epistles

239

the First Epistle to the Corinthians, 1 the Second Epis2 tle to the Thessalonians,

to the Galaal
9.

(luction of ra KaTijyye\pfva

.

.

.

dyadd from the

orayyeX/ai of

Rom.
and

ix. 4,

and rd

Teicva rrjy

eVayyeXiar of verse

In Ap.

i.

40

Dial. 42, Justin interprets Ps. xix. as prophetic of the preach-

Bom. x. 18 uses the language of the Psalm though without calling it a prediction. Dial. 39, like Bom. xi. 2^i, quotes Elijah's complaint as applicable to the later Israel (observe evrvyxdvcov) and in Ap. i. 5 we read,
ing of the Apostles.
to describe the same,
;

Bom. iv. 11 (Isa. xlv. 23 Note that the parts of Romans with which Justin shows acquaintance are those which treat of the relation of the Jews to the Church; namely, the discussion of circumcision and Abraham's faith, and of the rejection of Israel with the exception of a " remnant." So we would expect from the subject of the Dialogue in which the above references are mainly found. Yet he does not reproduce Paul's argument, but only his pracnava
yXcovcra e'^o/ioXoy^o-erat avroo, like

(LXX.)

has

ofJLfirai).

tical position
1

towards Judaism.
i.

See Ap.

19, the

growth of a seed used as
:

illustrative of

resurrection.
<racrdai.
criau.

Note, especially, napard^eL deov and Comp. 1 Cor. xv. 38 and 53. So Ap. i. 52

dcfidapo-lav ivbv-

symbolism of the unleavened bread, that ye do not the old deeds of the wicked leaven (Jva pf/
Dial. 14
this is the

— "For
1

ivhvcrei dcpdap-

rd naXaid

iris Kanrjs

(vprjs

epya TvpaTTqre) "

is

at least a striking

coincidence with

Cor. v. 8; while in Dial. Ill the statement

qv yap to irdo~x a ° vptorof, °
first

t0«s

vcrrepov doubtless
1

came from the

clause of the same verse of

Corinthians.

In Dial. 35 (see
eo-ovrai o-xlo-p.aTa
1

also Dial. 51), the
ieai aipiiTfis,

words attributed to Christ,

probably arose from a confusion of

Cor.

xi. 18, 19,
;

with Christ's predictions in Matt. xxv. In Ap. i. 66 Dial. 41, 70, the words 7rape'6Wai/ (or 7rape§a>Ke) and els dvdpvT](nv (Luke's account was probably early modified by Paul's) evidence the

knowledge of

1 Cor. xi. 23, 24 while in Dial. 39 the description of the spiritual gifts bestowed by Christ on believers, while perhaps influenced by Isa. xi. 2, appears to have been founded on 1 Cor.
;

xii.

7-10

;

and
(cos

in Dial.

42 the use of the physical body to
recalls 1 Cor. xii. 12.

illus-

trate the unity of the

Church
1

Compare

also

Ap.

i.

60

(rvvuvai ov crofyia dvOpanreiq ravra yeyovevai

dX\d
<ro(pia

Svvdpei 0eov X/yetr^at) with
6 roil Qeov Xoyor
k.t.X.)
2
{Cprj (i. e.,
i.

Cor.

ii.

4,

and

Dial. 38 (ol8a on, &>s
d(f>

Isa. xxix. 14), KeKpvirrai
;

vpcov

f]

with

1

Cor.

19, 24

ii.

7, 8.

See Dial. 32, where, after saying that Antichrist would be

240

JUSTIN MARTYR.
and Hebrews,4 as well

tians, 1 Philippians,2 Colossians, 3

destroyed at Christ's coming, but would continue " a time, times, and half a time," he concludes that at least tov ttjs dvofiias av8pa>Trov TpiciKOcria. TrevrrjKovTa err) ^acriXevaat Sei. So in Dial.
110, 6
rrjs

mrocrraaiai avffpamos

"ivopa roXprjo-r] els rjpds,

and

in

Dial. 116, 6 Sia.SoXo? icpeo-TTjuev del dvriKeipevos.
ii.

Compare

2 Thess.

3, 4, 8.
1

Dial. 44 (kcu e^anaTdre eavrovs k.t.X.) seems clearly
iii.,

of Gal.

as well as of
:

Rom.

ix. 7,

So Dial. 119 "We Abraham, receiving forever the inheritance, reava tov 'Afipadp. 8ia tt)v Spolav niaTiv owes" In Dial. 95, 96, Justin quotes, " Cursed is every one who continueth not in all things written in the hook of the law to do them," to show man's universal guilt, and thereJustin's.

an echo though Paul's argument is not shall inherit the Holy Land with

fore

the reason

why

Christ died for
;

all

men.

Christ ought,

therefore, to be reverenced

thus

fulfilling

but the Jews curse Him and His, the other prophecy, " Cursed is every one who hang-

eth on a tree."

The

latter,

Justin says, did not

mean

that Christ

would be cursed by God, but by the Jews. The collocation of the two quotations from Deuteronomy shows clearly acquaintance with Gal. iii. 10-13, though Justin misunderstood verse 13. He was governed in his understanding of it, as is shown by Trypho's remarks in Dial. 32, 89, by the desire to retort on the Jews their declaration that the passage proved Jesus to have been disapproved by God. Here, as with Romans, we notice Justin's inability to grasp Paul's thought, though supposing that he was following
the Apostle.
2

Compare

also Dial. 116

("We who

through the name
iii.

of Jesus believed as one

man

in

God

") with Gal.

28.
v\^(i>-

See Dial. 33 (on Brjo-erai) and Dial. 134
Xpiarbs),
8

rcnreivos ecrrat irpa>Toi> avdpanros eira
(e'SouAeucre nal rrjv
1

pexP o^ravpov SovKeiav 6
Phil.
ii.

where Justin had clearly
i.

in

mind

7-9.
t<»

See Ap.
;

23, 46, 63 (irpcoroTOKos tov 6eov), 33,

53 (npcoroT.

6ea)

Dial. 84 (jrpairoT. ra>v irdvraiv noir/paTav), 85 (npcoTOT. ndar/s

KTio-ecus),

100 (jrparoT. tov 6eov <a\

irpb Travrav ra>v KTio-pdrcov),

125

(renvov irparoTOKov rav o\u>v KTiapdroov), 138 (npcoTOT. ndarjs kti-

In Ap. i. 58, Justin has tov irparoyovov avrov, which is Dr. E. A. Abbott, Modern Review, July, 1882) but his usual phrase is apostolic, and evidently taken from Col. i. 15. Compare also Dial. 43 (" We receive circumcision through baptism ") with Col. ii. 11, 12, and Dial. 28 (" If there be any Scythaecos u>v).

Philonian

(cf.

;

ian or Persian," etc.) with Col.
4

iii.

9-11.
is

See Ap.

i.

12, 63,

where Christ

called diroa-roXos-

So Heb.

67 (the new covenant. 35. iii. and the word would be easily suggested to follow " false 2 There .JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. and Dial. flesh Iva 81a 7-779 olKOvoulas TavT-qs 6 Trovrjpevcrdue- dpxh v o(pis kcu 01 e^ououiiOevTes 8. xxv. ix. with Matt. Compare 4. Eph. xi. Ap. however. See especially Dial. and following and Jer. 6 Xoyog) with 1 John iii. 47 (77 yap xPV a"r ° T V s Kai V (piXavdpconta tov deov kcu to aueTpov tov ttXovtov avrov) with Eph. iii. v. 13 (rois fj .3 First Timothy. 45 (David predicted that the Father would ko. is quoted.2 Ephesians. 2. i. 1.Compare 1 John Compare also Dial. 13. . unwas not established ueTa cpo&ov kcu Tpnuov) with Heb. ii. 31 . ea>s av 7raTa£>) tovs e^dpalvovras with Heb. where Christianity called 7-9. 241 1 as with the First Epistle of John. Rev. . iv. dXkd iriorei 8ta tov aiuaros tov 18. probably due to a confusion of 1 Cor. 35 ("the doctrines dno tcov rfjs 77X01/77? nvevuaTcov") with the Trvevuacri nXdvois of 1 Tim. 9. Dial. is Cf. avra nyyeXoi KaTakvdwai) with 2 1 John See Dial. 6 Testament). 1-3. only in the New Testament. 19. ii. 77 yap xpTjoro'rryj Ka\ cpCkav6p<&iria tov deov. as already observed. (here only in the 5 New See Dial. 137 (Christ called tov rjyanrjuivov) with Eph. i. 1. viii. So Heb. 77 xxxi. ~ kcu 6eov TeKva dXrjdiva KaXovueOa kcu XP 10 TOV cpvKdcrcrovres. Tit. Reminiscences of Second Corinthians. 19. i. 16 . to napa tov 6eov o-nepua. 8iadt]Kr)v Kaivrp>. shall The previous quo- tation. 47. Cf. 114 (" Circumcised by the words of the apostles of the Chief Corner-stone") with kcu e£ovo-ias Ka\ 8vvduea>s) . 13. 18. the latter place may have originated the expression used by Justin. 6 ("the host of the other good angels ") with 1 Tim. xi. 21 Dial. See. Dial. ttjs nXdvrjs nvevuara kcu 8aiu6via). 123. 45 ecrucv oi ras evrokas tov (Christ was vos ttjv made iii. fjirjKtTi alpaan rpdycov kcu TrpofiaTcov <nro8ca 8aud\eo)s crtui- SdXea)? rrpocrcpopals Ka8api£oaevois Xpta-Tov) with like the old. Heb. and as \j/ev8oan6o'To'Koi only occurs in the New Testament in 2 Cor.4 Titus. " be schisms and heresies. 11 chapters. 20 . i. also Dial. xii. 8 . especially Dial. 7 (to. Dial. 14. 32 (Believers are a robe iv ols alicel iii." Compare Dial.1 exalt Christ to heaven avrco 8aiuovas) 1 Kare^eiv X. where " many false Christs and y^evSoaTroaroXoi shall arise " are cpioted as Christ's words." was.5 iii. Christs. 4 Compare Ap. and Dial. ii. 13. 21. 8 120 (The Simonians said that Simon was God vtrepdvco -rrdo-qs dpxqs with Eph.

. Ap. at least in the form in which he states does not lessen the significance of his reference to apostolic struction as that to in- which the faith of the Church appealed. 1 Pet. appears to have been modified See above." 242 JUSTIN MARTYR. Holy Lord God of Israel remembered His dead. 6. v. 72) says the Jews had cut out. i. How did Justin re- P S" toJfcnter a°ture ? gard apostolic literature? answer : — We observe in (1) That he strongly declares the authority of the Apostles as teachers of Christianity. v. Ap. 12. 40. . tism not apostolic. 39. " The . Justin says. " men 6 they taught these things and were called Apostles. But Justin says nothing elsewhere of preaching to the dead. on Justin's quotations from the Sy- noptics. Dial." which Justin (Dial." they " received After Christ's ascension power. But the question is. 37. who slept in the grave. iii. 50. this 7 reason for this we learned from the Apostles so that the latter were not only held to have repeated Christ's teaching. 2 James. is i. i. but to 1 In Ap. i. 8 4 5 7 Ap. and descended to them to preach His salvation. Compare iii. 9. 19. they preached the mighty word." 4 5 by Christ to teach to all "They preached Christ's " Going out from Jerusalem. iv. 1 and First Peter to the Epistles may also with is far probability be pointed out. by Jas. Trepl ra>i> icqpv^dvTcov rfjv difiaxrjv 6 avrov- 45. sent to them from Him from heaven." 3 teaching. i. 139 (els <fii\iav kcu ev\oy[av koXccv) with Possibly the pseudo-quotation from Jeremiah. i. Ap. The fact that the reason given by Justin for bapit. 2 Matt." Speaking of and . "By the power H ers - °^ ^°^ kk ev proclaimed to every race of men ognized the the Apostles ' that they were sent the word of God. This more or less more testimony than we should have reason to expect in books addressed How did he to pagans and to Jews. and coming to every race of baptism. 61. 34. may indicate an early interpretation of 1 Pet. Ap. . 16.

110. and through their voice the whole earth was filled with the glory and God and His Christ. have brought us into newness of Life. Dial. Justin regarded the Apostles as infallible witnesses to Christ's life and teaching." the voice of their preaching could the revelation through Christ be known. and which was preached to us through the prophets." but he declares them to have been endowed with power from on high. From them the Church had learned Christianity. Christ.JUSTIN ON THE have explained high-priest. so that their teaching was the teaching of Christ and their word the voice of God." 3 " The words [which came] through the Apostles of the Chief Corner-stone spiritually circumcised us ." 6 Manifestly. 114. ttjv 8eoo~ej3fcav i. D ia 118 . See Otto's note. declares. curb Di a i. Dial. 6 lepovcrdKrjfi 8ia tg>v 4 6 tov 'irjaov airoaToKav Dial. He does not apply to them the term "inspired. He 243 with authority. 4 " We have not been misled by those 5 "We have believed God which was again spoken through the Apostles of Christ." 2 Christians have learned the true worship of God " from the law and the word which came forth from Jerusalem through the Apostles of Jesus. 119. " have that is. that " as twelve bells were attached to the robe of the the twelve Apostles depended on the power of the eternal grace of " priest." or 2 Gospels. tov vopov nai tov \6yov tov if-ik66vTOs drtb iTuyvovres. 10 9." 1 The Gentiles believed when they heard the word preached by His Apostles and when they learned it through them. . (2) Hence the written " memoirs of the Apostles. 42. Only through who taught us such doctrines. and as authoritative expounders of Christianity. are spoken of by Justin as authoritative sources 1 8 Dial. Credner naturally concluded that these words are spurious. further. so it NEW TESTAMENT.

106. Dial. Justin at least six times introduces (3) Quotes " s°cdp- S e G S ture -" a quotation from or a reference to the GosP els witn the sacred formula "It is written." and that an exhortation by the president followed. G7. i." 5 and in one place remarks that "with is us the prince of the demons 1 called Serpent and 3 Ap. 100. If any other facts concern- ing Christ were accepted on tradition.. i. 101. and the witness of tradition was in- comparably theirs.244 for Christian faith. 5 yeyoaTrrai. oftener than. To them Christians appealed both for facts and for doctrines. The Apostles. 1 Tothe"me. Ap. less in amount and in importance than They were read in the assembly interchangeit ably with. . GG. JUSTIN MARTYR. and. but their written testimony. was the source and guide of Christian and practice. would seem from the order of Justin's language. 111. Those who recorded the . the statements of the Gospels were nevertheless the authority to which appeal was made.. moirs he appeals for proof that Christ institution of the is Son charist. so far at least as the Gospels faith were concerned. 44. 33. 2 In the "memoirs" the Apostles handed down the account of the Eu- He tells us that in public service on the or the writ4 Lord's Day " the memoirs of the Apostles ings of the prophets are read as long as time permit. 49. it Otto conjectures In 103. also. therefore. 3 of God. 100. 2 4 Dial. (3) Furthermore. authoritative sources . based on the passages which had just been read. . things ° concerning ° our Saviour Jesus Christ taught " His miraculous birth. 107. (2) and their memoirs as . Ap. They were " authoritative to him all be- cause they were apostolic. the writings of the prophets. to the Church of Justin's time were not only infallible witnesses and teachers of Christianity.„. i. with reference to Luke xxii.

a Ap. 2 Rev. no direct appeal any apostolic writing besides the Gospels. as kcu £k fiadeiv 8vva<T0€. we have a show that amount of evidence tending to apostolic writings were regarded as the authoritative exponents of Christianity. 33. 28. i. at first sight." 1 a sentence in which we may — not only see another reference to the Apocalypse." in marked contrast to the indefinite way in which he speaks of Christian literature other than the Gospels." (2) hand. was evidently regulative of the Church's faith. or at least thought he was following. 245 of our Satan and Devil. certain facts seem to point to a : different conclusion — Justin uses the Old Testament as inspired Scripit ture. On (1) the other hand." (4) speaks the testimony of the Apostles because 1 agreed with the Old Testament.JUSTIN ON THE NEW TESTAMENT. while nothing definite is said of its the Church. as if he ranked only the Gospels on a level with " the prophets. i. calling constantly " the Scripture " or " the Word. as also ye can learn by inquiring writings. the teaching of the considerable New Testament epistles. certain pofat'to'a conclusion observed. as we have (3) He makes He no mention of public of believing it ecclesiastical use of any apostolic writings except the " memoirs. to .aT(ov epevvfjo-avres Ap. after he had already sought to prove his point from the Old Testament. except to the Apocalypse and this latter he introduces almost incidentally. If to these facts we add the many instances in which Justin followed. . 3 tu>v fjfierepcou a-vyypapp. xx.2 authority in but also a reference to a distinct Christian literature which. He makes. It would seem.

Justin's apologetic purpose necesto purely Christian sarily prevented But (i) his 1C him from appealing teachers as authorities. and to the pagans philosophy. To give a reason for faith is Thereafter to accept truth upon authority another. its fulfilment of To the Jew the his prophets. Justin was convinced of the credibility of of the Apostles. it now does. as he was the credibility of Christ. He appealed to the pu?p°osl prophets because they were recognized by appeal^ apostles as Trypho. thus seeming to place them in a subordinate position. But in in estimating the weight of these items of nega- tive evidence several considerations should mind (1) : — be borne For one tiling. The teaching of Christ is presented mainly to exhibit its authontative even to teachers. is prophets. while the various points in which he deviated from the teaching of the New Testament. whose acceptance of the Canon is certain. he thought. were the only authorities that Justin could quote. does not once appeal to any New Testament passage in his Apology. The same apologetic motive may explain. and would. and the freedom with which he explained the Gospel by philosophy often seem inconsistent with a recognition of the divine authority of the apostolic writings. his attitude toward the epistles of the Apostles might Ter- appear very different from what tullian. be convincing pagan readers because of their an* ° and the remarkable fulfilment of their But neither Jew nor pagan would have predictions. been moved by the citation of apostolic teaching. tiquity moral and reasonable character or prophecy. why Justin bases his belief in the Apostles on their agree- ment with the one thing. Had work against heresies been preserved. . also.246 JUSTIN MARTYR.

in his view. i. furthermore. Even the Old Testament is repre° sented as given by the Logos. Justin's prevailing thought of the personal Logos led him to represent Christianity as the teaching of Christ. he did. (3) " the The single statement that in public worship memoirs of the Apostles or the writings of the " prophets were read. (4) Finally. The person of Christ was. rather than in those of even His chosen as the original Christian teaching by him. . the prophetic predictions . as we have seen." since we have frequent testimony from other ancient writers that even non-apostolic epistles were often thus used. ' (4) His devi°" r om ap tol c Church and if he did not see that he was in reality departing faith of the original ° 1 teaching nnconsciously made. 1 though the But the incarprophets are cited by name. may not be pressed so language he pressed t0 ° far " as to exclude from public reading all other apostolic works than the "memoirs. the substance and foundation of the Church's So far. history. nation of the Logos was to Justin the central fact both of Christianity (2) His doc _ trine of the Logos led him to ap- Christ's wor 8* and of human faith. rather than to distinguish be- tween His statements and those of His messenders. was presented at all was naturally cited in the very words of the Logos.JUSTIN ON THE chiefly because they NEW TESTAMENT. (2) But. therefore. Ap. 36. lieved himself to be repeating the doctrines of the Apostles He j be- and to be defending the . 247 and Christianity in general fulfilled but this was not inconsistent with taking his Christianity from the apostolic teaching and testimony. it emissaries. which. Justin's deviations from New Testament teaching were evidently unconsciously made.

that Justin did not have the idea of an authoritative is New Testament Scripture. certain points distinct. Dial. and that other apostolic books were used to regulate the faith of the Church. likewise impossible to it affirm categorically that it he did have in the complete form in which was expressed by the next generation. . believed to by Justin even when he misunderstood oral tradition was still followed when be pure and well-attested. though they were fast leading to that result. he did only what whose acceptance of the New is many have since done. 1 But when we and the philosophizing we ought to acknowledge that Church." which ranked on an equality with the Old Testament. ties of But the probabili- the case accumulate decidedly in favor of the latter rather than of the former view. Testament as inspired appear sufficiently often unquestioned. 10. also. True. and those doctrines.248 from that faith JUSTIN MARTYR. to apostolic writings rather than to oral tradition as authority for his representation of ChrisIt is clear that at least the Gospels collection. It is impossible. as rationalistic critics have It done. Distance and heresy had not yet sufficiently increased to compel exclusive reliance on written records. to affirm fairly. called had been 1 formed into a sacred "the Gospel. not all of the New Testament books were as yet known and all parts accepted in of the remember the apologetic object spirit of Justin's writings. same estimate trines echoed as the Gospels for the authority of the Apostles as teachers was fully confessed and their doc- them. infer that these other books It is perfectly fair to were held in precisely the . No doubt. 100. After balancing these considerations. we think. It is clear that he appealed tianity.

2 Pet. so distinctly proves at least a Gospel canon. moreover. and the acceptance by the Church of the New Testative testimony is largely counterbalanced ment as " Scripture " may is be proved by others. 16. v. in the decade of the second cen- tury. in differit localities. 4. " While I flee to the Gospel as to the flesh of 5. 18. e.3 but evidently had a collection of apostolic writings besides the Gospels which formed with the Gospels his Christian Scriptures. is but a single witness. when read in the light of the purpose of his it writings and the characteristics of his mind. the epistles of Paul are and in Second Peter. not only repeatedly declares the authority of the Apostles as teachers." How could he flee to the Apostles except by turning to their writings ? . g. His positive testimony. 4 This com- bined testimony Justin does not oppose. He. Eoman Church Even in the at but a later date than apostolic age itself Paul called " the Gospel of Luke Scripture . His negaby his object and his spirit. They were Apostles I am but a condemned man. So far as his testimony confirms does go. far as it goes. to the 249 much testimony Canon as we should expect to obtain from him. which we hold to be similarly termed 2 first while Ignatius. our New Testament and regarded 2 in 1 Tim. issue commandments unto you. JUSTIN ON THE he gives as NEW TESTAMENT. the conviction that the Church of the post-apostolic age possessed in more or less ent 1 completeness. iii. and to the Apostles as to the Presbytery of the Church. Jesus. . as Peter and Paul.. ad Rom. The The testimony of Iren?eus churches of the " first in reality that of the Asian half of the second century.." 8 See. though his own is more limited in extent. and renders a larger canon not improbable. " I do not. " Muratori Fragment little speaks for the Justin. " J genuine. 4 Ad Phil.

These books. had practically supplanted oral tradition as trustworthy witnesses to the inspired apostolic message. as form- ing with the Old Testament the Christian Scriptures. in Justin's time and practice. an authoritative rule of faith also.250 substantially the JUSTIN MARTYR. same way that Irenseus did. .

to look through him at to the those early Christian communities of which we have already learned much from his writings. and the popular and legal objections then made to Christianity and in doing so we found the Church to consist of locally organized societies. which looked back indeed to a Hebrew be as parentage and contained a minority rites who united Jewish with Christian faith.LECTURE VI. everywhere the object of popular distrust. scattered In a previous lecture tions of the . Gentiles were regarded as joiced to believe in a The Church rewhose kingdom every race was to be equally a partaker. but which felt itself to a body emancipated from Jewish limitations. further. widely throughout the Empire. examine Justin's testimony Church itself. Redeemer of mankind. but whose internal conditions and ruling beliefs we may more are now. that the Church of Justin's age distinctly and consciously a Gentile society. THE TESTIMONY OF JUSTIN TO THE ORGANIZATION AND BELIEF OF THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. finally. we examined the external relaChurch of the second century. and was even disposed to look beyond its Hebrew parentage. and to declare itself the child of the universal conscience and reason of its natural adherents. to WE — directly observe. Hence we found Christianity at this period . moment We have was learned. and liable under the law at any to suffer persecution.

that changes of form and elaboration o & a to the statements of and as giving the rule of faith Church. Then in the last lecture we found from Justin that the Church of his age was in it possession of a sacred literature besides that which inherited from the Hebrews.. as had already grappled with those suggested to the Jewish race. He claimed to represent . » of belief had taken place since the days of the Apostles. and what light does he conse- quently throw on the character of the Church. himself to be great he openly claimed and manifestly thought the fair representative of the „ . but Justin did not now it should be particularly proved.-..252 influenced JUSTIN MARTYR. and endeavoring either to reconcile reason and revelation or to prove the rights of revelation against the es- tablished dominion of reason. viously originated. then. the value of this part of it is Justin's testimony. both in his own and in the preceding age ? To appreciate. however. It remains. affected losophy of its by the ideas which heathen culture had preby the more spiritual phipaganism. - . timony to 11 " We know. and that with them had been received from the generation We have several times remarked this.. which tolic origin it had regarded of apos- which it appealed and conduct. . to ask what glimpses we may obtain from our Apologist of the internal constituS eS " ti° n and doctrinal tenets of the Church itself. grappling with the problems which it exclusive claims suggested to the heathen world. necessary . from the testimony of the followtionTmf faith of the j n cr age. What information does Justin give con- cerning these changes. It claimed to rest its beliefs on apostolic authority. and with the progress of time was depending less and less on tradition and was becoming more and more a religion of a book. his Christianity before him. body of Christians. first to observe that .

by tradition'' " 3 he says. Ap. tians falsely so called. . Ap. 26.eda. Ap. 7 " says of the Eucharist that delivered memoirs " thus In opposition. i." We have been taught? and have been persuaded and be- lieve. Ap. and pure doctrine of Jesus Christ. what was false therefore. i. on the other hand." He only accepts those who imitate His excelBy these expressions he meant that they had So likewise had the its 6 been persuaded by Christ's teaching delivered to them through the Apostles." 2 8 5 7 8 Ap. Thus Justin not only presented his Apology in the name of all true Christians. i. his philosophy did in reality seriously modify that faith.JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. — on He insists on his orthodoxy. oi T779 akrjdivrjs 'irjcroii Xptcrrou Kal Kadapas 8t8a<Tna\ias p. Ap. to Christians. fj/iels Dial. he classes himself with those " ciples 1 who are dis8 of the true i. according to our author. 4. 2 The doctrine which he represented was. these false Christians he professes to it know had. 5 rite of bap- tism and the reason for observance been. 7rape8a>KM. TrapeiKfjCpaiJiev. he was himself evidently unconscious of any departure from it. the " We have received traditional belief of the churches. 61. but the beliefs and usages followed by the great majority of the Christian com- munity. and would seem. 8e8i8dyp. 10. 66. 1 Of the real moral character of nothing. but he specially makes the point that these should not be confounded with Christerm it. that lences. 4 6 Ibid. received from the Apostles and the pur- pose of Justin and the Church to adhere to the apostolic commands appears when he the Apostles in the enjoined on them. as we may fairly his fidelity to the faith . handed down from the Apostles and though. 253 defend a sect of Christians. 53. as we have seen. i. 35. " 1 how God is to be worshipped.a8r]Tai. no dealings with them. i.

" from these expressions that to Justin Christianity was a body of definite beliefs which he had received. like the false Christians. former he speaks of as magicians fies . 56. though he found the two harmonious.oves Kara i. He was positive that the Christianity which he professed was that which had been delivered to the Church at the beginning. Most anxious was he not to be identitestifies in the . Speaking of Chiliasrn. 2 8 Ibid. roty Trap' enelvov Sibdypaaiv. navTa Xpicrrtavoi. to follow trines. aware of the existence of . Ibid. He chooses not. who was and causing many 80. Most His opposition to positively did he declare them to be noveleres3 ties. 2 all respects and speaks of himself and those who agree with him as thus being " in or. introduced by the demons to destroy the work of Christ. " orthodox. Justin's philosophy had not made his Christianity. their teaching. ttoWovs 8' av Kal tg>v rrjs Kadapas Kai evaeftovs ovtuiv XpicTTLavcov yvaprj^. but Marcion he speciat that time alive as a heretic proper. right-minded Christians. same direction. 6pdoyvu>p.254 JUSTIN MARTYR. 26. of every nation to utter blasphemies 1 Dial. he admits that " the many who are of pure and pious faith " 1 reject it. 4 The two fied with heretics. men or men's doc- but God and the doctrines which are from Him. and though he understood the latter by the aid of the former. . 4 Ap." It is evident 3 in other words. ' and most vigorously did he repudiate Thus in the Apology he declares that Simon Magus and Menander and Marcion had been put forward by the devils to deceive men. Justin's declared attitude toward heresy Most keenly was he heresies. Furthermore. 58. and which the vast majority of Christians accepted as having been handed down from the Apostles.

35. iv ovofiari avrov Trapaxapdcruovres- May not this refer to the falsification of apostolic writings. be atheists. 7 Dial. as novelties. 58." "We have nothing to in common with them. but are carried away irrationally as lambs by a and become the prey of atheistical doctrines and 2 So also he declares that the appearance of heretics in the Church only makes the true disciples more firm in the faith. and doctrines. 26. i. or Saturnilians. Ibid. imputing them falsely to Christ. that the slanderous tales circulated about the Christians might be true of these heretics. 4 that the heretical doctrines bear the names of wolf." JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. unrighteous. unfairly no doubt so far as the Marcionites were concerned. since Christ had predicted the coming of such false teachers. Dial." he " and Christ. blasphemous. says." their founders . name since we know them and sinful. 1 and speaks of them all and of Marcion in particular with declaring of the latter that " no little bitterness. See also 80. and laugh at us. many have believed him as if he alone knew the truth. All these Ap." ' unholy that 1 " Many have taught godless. 5 or Yalentinians. i. 3 He shrewdly points out. 2 4 Ap. He insinuates. the sects being called Marcionites. instead of worshippers of Him. " the Creator They blaspheme. 8 is. 51. MapKiavol. Dial. forging them in Christ's name . 35. either formed from the Latin Marcius. though they have no proof of what they say. 8 5 Dial. They were thus stamped trine. 6 8 a corruption from MapKiavia-ral or else See Otto's note. or Basilidaeans. and confes- sors of Jesus in only. against 255 the Creator of the universe. also. unlike the original apostolic docall Against these Gnostic heretics Justin speaks " 6 with the utmost indignation. 82. after the individuals who originated them. impious. 82. 35. of devils. such as Marcion's .

to idols all of them ate meat which had been offered some denied the resurrection of the dead 2 blasphemed the Creator. we have already learned speaking of some . that he represents a fusion of Jewish Chris-.. The Church. and how plainly he speaks of even moderate Jewish Christianity as a weakness. . iii. he uiluy and apostoiicity of the But it is not to be inferred from this . and perhaps the Valentinian " Gospel of 9)? 1 He does not say that all the sects mentioned Dial. ans were vegetarians. 2 Some and tolic stood. As Justin Such is says. . were guilty of this." 4 But his description of the heretics clearly shows that the Church of his day esteemed their doctrines as novelties. . he inveighed so bitterly were Gnostics. Both the Marcionites and the Saturnili(Iren. 256 heretical sects JUSTIN MARTYR. -. As the absence from his writings of any direct apis peal to the apostolic epistles of itself a proof that in the Church stress was not laid on the teaching of indimutilation of Luke. How firmly he stood on Gentile ground. whom Significance of his testi.-. were popularly called Christians.. outside of the pale of the true. clearly Justin's implica- man's name. . apos- Church. however. significance of these statements of our Apologist It is The is very great. . Truth" 11.. 80. who reacted against Gnosticism. 2 Dial. in fact. 48. orthodox churches. III. these sects bore the names of their founders. •. and misrepresented Christ.. and that he spoke in a much gentler way even of the extreme sect of Jewish Christians. 3 . tianity with a portion of the Gentile Christians . bore no tion. but Justin repudiates them as recent perverters of Christianity. 3 See Lect.. 35. 4 Dial. true that these heretics against -. and his apparent gentleness in who denied the divinity of Christ did not prevent him from branding their belief as a mere " human doctrine.

17 . It was a Christianity which knew Gnosticism to be a novelty. previously antagonistic parand the differences which existed between it and ties apostolic Christianity may. would be almost and the fact may be perceived especially in . Nor is there any reason to believe that Justin misSuch. to the complete separation of the orthodox Christians from the pseudo-Christian sects or schools of thought which had already arisen. which they tried to occupy. had been laid by the Apostles of Christ. 1 be explained in another way. but on their united proclamation of Christ. Justin testifies. that he felt that his doctrine of the Logos would 1 commend 2 itself to . if not carried too far. held to the apostolic teaching. but which itself stood on the foundation which it was assured. a pardonable weakness. so the man-named sects stood in contrast to the great body of believers. i.JUSTIN ON THE rOST-ATOSTOLIC CHURCH. and considered Jewish Christianity. their teaching being stamped as an innovation on the apostolic faith. position He and the Church was the His Christianity betrays no consciousness of having arisen from the fusion of. It is not improbable. 48. tween the facts of Christ's life spirit. 1 l • in- His testi " monvtrust- fluenced by this purpose in the selection of vor y * inevitable arguments and in modes of expression. The resemblances which he adduces beand the tales of mythology are to be referred to this motive. Ap. both by tradition and by written records. . also. 257 vidual apostles. represented the essential features of Christianity for the purpose of commending for n whom l -l he wrote. His desire to secure belief in Christ as sent from God. 22 Dial. even if His divinity be denied. at least. ™ That it to the unbelievers l he would be -. 2 betrays no doubt the same apologetic the Apology. the better Lect. or compromise between. therefore. as we have seen. IT.

JUSTIN MAKTYR. itself. concerned. likewise. His character was too rugged and bold for such dishonesty. as it did to him. he evidently sought . is gives us but his little It did not lie within purpose to describe the internal organization of . of the Christians as unjust and irrational shows him a man who would speak the truth while the willingness to suffer and die rather than deny their Lord is of itself a sufficient proof that Justin and his fellow-Christians were not the men knowingly to misstate facts. the perfection of philosophy. Justin I. of the Christian ceremo- nies. as his peculiarities of thought allowed. condition of the Church is that of one who honestly represented. and would make Christianity appear to them. to the trust him absolutely. we may His testimony. to represent stress them as being as simple as possible aud the to the Christian requirement of of which he laid on obedience to and imitation to find favor with God may have seemed him likely two purest and greatest of the Antonines. We may positively conclude that when Justin speaks from his own knowledge. In his descriptions. the real Chris- tian Church of the post-apostolic age. therefore. his teaching in the Apology and in the Dialogue is essentially the same. His sneers at the worship of the emperors and at the deification of Antinous are certainly not the language His bold arraignment of the treatment of a sycophant. so far as his purpose called for it. there is nothing to show that he consciously misrepresented facts.258 class of pagans. But while Justin was an Apologist. Moreover. So far as church organization information. and so far at least the . He defended no as honestly party but the Church and he did so and as earnestly as he could. though the persons addressed were very different.

the Christians. 259 He throws light on the only when and describing the public worship of . i. . Prayers - place. tion. This washing is also called illumina- they who learn these things are illuminated in their understandings. They are then taken where there is water. . Ap." 2 as the others had been " for in the name of God the Father and Lord of the universe. first. that we have learned by our works to be found good citizens and keepers of the commandments. with water. see below. 3 tion. On the doctrine of baptism. his to exhibit the simplicity ceremonies . salute one another with a kiss. are instructed to didates. . pray God with fasting for the remission of past sins. the rite of baptism. and of the Holy Spirit. 1 The canhe says. writes Justin. they then receive the washing . the distribution effort of their zation of the Moreover. 1 we i. .JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. prayers. the Church praying and fasting with them. and are " regenerated." The new member is then brought.4 since . and for all others in every for ourselves. the Christian societies at subject all. and of our Saviour Jesus Christ. 5 to where "the brethren" are assembled. the celebration of their two great alms. 2 dvayevvuvTai. 61. What little he does say. 65. where " we offer prayers in com- mon and for the one who has been illuminated. 6 to tv tw 4 (fxoria-fios- v8an rore \ovrpov iroiovvrai. is worth examinaHe describes. that we may be counted worthy. The klss * Ap. now . After the the truth. manifestly was and harmlessness of these few so that we could not expect from him a offi- careful description of the relations sustained by the cers of the Church to one another and to the whole body. however. . rites.

2 8 5 evxapicrriav . what he wills and what is collected deposited with the presi- dent for the relief of the needy. 4 Ap. 67. all the people present give Amen. the president gives verbal to the imitation of these instruction and invitation 5 good things. exhortation. Public worfirst" daV of the week. and afterward " they who are well to do and are willing give. Some editions read. 3 " . Afterwards. away to the absent. Justin we continually remind one another of an y these things. day which is called the day of the Sun. . these passages contain : following items of importance 1 — only the Or. i. Then they whom we it deacons give to those present to partake of the bread and wine and water. ." When he has concluded the prayers and thanksassent by saying call giving. and he having received all. and at length thanks- giving 2 for being counted worthy of these things from Him. 4 Apostles and the writings of the prophets are read as long as time permits. eVi ttoKv Troidrai. npoa-cpeperai r<3 7rpoeoTwri twv d$c\cpa>v. The wealthy among us help the needy. to the presiding brother. so far as the organization of the Christian so- cieties is concerned. each according to his . . there is Then brought to the president of the brethren 1 The Eiickarist. there or ^ s an assem bly of all who live in cities country to one place. them renders offers praise and glory to the Father of through the name of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. bread and a cup of water and wine. and the memoirs of the Then. irapa<kr](ytv." The Eucharist is celebrated.260 JUSTIN MARTYR." Now. Then we all rise together and pray. when the reader has ceased. TrpoKXrjcriv. 8ia Adyov. And on the and carry ' adds. . . own is free choice. and we are always together.

and " presbyter " Moreover. the reply may be made that Justin none the less regarded the local church as a unit. -. "bishop" would not have been unfamiliar terms 2 1 Acts vi." for that might be translated president. Ap. . from them that there was but one society or Such seems to be the expression " there is fair inference from the « i. from his language that the local This follows not so society had a permanent president. . . the who was therefore the permanent agent of its charity. preached and administered the Eucharist. it an assembly ot ail those m cities . and he appears to have come to control the duties which the deacons were originally ordained to discharge. infer. where the Christians must have been too numerous to meet all together.. 261 We " infer " church in each community. for If this be thought incredible in example so large a place as Eome." There was but one congrega- oca J y ' tion in each locality. the society for the distribution of He also presided at the public assembly. The deacons were his assistants.APOSTOLIC CHURCH. they must have been considered as but parts of one assembly. i. 1 But why did Justin designate the " chief officer as the president " ? Was ? it simply from the wish to -why the 116 avoid technical terms 2 Yet he mentions " regenera- the "deacons. One church in each _ and country to one place. further. " the president of a permanent the brethren..JUSTIN ON THE POST. much from the expression. " We the brother who is presiding." but from the statement that the alms of the society were deposited with president.. and that if several meeting-places be assumed." and in his account of bap- tism he uses the technical term president" not e iven - tion" with marked emphasis. 61.

v. iv. 6 See Ad Cor. it Forty years earlier had come to be used in the churches of Asia. 4 as Polycrates also does to Polycarp. ii. etc. 2. or one similar to it. and with the implication that there was a plurality of such officers at the head of the local the church. crv 8' avayvacras eis ravrqv tt)v ttoKiv is. Thraseas. 7 4 Ad Tral. if for was the natural phrase any reason he preferred not to give the we not title of the officer in question. Ad Polyc. 4. 2. 6 . 5. use " bishop " and " presbyter " convertibly. Vis. and even in the same church is ? It is a significant fact that the term "bishop" officer not applied in extant writings to the chief of the Roman Church until a period later than Justin. and other pastors of Asia Minor. title of the presiding presby5 to About Symeon Justin's period Hegesippus applies the term of Jerusalem. p. iii. etc. 22. H. 1. 3. 3. 2. 1 The same term used by also found in Hernias. E. 3 for the particular ter. Ibid. \ 2 . 21. 1. 6 but Ignatius himself in his epistle is significantly to silent to the Eomans. at the close of first century.262 to JUSTIN MARTYR. to " the presbyters. But not only does Clement of Eome. as any presiding officer in that place. . Eus. ii. B 1. 6. Ad Mag. Tois wporiyovpivois rijs eKKArjatas3 See not only .2 Justin. Lect. as the genuine epistles of Ignatius show. as is also Polycarp in his letter of to the Philippians. the pagans. 2 4. II. May " conjecture that his avoidance of both " bishop and "presbyter" was due varied in different to the fact that their use churches. 42.. but Ad Eph. 7rpe(rftvTtpoL>p t&v irpoiarapevcov rrjs eKKXrjalas. expressly in one instance. is though there applied." for our Apologist to use. and probably in It others. 44. 24. 1 The testimony Hermas concern- See Hatch's Organization of the Early Christian Churches.fTa ra>v 9.

;

JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH.
in2 the organization of the Eoraan Church
is

203

obscure. 1

His language seems

to associate the episcopate

with the

executive work of the church, and the presbyterate with
the work of teaching and ruling
2

but no such separa-

tion of titles as to prove distinct offices can be disstates 3 that on drew up a list of the succession down to Anicetus, whose deacon was Eleutherus,"

cerned in his pages.

Hegesippus also
"

his arrival at

Rome he

1

See Lightfoot's Commentary on Philippians See Vis.
ii.

;

Essay on the

Christian Ministry.
2

2

:

" Tell those

who

rule (rot? 7rpoTjyovp.evois) the
:

ways in righteousness." Vis. ii. 4 " You will write therefore two books [or copies, /3t/3XtSapta], and send one to Clement and one to Grapte. Clement will then send (his) to the foreign cities, for to him has this duty been intrusted (ei<eiva> yap e7rireTpa7rrat) and Grapte will admonish the widows and orphans and thou shalt read it to this city along with the presbyters

Church

to direct their

;

;

who

preside over the church (jav Trpeo-fivrepav rav Trpo'ioTap.evu>v

rrjs

Observe here not only presbyters as controlling the worship of the church, but Clement singled out as the church organ of communication with other churches. There is nothing to show whether Clement was but one of the presbyters, or whether he was regarded as having a distinct office but the impression is made by the language that he was the church's executive and
eKKXrjalas)-"
;

probably
teachers,

its

presiding presbyter.

Vis.

iii.

5,

" apostles, bishops,

and deacons " named

as the officers of the church.

Prob-

ably " teachers " represents " presbyters," and " bishops," the chief

terms

presbyters, as executive officers; but, as Lightfoot admits, the may designate " the one presbyteral office in its twofold asVis.
iii.

pect."

9

:

" I say to

you who preside

(jvpo-qyovp-ivois)

over

the church and hold the first seats (roty TrpcoTOKaBeSpirais)," etc. Sim. ix. 25 " Apostles and teachers who preached to the whole
:

world," etc.

If this refer to others besides the founders of Chris-

tianity, it describes

only the teaching work of church officers without discriminating their offices. Sim. ix. 27: " Bishops given

to hospitality

never failed to protect the widows and maintained a holy conversation." Here the administrative and executive work of the " bishop " appears but whether the word is applied to ordinary presbyters, or only to the chief, is uncertain. 8 Eus. H. E. iv. 22.
.

.

.

.

.

.

;

264

JUSTIN MARTYR.

thus, while evidently testifying to the existence of a

single chief ruler in the
his time, not giving his

Roman Church
title.

at

and before
later date

At

a

little

indeed than Justin, Dionysius of Corinth wrote to the

Rornan Church, and spoke of "your blessed bishop
Soter
;

"

*

but
"

Irenseus,

who was

familiar

with

the

usages of both Asia and Borne, calls Polycarp in one

and in another 3 a " presbyter," and in his letter to Victor of Rome, 4 speaks of " the presbyters preceding Soter in the government of the church which thou dost now rule." Furthermore, none of the
place

2

a

bishop,"

extant epitaphs of the
"

Roman

bishops give the

title

Episcopus

"

during the second century, nor even
title

later. 5

It

would thus seem that the

applied to the prestill

siding officer of the Christian societies
Justin's time
in different localities,

varied in
in the

and perhaps

same

localities as well.

Such a

state of things

would

at least harmonize with Justin's failure to
official title of

mention the
suppose that,

the president.

We may
which

not wishing to enter into more particulars than were
necessary, nor to explain the different usages and per-

haps

the

different

opinions

existed

in

the

churches, he used a term which would apply to all

the modifications of government which might be found
in all the Christian societies of the Empire.

But however
but one of
No
sacerdotaiism.
i »
5

this

may have

been, the president

was

"

the brethren," merely the leader of their

devotions and the agent of their charity.

No

6 sacerdotal ideas were as yet attached to him.
iv. 23.
2

Eus. H. E. Eus. H. E.

v. 20.

4

Adv. Haer. Eus. H. E.

iii.

3, 4.

v. 24.

De

p. 50, quoted
6

Rossi, Bulletina di Archeologia Christiana, Ann. II. 18G4, by Hatch, " Organization," etc., p. 88.
all

See also Dial. 116, where Justin teaches the priesthood of

believers.

;

JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH.
Justin makes no mention, however, president to have been the " bishop,"

265
the

if

we suppose
of

any

officers

corresponding to the " presbyters."

No

doubt this

may

be in part attributed to the fact that he was describing
the public worship of the church, and not
its discipline,

nor in detail

its

methods of instructing

its

yet the omission confirms the impression already
that in his time the chief officer

members made
towards

had gone

far

monopolizing not only the original functions of the
deacons, but also those of the presbyters.
Slight as this evidence
is, it

accords with

what we

elsewhere learn of the progress of local church organi-

From the j ust n s dezation during the second century. beginning there one estab- s^pt' 011 was but society J ° accords with the known lished in each locality. This was originally J J °
>

;

.

.

_

facts of

governed by a body of equal presbyters or
bishops. 1

church orfrftheVecond centuI7'

Their

office,

however, was at

first

chiefly disciplinary

and executive,

for the su-

pernatural gifts of the apostolic Christians regulated to a
large degree the conduct of the service.

But toward the

close of the apostolic age itself, the teaching function,

which had always pertained in idea
called

to the presbyter,

was

into

greater prominence,2 though

an itinerant
early in the

ministry of prophets and other supernaturally gifted
teachers continued to exist with
1
it.

3

But

I cannot accept Hatch's theory of the origin of the episcoSee his " Organization," etc., Lect. II. The use of the term in the apostolic churches as synonymous with " presbyter " is
pate.

clearly proved

by Acts xx.

17, 28, as well as Tit.

i.

5-7; and the

term

itself

could as easily have been obtained by the Jewish

Christian churches from the LXX. as by the Gentile Christians from the clubs. See Dr. Sanday's article in the Expositor, Feb., 1887, "Origin of the Christian Ministry, II., Criticism of Recent

Theories."
2
8

See the Pastoral Epistles and Heb. xiii. 7, 8 See " The Teaching of the Apostles," 11, 12,

;

1

Pet. v. 1-3.

13.

266
second century

JUSTIN MARTYR.

we

find in the

Asian churches, at the

head of the local or congregational presbytery, a per-

manent president

or pastor, called the bishop,

who was

the centre of both the administrative and liturgical and
disciplinary service of the society.

With him appear

the presbyters as counsellors, but they are already sink-

ing into a subordinate rank.

manent pastor of the which is thus shown
ence of heresy.
increased.

flock
to

The bishop is the perand in this centralization, have taken place, the Church
;

found her safeguard against the disorganizing

influ-

As

the second century passed on, the

importance and power of the local bishop naturally

The services of the assembly and the management of the society's affairs fell more and more into The deacons became his assistants in the his hands. administration of the finances and of the benevolent work of the Church. The latter especially, as Justin intimates, occupied a large part of his attention, and must have aided to augment the power of his office.

The

presbyters, while remaining the bishop's council

and assisting him in teaching and discipline, fell into the background, or became pastors of the subordinate chapels, as we would call them, which with the growth
of the society

became necessary.
in local church

the

movement

second century witnessed.

Such was in outline government which the By the end of the century

the elevation of the episcopate over the presbyterate

had been so firmly established in nearly all the churches of the Empire, 1 that it was commonly supposed to have been the arrangement from the beginning. The slight
glimpse which Justin gives of the services of the Chris1

elsewhere.

In Alexandria the process seems to have been slower than See Li^htfoot's Commentary on Philippians Essay
;

on the Christian Ministry,

p. 225.

JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH.
tian

267

assemblies

reveals,

so far as

it

goes,

the same

picture. 1

But was

tliere

societies together

of such a thing.

any external bond uniting these local ? We reply that Justin gives no hint His expressions concerning unitv of the
1168

the unity of Christendom are the following,

puref
spiritual,

Expounding the
that those

Forty-fifth Psalm, he

writes.2

who

believe in Christ are one soul

and one

synagogue and one church, even as the

Word

speaks,

"Hearken,
ear." 3
1

daughter, and behold and incline thine Again,4 Christ " hath made us a house of prayer

for the governing

be noted that I have used the term " presbytery " body of a local church or single society. So it is used in the New Testament. It was, since there was but one society in each locality, in one aspect equivalent to the modern " session," in another equivalent to the modern " presbytery," as Nor the terms are used in the American Presbyterian Church. must the " bishop " of the early part of the second century be He was the identified with the diocesan bishop of later times.
It should

pastor of a single society.
epistles

Had

the " bishop " of the Ignatian

been associated with other bishops of the same province or of several adjacent localities in the government of the churches under them, or had he and his presbyters divided on terms of

members of their church, as it grew, into several soeach organized after the original pattern, and governed by the joint council, the result would have been what is now understood as government by presbytery. But in fact the importance of the chief pastor increased. The presbyters were given subordinate positions under him. The local church remained an
equality the
cieties,

organic unit, and the
copate.

the

first

way was paved for the later diocesan episBoth presbyterianism and episcopacy therefore concur in change which passed over the apostolic churches namely,
;

the rise of the local bishop.

From

that point they diverge

:

the

former preserving the idea of local self-government after the original model, and securing the unity of all by a series of ascending
courts;
2 4

the latter continuing the development of the central
8

personal power.
Dial. 63. Dial. 86.

Cf.

Eph.

v.

23-27.

268

JUSTIN MARTYR.

and worship." 1 Christians are "the vine planted by God and Christ the Saviour," 2 and are " the robe of

them the Seed of God, the Logos, They have believed "as one man" in God, and " being inflamed by the word of His calling, are the true high-priestly race." 4 They are the true Israel. 5 Still more particularly, he states 6 that the prophet 7 predicted that the wicked shall become subject to Christ, "and that all shall become as one child. Such a thing," he adds, " as you may witness in the body although the members are enumerated as many, all together are called one, and are a body. 8 For indeed a commonwealth 9 and an assembly, 10 though many individuals
Christ," because in

dwells. 3

;

numerically, yet, because they are one in
called

fact, 11

are

and addressed by the one appellation." The of Christendom was therefore to Justin a most unity real, but at the same time a purely spiritual fact.
There
the
is

nothing, either in the charges
or

made

against

Christians

in

the Apologist's

defence,

which

indicates

that a formal
societies

organization of the

separate

Christian
arisen.
is

into one external
life

Their unity was one of

evident that Paul's figures
still

framework had and faith and it of a temple and a body
;

were

controlling Justin's language.

This spiritual

bond

certainly united

the churches

closely together.

We
1

early learn of letters of inquiry or counsel sent
to church, 12
21,

from church
Cf.

or written
iii.

by distinguished
ii.

Eph.
i.

ii.

22

;

1

Tim.

15

;

1

Pet.

5.

2

Dial. 110.

« 6
7 8

Ap.
Isa.

32.

Cf. Dial. 54, 87.

4
6

Dial. 116. Dial. 42.

Cf. Dial. 119, 125, 130, 135.
liii.

2,

according to the

LXX.
9
8i}/zof.

Cf.

1

Cor. xiv. 12, etc.
as being one object.

10 eKKkrjcria.
11

ok
Cf.

h

ovres irpayfia

;

i2

Clem. Horn, ad Cor.

2 The first external expression of the Church's unity was in of the form of councils. however. a Christian unity lay in the consciousness of faith common and life and hope. 2 Not yet. Dionysius of Corinth. had that form been created. to themselves. as we have found 1 Compare the Epistles of Ignatius. rose in influence. and thus siastical the falsity of the eccle- claims of modern Eome. The Catholic Church of the post-apostolic age was simply among the brethen and attachment apostolic faith was so strong that it the total faith. district. any official primacy yet the sense of spiritual oneness to an established was not difficult in time to embody the Church's unity in an external form. He betrays no conception of the Church as a whole more advanced than that of his predecessors. number of those who professed the apostolic In Justin we find the same spiritual conception of the Church that we find in Paul. the original societies.JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. They appear to have been held and had no binding authority. one one church. one race. though scattered over the Empire. See Hatch's Organiza- tion of the Early Christian Churches. that the local churches were in the second century intolic traditions. dependent. Justin stands testifies to on the older ground. 1 269 the With growth of heresy and the planting of new churches. No church or bishop held . While we know that the forces were already beginning to work which pro- duced a world-wide external organization with which the Church was identified. pastors to other churches than their own. . Polycarp. consisting of the representatives the churches of a certain irregularly. It It divided the orthodox from the heretics. VII. made believers seem body. Lect. because the depositaries of apos- Important churches and bishops attained commanding positions in the enBut all the evidence goes to show tire brotherhood.

1 the elements.270 JUSTIN MARTYR. then. was the faith by which these ? early Christians were united. as And two are was remarked the in a previous lecture. In seeking a reply to this question from Justin. he is. by Justin. IV.. and which they claimed to have received from the Apostles faith of the To this ques- tion P we . are naturally led as the conclusion Church. faith of the 1 Church Lect. He believed much which his philosophy could not appropriate or could only rationalize away. every statement by him of the Christian yet. if allowance for these modifications be made. Finally. oi all our inquiries. . (1) (l) The "person of The first point to be noticed in the as witnessed Christ. we have only to abstract from his statements of doctrine „ How ootained from . element which that philosophical x x we have found he introduced into his Christianity. equally evident in his expressions. philosophical and the Christian. which his philosophy never would have and which therefore must have come from his religion. By upon his philosophy he endeavored to under. a competent witness to close connection with the the faitli of the early Church. and his horror of heresy make it certain that while his views were modified by philosophical influences. his body of orthodox believers. began. are adopted found on his pages. His philosophy was clearly superimposed upon cal terms. stand and explain Christianity his theology and the to effects of this were so great as modify nearly belief. What. Not only techni- from the language of the Church. to do to the claims of him some modern first critics that in his age Catholic Christianity II. his confessed reliance on apostolic teaching. but created. taken also beliefs his Christianity.

6 8 103. is 271 central that the divine-human person of Christ was its article. 99. on the other hand. io Ap. Ap. 33. 22. 1 is is defended by Justin as the common His gradual and natural growth into manhood Stress is laid on the reality of His humanity 3 in general. 6 and righteous. in fact. resurrection. 4 He was held to be sinless. where He waits in glory the day of His final mentioned. as well as of His sufferings in particular. Dial. u See Ap. Dial. 4 Dial.3. . accepted on apostolic testimony is in just that version which recorded in our Gospels. unquestioned true God. life. 99. i. 5 holy. and of ascension formed the historical foundation on Humanity which the Church's faith rested. 52. facts of and the His birth. 110. 13. 119. 34. 6. He was Divinity of worshipped and adored. 98. 88.. etc. upon which the very existence of Christianity was held to repose. s 2 Dial. the term commonly applied to Christ by the Christians n and while 1 Ap. 32. historical. and ascended to heaven. i. 10 " Son of God " was. 8 These facts. 7 He rose from the dead. 2 . the reality of Christ's humanity. Dial. but were the founby any save by those who by questioning them were stamped as heretical. etc. 9 "We reasonably Christ. worship Him. 43. 5 » p ia i. But. the divinity of Christ is even more emphatically mentioned by Justin as a fundamental belief of the Christians. 54. 36. holding Him in the second place. 2 triumph. death. 84. i. 45. i. 98. Dial. 85. His birth Curist - from the Virgin belief. i. 51. 98. 9 Ap. 119." and on this its very account was Christianity esteemed madness by enemies. Dial. On the one hand. JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. having learned that He is the Son of the were not only received as dation.

divine incarnation. This was not merely Justin's own Of that we have already spoken.272 JUSTIN MARTYR. * and in this particular was the Church. i. His testimony to the Church's non-philois sophical belief in Christ's divinity another thing. or at least to be the opinion who considered Christ a mere man. 4 Dial. the belief of those is Ebionism. 8 6 7 See Ap. in opposition to the teaching of the prophets and of Christ Himself. Thus Christ was to the Christians the God-Man Son of God from before the foundation of the world the divine Logos who became man for the salvation of men. is declared to be impious for denying that Christ is the Son of the Creator. ferred to His relation to the lather before the creation of the world . etc. 2 Christ's birth. 23. This was. according to his testimony. 2 Dial. . distinctly declared 4 by Justin not of the Church. is His explanation of the way in which Christ was divine one thing. 7 Justin's doctrine of the Logos presupposes. Ap. it was not so underIt re- stood by the Church when applied to Christ. 10. and quite distinguishable from the former. 63. This is." or the teaching of man. but a " human doctrine. 3 doctrine. 6 as well as for denying that the Creator is the Supreme God. on the contrary. therefore. feat o~a>p. 58. 5. ii. 1 Ap. 5 Marcion. In Ap. . 6 8lci Dial. as . 48. Moderate Jewish Christianity stood. was a according to Justin. the faith of the Church. 48. to \oyuc6v to b\ov top tyavevra kq\ 6i i]jxas xpio~Tov ycyovevai. as would appear from Justin's language. 47. the term itself might be understood in a sense in which it could be applied to other men. 48. 23. Justin says. i. i.a \6yov Kai yj/v)(rjv. in full accord with the rest of the Church in this belief. The latter was unquestioned except by heretics. separated from the extreme sect of Jewish Christians.

besides There is it. 1867. i. divided Christ. By logos he therefore meant Christ's divinity. seems to have been overlooked by those who make him a trichotomist. We repeat that the attempt. Dial. note). p.JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. soul. p. 33) the Logos Him- who. and Von Engelhardt (Das Christenthum Justins. like in Christ . body and soul and logos (or reason). div. to make the enu- meration complete. — But the order of the to the human reason generally (see Lect. vol.). Weizs'acker (Jahrb. just as he does not define the relation of the Logos Justin recognized in Christ three parts. And then Justin adds. was the appearing of the Logos. VIII. in Justin's time was the divinity of Christ a fundamental article of Christianity. apparent in Justin. however. p. but as one defending and explaining an admitted belief. that he wished to oppose the views of those Marcion. 18 . He does not write new belief. and. 105. i. 277. As such it was defended and explained. 1 Gnostic Heresies. to reason out the perhaps. trans.. So Otto (sub loco). the Person of Christ (Eng. self dwelt in this body. Certainly body and logos and words shows that Justin did not mean by these terms to enumerate the parts of Christ's humanity. and thus testify to the universal belief of the Christians in the latter. the probability is that he did not anticipate that heresy. The whole Logos appeared and the whole Christ. 273 as we have previously as one establishing a observed. The body of Christ was produced in the womb of the Virgin by the Logos (Ap. where the various views of the pasSee also Dorner's History of the Doctrine of sage are given). for then he would surely have said. the doctrine of John the accepted faith of the Church. fiir deutsche Theol.). that the ^rv\riv (human soul. nothing to show how he defined the relation of the Logos to the soul in Christ. see Dial. Dean Mansel has well remarked that the earliest heresies found it easier to deny the humanity than the divinity of Christ. IV. 96. physical and rational. 1 In like manner. Lect. the most difficult passage to interpret in Justin's books. attributed to Him a real body and a human soul. 121. in which Justin shows that by yf/vxrj he understood the immortal spirit and not the mere animal life of man. . 105) of Christ contained also the manifestation of the Logos. i. I believe. Though his lan- guage here looks Apollinarian.

Son as to the Father was one thing. he emphasized the divine transcendence. — sense of God's moral character and affectionate interest in men. under the influence of philosophy. but not to their nature. divine Sonship with the worship of Him God manifest in the flesh was an- other thing. and of the Logos as a divine being produced by the Father's will out of Himself. we found that his doctrine At the same time. as one with While nu- He is yet represented Him in such a way the as to imply that the distinction between them referred to their personalities. inof God contained many elements of another type. belief Necessarily connected with divinity in Christ's faith The was the Church's substantial is Trinity. derived from his philosophy the other from a living . and would certainly at least never have led him to it. Still Justin thought of God as above and beyond the world. This the manifest order as the matter (2) (2) lies in the testimony of Justin. the belief in Christ's pre-existent. and yet as neither a creation of nor an emanation from God. and due doubtless to his Christianity. in fa e Trinity. and through whom alone God's re- lation to the world is mediated. we found Justin describing the Logos as not personally eternal.274 relation of the JUSTIN MARTYR. When describing his theology we spoke of the way in which. So. as to the relation of the Son to the Father. so that two conceptions of the one Deity seemed to be contending in his mind. merically distinct from the Father. Justin's testimony to this the more significant from the fact that his philosophy tended to modify the doctrine which we believe was taught by the Apostles. At same time He is sub- . efforts The belief occasioned the philosophical to explain the mystery is . philosophy did not create the belief. deed.

These examples will suffice that the Apologist's own thought strongly tended show away from the doctrine of a Trinity." 5 while not inconsistent necessarily with the the Spirit. not only in office but in being. Ap. thou shalt conceive of the Holy Spirit. was produced as a distinct subsistence by the But to the Logos pertains. . manifestly doctrine of takes its place in to Justin's mind. It tended to a sort of dytheism. See Lect. The doctrine of " the Seminal Logos. since He Father's will. 1 to the Virgin Quoting the words spoken by the angel. 33." Justin has." Justin says that it is wrong to understand here the " Spirit " as anything else than the Logos. Justin's thought. 32. the Logos. all this 8 6 See Ap. " We worship. then. " prophetic spirit. been constant. 10." Justin represents the Logos as the real author of prophecy. IV. the God and is whole work of mediation between His affinity with human reason and His activity in human history has So much stress was thus laid on the idea of the Logos that little place was left for the work Though continually using the phrase of the Spirit." 3 Believers are those " in whom dwells the Seed from God. 36 . the fact that in spite of i. 6. 4 Ap. Instead of Saint John's " worship in spirit and in truth.' JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. i." 4 rather than those in whom God or Christ dwells by the Spirit. 2 Significant variations of phrase from that of the New Testament indicate the same habit of thought. Ap. " Behold. i. What 1 means. 2 \6y<a Koi uXrjOelq. of whom all men partake. although it held to the consubstantiality of the Logos and the Father of all. very close. i. 275 ordinate to the Father. honoring in reason and truth. according to the world. ii. who Himself caused the Virgin to conceive and became incarnate in her.

276 Justin testifies JUSTIN MARTYR. 61. and the Son who came from Him and taught us these things. Ap. to the ? worship of three divine persons by the Christians Such worship was involved in the already established formula of baptism. 6 shows. 13. His language in Ap. which predicted through the prophets all things concerning Jesus. however. he mentions the objects of Christian worship as follows most true God and Father of righteousness and temperance and other virtues (who is) free from wickedness. . i. 1 2 Ap. thus showing that universally His object was to prove that the Christians adore what is good." and " of Jesus Christ who was crucified under Pontius Pilate." So he elsewhere explicitly declares " we worship the Son. He did not bave a Jew's in a general way. In Ap." and " of the Holy Spirit. i. Son. i. that the subordination of the Son and Spirit to the Father was so strongly impressed on his thought that it was not difficult for him thus to include angels as." 2 That he Christ. they have Christians are not atheists. tlkov iv Tpirr] Taipei. . " in the name of God the Father and Lord of all. . i. and Spirit as objects of worship. vibv . &G. . but all Certainly Justin's language was misleading for of them good. jealousy of whatever might seem to infringe on monotheism. he names only the Father. 6. objects of veneration. . holding him in the second place and the prophetic Spirit in the third order. : " The 6. i. iv Sevrepa X&>P? e^ovres nvevfid re 7rpo<pT]See Aj3. i. " in the name of God the Father and Lord of all. and of our Saviour Jesus and of the Holy Spirit " : or. . Tifiwfiev. . 65. So far from this. 66. as objects of reverence a great number of heavenly beings. 13. that he did not really mean that Christians in the strict sense worshipped angels is proved by the fact that in Ap. This was another result of the course by which Justin approached Christianity and the isolated expression before us betrays his . . as Justin adds in the same connection. he says. 61." desire to set over against the bad angels and demons whom pagans worshipped the whole number of good celestial beings as objects of Christian veneration. and the host of other good angels who follow and are like Him and the prophetic This mention of angels is to be explained by Justin's Spirit. but was more concerned for the worship of the good than of the One. 65.

life. Dial. yet Justin speaks of the Spirit as not only an object of worship. 34. ." 1 Ap. Engelhardt's Das Christenthum Justins. and his quotation from Nitsch." The view that Justin classed angels with the Spirit and regarded the Spirit as an angel is an unnatural construction of his language. but his testimony concerning the Spirit For though his more remarkable. or Powers. 25. but as the power of Christian life. A. 7. according to Justin. .JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. 32." So the rendering. 277 ascribed divinity to the Logos. Yon Engelhardt adds. in the domain of Christian The prophecies in the just referred to as having been spoken name of the Spirit were those which predicted religion. . p. even to the extent of making Him of the _. July. the conception of God became abstract and Von they did not a strict easily consistent with the thought of subordinate beings who mani- fested the powers of Deity. 2 The province of the Spirit lay. " in rising from polytheism to the truth of divine unity. etc. . 35. Angels. i. 568) regards this passage " as a remnant of the undeveloped Philonian doctrine. 31.. and opposed to his general representation of the Spirit. The „ . whereby the Logos is but the elder and foremost of a number of Logoi. 32. but not the belief of the Church. E. i." which was because. that " to the Gentile Christians.1 but certain prophecies are distinguished from those uttered in the name of the Father and from those uttered in the name of Christ as being specially prophetic of future things. taught us and the host of other good angels these things. Abbott (Modern Review. own theology had really no place is iii „. " The Son who is a mere effort to escape difficulties. p. the progress and victory of the Christian The own See peculiar cast of mind. a Ap. as long as scientifically reflect. same substance with the Father. with the evident implication that they were spoken in the name of the Spirit. 14G. etc. for the Spirit. 39. we have already stated . there was not the same need of monotheism as to the Jewish Christians. 40. Not only is the Spirit repeatedly represented as having spoken through the prophets. 1882. Dr.. Spirit.

7 It is true. See Neander's Church History." etc. 113. 4 It would appear from these expressions that he conceived of the Spirit as the agent employed by the Father and the Logos Thus alone can we in operating upon men's minds. Eng. also Otto's note in his edition of Justin. 4. indeed. 278 aged believer JUSTIN MARTYR. whom Justin represents as a person (angel)." he cries. Dial. " The Power of God. In no : 1 Dial. 9. and anxious to seduce all to himself. Trypho that Christians have not believed filled words with the Spirit of God. 116. to Justin a distinct being sent to men from God through Christ. The Spirit was. 3 4 Dial. 29. 1 Justin declares fables." This latter passage manifestly refers to the Holy Spirit. and he departs from us. 2 Dial. 6 Dial. though in his own thought he may have regarded him as impersonal. The fact that Justin also called the Logos an angel shows that his use of the word here does not necessarily imply that he considered the Spirit a creature. and yet of the divine Logos So likewise he declares as the author of prophecy. who led Justin to Christ of is represented as maintaining that the unless instructed to mind by the Holy man cannot see God but Spirit. trans.. i. rebukes him. 5 7 ^aplafiaTa dwo tov irvevfxaTos tov 6eov e^ovras. . 609. when he writes of the Spirit as speaking through the prophets. understand him. at any rate. yet the Angel of God. " of What need baptism. The phrase.. who have been " " 3 baptized with the Holy Ghost The " special " gifts which Christian men and women possessed are said to have been received from the Spirit of God. that Joshua received strength from the Spirit of Jesus 5 and in one particularly notable passage 6 he uses this language " Though the devil is ever at hand to resist us. Dial. 2 that other ? have I. that is the Power of God sent to us through Jesus Christ.. 88. may be understood personally or not. that Justin's idea of the Spirit was vague.

to bring out the this was due to activity in moral . the Church ' believed in a redemption wrought out the by (3) Redemptloa Son of God through His incarnation. The main facts 1 2 Ap. or. this although his own theology felt no need of the Spirit in order to explain the philosophy of Christianity. But he declares these three to be the divine objects of Christian worship. He unduly subordinates the Son to the Father. according to Justin. and resurrection. 60. and Spirit as the threefold object of Christian worship. Furthermore. Thus Justin in fold spite of himself testifies to the three- object of Christian worship. when not vague. i.JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. but the stress which he laid on human freedom and affairs. the functions of each in the He describes economy of salvation in nearly 2 the same way in which they are described in the New Testament. Nevertheless the Spirit was to him a distinct object of worship. we must allow for the influence of Justin's philosophy upon his statements. and the threefold source of Christian (3) life. death. and the immediate power of a Christian's life and . Justin's own conception is vague. first. unscriptural in certain important points. again. Here. He hovers between the ideas of the Spirit as divine Influence and as a divine Person. The most marked exception is his failure Spirit's work in regeneration (Ap. Son. and the Spirit to both. He thus most effectively testifies to the traditional faith of the Church in the Father. 61). and third powers in the universe. 279 case does he clearly declare the personality of the Spirit. He even finds * in Plato an adumbration of the second. i. though he often seems on the verge of doing so. though in doing so he misunderstands and misrepresents that philosopher.

we again ask. 63. Hence his favorite representation of Christ is as the Christianity is the new law. 8 4 6 7 Ap. duty is obedience to Christ's commands. 54. 6 8 Dial. What mean then. Dial. 137. 103 63. IY. Ap." of sins 7 by the blood In baptism believers receive remission " His Father caused of Christ. which contains the mystery of the Cross. 4 endured all for our sakes and on account of our conquered death. By dying and rising He "He became the beginning of an- who have been born 6 again by Him through water and faith and wood. 86. Ap. when they inflicted the sufferiug Him. and man's great Teacher. they have the power to recognize it and the ability to choose and obey it. 95. of his testimony concerning the work of Christ were exhibited when we discussed his theology. 2 By His blood powers to the He cleanses believers. .280 JUSTIN MAETYR. In accordance with his exaltation of reason. 8 Him to suffer in behalf of the human did not know. because Christ was the incarnation of the divine Logos. i. 111. 9 Dial. 13. Dial. 54. ii. 3 He sins. Dial. Dial. 56. 40. 96. Dial. and believed that if men be shown the truth. Ap. 138. he attribChristianity uted the evil of life to the subjection of man's rational demons of ignorance and sin. 32 Dial. 70. i. 5 other race. i. 13 . 2 . that He was "the eternal Christ." 10 The fifty-third chapter 1 The Jews upon Priest and King and race. the expressions which are scattered through his writings and which represent Christ as saving men by His death and resurrection ? He is said to have brought us healing by becoming partaker of our sufferings. 1 To him was supremely the full revelation of truth. 10 ." 9 of Isaiah is not only Lect.

In it he practically shared. by coming to whom men also may be saved. 4 of modifying that faith. whose blood will deliver from death those who have cross. . He had no thought was the sign. Dial. 91. 134. etc. 30. 3 With great emphasis also does Justin represent Christ's death and resurrection as a Of this victory the Cross Death has come to the Serpent through Him who has been crucified. 90. 131. 6. 9 It would seem impossible to mistake the significance of these expressions. 2 KTrjadjievos- 8 4 5 6 8 Dial. i. Ap. i. ii. Christ is the Passover.JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. did Justin introduce a novelty. Dial. We have already remarked that the 1 Dial. 1 Christ served for 2 men its even unto the and acquired them through blood aud mystery. waiting till He make His enemies His footstool. 6 The demons are now subject to His name and to the dispensation of His suffering. it Therefore he freely expressed this case to it. although had little in do with the philosophical ideas which were controlling his intellectual apprehension of Christianity. 7 9 Dial. believed. so that His power over them is proved. Ap. 5 triumph over the demons." They are frequently exorcised in His name. 281 is in whole or in part repeatedly applied to Christ. Dial. It is true that neither in his representation of Chris- tianity as the new law nor in the stress which he laid on obedience as a condition of salvation. Dial. . and that every clause of it was literally applied to Him. 46 55 . Justin could only have received them from the faith of the Church. 111. 91. Dial. but quoted with such unusual accuracy as to seem to show that it was a specially familiar passage to the Christians. 91. 8 Christ is now sitting at the right hand of the Father. 26. 76.

. not the phase anitya^elv llfe ' of Christianity . upon which Justin lays most stress but his testimony to it is all the stronger for it being incidental. and points his Imperial readers to the astounding moral change which had passed . and is thus attested as the faith which had been received from the Apostles.. Most obviously was rality. In that sign the Church was In His blood she was trusting. by the awakening of speculation. . tendency to a Christian legalism was characteristic of his time. privileges n . 282 JUSTIN MARTYR. but in what He was believed to have done for men upon the cross.. . but also in the redemption which Christ had wrought out by His death and resurrection.. not merely in the _ privileges and prospects of the Christian. again. and future prospects ot the Christian. faith But none the rested less does it appear that the Church's word of truth which Christ had spoken. in the confusion which was caused by the contact of Christian faith with the great world of pagan thought. a new life in being a new mo- Justin dwells upon the contrast between pagan vices and Christian virtues. that this is in and from Christ. And conquering. though. Justin .. the doctrine of redemption was conceived in crude and fragmentary ways. yet the faith in redemption by the death of Jesus was fundamental and catholic.. (4) f Finally. We have suggested as causes of it precisely these philosophical ideas operating in union with the felt necessity of laying stress on Christian conduct and of upholding Christian character in the face of pagan- ism.. id) life Christianity was the actual enjoyment of a new It is true. the post-apostolic church concerning the . The power of Christ lay not only in His character and teaching. . testifies to the faith spiritual . by the stern practical necessities of the hour.

and have been persuaded. 14. . a Christian's but Justin writes as salvation depended on his own obedience. Ap. Justin speaks of the " prepared garments as to be put on us in the . 283 over the lives of their persecuted Christian subjects. and change as his fection of that rational living of and seeing in Christianity the perwhich heathen as well Hebrew antiquity afforded examples. " been taught. 116 we read. imitate. 6 1 8 6 6 Ap. IV. 10. of our sins " but." 2 A new world had already formed itself The change new discovery of God through Jesus — in the Christian in Christ . and as many virtues as are peculiar to a God who is called by no proper name. believed it was the motive-power of the new morality which had made its appearance in them. i. temperance and justice and philanthropy. as the Christians to be. i. 3 Insisting on man's full ability to repent life. he could even speak of a man's undertaking to be able to live according to Christ's commands. Ap. 44. 61.. i. We obtain in baptism the forgiveness of past after baptism. i. "We who '' believed have been stripped . and do believe that He accepts those only who imitate the excellences which reside in Him. i. whom of life the Christians strove to had been caused by a " We have Christ. just before. 1 morality was based upon a new standard which had been derived from the a new moraity knowledge of the holy and loving char- This new of living. mind around the manifestation of God and that divine revelation." writes the Apologist. DiaL 110. 2 * Ap. Justin expresses himself for the most part after almost a Pela- gian manner. 25. and therefore choosing if. to be born again.* sins . See Lect. of the filthy garments. life As to the origin of this in individuals. 5 Of an im- mediate and unchangeable justification he says nothing. e. In Dial.JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. 65 Dial. 27. * acter of the true God.

32.. winch proves gift with all his Pelagianism. 30 " Have received grace to know " 32: "A remnant left by the grace of the Lord of Sabaoth. Dial. i. 3 They are the true Israel. of a mystical relationship to Christ. 136. the Compare also Ap. the Logos. tian to the Pray. he believed that Chris- tian life was a communion with. 110. . the sacraments. e. 4 So Christ's presence. Dial. received in that. "that the gates of light . . may be opened to you for these things cannot be perall. Dial. among them by His power. 57. 119. therefore. dwells Christ. 121. 2 His Christ have imparted wisdom. 7 idea ments sacraments does Justin combine rationalistic of expression with evident belief in their modes mys- future kingdom. ceived or understood at but only by the man to x whom God and chosen. are a holy people. 7. so that he evidently confined the stripping off of the old garments to forgiveness of past sins in baptism. 54. and of supernatural grace Conversion. of the Spirit. : 116 : the Christ. Power of God sent to us (i. i. and a " from God through Jesus Christ. 8 6 ' Dial. . whom God has To them it has been granted to hear and understand and be saved by this Christ. imparts of the grace to The sacra- according as he deems each one Particularly in his worthy. JUSTIN MARTYR. Spirit) through Jesus 131." Christians. Ap. begotten of faith and the Spirit. So see Dial. 135 Dial. 119). . and to recognize all the things revealed by the Father. 1 Dial." 55 God has withheld from the Jews the ability (to dvvaadai) to discern the wisdom of the Scriptures (compare also 58. 10 Dial. 5 even possessing the fulness believers them and the Seed from God. . : . al so is Christ represented as always present as in 6 . dvvdfiei. though these passages 2 4 6 may be understood in a rationalistic sense.284 Nevertheless." said the aged Chris- young Platonist. . we discover in him the consciousness of God's special favor to the believer. namely.

having been made flesh. — was regarded as the appointed means of entrance. not only into the church. the rite of initiation into the Church. 285 Thus baptism * was. by which Justin. on the one hand. Ap. and was adminis- tered to those who had been persuaded what Christ taught was true. indeed. through the Word of God. i. e. through the repetition of the words of institution which Christ used. In like manner the Eucharist was not common TheEuchafood . and undertook to be able to live accordingly. tism the forgiveness of past sins and the rite itself was commonly was called "regeneration. and of .e. when they had been "made new as the following sentences show. But. on the other hand. tov £v\ov Kal 8i (see vdaros ay via at. i. i. : 8 Dial. therefore. 43 (f]fJ-as a spiritual circumcision 86 a purification of the 6 \pio~- soul ftej3cnrTi<TfX€Vovs rais ftapvraTais apapriais as eTrpd^apev. however. 138. Justin says. JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. through the incarnation of the Logos. but into divine favor. and through which the mind was "illuminated" so as faithfully to wait and work for the full salvation. : 2 Ap. merely meant. Dial." — a phrase. tical' efficiency. a man assumed of himself. took were we taught that the food over which thanks has been rendered through the prayer of the word which is from Him. tit By it that Baptism. identified with that which represented. 61. but from which the burden of past sins was removed. so also 1 Ap. 33).. 8ia Adyou 6zov. . they had been taught by Christ's word and had accepted it. i. they " dedicated themselves to God" when through Christ..2 — was in conse- quence of Christ's work the beginning of a new life 3 which. there was received in bap. 61 . 8ia tov (TTavpai6r)vaL em i.5 both flesh and blood for our salvation. tos 4 Tjp(i>v eXyrpaxraro). 4 nst " Jesus Christ our Saviour. 5 St' (v)(tjs Xdyoi/ tov nap' avrov evxapio-TT]delo~av'. " but as." The it rite.

2 sult of a tic common way.286. power to the Eucharist. * . 117. . fur deutsche Theol. The Euchariselements nourished the bodies of believers. JUSTIN MARTYR. 96-99. 1867. yet the Logos had made them His flesh and blood. . i. but after a heavenly Kara n(Tal36\rjv . Haer. 5 and as thanksgiving which the Christians creation 4 to the pure sacrifice of offered everywhere God. 1 and by tation 2 which our blood and are nourished. not in the change produced in the manner flesh is (see Iren. 18. iv. i. 41. was the revelation of the Logos (Ap. because. as the body of Jesus was the body of the incarnate Logos.. iv. but as the rebread and wine. Ad Phil. . 66. as he did and saw in both of them channels by which grace flowed from Christ to His people. Ad 8 Eph. were real bread and wine. and that by partaking of it even the bodies of believers were spiritually nourished. like but he nevertheless de- Ignatius 7 before him and Irenseus 8 after him. See Otto (sub loco)." Jahrb. The elements of the Eucharist the key to his conception of the Eucharist. yet the whole Christ. Adv. 41. i. Justin's conception of the incarnation Christ had a real body. 5). 41. 5. doctrine of transubstantiation clares. 7 . 28. 10). so had the elements become the and blood of Christ. Ap. physical and spiritual. 18. 70." 3 Justin speaks of the Eucharist as a memorial of God's goodness both in and redemption. for various views of this disputed sentence. « Dial. 41. pp. 8 6 7 Ap. ii. is flesh through transmu- the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. e. He thus curiously combined with his rationalism a tendency toward a mechanical and mystical view of the sacraments so attributed actual to baptism. the manifestation of His being and power. Dial. 6 He cannot fairly be accused of the later . that the consecrated bread and wine became the flesh and blood of Christ. 20 Ad Rom. He which Justin in the next sentence gives an account.. See Weizs'acker's "Die Theologie des M'artyrers Justinus. 66 Dial.

mankind. .JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. A future conflagration of the world was also a doctrine of the Stoics. of his own thought was to contendency J ceive of salvation as future. as the resurrection. as we have the just seen. but.(b) _ „ Christi- its aaity a new- gaze on the glorious reward which the Mas- would bestow at the second advent on His faithful Such was a natural attitude. . once crucified but now in was that faith that. and could only have en. he testifies to the Church's faith in that to as a gift from God. tion of dependence and sustaining a constant relaupon the work and power of the victorious liedeemer. in spite of the 287 way in which his philosophy led him life minimize the supernatural character of individual Christian life. in an age of persecution and therefore in describing Christian hope Justin uttered. the Church. in most particulars. that. (b) But Christianity was more emphatically joyful hope. also. It is true that Christianity in its promises and exof pectations gave definite expression to convictions which were already widely j t u ttered in spread. Plato had reasoned of immortality. and which pagan religion and cul. it So strong was already disposed to find two Christian sacraments a still constantly repeated miracle. . Future retribution was not only taught by the popular religions the soul. ners. the common mind of ter servants. were scorned by philosophy. but in the totally distinct form in which they were taught by Christianity and to them he added other doctrines which.{h^nrmeTof ture had uttered in divers parts and man. to Justin and the Church a new and The . had been taught by philosophers. Justin. however.. and to direct . with immortality. human and described by the poets. did not hold these doctrines as they were taught by philosophy.

not as these were influenced facts by paganism. have spoken in a previous lecture.288 JUSTIN MARTYR. iv. 18. he was sensible. i. 32. not only in a literal resurrection. . 6 But all shared in the belief in a visible and 1 Ap. but in his descriptions in the Apology of 2 future blessedness. and witnesses to the latter. v. That agreements between is tered bis system from the faith of the Church. 6 Lect. since he expressly points them out. ch. 20. ^{q sense was the prophecy understood. as Justin expressly states. of the Christian hope and certain types of pagan thought evident enough. The inconsistency. but as they were taught by the and founders of original Christianity." alike belief of the post-apostolic Church. i. and * 6 Ap. only apparent and from the Dialogue we to . indeed. learn of Justin's strong belief. thus learn that the Christians were comforted in their trials The second and encouraged in their confession by the In of Christ's visible return. We advent. " dcpddpTovs. is some 3 inconsistent with the a bodily resurrection. 1 Not only so. "He expectation 4 This hope was held by those who expected and by those who denied that at the advent Christ would establish for a thousand Of Chiliasm we years a visible kingdom at Jerusalem. but also in a visible reign of Christ with His risen people upon earth. and which have seemed doctrine of however. 80. Philosophe Martyr. Moreover. 5 It was a widely spread but by no means universal shall be the desire of all nations. he plainly points out the differences between pagan and Christian hopes. anade'iset 8 So Aube's Saint Justin. part iii. he uses phrases which agree strik- ingly with the Platonic conception of divine reward. Ill Dial.

118. Justin does not teach the restoration of the Jews nor of the Jewish ritual. 52 • Dial. and upon this non-philosophical doctrine Justin is particularly In the Apology. 28. So short a time Christians. 69. 32. 18. will gather the Church to Jerusalem. 5 and particularly of the " man of sin.4 by the coming The advent. 7 after the second of which the general judgment will ensue. 110. left you in which to become proselytes. 35." II Ap. Dial. 53. 81.JUSTIN ON THE TOST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. 19. 81. 121. 49. the advent and the resurrection and the judgment are spoken of as if con- temporaneous. literal 289 second advent. 3 occur. i. Dial. 110.. 9 but expresses no opinion as it "man of to how judg" near the advent may be. i. in which all Chiliasm does not appear. 117. at His coming. 6 He distinguishes also two resurrections. Dial. 80. 121. Dial. moreover. 52 . He regards the manifestation of the sin " as impending. thinking it not very far connected the judgment of I was ment the whole world by Christ. 11 10 With Dial. 113. 28. With the advent. and give her rest. 81. Dial. i." whose previous appearance will bring the climax of the Church's sufferings. 2 Ap. Theresurrectlon « the resurrection of the dead was expected to explicit. and by it they were consoled amid the existing hatred of the world. 19 . . 38. 2 Chiliasm only gave a particular and more definite form to the universal expectation of the future and public victory conquer His enemies of Christ. 6 » 9 Dial. 113. 81. Chiliastic views. 8. 1 Then will Christ both finally and judge the world. Dial. 68 Dial. 117. 35. In this expectation all Christians shared. is 10 " e. 8 Christ. though apparently The off. 32. 8 4 6 8 Ap. will be preceded and will secure the conquest of Christ's enemies. Dial. 8. 132. i. he says. 58. In the Dialogue Justin brings out his of Elijah.

57 Dial. p. and will reign with Him in immortality and glory. he says that the Jews fancied that Christ.290 after JUSTIN MARTYR. 80. 20. 182) is wrong in saying is to destroy the world with distinct. v. " The Lord remembered His dead. the world will be destroyed by fire. 28. 72). the post-resurrection state. 8 In Dial. however. i. In Dial. with the other pious dead.44. 21. to the Gnostic idea of immediate participation through yvSxris in divine blessedness (cf. he only states that (K7rvp(0(Ti. in Ap. 119. i. Yet by death Christians enter on the heavenly kingdom (Ap. 2 Of the state of it m „ The final re- ter . 1). 52. . 46. . Ap. and freedom from suf* ward of the fering. Aube that Justin confounded the fire which (Saint Justin. 31. He ._ only intimates that the final reward of the m World . like a common mortal. doubtless. 2 . which .1 while the wicked will be cast with the demons into the eternal fire of hell.45.s. the dead before the resurrection Justin says little. 99. 117. 1 of these early Christians into the Amid the hatred and distrust of the world. 117. he blames heretics for maintaining that at death their souls go immediately to heaven. still waiting for . 52. but a divine judgment. He thus seems to have distinctly identified heaven with 11). and everlasting fellowship with God. 4 Ap. but to have expected blessedness also immediately after death. 13. he says. 69. The pseudo-quotation from Jeremiah (Dial.." Abraham therefore was regarded as. 18. 4 Such was the outlook future. the full reward. 42. was believed that the righteous will enupon incorruption. 10. He keeps them Of the future confla- gration. it the fire of hell. who slept in the grave. righteous will not be received till after the ° to be destroyed by resurrection. and descended to them to preach His salvation. He referred. 3 When the judgment has been concluded. would remain in Hades. i. 116. will not be. like the Stoic a natural process. an idea which was united with denial of the resurrection. "Along with Abraham we [Christians] shall inherit the Holy Land." may indicate belief in Christ's descensus ad inferos and the then preaching to the Old Testament saints but Justin does no more than quote the passage. In Dial. i. Iren.

attested by Apostles. then. will account for the form and the strength of Christian hope in the post-apostolic age.i Conclusion. of Christian life . we can better judge the It is >ii man and we • his Church. It was a hope in Christ and of Christ to which Justin testifies as the joyful power life King and Judge. His resurrection from the dead. As. /-. The tenacity with which belief in a future literal resurrection of the body was held by all except heretics. sprang from their unquestion- ing faith in the facts. of Christ's divine Sonship. even as this latter belief in turn can be only explained by the fact of His resurrection itself. tin's i we bring to a close our examination of Jus- testimony to early Christianity. in the light of his testi- mony. and if it it encouraged the early be- lievers by its promises. and the apostolic teaching concerning His person and His work.JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. and His appointment by the Father as universal Only the historical reality of His and death and resurrection. 291 the face of the constant liability to be called to suffer for their faith. can be explained only by the universal belief in Christ's resurrection. to believe that post-apostolic Christianity was . their hopes And « Christ our -" were manifestly summed up in ho P e They were founded on belief in the hope of Christ Christ's divine Sonship. these hopes sustained them and as the night grew darker. and harmonized His divinity with the lowliness of His recorded life. gleamed the more brightly in their sky. these stars . The universal expectation of Christ's return rested on faith in both His divinity and resurrection. and His accomplished victory over sin and death. think. and the probable increase of persecution with the diffusion of their doctrines. impossible.

. ' both . and accepted our four Gospels as the apostolic and authoritative record To suppose that this testimony of the Church was mistaken. that Nor created 11 believe. tively.. for it . sc i us of Jew. . it was entirely unconany division having o existed among o it the Apostles but considered their united mis- sion to have been to all nations. privileges in the Church with Jewish views. and that in the course of two or three generations the Christians had rewritten the history of their origin. necra. just that foundation which is described in the New Testament. Nor can we mony. It was a ostoiic Christi- ® Q ^e . post-apostolic themselves that their own fictions were divine truths on which salvation depended and for which they cheerfully died. . is. . . ky the union of Pauline or apostolic teach. n a with Hellenic culture for while we have ° found Hellenic elements entering largely into combination with Christianity. though positively tin presupposed. But at the same time Justin reveals the direction from which the influences proceeded which principally . i with Hellenism. avowedly regarded Jewish Chrisweakness and an imperfect type.292 JUSTIN MARTYR. to argue by a method which is capable of making any evidence appear worthless.. in the light of Justin's testi- post-apostolic Christianity was caused. apart from the many historical and critical facts which disprove the supposition. tianity not °f the fusion of Pauiinism it denied any peculiar to the •> . tianity as a •. we have also found that it was with a Christianity already established before its contact with paganism began. . and .. . and had persuaded of Christ's life. . con t rar y> the Christianity of Jus- anitycontinued. caused by any fusion of previously hostile Pauline and Jewish parties Post apostolic Chris. so far as its essential character ofapcKtoife Christianity was concerned. . .

JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. and no- tably in the doctrine of justification. sought to conform the religion whose power he experienced to the forms of thought in which he had been reared. Truth is apprehended in its integrity only after it has been doubted and denied. Otherwise it is likely to lie. to new winds and currents. launched on the broad sea of pagan society. trained in not won- pagan culture and naturally inquisitive. derful that his mind. fall in several particulars. and left other topics undeveloped. when lated trying to explain them by philosophy. he mutifall and distorted. he taught doctrines which. when testifying to the confessed belief of the Church. so far as this existed at all. It is not strange. and the c f &«" c ame posed r chierlv from men who succeeded the Apostles as pilots and paganism immediately following them. even in the minds of its adherents. or that. naturally hindered the immediate and complete realization of doctrine. therefore. In this very of post-apostolic . captains were far from being able perfectly to Burround1Dgs ' grasp and carry on the ideas of their great predecessors. and the stress laid on moral duties by the glaring contrast between the Christian ideal and the manners of heathen society. F .Thcmodifi . The of necessity of devoting attention to matters Christian life and ecclesiastical arrangement. from the teaching Nor is it strange that Justin combined It is ideas which were really antagonistic. in a chaotic and fragmentary state. Minds which had not been likely either trained in Hebrew practical conceptions were to neglect or misuse them. the rise of heresy confined doctrinal controversy. was ex. that we discover in the post-apostolic Church a manifest of the Apostles. to the particular sub- jects disputed by Doketics and Gnostics. modified the Christianity of the Apostles in 293 the age The new faith. On the other hand.

. minds of mental. like the sun out of a dense and of Christian brotherhood and charity shedding the bright. but. Justin testifies not only to the belief. stand that an age of inspiration might be followed by an age which very imperfectly comprehended the ideas But it is very difficult to underof its predecessor. The reliance of the Christians of the is second century on apostolic teaching that from further proof the apostolic age and circle had the It new power come. it was development or corruption. nere sentativ^of his Church. .294 JUSTIN MARTYR. the process. by fair inference. was the fair representative of it the had received from the the influences which were Apostles. stand how the later age could impute to its predecessor ideas. . of Hellenism was not generated by the friction of It did not spring from the union and Judaism. as disclosed by him. implies Church. is a convincing proof that a new moral power had been awakened mist. its ences to be followers as apostolic and fundaThe marvellous spectacle of Chris. and of Justin the developing and there corrupting it. and even records. Justin. to the fact that it had sprung from the Christ whom all the Apostles had ecclesiastical parties. doctrine below the completeness of apostolic teaching may we rather perceive a fresh testimony to the superIt is easy to under- natural construction of the latter. which convey the impression of a completeness of thought which the later age did not itself possess. tian morality arising in the depraved soci- mony ety of paganism. drawn from histesti- . however. Whether. " in human life. warm rays of love upon a world which was divided into distrustful and envious classes and worshipped in the temple of brute Force. of the faith which the already fixed establishment of the faith in the _ . therefore. .

. — like the light that streamed over chaos at the first creation. as God's victory for . Christianity. these were the ideas which. wrought by the divine Word. man life. life . is the sum and substance of Justin's testimony to early creation out of the chaos of the ancient world. 295 And faith in Christ as God His manifest in the teaching as the flesh. unitedly proclaimed. were the sign and the beginning of the new which by the Word of the Lord was appearing That it was indeed a divine creation. derived from this faith in the Eedeemer the confident expectation of glory to come on earth and after death. thus revealing at once the divine Father and a new ideal of human . faith in new and true law of man's present faith in righteousness and future salvation His death peace and resurrection.JUSTIN ON THE POST-APOSTOLIC CHURCH. over sin and full of death the consciousness of a new and satisfaction. .

.

Marcus : policy toward unity of the early. early Christian. 288. 120. 173. Barth. 69. 214-223. 146. 150. 130. 283. Justin's: argument of the first 73-82. 102. 135. 274. simplicity of Christian. 153. Bleek on Justin's use of Gospels. other testimony to the. Church a Gentile government the. 171. 173. 230. of the. 70. 28. 242. 25. 48. AubC. 13. society. 9. Justin's description of the. Acts of the Apostles. 68. quoted by Justin. 261. 271 149-154. Cabalism. date of. mentioned by name. 5. of. 35. mutual relation : of. Athenagoras. 285. 255. 66.. organization of the early. 33. 243. 165. Justin's acquaintance with the. 179- Apologists. INDEX. Professor. Apostles their authority as teachers. 9. 126. 270- Apologies. 177. 153. 158. 57. . F. Basilides. 28. 31. 79. Abbott. Justin a fair of. 121. Charity. 2. 165. 106. 258267. early Christian. Christ's coming. in each locality a single. 36. 161-163. 21. 267-270. 19. Ezra. contents of. Christ's Justin's account of. humanity divinity life. 124. A. 2.. 88. Christ. 112- 172. 139. Basilideans. 156-160. 37. 238. 29. 229-231. Bindemann. of. 30-38. Second. 246. 257. 130. 113. 249. Bithynian persecution. representative of parties in the. 177. 121. Barnabas. Anthropology. Ceremonies. 114. 166. 98. Aristotle. Baptism. 237. 210. Justin's statements. rationalistic theory of the. 54. Epistle of. 112. Justin's testimony to the. 182. 178. worship of. Baur.. Advent. 55. Angels. 13. 18. Christians. E. formation of the. 105-107. 87. Justin's. Canon of the New Testament. 164. 56. Alexandrianism. 89. object of. 160. Antoninus policy toward the Chris: 237-250. 96. not a Judaizing influence. Apocalypse. 117. quotation of John by. 271-274. 127. 124. 226. 221. Ciasca. Aurelius. tians. 63. 270-291. 116. 260. 225. doctrine of the person of. 158. Charges motives : popularly made against Apologetic influence on Christians. 114. 170. influence on Justin 137. C. authenticity of the. 117. 265-267. Abbot. influence on Christian thought of. of. 259. 276. 236. faith of the early. 252. 27.

239. 255. . 23. 290. Harmony Dionysius of Corinth. 27. 126. 70.. 70. 28. 51. 53. 228-230. Ebiomtes. and RecogniEphesians. 25. "Gospel": 177. policy toward Christians. Defence of Christianity. L. 12. Crescens. Destruction of world by tire. the Church and the. the. Empire. 273. 68. 151. Justin's. 254-256. to. contents of the. 2<i8. 3. 67. Justin's ac- quaintance with.. Eusebius's account of Justin. 240. 147. G. 254-256. state of the. Gildersleeve. 27. 159. 236. "Gospels": application term to evangelical narratives. 240. 160. 7. Government.. 24. Hatch. Hegesippus.. Justin's 176. 18. 256. 262. 273. A. 290. 265. date of the. Epistle Justin's ac- Eternal 290. First Epistle 19. 290. 91. 60-73. 97-100. 38-44. 18. 269. 121. acquaintance with. Eichhorn. 49. 66. 115. 172. 159. Ephraem Syrus. of the Gospels. 286. G. 3. Gnostics. of the Demonology. INDEX. 69. J. 26. 112. 160. to. a novelty. Episcopate. 261. 285. Justin's Gospel of Hebrew economy. 19-21. 106. 130. 63. Dio Chrysostom. 158-160. 260. 28. A. attitude toward Christianity of the De Rossi. Fisher. Enprelhardt. 8. 14. Clementine quotations compared with Justin's. Galatians. the.. Roman. 47. Epistle view of ac- Eclecticism. 132-134. tians. 27-21). Harnack. 266. 72. Prof. 58. 243. P. 109. 130. 178. to.: 298 Clementine Homilies tions. Gieseler. Epistle to. to. 12. 47. 8. 15. 48. 20. 185. Descent of Christ to Hades. 15. 159. 48. Corinthians. Emperors. of. repudiated. 179. 69. philosophic. Dead. J. 159. 209. 176. 174. Dorner. 22. Second Epistle Creation. 68. 13. Clement 268. 47. 122. 67. Justin's ac- 86-91. the early. 29. 67-69. 262. RenoVl. second Hadrian : letter to Fundanus. 127. Harris. the. of the early Christians.. 139. Dr. 125. Commodus quaintance with the. Epiphanius's account of Justin's death. God.277. 138. 177. 66. 39. Diffusion of Christianity in century. Deacons. of Kome. 111-113. rewards and punishments. 65. of demoniacal origin. Dion Cassius. doctrine 235. 141-147. worship of the. Exorcism of demons. quaintance with. Critical theories of early Christianity. 264. 264. 206-211. Moritz von. 150.. policy toward : ChrisJustin's Eucharist. Justin's conception of. B. early use of the term. 3. Diognetus. E. 48. A. 47. 254. 174. 184. 235. Habits 59. 7382. Epistle to. 9. Colossians. 62. 7. 261-267. K. Dialogue with Trypho how far historical. Gibbon. 241. letter to Servianus. 57-59. Hebrews. Heresy. Credner. 57. whether used by Justin. 202-205. to. quaintance with. 240. Justin's acquaintance with. 172. 58. 241. Epistle 177.202. 263. 119. 139. 78.

Justin's acquaintance Legalism in Justin.. a new.niami. 104. 121. 118. 5. Interpretation. not a book of doctrine merely. 111115. Jowett. 191. 287-291. by his doctrine of one of the " memoirs. 122-126. 82. 84. 53. 191. his 21. 262. 45. 56. 101. 241. 15. 125. 132. two classes of. 266. 15. Christianity a diminishing element in the Church. his writings. Jewish Christians: Justin's opinion of. 100. John's Gospel used by Justin. "Idol-meat. 93. 23. 46-49. 258. 65.. 167. 66. Incarnation. Justin's doctrine of the. Immortality. Hope. bv post-apostolic dox. 12-24. 153. 249. not necessarily due to Judaism. 71. 96. 156. 22. 149. Justin's and John's doctrines of the. . date of birth. Hostility of Roman world to Christians explained. llnlt/. 177. 155. 61-63. 140. 1-3. 256. 247. 105. 12. 113. 105. 149. Literature. Kate. 71. not appreciated. Hippolytas. 7. 95. 93. 235. 46. 107110. 125. 263. 2. 282-287. 161. Judgment. ancient and moderate estimates of. 59. 112. Protevangelium with. Lactantius. 216. Heretics not recognized 299 rejected by "ortho. 13. 16-18. John the Apostle: author of the Apocalypse. 289. 177. importance of his testimony. 156. 58." 234. 264. Inspiration of the Scriptures. Irenajus. 146. 122-124. Justin's use of New Testament influenced the. Church. 51. 110. 148- how used by Justin. 225-234. doctrine of. 225. 259. Impatience of pagan society with Christians. 233. 292. Luke's Gospel. Bishop. 14. of. 46. 257. B. 90. 2G2. 68-72. 73- 242-246. activity and influence. 104. arrival at Rome. of. J. 8!). Justin's method of his theology. 88. 94. 42. chronology of 8. 19-21." Hennas. 104. Justin Martyr: his life. 84. Justin's acquaintance with. honesty of his testimony. in post-apostolic Church." abstinence from. 269. 141. the. Hilgenfeld. conversion. Ignatius. 187. 83.. life. early diffusion of. 60. 24-27. 253. death.Judaism. the last.INDEX. his doctrine of the Logos. Professor. John. II. Life. studies in philosophy. Justin's use 181. 213: Logos. 177. A. 231. his defence of Christianity. 1. 263. Jewish Christianity: attitude of the Church toward. 147. Scriptural. Kiss. the Seminal. 50. 172. Christianity a new. of the second century. James. 56-58. 83. Christianity explained by the incarnation of the. 126. 47. 200. Lightfoot. doctrine of the. 275. 94. 89. 242. 136. Christian. 48. 117. 173. 14. First Epistle of. Epistle of. 141-164. Lucian. 42. 204.

quaintance with. 154. Justin's relation 137. 20. 265. frequent outrages. Prophecy. 128. public ecclesiastical documents. 170-250. 255. 261. 51. 48. 11. Hebrew. 191. 128. 121. corruptions by Jews highly esteemed. Pauline Epistles. 254. 23. 116-120. 119. 238. 262-267. 176. 171-174. 33. 69. 264-266. Quotation from John's Gospel. Christian. 70. Th. 47. argument from Christian. pirations of. 20. 278. Oral tradition. Christianity realized as- " Man of Sin. 200. said to have been known to pagans. Mommsen. Paulus. 108. demoniacal origin vices of. 178. Prayer. alleged. 91. Menander. 269. 17. 135. 177. 110. of the. 70. New Testa- Pythagoreans. 107. 172. Prophets. 2. Neander. 287. 21. argument for Christianity from. Prophets. 273. explains Mark's Gospel. 196. 135. 162. their relation to Philippians. Otto's edition of Justin. Mansel. 216. 108. 33. 278. Dean. Otto. Papias. 158. Philosophy and Christianity. Justin's use of. 103. Justin's habit of. 129. Justin's acquaintance with. H.. 283. 150." 289. 273. 68. 238-240. 197-201. 172.. 33. 178. 90. of. 7. Overbeck. quotations bv Justin from the. 244. 131. of. : a Christian book. 104. public. 153. 71. Justin's relation 35. Justin and. 139-141. 155. 146. 123. Melito. Marcion. 127. Presbyters. 292-294. 58. First Epistle of. 190. 118. 259. 159. Christianity presupposed tin's. Justin's use 201. inspiration of the. 15. 244. relation of the New Testament to. 250. 240. Peter. Old Testament 96. 190. 75. 272. 248. 94. 192.. 178. Persecution. 244. 63-67. Philo. of. Justin's ac- our Gospels. origin of the Christian. E.300 INDEX. 145. 227-231. G. 137. to. 10. Plutarch. quotations from the. 8. Paganism. 72. Paul. Bishop. Marsh. 133. 26. supplanted by the ment. 9. 81. New Testament. 194-196. 7477. Polycarp. Fr. Justin's use 181. Pliny. 242. 78-82. 166. 166-168. Orthodoxy. 94. 48. Martyrology of Justin. 39. Epistle to. 243. 100. 262. 89. 13. : " Memoirs of the Apostles " description 179. 47. Pfleiderer. Matthew's Gospel. by Jus- Christianity represented as. 65. 130. 282. 133. 174. Philosophy a preparation for Christian it}-. no formal. 18. 92-94. Christianity a new. 287. 112. early. to. Justin's use of the. 175. 184. 179. 244. sources of evangelical knowl- edge. 15. 101. 62. 253-257. Ministry. 42. the younger. 30. 72. 44. less than at later period. . 7. 42. 61. Platonism. 72. 9. the modifications of Christianity in post-apostolic age. 179. 58. Morality.

Quotations from classics in Justin. Epistle to. 118.. Septuagint. 133. policy toward the Christians. 15. 260. theory at of post-apostolic " Teaching of the Apostles. 292. the. 193. 196. the. 48. 174. Textual corruption of MSS. Rusticus. 15. 125. 209. 282. Christianity. 43. Stahlin.INDEX. 284. in early church. 201. 194-196. 254. 48. furnished the staple of evangelical narrative in early Church. 291. 135. use of the. 61. 111. Stoicism. Justin's acquaintance with. San day. Regeneration. 66-69. 173. the Christian. Reuss on the Canon. Junius. 52. Unity of the early Church." 197-201. Romans. Roman Church middle of second 261ac- century. doctrine 161. 20. Saturnilians. Societies. 163-165. 88-90. 269. Thoma. 52. 52. Societies. 92. 119. 185. phy. "The Twelve. 90. Epistle to. 55. 22. Albrecht. 68. 283-286. Schiirer. 10. 147. 26. from " Memoirs. 283-285. 289. Trajan. 28. 275- 279. 156. 173. 140. 138. 173. Uncanonical words of Christ. 61. 65. 194. 189. proves antiquity of Gospels. unity of the. 190. Justin's quaintance with. 224. Tertullian. 269. 1-11 Semisch. 48. 190. Q. 255.. 46. 108. 63-66. 187. Redemption. Tubingen School. 78. doctrine 184. 189. Theological aim of eclectic philoso- Sacerdotalism. Semler. 48. independent. from Old Testament. 1G2. 264. 79. First Epistle to. Taylor. title of president of the. 212. leged use 204. 183. 11. Simon Magus. 200. 121. 2. 210. 121. Ritschl's 5. Justin's acquaintits Schwegler. Justin's al- Soteriology. 267-270. 209. 188. 291. Holv. 222. 13. Suetonius. 62. Tatian's Diatessaron. 93. 170. 14. 184. 192-201. 215. 229. 150. of. 117. observance of. Synoptic Gospels used by Justin. 65. 46. 120. 259. 136. correspondence of Pliny and. 77. 241. Textual differences between Justin's quotations from " Memoirs " and our Gospels. 53. 175-205. 239. Justin's. J. Second Epistle to. 162. Chas. 86-88. doctrine of the. Tatian. Lollius. Justin's. 301 Sunday. 265.. illegal. ance with. Justin's acquaintance with. S. Justin's relation to. 274-279. 234-237. Spirit. 265.. 238. 279- Tacitus. Titus. 91. 164. 77." 177. . 188. 58. 244. Urbicus. Sacraments. of. 47. 260. theory of the. 139. Trinity. Dr. 57. laws against unauthorized. 288. W. 48. Rationalism. 2. 202. 213. Timothy. Dncanonical of the Gospels." Thessalonians. 172. 57. 233. 246. Uberweg. Second century: importance of study.. 176. modifications of the. 214. not 264. 210. 23. 33. Resurrection. 225. 134. 241. Ad. 234.

146. 207. 230. 147. 89. 233. 2. 199. 153. B. Wieseler. Weizsacker. 210. 244. 139. : Variations in Gospel texts in early writers.302 Valentinians. F. 177. 183.. 286. E. 91. Westcott. 156. 233. 70. INDEX. Worship of the Christians. B. 174. 232. 200. 75. Dan. Westcott and Hort Notes on Select Headings. 212. 247. 96.. 21.. 137. 135. Zahn. 179. public. Zeller. Volter. Warfteld.. 26. Weiss.. B. 186. 170. 255. 236. 38. B. 204. . 150. 48. 153.

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