School of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering

CIVE5708M Individual Research Project Dissertation Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MEng in Civil and Structural Engineering

Developing a Gating Management Strategy for Salterhebble Hill, Halifax

by Ben Fadida

May 2012

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my supervisor, Dr J E Tate, for giving me his undivided attention throughout the year to discuss the project, as well as for providing me with the resources to conduct the vehicle survey and model the gating strategy.

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ABSTRACT Although the relocation of a queue can disperse emissions from one area to another, this study investigated whether a queue relocation gating strategy could be used to reduce the total quantity of emissions released into the atmosphere, by relocating the traffic queue from an inclined section to an area that produced less strain upon the vehicle. Queue relocation strategies are used typically to reduce traffic congestion, however in recent years with the rising concern regarding air quality; they have become more commonly used to reduce vehicle emissions in urban areas. As road transport is accountable for approximately 20% of all air pollution emissions produced in the EU, it is essential to employ traffic management schemes to reduce the production and release of exhaust emissions into the atmosphere (EUROPA 2007).

The collection of primary data was used to update the signal control plan settings and vehicle fleet composition to calibrate and validate the existing traffic model. A gating strategy, devised in Aimsun microsimulation software was coupled with the instantaneous emission model, PHEM, to map the emissions produced at different sections throughout the network. Furthermore, the proportion contributed by different vehicles to the total emissions produced in the traffic model were compared for the base model, the original gating strategy developed by the Institute for Transport Studies and the new gating strategy developed in this study. The emissions for each of these models were tested against one another, and as will be demonstrated, the new gating strategy had reduced the concentration of emissions further than the original gating strategy relative to the base model.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements Abstract List of Figures List of Tables List of Abbreviations CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. Background Hypothesis Aims and Objectives CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.5.1. 2.5.2. 2.5.3. 2.5.4. 2.5.5. 2.5.6. 2.5.7. 2.5.8. 2.6. 2.6.1. 2.6.2. 2.6.3. 2.6.4. 2.7. 2.7.1. 2.7.2. 2.7.3. 2.7.4. 2.7.5. 2.7.6. 2.8. 2.8.1. 2.8.2. 2.8.3. 2.9. 2.9.1. 2.9.2. 2.9.3. 2.10. 2.11. 2.12. Introduction Calderdale Council - Air Quality Management Traffic Congestion Theory Traffic Gating Gating Management Strategies in Practice Kingston-upon-Thames Gating Scheme Southampton Gating Scheme Nottingham Traffic Collar Scheme 1975-76 Hampton Court Palace Flower Show SCOOT Gating Leicester Gating Scheme 2006 Commonwealth Games Traffic Network Operation Scheme Cupar Queue Relocation Scheme Overview of Gating Schemes Modelling Software Introduction Macroscopic Traffic Simulation Mesoscopic Traffic Simulation Microscopic Traffic Simulation Microsimulation Modelling Software AIMSUN DRACULA PARAMICS SISTM VISSIM Review of Microsimulation Modelling Software Emission Modelling Introduction Average-speed Emission Modelling Instantaneous Emission Modelling Instantaneous Emission Modelling Software MODEM CHEM PHEM Air Pollution Modelling Model Integration Microscopic Integration
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1 2 2

4 4 6 8 8 8 9 10 11 11 13 13 14 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 25 25

2.13.

Calibration and Validation CHAPTER 3: DATA COLLECTION AND AIMSUN MODEL SET-UP

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3.1. 3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.1.3. 3.2. 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.2.4.

Data Collection Vehicle Tracking Survey Traffic Counting Saturation Flow Rate Model Set-up Aimsun Microscopic Traffic Simulator Model Development Calibration Validation CHAPTER 4: DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW GATING STRATEGY

28 28 31 31 33 33 33 34 35

4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.3.1. 4.3.2. 4.4. 4.5.

Introduction Overview of the Gating Management Strategy Design of the Gating Management Strategy Coordination of Exley Bank Signals Coordination of Dryclough Lane Signals Overall Signal Control Plan Trial Simulation CHAPTER 5: PHEM EMISSION MODELLING

39 40 40 40 41 42 45

5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.4.1. 5.4.2. 5.4.3. 5.4.4. 5.5. 5.5.1. 5.5.2. 5.5.3. 5.6. 5.6.1. 5.7.

Introduction Validation of the Vehicle Fleet Validation of the Base Model Distribution of Vehicle Emissions North bound Traffic South bound Traffic North and South bound Traffic Relocated Vehicle Emissions Emission Contributions per Vehicle Type Fuel Consumption NOx Particulate Matter Emission Contributions in Petrol and Diesel Engine Passenger Cars Analysis of Emission Contributions EURO Class Petrol and Diesel Vehicles CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

46 46 46 50 55 56 57 58 58 62 62 62 63 66 66

6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4.

Introduction Report Summary Conclusions Recommendations References Appendix A: VBox II Lite GPS & CAN Logger Basic User Guide
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68 68 69 70 71 74

Appendix B: Risk Assessment Appendix C: Time-Series Profiles for Petrol and Diesel EURO 0 – 5 Passenger Cars

76 80

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LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9 Figure 2.10 Figure 2.11 Map of modelled Concentrations of NO2 (μgm-2) Diagram of the Kingston-upon-Thames gating scheme (Department for Transport 2000 p.3) Diagram of the Southampton gating scheme (Department for Transport 2000 p.4) Map of the Hampton Court Palace Flower Show Gating Scheme (Thomas, Baffour and Brown 2008 p.117) Diagram of Leicester Gating Scheme (Tate and Bell 2000 p.2) Map of Cupar town centre Snapshot from SIAS Paramics displaying the emissions on Bonnygate Road adjacent to Crossgate Junction (Neil and Sykes 2008 p.6) Snapshot from SIAS Paramics displaying the emissions relocated to West of Lady Wynd Road (Neil and Sykes 2008 p.6) The four-stage transport model (Ortuzar and Willumsen, 2001) Diagram of the set-up for CVS modelling (Ajtay, Weilenmann and Solic 2005) Flow chart displaying the integration of traffic, emission and air quality models (Tate 2005) CHAPTER 3: DATA COLLECTION AND AIMSUN MODEL SET-UP Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 3.9 Satellite images of vehicle turning areas (GOOGLE EARTH 2011) Map of the position data for the tracked survey, Google Earth elevation profile & satellite image of the survey site (GOOGLE EARTH 2011) Satellite image highlighting the location at which traffic counting measurements were conducted (GOOGLE EARTH 2011) Satellite image highlighting the location at Shaw Hill intersection where the saturation flow rate was measured (GOOGLE EARTH 2011) Satellite image highlighting the location at Dryclough Lane junction where the saturation flow rate was measured (GOOGLE EARTH 2011) Satellite image highlighting the location at Exley Bank where the saturation flow rate was measured (GOOGLE EARTH 2011) Snapshot from Aimsun highlighting the signal phases at Dryclough Lane junction Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the signal control plan of the base model for Dryclough Lane junction Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the updated signal control plan of the base model for Dryclough Lane junction CHAPTER 4: DEVELOMENT OF A NEW GATING STRATEGY Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the VMS in operation Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the location of the traffic detector on Salterhebble Hill Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the signal control plan for Dudwell Lane Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the signal control plan for Exley Bank Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the signal control plan for Dryclough Lane Snapshot from Aimsun of the Traffic Network Time-Space Diagram of the co-ordinated signals in the New Gating Strategy
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5 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 23 25

29 30 31 32 32 32 35 35 35

39 39 40 41 42 43 44

CHAPTER 5: PHEM EMISSION MODELLING Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5 Figure 5.6 Figure 5.7 Figure 5.8 Figure 5.9 Figure 5.10 Figure 5.11 Figure 5.12 Figure 5.13 Figure 5.14 Figure 5.15 Figure 5.16 Figure 5.17 Figure 5.18 Figure 5.19 Figure 5.20 Figure 5.21 Figure 5.22 Figure 5.23 Figure 5.24 Figure 5.25 Figure 5.26 Petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile (observed model): (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile (base model): (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Bar chart displaying the FC for each section of the road network for the north bound route Bar chart displaying the FC for each section of the road network for the south bound route Bar chart displaying the NOx emissions for each section of the road network for the north bound route Bar chart displaying the NOx emissions for each section of the road network for the south bound route Bar chart displaying the PM emissions for each section of the road network for the north bound route Bar chart displaying the PM emissions for each section of the road network for the south bound route Map of Aimsun road network displaying the location of each section referred to in figures 5.3 – 5.8. Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to FC in the base model Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to FC in the OGS Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to FC in the NGS Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to NOx emissions in the base model Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to NOx emissions in the OGS Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to NOx emissions in the NGS Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to PM emissions in the base model Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to PM emissions in the OGS Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to PM emissions in the NGS Chart displaying the proportion of FC contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the base model Chart displaying the proportion of FC contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the OGS Chart displaying the proportion of FC contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the NGS Chart displaying the proportion of NOx contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the base model Chart displaying the proportion of NOx contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the OGS Chart displaying the proportion of NOx contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the NGS Chart displaying the proportion of PM contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the base model Chart displaying the proportion of PM contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0
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48 49 51 51 52 52 53 53 54 59 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 61 63 63 63 64 64 64 65 65

Figure 5.27

– 5) passenger cars in the OGS Chart displaying the proportion of PM contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the NGS APPENDICES

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Figure A.1 Figure B.1 Figure C.1 Figure C.2 Figure C.3 Figure C.4 Figure C.5 Figure C.6 Figure C.7 Figure C.8 Figure C.9 Figure C.10 Figure C.11 Figure C.12 Figure C.13 Figure C.14 Figure C.15 Figure C.16 Figure C.17 Figure C.18 Figure C.19 Figure C.20 Figure C.21 Figure C.22

VBox II Lite GPS & CAN Logger Basic User Guide Risk Assessment Trial 1 petrol EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 petrol EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 Petrol EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 4 petrol EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 petrol EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 1 petrol EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 petrol EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 petrol EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 4 petrol EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 petrol EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 1 petrol EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 petrol EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 petrol EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 4 petrol EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 petrol EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 1 petrol EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 petrol EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 petrol EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 4 petrol EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 petrol EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 1 petrol EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 petrol EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel
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75 77 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102

Figure C.23 Figure C.24 Figure C.25 Figure C.26 Figure C.27 Figure C.28 Figure C.29 Figure C.30 Figure C.31 Figure C.32 Figure C.33 Figure C.34 Figure C.35 Figure C.36 Figure C.37 Figure C.38 Figure C.39 Figure C.40 Figure C.41 Figure C.42 Figure C.43 Figure C.44 Figure C.45 Figure C.46 Figure C.47 Figure C.48

Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 petrol EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 4 petrol EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 petrol EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 1 petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 4 petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 1 diesel EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 diesel EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 diesel EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 4 diesel EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 diesel EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 1 diesel EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 diesel EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 diesel EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 4 diesel EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 diesel EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 1 diesel EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 diesel EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 diesel EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 4 diesel EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 diesel EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 1 diesel EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 diesel EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 diesel EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel
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103 104 105 106 107 108 108 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128

Figure C.49 Figure C.50 Figure C.51 Figure C.52 Figure C.53 Figure C.54 Figure C.55 Figure C.56 Figure C.57 Figure C.58 Figure C.59

Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 4 diesel EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 diesel EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 1 diesel EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 diesel EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 diesel EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 4 diesel EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 diesel EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 1 diesel EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 2 diesel EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 3 diesel EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter Trial 5 diesel EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter

129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139

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LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Table 2.1 Table 2.2 CO Emissions (g/hr) for the Leicester Gating Scheme (Tate and Bell 2000 p.4) Comparison of microsimulation modelling software CHAPTER 3: DATA COLLECTION AND AIMSUN MODEL SET-UP Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Observed and modelled vehicle proportions and the GEH statistic for north bound traffic Observed and modelled vehicle proportions and the GEH statistic for north bound traffic Observed and modelled saturation flow rate for north bound traffic Observed and modelled saturation flow rate for south bound traffic CHAPTER 4: DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW GATING STRATEGY Table 4.1 A comparison of the average vehicle travel times in the three Aimsun models CHAPTER 5: PHEM EMISSION MODELLING Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.5 Table 5.6 Table 5.7 Comparison of the vehicle proportions from the observed and modelled data, and the base network. Total FC, NOx and PM emissions in the OGS, NGS and base model for road section 251 – 335 Total FC, NOx and PM emissions in the OGS, NGS and base model for road section 352 – 417 Total FC, NOx and PM emissions in the OGS, NGS and base model for the south bound route Total FC, NOx and PM emissions in the OGS, NGS and base model EU Emission Standards for Passenger Cars – Category M1 Comparison of the FC, NOx, PM, vehicle mass and power rating for petrol and diesel EURO 0 – 5 passenger cars 46 55 56 57 57 66 67 45 36 37 37 38 12 21

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AIMSUN AQMA AQAP CAN CHEM CMS CO CO2 CVS DEFRA DfT DRACULA EPCC FC GEH GPS HC HGV ITS LTP LWR MODEM NMHC NO NOx NO2 OD OGS NGS PARAMICS PC PCU PHEM PM PM10 PN SATURN SCOOT SISTM UTC VISSIM VMS Advanced Interactive Microscopic Simulator for Urban and Non- urban Networks Air Quality Management Area Air Quality Action Plan Control Area Network Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model Changeable Message Sign Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Constant volume sampler Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Department for Transport Dynamic Route Assignment Combining User Learning and microsimulAtion Edinburgh Parallel Computing Centre Fuel Consumption Geoffrey E. Havers Global Positioning System Hydrocarbons Heavy Goods Vehicle Institute for Transport Studies Local Transport Plan Lighthill Whitham Richards Modelling Emissions and Consumption in Urban Areas Non-methane hydrocarbons Nitrous Oxide Nitrogen Oxides Nitrogen Dioxide Origin Destination Original Gating Strategy New Gating Strategy PARAllel MICroscopic Simulation Personal Car Passenger Car Units Passenger and Heavy Duty Emission Model Particulate Matter Particulate matter ≤ 10μm Particulate Number Simulation and Assignment of Traffic to Urban Road Networks Split Cycle Offset Optimisation Technique SImulation of Strategies for Traffic on Motorways Urban Traffic Control Traffic In-cities Simulation Model Variable Message Sign

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background

The implementation of a traffic queue relocation strategy can contribute to the reduction of vehicle emissions in an area where there is substantial poor air quality. In response to the 1995 Environmental Act, the National Air Quality Strategy was introduced to tackle issues concerning the negative impact that vehicle emissions can have upon human health and the environment (Air Quality UK no date). A lack of air quality can potentially lead to respiratory illnesses as a result of alterations in the lung; whilst the formation of acid rain or eutrophication can come about due to an excess concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. Part IV of the Environmental Act 1995 places a statutory duty on the municipal council to monitor the levels of air quality against a set of eight objectives for different atmospheric pollutants (GREAT BRITAIN 2000; GREAT BRITAIN 2002).

After the economic downturn in 2008, 2013 has seen the British economy finally begin to recover from the economic recession. One of the key aspects for restoring the nation to economic fruition is a fully functional transportation network that meets travel demand. In 2012 the UK government identified the need to rapidly improve its infrastructure, following Prime Minister David Cameron’s speech at the Institute of Civil Engineers on key aspects of the UK transportation network in need of improvement (HM Government 2012). In order to develop existing infrastructure as well as enhance economic growth, the focus of local authorities should be to maximise the road capacity at key parts of the road network.

In Halifax, Huddersfield Road is the main route which connects Huddersfield to Halifax. During the morning peak, Huddersfield Road becomes heavily congested creating travel difficulties for commuters, whilst adversely impacting the local economy and environmental quality. In 2005 Calderdale Council identified Salterhebble Hill on Huddersfield Road for not meeting the air quality standards set out by the 1995 Environmental Act. Thus the location was declared as an Air Quality Management Area (Calderdale Council 2006). Vehicle emissions in this area are disproportionally high due to the combination of the steep road gradient and continuous stop-start traffic movements up Salterhebble Hill. The implementation of a gating strategy that can reduce and relocate vehicle emissions from the outlined AQMA therefore will be investigated in this report.

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1.2.

Hypothesis

Traffic congestion in a particular area releases high concentrations of vehicle emissions into the atmosphere. The atmospheric pollutants reduce the air quality which consequently has harmful effects on living organisms and the surrounding environment. Traffic ‘gating’ is a method which is used to prevent congestion by enabling a limited quantity of vehicles through a signalised advanced stop line over a short period of time. Theoretically, the technique will reduce vehicle emissions from an area where there is high concentration by relocating the traffic queue from an inclined elevation to a neutral gradient. Conventionally traffic queue relocation has the effect of relocating vehicle emissions to another road section without any particular effect on the overall reduction of pollutants released from vehicles into the atmosphere. Therefore we can expect that by relocating the traffic queue from an inclined elevation where there is greater engine strain and power output demand upon the vehicle to an area of neutral gradient where this is less, will reduce exhaust emissions. Gating has been used, though rarely, for the purposes of relocating atmospheric emissions, however to date it has not been investigated whether 'gating' can be used to relocate and reduce overall vehicle emissions, which is what this dissertation seeks to answer.

1.3.

Aims and Objectives

The aim of the project is to investigate whether vehicle emissions can be reduced by relocating a traffic queue from an inclined elevation. The aim will be met through completion of the following objectives: 

Objective 1: To investigate all literature pertaining to the development of a gating management strategy.

The literature review will examine reports written by Calderdale council to give an overview of the issues concerning the AQMA at Salterhebble Hill. Aspects of traffic signal control will be examined such as the theory of queuing and traffic congestion, to understand how signalling can be used to increase traffic flow. Examples of studies conducted on the use of gating management techniques in practice will be analysed to better understand their application. Micro-simulation software will be evaluated in terms of their strengths and weaknesses for simulating the traffic network at Salterhebble Hill.

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Objective 2: Collect data of the study site in order to calibrate the traffic model.

Instrumentation will be used to log vehicle trips through Salterhebble Hill and collect data of the vehicle speed and acceleration. In order to update the traffic model, the cycle time, offset, and phase timings will be measured at the three main signalised junctions, as well as categorising the composition of the vehicle fleet and measuring the saturation flow. The travel time will be measured during the off-peak period for use in developing a signals timing plan later in the project. 

Objective 3: To model an updated traffic simulation of vehicle movements through Salterhebble Hill during the morning peak period and produce an emissions map of the study site.

The collated data will be used to calibrate and validate the traffic simulation model. The software for simulating the traffic model will be used in conjunction with an instantaneous emissions model to schematically display a map of vehicular emissions along the A629 corridor at Salterhebble Hill. 

Objective 4: To develop and simulate a gating strategy using traffic modelling and instantaneous emissions software.

Collated data of the current signals timing plan and off-peak travel time will be used to design a traffic gating strategy. This will be achieved through designing a co-ordinated signals timing plan that maximises the travel time of the vehicle fleet through Salterhebble Hill by reducing stop-start movements and preventing congestion from accumulating. The gating plan will then be simulated into the traffic model to produce a map of vehicle emissions along the A629 AQMA at Salterhebble Hill.

Objective 5: To evaluate the implementation of the gating strategy into the traffic simulation and emissions model.

An evaluation of the study site before and after the implementation of the gating strategy will be conducted by analysing the results produced from the emissions model. Conclusions regarding the success of the gating plan will establish its effectiveness at reducing vehicle emissions along the A629 corridor.

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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Introduction Poor air quality negatively impacts our health and quality of life. The most vulnerable members of our society, infants, the elderly and those already suffering from health conditions, experience the most adverse effects from air pollution. Collectively, poor air quality can also indirectly influence the state of the local economy, causing a loss of working days, reduced productivity and a drain on national health resources. Impacts of air pollution upon vegetation are also significant to the ecosystem in the UK. Depositions of high nutrient nitrogen concentrations lead to the growth of algae causing eutrophication, consequently affecting wildlife and causing a loss of biodiversity.

2.2. Calderdale Council - Air Quality Management The monitoring of nitrogen dioxide levels from passive diffusion tubes scattered throughout the A629 corridor have concluded the area at Salterhebble Hill and Huddersfield Road to be in exceedance of 40μgm-3. In October 2005 the area was designated as an Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) as defined in the Air Quality (England) Regulations 2000. Section 83 of the Environmental Act 1995 requires the local authority, Calderdale council, to review and assess the air quality against a set of objectives in order to decrease the level of nitrogen dioxide below 40μgm -3. Calculations conducted by Calderdale council in 2006 had estimated the annual mean concentration of nitrogen dioxide on Salterhebble Hill to be between 53-57μgm-3 and therefore in order to comply with Air Quality Objectives it would need to be reduced by up-to 17 μgm-3. Working towards achieving this target requires the preparation of an Air Quality Action Plan as stated in section 84 of the Environmental Act 1995 (Calderdale Council 2006).

Figure 2.1 illustrates the AQMA boundaries and zones of concentrated nitrogen dioxide along Huddersfield Road and Salterhebble Hill A629.

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Figure 2.1 – Map of modelled Concentrations of NO2 (μgm-2) and the extent of the Calderdale AQMA (Calderdale Council 2006 p.5)

The annual mean objective of less than 40μgm-3 of NO2 had been expected to be met by 2010; however this is yet to be achieved in areas of high vehicular emission such as Salterhebble Hill. The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) recommends that in areas where road transport and traffic emissions are significantly high, local authorities co-ordinate their AQAP’s with the Local Transport Plan (LTP). Calderdale council have currently devised an encompassing Action Plan that aims to progressively achieve the objective by 2016 through the implementation of local and general district wide actions. Measures currently ongoing through LTP or other work programmes include Traffic monitoring and modelling; Air quality monitoring and modelling; Congestion target delivery plan; West Yorkshire bus partnership; Metro’s rail strategy; Walking and bus strategies; Sustainable travel plans; Car share; Car parking strategy and the installation of speed camera’s. General district wide actions include: Local air quality partnership; information, awareness and travel awareness initiatives; cleaner fuel technology; freight quality partnership and planning controls. Actions specific to Salterhebble Hill include the provision on bus-stop lay-by facilities within the AQMA; Halifax-Huddersfield corridor bus / high occupancy vehicle priorities; traffic queue relocation and “pulse” flows through the AQMA and development and promotion of walking and cycling routes (Calderdale Council 2009).

In reducing emissions, this dissertation will be investigating the previously mentioned specific action of traffic queue relocation and “pulse” flows in the Salterhebble Hill. The investigation may contribute to the reduction of levels of NO2 in the AQMA, LTP, National Transport Environmental Objectives and Climate Change Targets; however it will not be used to intentionally meet the AQAP

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of Calderdale council. The following section will detail from a research point of view - theory and best practice regarding the management of traffic congestion.

2.3. Traffic Congestion Theory Traffic congestion can vary depending on the situation and road surroundings. Roberg-Orenstein (1997) suggests two types of traffic congestion: recurrent and incident-induced congestion. Recurrent congestion can be defined as the “everyday” queue that builds up during certain periods of the day, whereas incident-induced congestion occurs, for example as a result of a traffic accident which further decreases the orderly movement of traffic. The interaction of incident-induced congestion and recurrent congestion results in what is commonly known as a “jam”. Traffic “jams” can be best understood by what Huddart and Wright (1989) define as the queuing mechanism. A queuing mechanism due to a bottleneck occurs when the capacity of a road cannot meet the demands of arriving traffic. The vehicle service is the vehicle travel time through a bottleneck. High demand can hinder vehicle service and cause a “shock wave” to form. The “shock wave” effect can be observed when a fleet of vehicles travelling closely together successively reduce their speed with increased intensity from vehicle to vehicle as a result of the leading vehicle initially braking. This occurs until individual vehicles in the fleet become stationary and then gradually initiate a slow crawl as the front of the queue begins to clear. A “shock wave” will reduce the capacity of a road as vehicles clearing the front of the queue will be less than those arriving at the rear. There are numerous other causes which may also hinder vehicle service-rate by influencing the formation of a bottleneck, these may include temporary obstructions such as crossing pedestrians, parked and loaded vehicles, turning traffic and driver behaviour.

There are several approaches to deal with queue management in overloaded circumstances. The selection of the most suitable method depends primarily upon site conditions and the immediate surroundings of the bottleneck. The expansion of the existing road where the bottleneck forms can temporarily relieve bottlenecking however it is an expensive method. The strategy of expanding a road to increase its capacity has the opposite effect in the long term upon congestion as it tends to increase traffic growth. Road widening also heavily depends upon the arrangement of physical features in the vicinity and is therefore not always an option. The formation of a bottleneck is often a direct consequence of pedestrian movement that causes an inconvenience to other road users by negatively impacting the flow of traffic. These activities would include for example, a pedestrian crossing the road, vehicles turning into side roads or other commercially associated activities such as

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employees loading a truck. Therefore what is considered to be the cause of bottlenecking is associated more so with disruptions to the traffic flow rather than the road layout (Shepherd 1992).

Queue control measures are a more effective and less costly technique for the management of overloaded conditions. By restraining traffic entering an already congested route, the arrival rate is regulated which improves the road capacity and eliminates a bottleneck by relocating the traffic queue. This is achieved through planning and programming traffic signal settings. Conventionally traffic signal arrangements are linked with minimising delay at the approach of vehicles to a stopline. However during periods of high demand the cycle time increases at signalised intersections, thus having the effect of lengthening the traffic queue. Smith (1988) had shown that maximising capacity by allocating additional 'green time' to a heavily saturated route was of greater beneficence than minimising delay. Restraining traffic can achieve this by implementing a pre-planned traffic signal strategy to the traffic network. This enables the creation of more road space which contributes to the overall road safety, environmental quality and economic growth. The principle advantage of programming traffic signal control settings is that they can be used flexibly and are significantly less expensive than other methods of traffic congestion relief. By pre-planning, control settings signals can be adjusted to the traffic demands during the peak period.

Gazis and Potts (1965) argue that minimising traffic delay should still be the objective during the offpeak period and concur with Smith who claims allocating additional green time to critical routes is essential to maximising capacity during the peak period. In contrast Bacon (1977) criticizes this by saying that it is not always suitable to minimise delay but rather in order to maximise capacity the objective should be to co-ordinate multiple traffic signals.

The implementation of a successful gating strategy involves clearing a traffic queue by advancing a platoon of vehicles through a set of traffic signals. Multiple signals are co-ordinated so that there is a timed delay between the giving of a green light at each subsequent traffic signal. The delay is known as the offset and is approximately equal to the travel time between two signalised junctions. The coordination of multiple traffic signals produces a 'green wave' whereby a platoon of vehicles passes through a set of co-ordinated signals, thus optimising the capacity of the traffic network. The following section will examine studies of real world uses of gating strategies.

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2.4. Traffic Gating A congestion offset can move a queue to a different arm of a junction whereas gating can relocate a queue to a completely different node. Gating is designed to relocate queues away from sensitive areas of the network to more acceptable locations. The sensitivity of an area may come as a result of poor environmental conditions, a lack of road space or due to an overloading of traffic. Gating can be implemented through “action at a distance” which involves adjusting traffic signal settings that are at a distance from the problem area. In the UK Split Cycle Offset Optimisation Technique is a tool that is used by Transport Engineers to programme gating strategies into traffic networks (Department for Transport 2000).

The implementation of gating is most advantageous for preventing the rapid spread of congestion to adjoining areas of the network. This can be achieved by identifying the critical link (also known as the bottleneck link) and adjusting the green time settings on gated links when the critical link becomes oversaturated. The gated links serve to store queues to prevent congestion building up on the critical link. During the peak period, when congestion is imminent, the green time at gated links is reduced (Shepherd 1992). Gating can be used to prevent grid-lock at a roundabout, particularly if there is a restriction on a major exit. The use of SCOOT technology to prevent grid-lock in the Kingston-upon-Thames network is discussed below.

2.5. Gating Management Strategies in Practice 2.5.1. Kingston-upon-Thames Gating Scheme Previous to the introduction of the gating scheme in Kingston, under congested conditions the traffic network around the town centre repeatedly blocked traffic as far back as the critical junction as shown in figure 2.2. The arm extending from the critical junction is connected to the river bridge and has a limited capacity, therefore limiting the number of vehicles that can travel on this route. The issue becomes problematic when traffic demand exceeds the bridges maximum lane capacity, resulting in a traffic queue that can extend as far back as the critical junction exit at the roundabout, causing the roundabout to 'lock-up' and largely delay all traffic entering the roundabout.

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Figure 2.2 – Diagram of the Kingston-upon-Thames Gating Scheme (Department for Transport 2000 p.3)

As shown in figure 2.2, gating the junctions at the approach to the roundabout enables the traffic queue at the trigger link to clear which prevents the roundabout from 'locking-up'. During the hours of the peak period when congestion builds, inductive loop traffic detectors detect the level of saturation and if it exceeds the assigned critical saturation flow rate, the gated links receive less green time, whilst the critical link remains in free flow. The reduced flow rate around the roundabout consequently enables the system to not 'lock-up' which as a result prevents the critical junction from becoming oversaturated.

The gating system was designed so that gated entrances to the roundabout would receive the minimum delay necessary in order to prevent 'lock-up'. Upon trialling the scheme in Kingston-uponThames, no significant delay was experienced by vehicles entering the roundabout from gated routes and overall it was found that network delay decreased by 22% (Department for Transport 2000).

2.5.2. Southampton Gating Scheme Gating was introduced to Bitterne Road in Southampton as part of a bus priority scheme. Where a bus passed through an area that was heavily congested, users experienced significant delay; thus gating was introduced to relocate the queue and enable a bus priority system to be installed. The introduction of this type of system is suitable where the road is too narrow to accommodate a bus

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lane. Due to the quantity of exhaust emissions released from buses being held in a queue, the installation of a bus priority system reduced atmospheric pollution. The narrow road lanes on Northam Bridge limited the vehicle road capacity which in turn resulted in the formation of traffic queues. Therefore to increase the traffic flow, additional green time was to be allocated to traffic on Bursledon Road, whilst having the side roads gated. This had consequently reduced the level of traffic at the approach to Northam Bridge (Department for Transport 2000).

Figure 2.3 – Diagram of the Southampton Gating Scheme (Department for Transport 2000 p.4) The control and flexibility through use of gating produced results that improved the efficiency of the traffic network by minimising bus delay. A comparison of gating and fixed timed traffic signals measured the relative reduction in delay. It was found that the journey time for buses using the gating scheme decreased by 7% and that for buses using both roads increased by 1% - overall improving the efficiency of the traffic network (Austroads 2010).

2.5.3. Nottingham Traffic Collar Scheme 1975-1976 In 1975 a gating scheme was trialled in Nottingham. The scheme involved gating traffic and installing a bus priority system at gated signals on inbound radial routes into the city centre (Transport and Road Research Laboratory 1976). After evaluating the scheme in 1977 (Vincent and Layfield 1977) no significant increase in vehicle-km or improvement in bus travel times could be determined and thus the scheme was discontinued after one year. It was concluded that the gating scheme was largely unsuccessful due to the shortage of storage space available for the relocation of the traffic queue (Austroads 2010).

2.5.4. Hampton Court Palace Flower Show SCOOT Gating

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The Hampton Court Palace Flower Show is an annual event that is organised each year by the Royal Horticultural Society. In order to effectively manage the event traffic a gating strategy is implemented during the weeklong event to prevent traffic oversaturation. The A244 which passes through the centre of Esher becomes severely congested due to the long traffic queue which extends onto the A3 mainline, where congestion becomes particularly problematic.

Figure 2.4 – Map of the Hampton Court Palace Flower Show Gating Scheme (Thomas, Baffour and Brown 2008 p.117) To prevent the queue from extending onto the A3 mainline, additional green time was allocated to the Claremont Lane entry link, whilst reducing green time for the opposing entry link - Portsmouth Road. This resulted in shifting the queue from Claremont Lane to Portsmouth Road and could be activated using SCOOT once the traffic on Claremont Lane had reached a critical level of congestion. The gating scheme was successfully implemented in 2008 and had performed as predicted (Thomas, Baffour and Brown 2008).

2.5.5. Leicester Gating Scheme An area of congestion in Leicester was studied to evaluate the implementation of a traffic demand management strategy and observe the changes in the local population’s exposure to air pollution. The strategy aimed to relocate exhaust emissions away from the main urban area containing high pedestrian activity and relocate these to an unpopulated area. The study measured the levels of the most harmful pollutants on respiratory health, roadside carbon monoxide - whilst also monitoring factors such as weather conditions and background pollution which could contribute to the readings obtained.

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A simplified diagram of the control area is displayed in figure 2.5. Prior to the implementation of the gating strategy there was poor platooning from London Road to Regent Road which resulted in severe congestion on this route. The gating strategy was implemented by co-ordinating the traffic signals along three routes; from London road to the city centre (along Regent Road); from Regent Road to head outbound onto London/Evington Road; and traffic from city centre bound traffic from Evington Road. To achieve the goal of the scheme, the main purpose of the gating scheme was to platoon the traffic along Regent Road. This was achieved by holding inbound traffic on London Road. The queues were created by increasing the green time on the second stage, at the expense of the first and third and thus the traffic queue was relocated to an area adjacent to an open park where there is a reduced population and roadside activity.

Figure 2.5 – Diagram of Leicester Gating Scheme (Tate and Bell 2000 p.2) The results of the study had shown that no significant reduction in traffic flow was measured although a 20% decrease was recorded along London Road. However in contrast table 2.1 below displays that the total network CO emissions increased by 4-5%. Overall the results had displayed greater emissions dispersion although in an area of low population activity (Tate and Bell 2000).

Table 2.1 – CO Emissions (g/hr) for the Leicester Gating Scheme (Tate and Bell 2000 p.4)

2.5.6. 2006 Commonwealth Games Traffic Network Operation Scheme During the 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games VicRoads implemented a Network Operation Scheme to handle the increased traffic demand for the event. Specific routes such as preferred
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routes around activity centres as well as modifications to existing traffic signal phasing were implemented to the traffic network. Critical routes were designed as protected corridors by gating traffic from side roads which increased the capacity of protected routes by up to 20% as compared with regular traffic flow (Austroads 2010).

2.5.7. Cupar Queue Relocation Scheme In 2007 SIAS PARAMICS was used to modify the transportation network at the town centre of Cupar. The microsimulation modelling software was used primarily to alter traffic signal control settings with the objective to reduce the high levels of atmospheric pollutants on and around Bonnygate Road. A solution was presented which involved relocating pedestrian crossings, removing signal junctions, as well as adding signals at un-signalised junctions in order to relocate the traffic queue. As Bonnygate Road is located in an area with very narrow side streets and tall buildings, the strategy focused on relocating the traffic queue to an area where emission could be dispersed.

At present vehicles queuing at the Crossgate junction spillback onto Bonnygate Road causing severe congestion and high idling emissions. By relocating the traffic queue from the Crossgate junction to Lady Wynd Road, for outbound traffic, the main corridor does not become oversaturated. This was achieved by adding a pedestrian crossing to Lady Wynd Road where traffic is gated and constructing a central island at Crossgate junction at the location of the existing pedestrian crossing. Traffic exiting Crossgate junction is only stopped when there is pedestrian demand whilst traffic is stopped at Lady Wynd Road on every cycle. Resultantly the green phase that is given to vehicles leaving Crossgate junction prevents the problem of queuing on Bonnygate Road.

Figure 2.6 – Map of Cupar town centre (Neil and Sykes 2008 p.3)

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The two snapshots taken from SIAS PARAMICS display the reduction in emissions that were achieved as a result of predominantly gating traffic on Lady Wynd Road. The average reduction in exhaust emissions over the morning and evening peaks for CO 27.4%, HC's 26.0%, NO 16.8% and PM10 22.5% (Neil and Sykes 2008).

Figure 2.7 – Snapshot from SIAS Paramics displaying the emissions on Bonnygate Road adjacent to Crossgate Junction (Neil and Sykes 2008 p.6)

Figure 2.8 – Snapshot from SIAS Paramics displaying the emissions relocated to West of Lady Wynd Road (Neil and Sykes 2008 p.6)

2.5.8. Overview of Gating Schemes This subsection has reviewed the use of gating schemes in the UK and overseas and their application to handle event traffic, reduce traffic congestion during peak hours as well as relocating vehicle exhaust emissions. Gating schemes are largely used in Australia to resolve queue blocking and spillover situations.

Planning a successful gating scheme largely depends upon having enough vehicle storage space as was demonstrated in the Nottingham Collar Gating Scheme previously. Gating is a form of capacity management and any restraint should be introduced progressively and distributed over several intersections. The gating scheme should also be compatible with a network operations plan to avoid traffic leaking to other routes, as was the situation previously identified in the Birmingham Gating Scheme.

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2.6. Modelling Software 2.6.1. Introduction With increased vehicle ownership in the UK transportation routes are increasingly becoming more congested due to the lack of road space. Although investing in new infrastructure seems to resolve the problem; the associated cost and time required to build new routes or expand existing roads is not a feasible solution and therefore technological solutions that can meet and deliver client and user demands are a preferable choice. Accurately modelling vehicle interactions and driver behaviour on transportation networks can be used by transportation planners and engineers to maximise the network capacity through use of suitable traffic management strategies. Additionally transport models can be used to evaluate existing services and schemes that are in place to improve infrastructure and meet the demands of growing transport use in the UK.

Most transport models are based on the four stage classical model as displayed in figure 2.9. Input data is initially collected and then processed through a series of stages to determine the frequency and destination of trips, chosen method of transport and the assigned route. The output of the model is used to forecast potential problematic traffic scenarios such as congestion.

Figure 2.9 – The four-stage transport model (Ortuzar and Willumsen 2001)

Transportation simulation and modelling are essential to developing and designing transportation systems that can meet the requirements of the environmental goals set out in the Transport White Paper “A New Deal for Transport: Better for Everyone”. In order to comply with the recent regulations, microsimulation models can be coupled with emission models to better understand the

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measures that need to be taken in order to tackle atmospheric pollution from exhaust emissions as well as the increased concern regarding car dependency.

There are three main categories of traffic simulation which examine the network flow on a different scale. Likewise for each traffic simulation, there are also emission and air pollution models for each of these. To examine how vehicle interactions affect the dispersion of vehicle emissions, an integrated approach is adopted which combined traffic simulation with emissions modelling.

2.6.2. Macroscopic Traffic simulation Macroscopic traffic flow modelling was originally developed in 1955 by Lighthill and Whitham who noticed similar characteristics of both flood movements in long rivers and traffic flow on crowded roads (Wikipedia 2013).Traffic streams were compared with fluid streams which later served as a platform for the development of Richards LWR (Lighthill Whitham Richards) theory in 1956. Macroscopic modelling is used to identify problematic areas in the traffic network and to evaluate the impacts of urban development on the performance of existing infrastructure. Over recent years macroscopic modelling has increasingly gained popularity for modelling major urban areas and motorways due to the ease in which input data measurements can be obtained (Tate 2005).

Macroscopic models simulate traffic at municipal, regional and national scales, representing traffic with little attention to detail in contrast to mesoscopic and microscopic models. Macroscopic models are less concerned with detailed interactions, such as gap acceptance and lane changing behaviour between vehicles, and instead formulate relationships between traffic volumes, saturation densities and vehicle speed. Macroscopic models typically describe the traffic at a high level of aggregation (Tate 2005). Some macroscopic models can integrate with microscopic traffic flow models by interfacing the two models and converting single level variables to comparable system level variables. This provides greater detail and thus produces a more comprehensive traffic model, which when linked with an aggregate flow emission model, can be used to understand the distribution of vehicle emissions more clearly (Hoogendoorn and Bovy 2001).

2.6.3. Mesoscopic Traffic Simulation Mesoscopic models bridge the gap between the aggregate level approach of macroscopic modelling and the detailed approach of microscopic modelling. When an oversized road network requires detailed modelling that is too large to be modelled using microsimulation software, the meso-scopic
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modelling approach is adopted. Meso-scale traffic simulation models are able to replicate average vehicle speeds, link and junction capacities, signal phasing, green splits and saturation flows. When combined with emission modelling software, this information can be used to estimate quantities of vehicle emissions that are emitted into the atmosphere.

Mesoscopic traffic models simulate groups of vehicles in platoons. Each platoon acts as a single entity where the speed of the platoon is measured from a speed-density function which relates the speed of the vehicle to the saturation density. Another form of a mesoscopic simulation is that of individual vehicles that are grouped into cells. The cells determine the speed of the vehicle and enable vehicles to enter and leave cells as necessary - effectively controlling the individual behaviour and decisions of the driver (Burghout 2005).

2.6.4. Microscopic Traffic Simulation A microsimulation model describes individual vehicle movements and behaviour around a traffic network. Individual vehicles usually follow a pre-determined route which is defined according to simple car following, lane changing and gap acceptance rules. Microscopic simulation is able to model complex traffic systems and congested networks whilst providing a graphical representation in a format that can be widely understood. Microsimulation models are used to design, develop and test new traffic management schemes to alleviate complex traffic problems such as the effect of road incidents or shockwaves on the traffic network. The models ability to trace vehicle space-time trajectories can be coupled with vehicle emission output data and be used to quantify the spatial location of vehicular emissions.

When developing a micro-simulation model, input files which describe the layout of the network should be investigated. Link lengths and widths need to be measured, the number of lanes determined, junction layouts specified, signal locations and timings entered and public transport stops and priority lanes identified. Once the geometry of the network has been defined, vehicles are added to the model. The number of vehicles is traditionally defined by specifying origin-destination (OD) data.

Traffic microsimulation software is good for analysing individual movements; they are effective at understanding the impact of Intelligent Transportation Systems on individual vehicle behaviour. Intelligent Transportation Systems are able to interact with vehicle responsive signal control systems, public transport priority systems and intelligent cruise control to assess the impact route
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trajectory, speed, acceleration and driver behaviour have upon the general traffic network. Traffic micro-simulators can also extract detailed vehicle information when the traffic network is connected to a responsive Urban Traffic Control (UTC) system. Systems such as SCOOT can be used by transport planners to predict traffic flow and therefore intercept the occurrence of traffic congestion (Tate and Fox 1997).

2.7. Microsimulation Modelling Software 2.7.1. AIMSUN AIMSUN (Advanced Interactive Microscopic Simulator for Urban and non-urban Networks) is a transport microsimulation software that is capable of reproducing real life traffic conditions. The software operates on three parts of input data to accurately simulate the traffic network. The road network is described by providing details of the physical layout including road length, width and elevation. The software also offers a wide range of geometries that can be used to define various types of intersection. Traffic signal settings are described which involve specifying phase cycle, staging times and cycle time; and adjusting these for different periods throughout the day. These are discrete elements of the software. Traffic conditions are modelled through determination of the saturation flow, type of vehicle and driver behaviour. As these are factors which constantly change, they are described as continuous elements of the simulator (Fox 1997).

Additional uses of the software allow it to be connected to SCOOT Urban Traffic Control systems to minimise delay. This add-on operates by transferring traffic flow data to SCOOT which uses this to adjust traffic signal timings, which are then fed back to AIMSUN and implemented into the model. The output generated by AIMSUN produces a continuously animated graphical representation of the traffic network, statistical data (flows, speeds, journey times, delays, stops, fuel consumption, pollution emissions), and data gathered by the simulated detectors (counts, occupancy, speeds, queue lengths) (Fox 1997).

2.7.2. DRACULA DRACULA (Dynamic Route Assignment Combining User Learning and Micro-simulation) is a microsimulation traffic network modelling programme developed at the University of Leeds as part of the SATURN traffic modelling suite. By modelling the day to day dynamic evolutionary change in traffic and driver behaviour, transport planners are able to determine and analyse congestion based pricing, dynamic route guidance and demand. DRACULA can model a range of scales; from
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macroscopic traffic models that simulate driver movements along a chosen route, to modelling individual driver choices at the micro level. At the most detailed level, the model has six main input demands: travel cost, origin-destination matrix, route choice, time of departure and external factors (such as different weather conditions). This input data is uploaded to a second by second interval model; which forms an average day travel cost for each vehicle on the network (Tate 2005 and Fox 1997).

There are many fixed assumptions in the software that can be adjusted and vice versa flexible criteria that can be aggregated. The flexibility and range of assumptions that DRACULA can incorporate offers numerous advantages over traditional modelling. DRACULA is ideal for modelling events that can impact road capacity and driver behaviour such as extreme weather conditions or diversions. Due to the software’s ability to simulate how driver’s react to such situations using lane changing and gap acceptance rules, driver behaviour can also be modelled under congested scenarios such as queue spillback or dynamic propagation (Tate 2005 and Fox 1997).

2.7.3. PARAMICS Paramics (PARAllel MICroscopic Simulation) was originally developed by SIAS and EPCC. The software was later developed separately by the two organisations Quadstone and SIAS who had created their own versions of the program. The Quadstone version of Paramics produces a 0.5 second interval model which simulates vehicles randomly on the network. The Quadstone version is limited in that it does not take account of driver behaviour and vehicle characteristics; however it does boast an extremely large capacity for developing a traffic network and analysing data. As Paramics Quadstone is only available for real time traffic control in the UK it will not be used in this project (Tate 2005 and Fox 1997).

The SIAS version is a more comprehensive and developed version of Paramics. The software is useful for transport engineers as a planning tool as it is capable of modelling the impact that signal systems have upon traffic, the effects of ramp metering systems, variable speed signs, VMS/CMS signing strategies as well as re-routing suggestions. Additionally the program can model and simulate traffic movements on a wide variety of scales, from national networks to detailed intersections. Due to high client demand the software is continuously being updated and is currently undergoing development to include a noise and exhaust pollution sub-model, multi-modal transportation simulation and an add-on that can predict the traffic state from real time vehicle counts (Fox 1997).

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2.7.4. SISTM SISTM (SImulation of Strategies for Traffic on Motorways) was developed for the Highways Agency to create strategies in order to deal with motorway traffic congestion. The software is used to study the effects of various motorway layouts, speed limits and ramp metering on congested traffic systems, as well as assess the impact of modified vehicle characteristics and driver behaviour. Speed and headway are determined according to driver behaviour which are controlled by the level of aggressiveness and awareness they're assigned. Lane changing behaviour is controlled by implementing a lane changing stimulus which allows the driver to merge smoothly onto an adjacent lane. A car following sub model is incorporated into the model which uses an algorithm to simulate car following behaviour. Although SISTM boasts many advanced technical features, the software is limited by its inability to model detailed road features such as ghost islands, narrow lanes, bends, as well as having a limited database for modelling different types of vehicle (Fox 1997).

2.7.5. VISSIM VISSIM (Traffic In-cities Simulation Model) is a discrete time step based microsimulation model designed to evaluate the influence of traffic signal control and vehicle technologies on transportation networks. The model is predominantly used by city and transport planners for modelling traffic flow and testing signal control strategies in urban and inter-urban environments. The software is frequently used as a means for testing a road network layout, bus/vehicle lanes or the design of suitable intersections.

VISSIM uses gap acceptance, car following and lane changing algorithms to describe driver behaviour. This plays a large part in describing driver decisions and vehicle movements. For instance the algorithm enables vehicles to weigh the benefit of making a decision of whether or not to overtake a slower moving vehicle on a neighbouring lane. Essentially the sub-models control the speed and headway distance between each vehicle in the model. The program's control strategy operates by modelling singular driver-vehicle units and sending second by second detector readings to the signal control program. The information is then used to decide on the current signal aspects to be used to describe the local and network control UTC systems.

Although the size of the network that can be modelled in VISSIM is comparably small to other microsimulation software, the model is able to provide network details to a high degree of accuracy.

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Additionally the software provides an open interface to enable its users to define the UTC logic. Owing to its ability to integrate add on features, the software has gained commercial popularity (Fox 1997).

2.7.6. Review of Microsimulation Modelling Software

Table 2.2 – Comparison of microsimulation modelling software Microsimulation Software PARAMICS PARAMICS DRACULA (SIAS) (QUADSTONE)      

Factors 2D Visual Representation 3D Visual Representation Simulation of various vehicle types Displays shapes and dimensions of vehicles Data collection possible during or after simulation Data collection possible for global, whole network or individual vehicles Numerical outputs can be displayed as either graphs/tables Numerical outputs can be exported for further analysis Network details Driver behaviour modelling Route assignment Modelling of emissions Congested based pricing Total Score

VISSIM   

AIMSUN   

SISTM 

 

  

  

 7 11 6 3 7 5

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2.8. Emission modelling 2.8.1. Introduction Emission models must be able to model current vehicle emissions and evaluate how alternate driving patterns affect the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants. There are two alternative models that are most commonly used: the average speed emission model - used predominantly for analysing emissions over large spatial areas; and instantaneous emission modelling - which produces second by second emission measurements according to the speed of the vehicle. The accuracy of the emissions modelled depend upon input factors such as the vehicle load and type, type of fuel used, distance travelled, road inclination, gear box, speed, acceleration and weather conditions. Therefore it is important when selecting the model, to evaluate the input parameters that are necessary for modelling and the output range of pollutants that are produced (Tate 2005).

2.8.2. Average-Speed Emission Modelling Average speed models have gained popularity in use over recent years by transport engineers and planners as they are relatively easy to use due to the information for input being widely readily available to its users. The average speed approach produces measurements for different pollutants according to the average speed of the vehicle and measures this in grams per vehicle kilometers. This can be obtained by testing a vehicle through a series of cycle trials whilst analysing the engineexhaust emissions and combining these results with the average speed of the vehicle during the trip. Average-speed emission curves typically display an inverse parabolic relationship between emissions and speed whereby at high speeds a vehicle produces high emissions and at low speeds high emissions. This is due to high power demand and continuous acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle as a result of frequent stop and start movements. The lowest emissions are found in the midspeed range of the vehicle (30-90 km/h). For evaluating emissions over a confined area average speed models are not representative due to the lack of detail required to set up the model and therefore these generate significant uncertainties (Tate 2005).

2.8.3. Instantaneous Emission Modelling For local scale studies it is more beneficial to use instantaneous emission modelling. Instantaneous emission models map vehicle exhaust emissions at a given time according to the state in which the engine is in. The state of the vehicle engine varies according to the strain that is placed upon it, which depends upon the vehicle load, acceleration, power output and slope of the road. The vehicle

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emission rates are determined by conducting a series of cycle trials with a tracked vehicle to determine second by second pollutant emissions.

Instantaneous emission models are not actually able to precisely replicate real-time emissions due to the "dynamic" delay in processing the speed and acceleration of the vehicle. This makes it difficult to accurately map the vehicle exhaust emissions. Some emissions modelling software apply corrective measures to account for these effects. Figure 2.10 below displays how data from the vehicle is processed and the set-up that is used for CVS modelling.

Figure 2.10 – Diagram of the set-up for CVS modelling (Ajtay, Weilenmann and Solic 2005)

2.9. Instantaneous Emission Modelling Software 2.9.1. MODEM MODEM (Modelling Emissions and Consumption in Urban Areas) is an unadjusted model based upon speed and acceleration, designed in the EU to produce a representative model for light-duty vehicles that reflect driving conditions in European cities (Andre et al 1995). The software is capable of mapping CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and PM emissions as well as fuel consumption. MODEM can predict second by second exhaust emissions for an expansive range of vehicles, engine technologies and emission control devices (Tate 2005; Stroumtsas 2012).

2.9.2. CHEM CHEM (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model) is an unadjusted model that is based on engine power and was specifically developed for clients and research programmes in the United States. The software uses a US vehicle classification database to accurately model and predict vehicle emissions

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of the following pollutants: CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and fuel consumption. The software demands vehicle engine operation parameters to be specified in order to generate second by second vehicle emission predictions. The updated version, CHEM phase 2, takes a more deterministic approach which utilises data from vehicle weight, engine size and aerodynamic drag for instantaneous emissions modelling; in contrast to the descriptive approach employed in CHEM phase 1 and MODEM modelling (Tate 2005; Stroumtsas 2012).

2.9.3. PHEM PHEM (Passenger and Heavy-duty Emission Model) uses instantaneous engine power demand and user specified driving patterns. The passenger car adjusted-model is capable of simulating fuel consumption, NOx, NO2, HCs, Particulate Mass (PM10), Particulate Number (PN) and CO exhaust emissions for petrol and diesel EURO 0 - 5 vehicles, and offers an extensive database of vehicle types and engines. PHEM heavy-duty is an unadjusted model that is capable of mapping emissions for heavy-duty vehicles including bus, coach, rigid and articulated HGV’s, making it ideal for vehicle fleet sampling.

The main input required from the microsimulation model are vehicle speed and road gradient to map the road topography whilst parameters including fuel type, EURO emission standard, aftertreatment systems, vehicle weight and transmission ratios help to display accurate vehicle emissions. The time alignment and correction sub model application of the software prevent exhaust emissions and chassis dynamometer delay, which is a common defect in modelling instantaneous emissions. This feature helps to smooth out engine peaks during the system analysis and production of power-speed emission maps (Stroumtsas 2012; Zallinger, Anh and Hausberger 2005).

2.10.

Air pollution modelling

Air pollution models are used to improve our understanding of how exhaust emissions impact the environment. They are typically used by environmental agencies, transportation engineers and government officials, to bring about climate change and improve air quality. Air pollution models have been developed predominantly to represent variations in pollutant concentrations and estimate likely dispersion patterns using meteorological forecasting techniques (Tate 2005). A diverse range of air pollution modelling software is used to represent and simulate air pollution dispersion processes at various spatial scales. Like traffic and emission models, these are
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categorised as macro, meso or micro scale models. Macro-scale models typically simulate the global dispersion of pollutants; meso-scale models operate at regional/city level, whilst micro-scale models are more concerned with more detailed air flow patterns. Air pollution models are currently the subject of ongoing research and are rarely used in practice in conjunction with traffic and emission models. Therefore due to the lack of development in integrating traffic, emission and air quality models at the micro-scale level, this study will solely focus on combining and integrating traffic microsimulation and vehicular emissions.

2.11.

Model Integration

In order to map vehicle emissions, an integrated modelling approach is adopted which combines and simulates vehicle fleet travel patterns to map exhaust emissions. Figure 2.11 below illustrates the different scales and parameters that link traffic, emission and air quality models. This study will focus on combining a microscopic transportation model with an instantaneous emission model.

Figure 2.11 – Flow chart displaying the integration of traffic, emission and air quality models (Tate 2005 p.78)

2.12.

Microscopic Integration

The application of combining traffic microsimulation and instantaneous emission modelling can produce results that represent variations in driver behaviour, vehicle acceleration and road topography. More specifically it reveals the dispersion of vehicle exhaust emissions that are released into the atmosphere. There are many challenges involved in combining traffic microsimulation and

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emission models. Traffic microsimulation applications are used to simulate vehicle and driver behaviour in a road network whereas emission modelling is concerned with simulating exhaust emissions. The importances of parameters that are required for traffic microsimulation differ largely to those used in instantaneous emission modelling. Therefore it is essential to ensure the microsimulation software output variables match those that are required as input factors for the instantaneous emission model.

All instantaneous emission models require information regarding the traffic flow in the network, which can be specified by the total number of vehicles modelled in the microsimulation programme over a period of time. One of the main challenges involved is matching the vehicle classification. Poor traffic-emission model representations use speed profiles to predict the atmospheric dispersion of exhaust emissions. A more accurate approach is to use the acceleration profile and vehicle power demand data. Software such as PHEM requires such information. Specifying road length and gradient enable the creation of a microsimulation model that accurately represents the terrain. These can be provided as output information by AIMSUN and VISSIM and are required as input information in the PHEM instantaneous emission model (Stroumtsas 2012; Tate 2005).

2.13.

Calibration and Validation

There are inherent inaccuracies in modelling, it being difficult to accurately reflect the vehicle fleet composition on a given day, as well as other parameters such as the volume and speeds of traffic. A traffic microsimulation model needs to describe and represent the real world as closely as possible. However, as there are other factors that contribute to and affect real world traffic conditions, which cannot be accounted for, calibration of the model is required. The microsimulation model must replicate factors of the road network, including driver behaviour, vehicle characteristics, traffic flow data, travel times and queue lengths. The model is calibrated and validated to ensure that the model accurately produces outputs that are similar to real life conditions. This can be performed by collecting field data using vehicle tracking instrumentation and comparing this with the model output. Parameters of the output of the model are then adjusted so that the simulation matches reality as closely as possible. These can be divided into global and local parameters. Depending on the software being used, the required adjustment of these parameters may vary. Global parameters are the cornerstones of the model and are concerned with factors that affect the overall simulation of the traffic network, such as car following behaviour, lane changing or gap acceptance sub-models (Hourdakis et al 2003). Local factors provide the detail for the simulation and affect operations at specific intersections or links, such as the speed limit or geometry (Wykes 2005).
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Different researchers suggest alternate methods for model calibration. Lee, Yang and Chandrasekar (2001) and Park and Schneeberger (2003) suggest focusing on specific key routes rather than the entire network, which is in contrast to Cascetta and Postorino’s (2001) opinion who emphasise that the focus should be on route and OD flows. On the other hand Toledo et al (2004) presents a combined integrated approach to calibration.

Likewise for traffic model validation - the approach that is adopted depends primarily upon the software that is used. Toledo et al (2003) suggest using aggregate data such as speeds and flows to validate the three sub - models and using disaggregate data to investigate the capability of the model to represent reality. Rao and Owen (2000) suggest using visual representations of the outputs, such as graphs, as well as a statistical validation method which uses confidence intervals and other statistical tests to compare modelled and observed data. The AIMSUN manual provides statistical methods such as regression analysis, Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) and hypothesis testing to test data between observed and modelled parameters. However for the purposes of this dissertation the microsimulation model's calibration and validation will be based upon the collection of data from a GPS tracking device. This method is based on that of Brockfeld, Kuehne and Wagner (2004) who adjust the deviations between the observed and modelled data to calibrate and validate the traffic model.

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CHAPTER 3: DATA COLLECTION AND AIMSUN MODEL SET-UP 3.1. Data Collection 3.1.1. Vehicle Tracking Survey In order to accurately simulate an up to date version to describe the traffic movements of the transportation network – measurements were recorded by tracking a vehicle during the morning peak. A VBOX II Lite GPS & CAN Logger was used to record the vehicle speed and specify longitude and latitude co-ordinates of the vehicle to determine its position. The GPS antenna was magnetically secured to the roof of a 2001 1.6L Vauxhall Astra with the CAN Bus lead connected to the VBOX II Lite GPS & CAN unit within the vehicle (see appendix A for user guide).

Before setting out, a risk assessment was completed (see appendix B), the route pre-determined and weather conditions checked to ensure each trip conducted represented an average day. The vehicle left the parking area adjacent to Wakefield Road and travelled up Salterhebble Hill. The vehicle then turned at the area identified in figure 3.1 before returning in the opposite direction along the southbound route. At the end of each trial the memory card was ejected and re-inserted before recording the following set of measurements. The survey was performed to collect a variety of data on three separate days between 08:00AM and 09:00AM when the road network is at its peak. GPS measurements were taken on Wednesday 30/11/2012, Tuesday 6/12/2012 and Thursday 8/12/2012.

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Figure 3.1 – Satellite images of vehicle turning areas (GOOGLE EARTH 2011)

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After extracting and processing the raw data from the FLASH memory card, the readings were assorted to produce measurements at 1Hz (one-second intervals). In order to integrate the data with emissions modelling software to predict vehicle emissions, it was necessary to define the road gradient of the traffic network. The elevation profile tool available through Google Earth was used in combination with the map of the longitude and latitude measurements to determine the gradient of different road sections (see figure 3.2).

Figure 3.2 – Map of the position data for the tracked survey, Google Earth elevation profile & satellite image of the survey site (GOOGLE EARTH 2011)

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3.1.2. Traffic Counting Traffic counting was performed in order to classify the vehicle fleet in order to calibrate and validate the microsimulation model. The survey took place on Thursday 1/12/2012 and had involved categorising the number of vehicles that passed over a certain point over a set time period. Vehicles were classified as a car, van, HGV (rigid), HGV (articulated), bus or coach and were counted using a multi-unit tally counter. Traffic counting was performed for a fifteen minute period at the location displayed in figure 3.3 for both northbound and southbound traffic. The results obtained will be discussed in the model set-up.

Figure 3.3 – Satellite image highlighting the location at which traffic counting measurements were conducted (GOOGLE EARTH 2011)

3.1.3. Saturation flow rate The saturation flow rate measures the maximum rate of flow of traffic and describes the number of passenger car units (PCUs) in a dense flow of traffic. The amount of passenger car units that pass over an intersection stop-line during a set period are measured and used to calculate the saturation flow rate in PCUs per hour. Measurements for the saturation flow rate were calculated using a stopwatch and multi-unit tally counter to record the number of vehicles during three five second intervals. Measurements were taken at three sections of the traffic network for traffic travelling in both north and southbound directions. Ten trials were conducted at each location to obtain a reliable number of measurements from which the cumulative frequency was calculated and the average saturation flow rate obtained. The average saturation flow rate was then multiplied by 240 (15 x 240 = 3600 seconds = 1 hour) to represent the maximum rate of traffic flow in one hour.

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In order to ensure representative measurements were recorded, it was important to consider the number of vehicles in the queue to ensure the flow of traffic could be recorded over fifteen seconds. Other practical constraints meant it was not possible to classify the vehicle fleet whilst measuring the saturation flow rate. Therefore to obtain the saturation flow rate in PCUs per hour the number of vehicles were multiplied by the PCU weighting of the vehicle fleet. The results of the saturation flow rate will be discussed further in the model set-up. Figures 3.4 - 3.6 display the location at which the saturation flow rate recordings were taken.

Figure 3.4 – Satellite image highlighting the location at Shaw Hill intersection where the saturation flow rate was measured (GOOGLE EARTH 2011)

Figure 3.5 – Satellite image highlighting the location at Dryclough Lane junction where the saturation flow rate was measured (GOOGLE EARTH 2011)

Figure 3.6 – Satellite image highlighting the location at Exley Bank where the saturation flow rate was measured (GOOGLE EARTH 2011)

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3.2. Model Set-up 3.2.1. Aimsun Microscopic Traffic Simulator Based on the comparison of microsimulation software in table 2.2 – Aimsun was selected for this project. The software’s ability to model urban and rural site characteristics and simulate discrete and continuous parameters makes it ideal for modelling Salterhebble Hill. Input requirements needed to calibrate and validate the transportation network included the vehicle fleet composition, traffic signal control plans, road geometry and saturation flow rate.

Gipps’s (1981) car following model is based on safe distances between vehicles to avoid the occurrence of a collision; whereas the car following logic used in Aimsun is dictated by driver behaviour which is defined by the level of or lack of aggressiveness of the driver (i.e. the tendency to reach high speeds or accept speed limits). Lane changing logic is defined in the network as a decision process that analyses the necessity, desirability and feasibility of changing lanes. Defining lane changing behaviour is essential for vehicles to avoid obstructions or overtake or give way to other vehicles. Aimsun 6.1 uses a lane changing sub-model developed by Gipps (1986) in combination with the car following model previously described. Gap acceptance models determine whether a gap between two consecutive vehicles is acceptable. Gap acceptance logic is related to lane changing behaviour as acceptable gaps are used to define the desire of vehicles to switch lanes. The principle highlight of modelling in Aimsun is that it is able to stochastically model car following, lane changing and gap acceptance relationships for different vehicles in the network that reflect the variability of collective driver behaviour (TSS – Transportation Simulation Systems 2005).

3.2.2. Model Development Aimsun software provides a user-friendly interface for traffic network design and simulation. The toolkit to the left side of the screen enables the development and editing of a traffic network whilst the ‘project’ window on the right side enables the user to modify the model input data. The network for Salterhebble Hill was set-up in 2011 by Dr James Tate for the purposes of another project – however, the same model was used in this project, once the model had been updated to reflect current traffic conditions.

The traffic network was developed by designing the geometric layout to replicate the road sections and lane configuration of Salterhebble Hill. After configuring the geometric layout, input data for OD matrices were filled in to define the number of trips and routes for different vehicles simulated in the traffic network. Data was collected to verify that the vehicle fleet classification and maximum
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saturation flow rate were represented correctly in the model as previously noted in sections 3.1.2 & 3.1.3.

Current signal control plans were compared with the traffic signal settings used in the model to determine whether any alterations had taken place; as these were determined from pre-dated signal control plans that were collected from data in 2010. The following section discusses this aspect of the model in greater detail.

3.2.3. Calibration Between 08:00am and 09:00am the signal phase, cycle length, offset, green time and stop time were observed for each traffic signal in the survey site. The measurements observed were compared with the signal control plans in the model, and updated to reflect the true traffic signal settings.

During the peak period the traffic signal settings at Exley Bank, Stafford Road and Stafford Avenue were in free flow. The signals were programmed to constantly display a green light unless triggered by a pedestrian pushing the button to cross the road. The signals were fixed on a 270 second cycle time and displayed a stop light for 10 seconds every four and a half minutes for crossing pedestrians.

The pedestrian crossing time observed at Exley Bank and Stafford Road were slightly different to those modelled in Aimsun. The pedestrian crossing time for the traffic signals at Exley Bank was 12 seconds and for Stafford Road northbound route – 8 seconds. These were adjusted in the calibrated version of the model to reflect the true traffic conditions.

Due to a lane closure on the southbound route at Dudwell Lane intersection, it was not possible to conduct observations of the signal control plan for this signal group. As no data was available, the signal settings programmed in the Aimsun model for this signal group will be assumed to accurately represent the true traffic signal settings.

The modelled signal settings at Dryclough Lane intersection did not match those observed. Although both system control plans have an identical cycle time, from figure 3.7 below it can be observed that the modelled control plan combines the two phases as displayed in red and orange whereas in reality these phases were run at separate times. Calibrating the model involved separating signal 1 into signal 1 and 3 and assigning both these signals each its own phase. Figure 3.8 and 3.9 below

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display the original control plan and the amended control plan which will be used in the calibrated model.

Figure 3.7 – Snapshot from Aimsun highlighting the signal phases at Dryclough Lane junction

Figure 3.8 – Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the signal control plan of the base model for Dryclough Lane junction

Figure 3.9 – Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the updated signal control plan of the base model for Dryclough Lane junction

The signal settings and control plan observed at Shaw Hill accurately matched that in the Aimsun model and therefore did not require any calibration.

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3.2.4. Validation Validating the Aimsun model meant comparing the observed and modelled vehicle proportions and traffic flow. Modelled vehicle proportions were measured by creating a detector at the location where data was collated and simulating the network between 08:00am and 09:00am. At the end of the simulation the number of each type of vehicle was displayed which were used to determine the vehicle proportions simulated in the model.

The vehicle fleet data that was collected in the survey was converted to an hourly equivalent to compare the observed and modelled vehicle proportions. The GEH statistical method was then used to gauge the performance of the Aimsun model. This method is commonly used in traffic modelling to compare two sets of traffic volumes. For modelling in the ‘base’ scenario, a maximum allowable variation of 5% is considered a good match between the modelled and observed hourly volumes. Volume 12 of the UK Highways Agency’s Design Manual for Roads and Bridges state s that at least over 85% of the different vehicle proportions should have a GEH value of less than or equivalent to 5.0%. If the total percentage for the vehicle proportions is less than 85% further investigation of the vehicle fleet should be conducted.

In following formula; M is the hourly modelled traffic and C - the observed hourly count.

Tables 3.1 and 3.2 below compare the observed and modelled vehicle proportions and display the GEH value of the vehicle fleet.

Vehicle Type Car Van HGV (rigid) HGV (articulated) Bus Coach

North bound Modelled (%) Observed (%) 84.8 82.1 8.3 10.6 2.7 3.2 2.1 1.1 1.3 1.5 0.9 1.3

GEH (%) 20.9 4.7 3.0 4.8 2.0 1.0

Table 3.1 – Observed and modelled vehicle proportions and the GEH statistic for north bound traffic

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Vehicle Type Car Van HGV (rigid) HGV (articulated) Bus Coach

South bound Modelled (%) Observed (%) 87.6 79.1 8.5 16.1 2.8 3.4 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.6

GEH (%) 32.7 4.9 4.7 4.5 0.4 0.4

Table 3.2 - Observed and modelled vehicle proportions and the GEH statistic for south bound traffic

Tables 3.1 and 3.2 confirm that over 85% of the GEH statistics are less than 5.0%, thus verifying the validity of the vehicle fleet composition in the updated model.

The validity of the network traffic flow was verified by evaluating the saturation flow rate data collected and comparing it to that in the model. The Aimsun model data was collected by placing a traffic detector at each of the three locations where saturation flow data was collected. By setting the time series tab on the detector to display the number of vehicles counted in 5 second intervals it was possible to measure the saturation flow throughout the simulation.

The saturation flow rate is measured in PCUs per hour. As this was not accounted for in both the manual data collected and the collected data from the model – the number of vehicles counted per hour were multiplied by the PCU of the vehicle fleet. The value of the PCU for the vehicle was established by multiplying the PCU for each vehicle (which was obtained in the Aimsun model from the ‘Project’ window under ‘Demand Data’) by the modelled vehicle proportions. Tables 3.3 and 3.4 below compare the observed and modelled saturation flow rate for the north and south bound routes. Northbound Traffic – Saturation flow rate (PCU = 1.0748) Location Exley Bank Dryclough Lane Shaw Hill Modelled (PCUs/hour) 1909 2580 2795 Observed (PCUs/hour) 1677 2601 2902

Table 3.3 – Observed and modelled saturation flow rate for north bound traffic

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The observed and modelled values calculated in tables 3.3 and 3.4 display minute discrepancies and therefore this had confirmed that the model had accurately reflected true traffic conditions. Data collected regarding the vehicle fleet composition and saturation flow rate in this section validated the model.

South bound Traffic – Saturation flow rate (PCU = 1.0314) Location Exley Bank Dryclough Lane Shaw Hill Modelled (PCUs/hour) 1609 2070 3218 Observed (PCUs/hour) 1753 2733 3197

Table 3.4 – Observed and modelled saturation flow rate for south bound traffic

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CHAPTER 4: DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW GATING STRATEGY 4.1. Introduction An existing traffic management plan developed in Aimsun was examined prior to devising the gating strategy in this dissertation. The traffic management plan was designed by the Institute for Transport Studies at the University of Leeds and implemented a VMS to queue traffic north of Jubilee Road junction as shown in figure 4.1. The gated signal was based on traffic detector readings measured at Salterhebble Hill at the location circled in figure 4.2.

Left: Figure 4.1 – Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the VMS in operation Above: Figure 4.2 – Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the location of the traffic detector on Salterhebble Hill

The detector gathered data regarding headway distance between approaching vehicles to determine the link saturation. When this exceeded a specified level of congestion this activated a trigger to display the VMS. Programming the VMS to link with the traffic detector involved defining activation and de-activation trigger conditions and assigning these to a ‘Halt Policy’.

The main disadvantage of this method for traffic gating is that the display of the VMS depends upon the level of saturation and therefore varies throughout the simulation. As the VMS is not assigned a fixed plan it is not possible to co-ordinate the fixed timed settings of the signals at Dudwell Lane and Dryclough Lane with the display of the VMS.

Although the traffic management plan developed by ITS at the University of Leeds was successful at relocating the traffic queue from Salterhebble Hill – the method employed in this project is an alternative approach that had further reduced congestion and delay than the aforementioned gated signal.

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4.2. Overview of the Gating Management Strategy The primary objective in developing the gating strategy was to relocate the traffic queue from Salterhebble Hill. By co-ordinating the signals at Exley Bank with those in the rest of the network it was possible to prevent multiple stop-start traffic movements of vehicles travelling through Salterhebble Hill. Vehicles were gated at the traffic signals at Exley Bank and “pulsated” through the network in platoons at fixed intervals. The key to designing an effective gating strategy was to create a “green wave” whereby the vehicle platoon passed through subsequent signals at green. This was possible by matching the time for the length of the vehicle platoon to clear with that of the green time set in the traffic signal control plan.

4.3. Design of the Gating Management Strategy 4.3.1. Coordination of Exley Bank Signals Before designing the signal control plan at Exley Bank the phase times for the signal settings at Dudwell Lane and Dryclough Lane were evaluated. It was essential to design the signal control plan at Dudwell Lane to give the green light as the traffic fleet approached the signals. The signal settings at Exley Bank were therefore co-ordinated with the fixed signal settings at Dudwell Lane. The signal control plan for Dudwell Lane is displayed in figure 4.3 below.

Figure 4.3 – Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the signal control plan for Dudwell Lane The signals for north bound traffic at Dudwell Lane and Dryclough Lane were set identical to one another in the base network with a cycle time equal to 90 seconds. In order for the traffic signals at Exley Bank to be in phase with the rest of the network these needed to have an equal cycle time.

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Before designing the control plan, the average time for a vehicle to travel from Exley Bank to Dudwell Lane was measured in order to set the time for the vehicle platoon to set out. The average vehicle travel time measured for this route was 46 seconds. The green signal at Exley Bank was set to display at 44 seconds after the green signal was displayed for the north bound route at Dudwell Lane. The signal plan at Dudwell Lane consisted of 57 seconds green time followed by 33 seconds stop time (57 + 33 = 90 second cycle time). Therefore the green signal at Dudwell Lane was offset by 46 seconds from the Exley Bank (13 seconds remaining green time from the previous phase + 33 seconds of red signal time) which was equivalent to the vehicle travel time from Exley Bank to Dudwell Lane, thus ensuring a smooth transition of the vehicle fleet through Dudwell Lane (refer to time-space diagram in figure 4.7).

The duration for the green signal at Exley Bank was set to 60 seconds as this was the time measured for the vehicle platoon to clear the traffic signals (refer to figure 4.6 – image 2). The stop time at Exley Bank was set to 30 seconds to balance the length of the vehicle queue on Huddersfield Road without increasing congestion or furthering traffic delay on Elland Wood Bottom (refer to figure 4.6 – image 3). Figure 4.4 below illustrates the adjusted control plan for the signals at Exley Bank.

Figure 4.4 – Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the signal control plan for Exley Bank 4.3.2. Coordination of Dryclough Lane Signals

The second part of the gating strategy adjusted the signal settings at Dryclough Lane. As the signal times for the northbound route at Dudwell Lane and Dryclough Lane were originally set identical to one another, during each simulation vehicles at the end of the vehicle platoon were caught in the road section between Dudwell Lane and Dryclough Lane (see figure 4.6 – image 1). As this is an inclined section, in the interest of lowering vehicle emissions the traffic signals at Dryclough Lane were offset by 8 seconds from those at Dudwell Lane (see time-space diagram in figure 4.7), to

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enable vehicles held at the end of the platoon to pass through without being stopped. Figure 4.5 below displays the signal control plan for Dryclough Lane.

Figure 4.5 – Snapshot from Aimsun displaying the signal control plan for Dryclough Lane 4.4. Overall Signal Control Plan Figure 4.6 can be used to map the location of vehicles progressing through the traffic network as described by the time-space diagram in figure 4.7. The time space diagram illustrates the relationship between the time and location of the vehicles in the traffic network. The individual signal control plans at the location listed on the X-axis are represented by the vertical bars. These are coordinated to produce a “green wave” as displayed by the green bands in figure 4.7. The signal settings at Stafford Road and Stafford Avenue are set in free flow and can only be triggered by a crossing pedestrian. As the traffic signal settings at Shaw Hill were already set in cycle in the base network they were not adjusted during the development of the gating strategy.

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Figure 4.6 – Snapshot from Aimsun of the Traffic Network

IMAGE 1 Shaw Hill Traffic Signals Group

Dryclough Lane Junction Traffic Signals IMAGE 2

Dudwell Lane Junction Traffic Signals

Exley Bank Traffic Signals IMAGE 3

Elland Wood Bottom

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Figure 4.7 – Time-Space Diagram of the co-ordinated signals in the New Gating Strategy

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90

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0

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Dudwell Lane

Dryclough Lane 169m

Stafford Road 44 178m

Stafford Avenue 459m

Shaw Hill

166m

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4.5. Trial Simulation In order to ensure the developed gating strategy performed as designed, the average travel time of vehicles travelling from the ‘SOUTH’ centroid to the ‘NORTH’ centroid were measured in the base model, the OGS and the NGS in this dissertation. The results displayed below compare the average delay experienced by a vehicle in the traffic network and had confirmed that the developed gating strategy reduced overall congestion. The figures displayed in table 4.1 represent the travel time from the previous location. E.g. in the base network 5:34 represents the travel time from Junction A6026 to Exley Bank Signals. The locations listed in the far right column can be referred to in figure 4.6.
Average Travel Time (minutes:seconds) Location Centroid: SOUTH Junction A6026 Exley Bank Signals Dudwell Lane Junction Centroid: NORTH TOTAL Base Model 0 41:15 5:34 3:01 4:00 53:50 Original Gating Strategy 0 38:10 5:25 1:33 2:00 47:08 New Gating Strategy 0 36:22 4:15 0:59 2:00 43:36

Table 4.1 – A comparison of the average vehicle travel times in the three Aimsun models

The following chapter will discuss the results produced in PHEM and compare the dispersion of vehicle emissions in the base model with those in the gated traffic network.

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CHAPTER 5: PHEM EMISSION MODELLING 5.1. Introduction Trajectories for the base traffic network, ITS designed network and the designed gated strategy produced in this dissertation were harvested in the microsimulation model and then processed in the emissions model. Ten simulations were run for each of the transportation plans to ensure the simulation ran smoothly without locking up any intersections throughout the traffic network.

5.2. Validation of the Vehicle Fleet The vehicle fleet composition from the ten simulations in the base network was used to verify the modelled and observed proportions in table 3.1 and 3.2. Table 5.1 below confirms the proportions of the vehicle fleet: Type of vehicle
Veh 100: Car Veh 300: Van Veh 200: HGV (rigid) Veh 400: HGV (articulated) Veh 500: Bus Veh 600: Coach

Observed (%)
80.6 13.4 3.3 1.3 1.1 1.5

Modelled (%)
86.2 8.4 2.8 1.6 0.8 0.6

Base Network (%)
85.1 9.2 2.0 2.5 0.7 0.6

Table 5.1 – Comparison of the vehicle proportions from the observed and modelled data, and the base network. As the observed and modelled vehicle proportions were established separately in figure 3.1 and 3.2 for north and south bound traffic routes, these were combined and presented in table 5.1 in order to verify the vehicle proportions in the base network.

5.3. Validation of the Base Model Second by second emissions processed from the data collated were used to validate emissions from the vehicle trajectories in the model. Speed, Fuel Consumption, NOx and PM profiles were created for each of the five vehicle trajectories recorded in the tracked survey. The data was then processed in PHEM to display the distribution of emissions throughout the network. The full set of profiles for petrol and diesel EURO passenger cars can be found in appendix C. As trial 3 had shown the median level of traffic activity it was selected as a representative trial to display the distribution of emissions. Figure 5.1 displays the speed, NOx, Fuel Consumption and PM profiles for a Petrol EURO 5
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passenger car for trial 3. The vertical lines at the top of the graph divide the length of the trial into links according to the variation in gradient throughout the duration of the route. The vertical dashed line between link 17 and 18 is highlighted in each one of the profiles as it represents the point at which the route changes from the north bound to the south bound route.

Profiles a-d in figure 5.1 display a directly proportional relationship between FC, NOx and PM emissions and between the profiles for speed and fuel consumption. Figure 5.2 displays the speed, FC, NOx and PM profiles for a petrol EURO 5 vehicle simulated in the base model. By comparison of figure 5.1 and 5.2 it is clear that the time spent in each part of the network between the two models differ. The values for the profile in figure 5.2 are condensed further than those displayed in figure 5.1 and therefore appear differently as a result of the travel time differences between the survey trial and the simulation in the base model. The data used to simulate the base network was collected in 2010 by Dr James Tate and the observed data was collected in 2012. As a result of changes caused by the economic slowdown and the addition of bus ways to the road network by Calderdale Council, there were observed differences in the traffic fleet and travel times for the data collected in 2010 and in 2012.

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Figure 5.1 – Petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile (observed model): (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
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Figure 5.2 – Petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile (base model): (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
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5.4. Distribution of Vehicle Emissions This section compares the distribution and quantity of emissions emitted in the base network, original gating strategy and the developed gating strategy to determine whether the gating strategy that was devised improved the base scenario and whether it improved emission reductions from the original gating strategy. Simulations between 08:00am and 09:00am were conducted for the ten replications in each of the models. Data from the simulations were then processed in PHEM to determine the total emissions for each road section of the network. Total emission contributions for NOx and PM were measured as well as the fuel consumed on each section of the road. These two pollutants were examined as they are main contributors to local air pollution and therefore of primary interest to this study. Figures 5.3 – 5.8 below display the emissions and fuel consumption for each section of the main route in the north and south bound directions for the base network and the two gating strategies. The road segments are listed on the bar chart in consecutive order; for ease of referral these have been labelled in the map shown in figure 5.9. The road segments for the north bound route are labelled in black and the south bound route in red.

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600 500 400 FC (g/km) 300 200 100 0 Base Network Original Gating Strategy New Gating Strategy

Road Section

Figure 5.3 – Bar chart displaying the FC for each section of the road network for the north bound route
450 400 350 300 250 FC (g/km) 200 150 100 50 0

Base Network Original Gating Strategy New Gating Strategy

Road Section

Figure 5.4 - Bar chart displaying the FC for each section of the road network for the south bound route
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12 10

8
NOx (g/km) 6 4

Base Network Original Gating Strategy New Gating Strategy

2
0

Road Section

Figure 5.5 - Bar chart displaying the NOx emissions for each section of the road network for the north bound route
6 5 4 NOx (g/km) 3 2 1 0 Base Network Original Gating Strategy New Gating Strategy

Road Section

Figure 5.6 - Bar chart displaying the NOx emissions for each section of the road network for the south bound route
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0.25 0.2 0.15 PM (g/km) 0.1 0.05 0 Base Network Original Gating Strategy New Gating Strategy

Road Section

Figure 5.7 - Bar chart displaying the PM emissions for each section of the road network for the north bound route
0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 Base Network Original Gating Strategy New Gating Strategy

PM (g/km)

0.04
0.02 0

Road Section

Figure 5.8 - Bar chart displaying the PM emissions for each section of the road network for the south bound route
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Figure 5.9 – Map of Aimsun road network displaying the location of each section referred to in figures 5.3 – 5.8.

417 415 409 415 1070 1068 400 392 402

391 382 378 375 374 354 352 335 333 942 331 329933 2003 796

384 386

295

790 293 282 279 284

275 270 266 264 288 286

1509

246 1185 1512

253 1182

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251

242

5.4.1. North bound Traffic Results for the north bound route display a significant difference between the section emissions in the base model to those in the gated model. Between sections 251 to 335 the three models display considerable differences in the measured quantities of FC, NOx and PM. In contrast, between sections 352 and 417 the quantity of fuel consumed, NOx and PM emitted for the three models display little variation. The bar chart was therefore analysed in two parts to separately examine the characteristics of the north bound route.

The parts of the network represented by sections 251 - 335 were Elland Wood Bottom, Huddersfield Road (south of Salterhebble Hill) and Salterhebble Hill. From figures 5.3, 5.5 and 5.7 it can be observed that the NGS (New Gating Strategy) produced significantly lower emissions than the base network and the OGS (Original Gating Strategy). The total emissions were accumulated for each section and are displayed in table 5.2 for the NGS, base and OGS model. Section 251 - 335 FC (g/km) Base OGS NGS 6356.41 4528.30 4224.16 NOx (g/km) 87.441 53.557 48.654 PM (g/km) 1.917 1.309 1.249 Table 5.2 – Total FC, NOx and PM emissions in the OGS, NGS and base model for road section 251 – 335

The total emissions for the part of the network where the gating strategy was designed had shown significant differences in FC, NOx and PM. FC in the NGS was 33.5% less than that in the base network and 6.7% less than that in the OGS. NOx in the NGS was 44.4% less than that in the base network and 9.2% less than that in the OGS. PM in the NGS was 34.8% less than that in the base network and 4.5% less than that in the OGS. The NGS had reduced greater quantities of FC, NOx and PM emissions compared to the OGS from the base network.

Unpredictably, both gating strategies had significantly reduced emissions and FC on Huddersfield Road and Elland Wood Bottom. As the OGS and NGS were designed to relocate the traffic queue from Salterhebble Hill to this part of the network, the expectation was that vehicle emissions would increase. However by platooning the vehicle fleet, traffic flow had increased, resulting in lower overall emissions, reduced delay and increased road speed.

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The road network between sections 352 and 417 starts from Dudwell Lane junction through to Shaw Hill. During the simulation phase of the project it was noted that there was little congestion on this part of the road in the base model and therefore little room for improvement in the OGS and NGS. As a result of this, there was little variation in FC, NOx and PM emissions in the three models, as displayed in table5.3. Section 352 - 417 FC (g/km) Base OGS NGS 1706.28 1750.66 1699.69 NOx (g/km) 21.303 19.791 17.963 PM (g/km) 0.576 0.575 0.568 Table 5.3 – Total FC, NOx and PM emissions in the OGS, NGS and base model for road section 352 – 417

Despite little variation in FC and PM emissions in the three models, the NGS was successful at reducing NOx emissions by 15.7% from the base model and by 9.2% from the OGS. The NGS had effectively improved the base model and OGS by further reducing emissions along the north bound route. The next section will examine emissions along the south bound route.

5.4.2. South bound Traffic This sub-section will examine how the relocation of the vehicle queue had affected the distribution and quantity of emissions produced on the south bound route. As signal settings in the NGS were adjusted at Exley Bank and Dryclough Lane for the north bound route this had consequential effects on traffic flowing on the south bound route. The bar charts displayed in figures 5.4, 5.6 and 5.8 show little variation in FC and NOx emissions in the three models between sections 415 and 375. On the contrary PM emissions were noticeably larger in the NGS than those produced in the base model.

From section 374 to 286, FC, NOx and PM emissions in the NGS were marginally greater than those produced in the base model. The OGS had lower emissions than both the NGS and base model. For the last division of the south bound route, from section 288 to 242 the total emissions for the three modelled networks had shown little variation. Table 5.4 displays and compares the sum total emissions for the south bound route.

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South bound route (415 – 242) FC (g/km) Base OGS NGS 2975.82 2869.91 3223.66 NOx (g/km) 34.119 33.185 37.115 PM (g/km) 0.876 0.927 1.044

Table 5.4 – Total FC, NOx and PM emissions in the OGS, NGS and base model for the south bound route

The NGS had shown an increase by 7.7% in FC, 8.1% in NOx and 16.1% in PM emissions compared to the base model. Relative to the OGS, the NGS had displayed an increase in FC by 11.0%, in NOx by 10.6% and in PM emissions by 11.2%. For the south bound route the emissions produced by the NGS were larger than those in both the OGS and the base model. Section 5.2.2 compares NOx, PM and FC for the combined south and north bound routes.

5.4.3. North and South bound Traffic The total emissions and FC for the north and south bound routes were combined below in table 5.5. The results compare the total emissions produced in the base model, OGS and NGS. Table 5.5 – Total FC, NOx and PM emissions in the OGS, NGS and base model

TOTAL FC (g/km) Base OGS NGS 11038.50 9148.87 9147.51 NOx (g/km) 142.86 106.53 103.73 PM (g/km) 3.369 2.810 2.861

From figure 5.5 it is clear the NGS developed in this dissertation had significantly reduced the volume of FC, NOx and PM for the combined north and south bound routes, from that in the base model. NOx emissions were 2.6% less, PM emissions 1.8% greater and FC approximately equal in the NGS relative to the OGS for the combined north and south bound routes. Overall the NGS had reduced a greater proportion of emissions than that in the OGS.

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5.4.4. Relocated Vehicle Emissions The difference in emissions between the north bound route and the south bound route were calculated in order to determine the proportion by which the gating strategies had reduced or relocated emissions in the traffic network. As the only factor affecting the movements of the traffic fleet were caused by alterations to the traffic signal settings – an increase in congestion on the south bound route could only be a direct consequence of alterations to the signal settings of the north bound route. For example, adjusting the amount of green time given in the NGS to north bound traffic would consequently change the phase times for the south bound route and affect the traffic flow.

The OGS had transferred 36.3% of NOx and PM emissions to another area of the traffic network as a result of relocating the traffic queue. The NGS was successful at transferring 28.3% of total emissions and therefore relocated a lower proportion of emissions from the north bound route to the south bound route. The NGS therefore eliminated a greater proportion of emissions from the traffic network than the OGS.

5.5. Emission Contributions per Vehicle Type The difference between the proportion each type of vehicle contributed to the overall emissions in the OGS, NGS and base model are compared in this section of the report. The charts in figures 5.10 – 5.18 display the proportions of emissions emitted for each type of vehicle.

As a result of improved traffic flow, stop-start traffic movements were reduced in the NGS model. Heavy duty vehicles in the base model produced large quantities of NOx and PM emissions as a result of stop and go movements straining the vehicle engine. Due to the increased power demand of heavy duty vehicles the NOx and PM emissions produced were much greater than those emitted in light duty vehicles.

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Articulated HGV Van 9.0% 6.5%

Bus 1.3%

Coach 2.9%

Rigid HGV 9.4%
Passenger Car 70.9%

Figure 5.10 – Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to FC in the base model

Articulated HGV 13.0% Van 6.7%

Bus 1.7%

Coach 4.1%

Passenger Car 66.2% Rigid HGV 8.3%

Figure 5.11 - Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to FC in the OGS

Articulated HGV 11.6% Van 7.2% Rigid HGV 10.0%

Bus 1.8%

Coach 2.6%

Passenger Car 66.8%

Figure 5.12 - Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to FC in the NGS

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Bus 4.8%

Coach 9.3%

Articulated HGV 15.1% Van 8.6% Rigid HGV 23.5%

Passenger Car 38.7%

Figure 5.13 - Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to NOx emissions in the base model

Bus 5.1%

Coach 10.6%

Articulated HGV 22.5% Van 8.9%

Passenger Car 36.4%

Rigid HGV 16.5%

Figure 5.14 - Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to NOx emissions in the OGS
Coach 6.8% Passenger Car 36.9%

Bus 5.2%

Articulated HGV 20.8% Van 9.4%

Rigid HGV 20.9%

Figure 5.15 - Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to NOx emissions in the NGS

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Articulated HGV 11.0%

Bus 3.3%

Coach 7.5%

Van 14.2% Rigid HGV 13.8%

Passenger Car 50.2%

Figure 5.16 - Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to PM emissions in the base model

Articulated HGV 12.1%

Bus 4.0%

Coach 10.3% Passenger Car 48.8%

Van 13.5% Rigid HGV 11.3%

Figure 5.17 - Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to PM emissions in the OGS

Bus Coach 4.6% 6.5% Articulated HGV 11.8% Van 14.1% Rigid HGV 14.8%

Passenger Car 48.2%

Figure 5.18 - Chart displaying the proportion of each vehicle contribution to PM emissions in the NGS

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5.5.1. Fuel Consumption Although passenger cars accounted for two thirds of the fuel consumed in the three models, almost two thirds of NOx emissions and over half of PM emissions were accounted for by heavy duty vehicles. The proportion contributed by HGV’s, buses, coaches and vans to PM and NOx emissions significantly outweighed that contributed by passenger cars.

5.5.2. NOx As a result of the NGS, the total NOx emitted by coaches was reduced by 2.5% whereas the OGS was unsuccessful at reducing this value from that of the base network. Surprisingly, for articulated-HGV’s the total NOx emissions in the OGS increased by 7.4% and in the NGS by 5.7%. Emissions contributed by rigid HGV’s were reduced in the OGS by 7% and in the NGS by 2.6%. Overall this had confirmed that the OGS and NGS were both successful at reducing the proportion of NOx emissions contributed by heavy duty vehicles.

5.5.3. Particulate Matter Similar patterns to NOx emissions were displayed for the proportion of PM reduced in the NGS for coaches and articulated HGV’s. Over 50% of the total PM in the NGS was emitted by diesel based heavy duty vehicles. As the passenger car vehicle fleet consisted of both petrol and diesel engine vehicles, passenger cars contributed less PM emissions than the combined contribution of heavy duty vehicles. Section 5.8 examines the contribution to FC, NOx and PM emissions for petrol and diesel passenger cars.

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5.6. Emission Contributions in Petrol and Diesel Engine Passenger Cars

Car (Petrol) EU3 25% Car (Petrol) EU2 7% Car (Petrol) EU1 1% Car (Petrol) EU0 0% Car (Diesel) EU5 6% Car (Diesel) EU4 21%

Car (Petrol) EU5 7%
Car (Petrol) EU4 22% Car (Diesel) EU0 0% Car (Diesel) EU1 0% Car (Diesel) EU2 2% Car (Diesel) EU3 9%

Figure 5.19 - Chart displaying the proportion of FC contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the base model

Car (Petrol) EU2 8% Car (Petrol) EU1 1% Car (Petrol) EU3 27% Car (Petrol) EU4 21% Car (Petrol) EU5 7% Car (Diesel) EU1 0% Car (Diesel) EU0 0% Car (Diesel) EU3 Car (Diesel) EU2 1% 9%

Car (Petrol) EU0 0% Car (Diesel) EU5 8%

Car (Diesel) EU4 18%

Figure 5.20 - Chart displaying the proportion of FC contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the OGS

Car (Petrol) EU3 26%

Car (Petrol) EU4 22%

Car Car (Diesel) (Petrol) EU0 EU5 0% 7%

Car (Petrol) EU2 8% Car (Petrol) EU1 1% Car (Petrol) EU0 Car (Diesel) 1% EU5 8%

Car (Diesel) EU4 17%

Car (Diesel) EU1 0%
Car (Diesel) EU2 1% Car (Diesel) EU3 9%

Figure 5.21 - Chart displaying the proportion of FC contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in 63 the NGS

Car (Diesel) EU4 43% Car (Diesel) EU3 24% Car (Diesel) EU5 13% Car (Petrol) EU0 1% Car Car (Petrol) (Petrol) Car (Petrol) EU3 EU1 EU2 4% 4% 1%

Car (Diesel) EU1 0% Car (Diesel) EU2 Car (Diesel) EU0 Car (Petrol) EU5 4% 0% 1% Car (Petrol) EU4 5%

Figure 5.22 - Chart displaying the proportion of NOx contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the base model

Car (Diesel) EU4 36% Car (Diesel) EU3 26% Car (Diesel) EU2 3% Car (Diesel) EU1 0% Car (Diesel) EU0 Car (Petrol) 0% EU5 Car (Petrol) EU4 2% 5% Car (Diesel) EU5 16%

Car (Petrol) EU3 5%

Car (Petrol) EU0 1% Car (Petrol) Car (Petrol) EU2 EU1 5% 1%

Figure 5.23 - Chart displaying the proportion of NOx contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the OGS

Car (Diesel) EU0 0% Car (Diesel) EU3 26%

Car (Diesel) EU4 36%

Car (Diesel) EU5 16%

Car (Diesel) EU2 4% Car (Diesel) EU1 Car (Petrol) EU5 0% 1%

Car (Petrol) EU4 5%

Car (Petrol) EU3 5%

Car (Petrol) EU2 5%

Car (Petrol) EU0 Car (Petrol) 1% EU1

1%

Figure 5.24 - Chart displaying the proportion of NOx contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the NGS
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Car (Diesel) EU3 28%

Car (Diesel) EU4 32%
Car (Diesel) EU5 1% Car (Petrol) Car (Petrol) EU0 0% EU1 Car (Petrol) EU2 1% 8%

Car (Diesel) EU2 11%
Car (Petrol) EU3 Car (Diesel) EU1 12% 0% Car (Diesel) EU0 1% Car (Petrol) EU5 Car (Petrol) EU4 1% 5%

Figure 5.25 - Chart displaying the proportion of PM contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the base model

Car (Diesel) EU3 28% Car (Diesel) EU2 8% Car (Diesel) EU1 1% Car (Diesel) EU0 0% Car (Petrol) EU5 Car (Petrol) EU4 2% 5%

Car (Diesel) EU4 28%

Car (Diesel) EU5 2% Car (Petrol) EU0 0% Car (Petrol) EU1 1%

Car (Petrol) EU3 15%

Car (Petrol) EU2 10%

Figure 5.26 - Chart displaying the proportion of PM contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the OGS
Car (Diesel) EU3 29% Car (Diesel) EU2 8% Car (Diesel) EU1 1% Car (Diesel) EU0 0% Car Car (Petrol) EU5 1% (Petrol) EU4 5% Car (Petrol) EU3 14%

Car (Diesel) EU4 27%

Car (Petrol) EU2 11%

Car (Diesel) EU5 2% Car (Petrol) EU0 1% Car (Petrol) EU1 1%

Figure 5.27 - Chart displaying the proportion of PM contributed by petrol and diesel (EURO 0 – 5) passenger cars in the NGS
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5.6.1. Analysis of Emission Contributions Although over 60% of FC was attributed to petrol engine cars in the base model, OGS and NGS; 80% of NOx emissions produced in the OGS and base model, and 67% in the NGS, were emitted by diesel cars. Despite the low quantities of CO2 produced from diesel exhaust emissions, diesel engines produce 24 times more NOx than petrol engines (ECO Travel 2007). Diesel cars accounted for 72% of PM emissions in the base model and 67% in the NGS.

5.7. EURO Class Petrol and Diesel Vehicles European emission standards were introduced to limit the quantity of exhaust pollutants emitted for new vehicles sold in the EU. The stringency of the emission standards are progressively introduced in order to reduce the levels of CO2 and other chemicals that contribute to atmospheric pollution. Passenger cars are classified as EURO 0 - 5 according to their engine technology, conventionally determined by the manufacturing year of the vehicle. At present limitations on the emission concentrations of the following exhaust emissions are upheld in the EU: NOx, HC, CO, PM and NMHC. Table 5.6 below displays emission limits for NOx and PM for EURO 0 - 5 diesel and petrol passenger cars.

Generation Year Introduced
Petrol EURO 0 EURO 1 EURO 2 EURO 3 EURO 4 EURO 5 EURO 0 EURO 1 EURO 2 EURO 3 EURO 4 EURO 5 1992 1996 1996 2000 2005 2009 Diesel 1992 1996 1996 2000 2005 2009

NOx (g/km) 0.50 0.25 0.18 0.15 0.08 0.06 0.06

PM (g/km) 0.14 (0.18) 0.08 0.10 0.05 0.025 0.05 0.005

Table 5.6 - EU Emission Standards for Passenger Cars - Category M1 † Values in brackets are conformity of production (COP) limits a - until 1999.09.30 (after that date DI engines must meet the IDI limits) b - 2011.01 for all models c - and NMHC = 0.068 g/km d - applicable only to vehicles using DI engines e - proposed to be changed to 0.003 g/km using the PMP measurement procedure (DieselNet 2004)

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Table 5.7 displays the FC, NOx, PM, mass and power ratings for EURO 0 – 5 passenger cars. The FC, NOx and PM emissions for each type of vehicle did not directly correlate with the mass and power output of petrol engine vehicles. By contrast diesel engine vehicles showed a directly proportional relationship between vehicle generation and the level of NOx and PM emitted. Although the mass and power output in modern diesel vehicles exceeded that of cars using an older engine technology, as a result of modern vehicles being more fuel efficient, the quantities of NOx and PM emitted were far lower in modern diesel engines vehicles than vehicles using older engine technology.

Generation EURO 0 EURO 1 EURO 2 EURO 3 EURO 4 EURO 5 EURO 0 EURO 1 EURO 2 EURO 3 EURO 4 EURO 5

FC (g) 411.95 136.14 117.20 90.07 113.34 142.26 385.56 176.93 246.20 97.66 98.49 77.38

NOx (g) 3.682 0.461 0.381 0.104 0.167 0.222 5.639 2.602 3.842 2.304 1.110 1.019

PM (g) Petrol 0.075 0.024 0.032 0.010 0.005 0.006 Diesel 0.626 0.327 0.274 0.097 0.032 0.004

Power Rating (kW) 100 80 74 80 82 81 54 70 80 88 99 110

Mass (kg) 1230.84 1125.16 1080.52 1169.57 1177.11 1194.92 1370 1415.71 1339.97 1399.25 1503.16 1547.94

Table 5.7 – Comparison of the FC, NOx, PM, vehicle mass and power rating for petrol and diesel EURO 0 – 5 passenger cars

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CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6.1. Introduction In this chapter a conclusive summary of the material investigated in each chapter of the report is provided following by a review of the results presented in chapter 5. Lastly, recommendations for further work are discussed at the end of the chapter.

6.2. Report Summary The report initially discussed the importance of reducing vehicle emissions to improve national air quality and concluded that in order for targets to be met, the focus of national air quality strategies should be to manage the capacity of road networks at a local level. The theory behind the queue relocation strategy was then discussed in the hypothesis, followed by the presentation of the aims and objectives expected to be met in the report.

Chapter two of the report explained the mechanism that causes traffic ‘jams’ to form in the network and presented the ideas of various experts in the field to relieve traffic congestion. The theory presented was coupled with examples of successful and unsuccessful gating schemes implemented in practice, to consider the practical constraints involved when developing a gating scheme. The second part of the chapter analysed the technical features of a variety of modelling software and justified why Aimsun microsimulation modelling was the most suitable programme for this project.

The third chapter of the report outlined the details of the measures that were taken in order to conduct the vehicle tracking survey and the data that was collected to calibrate the model. Procedures to validate the vehicle fleet composition from the observed and modelled data were detailed at the end of the chapter.

The technique used to relocate traffic in the OGS was initially explained in chapter four, followed by the presentation of the adjustments made in the signal control plan to devise the NGS. Toward the end of the chapter a comparison of the simulated vehicle travel times were presented which confirmed the reduction in delay of the NGS relative to the base model.

In chapter five the percentage differences in the distribution of vehicle emissions and the emission contributions per vehicle type for the three models were compared. The last part of the chapter

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examined the relationship between vehicle emissions, mass and power output for petrol and diesel EURO class 0 – 5 passenger cars.

6.3. Conclusions The total emissions accumulated for road sections on the north and south bound routes display the distribution of vehicle emissions throughout the traffic network. The distribution of emissions was compared for the three models to determine whether the NGS reduced emissions from the base model and OGS. Section 251 – 335 of the north bound route, represented by the part of the network preceding and including Salterhebble Hill, displayed a reduction in FC of 33.5%, NOx of 44.4% and PM of 34.8% relative to the base model, and a reduction in FC of 6.7%, NOx of 9.2% and PM of 4.5% relative to the OGS. For section 352 - 417 of the north bound route NOx emissions were reduced in the NGS by 15.7% from the base model and by 9.2% from the OGS.

Contrastingly for the south bound route the NGS displayed an increase in FC of 7.7%, NOx of 8.1% and PM of 16.1% relative to the base model. Due to the variation of the emissions produced for the north and south bound route, the emissions for each route were combined to compare the total emissions in each model. The NGS had reduced FC by 17.1%, NOx by 27.4% and PM by 15.1% from the base model and improved NOx emissions by 2.6% and PM emissions by 0.01% relative to the OGS.

Furthermore, the NGS had not only produced lower overall emissions than the OGS and base model; it had also successfully removed 8% more emissions than the OGS from the traffic network. The difference between emissions on the north and south bound routes had shown that 36.3% of NOx and PM emissions were relocated to another area of the network in the OGS compared to 28.3% in the NGS. This had therefore proven that by relocating the traffic queue from an inclined section to a section with a flat gradient the quantity of total emissions produced in the traffic network could be reduced.

In terms of the vehicle proportions contributed by each type of vehicle to emissions, 67% of FC came from passenger cars of which 63% had petrol engines. In contrast 93% of NOx emissions and 80% of PM emissions in the traffic network were attributed to diesel engine vehicles. Thus the proportion of diesel engine vehicles in the traffic fleet that contributed to NOx and PM emissions significantly outweighed those contributed by petrol engine vehicles.

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The mass and power output of EURO class light duty vehicles did not correlate with the PM and NOx emissions produced by the vehicle, however a correlation could be established between the vehicle generation, showing that more recent generations of EURO standard vehicles produced lower emissions than vehicles using older engine technology.

6.4. Recommendations The purpose of the dissertation was to investigate whether relocating a vehicle queue from an inclined road section to a section with a flat gradient could reduce the emission concentrations of particular pollutants in the traffic network. Further data collection would increase the accuracy of the calibration and validation of the model and enable more decisive conclusions to be drawn from the study. However for further investigation it is recommended that a more in depth analysis of how the impact of the gradient of different road sections affected the proportion of pollutants emitted for different types of vehicle.

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SHEPHERD, S.P. 1992. A review of traffic signal control [online]. Institute for Transport Studies: University of Leeds. [Accessed 25 October 2012]. Available from: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/2217/ SMITH, M.J. 1988. Optimum network control using traffic signals. In Proceedings Colloquium on UK Developments in Road Traffic Signalling. Institution of Electrical Engineers, held in London, May 1988. STROUMTSAS, I. 2012. Mapping vehicle emissions through urban streets and intersections . MSc Dissertation, University of Leeds. TATE, J. E. 2005. A Study of Vehicular Emissions and Ambient Air Quality at the Local-Scale. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leeds. TATE, J.E and BELL, M.C. 2000. Evaluations of a traffic demand strategy to improve air quality in urban areas. University of Leeds: Institute for Transport Studies. THOMAS, G, BAFFOUR, K and BROWN, T. 2008. Simulating and Implementing a SCOOT UTC Strategy for a planned event. [online]. [Accessed 21 November 2012]. Surrey: Surrey County Council. Available from: http://www.trafficresearch.co.uk/ TOLEDO, T, BEN-AKIVA, M.E, DARDA, D, JHA, M, KOUTSOPOULOS, H.N. 2004. Calibration of microscopic traffic simulation models with aggregate data. Transportation Research Record. 1876, pp.10-19. TOLEDO, T, KOUTSOPOULOS, H.N, DAVOL, A, BEN-AKIVA, E, BURGHOUT, W, ANDREASSON, I, JOHANSSON, T and LUNDIN, C. 2003. Calibration and validation of microscopic traffic simulation tools: Stockholm Case Study. Transportation Research Record. 1831, pp.65-75. TRANSPORT AND ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY. 1976. Bus priority systems. Crowthorne: NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society. TSS-TRANSPORT SIMULATION SYSTEMS. 2005. Aimsun Microscopic Traffic Simulator: A Tool for the Analysis and Assessment of ITS Systems. [online]. [Accessed 24 April 2013], pp. 9-19. Available from: http://www.aimsun.com/aimsun_overview_hccmeeting.pdf VINCENT, R.A and LAYFIELD, R.E. 1977. Nottingham Zones and Collar Study: Overall Assessment. Crowthorne: Public Transport Division. WIKIPEDIA. 2013. Macrosocopic traffic flow model [online]. [Accessed 25 March 2013]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macroscopic_traffic_flow_model WYKES, A. 2005. How robust are traffic microsimulation models at simulating signal controlled junctions. MSc Dissertation, University of Leeds. ZALLINGER M, ANH T and HAUSGERGER S. 2005. Improving an instantaneous emission model for passenger cars. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Transport and Air Pollution. 1. pp.1-3

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APPENDIX A

74

Figure A.1 – VBox II Lite GPS & CAN Logger Basic User Guide
75

APPENDIX B

76

Figure B.1 – Risk Assessment

77

78

79

APPENDIX C

80

Speed V (km/h)

60 40 20 0
0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500 300 400 500 300 400 500

Figure C.1 – Trial 1 petrol EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter

81

Speed 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 400 500 600 400 500 600 400 500 600 V (km/h)

Figure C.2 – Trial 2 petrol EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
82

Speed
60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 V (km/h)

Time (s)
Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Tims (s)
NOx Nox (mg/s) 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700

Time (s)

Figure C.3 – Trial 3 Petrol EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
83

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 400 500 400 500 400 500

Figure C.4 – Trial 4 petrol EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
84

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 400 500 600 400 500 600

Particulate Matter
PM (mg/s) 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Time (s)

Figure C.5 – Trial 5 petrol EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
85

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 15 10 5 0 300 400 500 300 400 500

0

100

200
Time (s)

300

400

500

Particulate Matter
PM (mg/s) 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500

Figure C.6 – Trial 1 petrol EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
86

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 400 500 600

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

NOx NOx (mg/s)

15 10 5 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter 400 500 600

PM (mg/s)

0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Figure C.7 – Trial 2 petrol EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
87

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 400 500 600 700

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

NOx NOx (mg/s) 30 20 10 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 700

Figure C.8 – Trial 3 petrol EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
88

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 400 500

3000 2000 1000 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter 400 500 400 500

PM (mg/s)

0.3 0.2 0.1 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500

Figure C.9 – Trial 4 petrol EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter

89

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 400 500 600 400 500 600

Particulate Matter
PM (mg/s) 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Time (s)

Figure C.10 – Trial 5 petrol EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
90

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 300 400 500

Time (s)
NOx NOx (mg/s) 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Particulate Matter 300 400 500

PM (mg/s)

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500

Figure C.11 – Trial 1 petrol EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
91

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 400 500 600

0

100

200

300
Time (S)

400

500

600

NOx

NOx (mg/s)

10 5

0 0 100 200 300
Time (s) Particulate Matter

400

500

600

PM (mg/s)

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Figure C.12 – Trial 2 petrol EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
92

Speed
V (km/h) 60 40 20 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

NOx NOx (mg/s) 15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700

Figure C.13 – Trial 3 petrol EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
93

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 400 500

NOx
NOx (mg/s) 10 5 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

Particulate Matter

PM (mg/s)

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100 200 300 Time (S) 400 500

Figure C.14 – Trial 4 petrol EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
94

Speed 60 V (km/h) 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Fuel Consumption 2000 1500 1000 500 0 FC (mg/s)

0

100

200

300

400

500

600
NOx

NOx (mg/s)

15 10 5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Particulate Matter

PM (mg/s)

0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Figure C.15 – Trial 5 petrol EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
95

Speed
60 40 20 0 V (km/h

0

100

200
Time (s)

300

400

500

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

0

100

200
Time (s)

300

400

500

NOx NOx (mg/s) 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500

Particulate Matter
PM (mg/s) 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

0

100

200
Time (s)

300

400

500

Figure C.16 – Trial 1 petrol EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
96

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

NOx NOx (mg/s) 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Particulate Matter
PM (mg/s) 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Figure C.17 – Trial 2 petrol EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
97

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700

Time (s) Particulate Matter
PM (mg/s) 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

Figure C.18 – Trial 3 petrol EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
98

Speed V (km/h)

60 40 20 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption 400 500

FC (mg/s)

3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter 400 500 400 500

PM (mg/s)

0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500

Figure C.19 – Trial 4 petrol EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
99

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx 400 500 600 400 500 600

NOx (mg/s)

4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Particulate Matter
PM (mg/s) 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

Figure C.20 – Trial 5 petrol EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
100

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500

Fuel Consumption
FC (mg/s)

3000 2000 1000 0
0 100 200 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 8 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Particulate Matter 300 400 500 300 400 500

PM (mg/s)

0.1 0.05 0 0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500

Figure C.21 – Trial 1 petrol EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
101

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Fuel Consumption
FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx 400 500 600

4 3 2 1 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Particulate Matter

PM (mg/s)

0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Figure C.22 – Trial 2 petrol EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
102

NOx (mg/s)

Speed
V (km/h) 60 40 20 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 6 4 2 0 400 500 600 700

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

Particulate Matter
PM (mg/s) 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 700

Figure C.23 – Trial 3 petrol EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
103

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500

Fuel Consumption
FC (mg/s) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 200 300 400 500

Time (s)
NOx NOx (mg/s)

6 4 2 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter 400 500

PM (mg/s)

0.1
0.05 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500

Figure C.24 – Trial 4 petrol EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
104

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption 400 500 600

FC (mg/s)

2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Time (s)
NOx NOx (mg/s) 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 400 500 600

Figure C.25 – Trial 5 petrol EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
105

Speed
V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 300 400 500

Time (s)
Nox NOx (mg/s) 8 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 300 400 500

0

100

200
Time (s)

300

400

500

Figure C.26 – Trial 1 petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
106

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 400 500 600

3000 2000 1000 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 400 500 600

Time (s)
Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Figure C.27 – Trial 2 petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
107

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700

NOx
NOx (mg/s) 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700

Time (s)

Figure C.28 – Trial 3 petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
108

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 8 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 400 500 400 500

Time (s)
Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500

Figure C.29 – Trial 4 petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
109

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 400 500 600 400 500 600 400 500 600

Figure C.30 – Trial 5 petrol EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
110

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500 300 400 500 300 400 500

Particulate Matter
PM (mg/s) 8 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500

Figure C.31 – Trial 1 diesel EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
111

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 40 30 20 10 0 400 500 600 400 500 600

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 8 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Figure C.32 – Trial 2 diesel EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
112

Speed
V (km/h)

60 40 20 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption 400 500 600 700

FC (mg/s)

2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 40 30 20 10 0 400 500 600 700

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 700

Figure C.33 – Trial 3 diesel EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter 113

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s)
3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 40 30 20 10 0 400 500

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500

Figure C.34 – Trial 4 diesel EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
114

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 400 500 600

NOx
NOx (mg/s) 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 400 500 600

Figure C.35 – Trial 5 diesel EURO 0 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
115

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0

0

100

200
Time (s)

300

400

500

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 300 400 500 300 400 500

Time (s)

Figure C.36 – Trial 1 diesel EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
116

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 400 500 600 400 500 600 400 500 600

4 3 2 1 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Figure C.37 – Trial 2 diesel EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
117

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 400 500 600 700

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 700

Particulate Matter
PM (mg/s) 6 4 2 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 700

Figure C.38 – Trial 3 diesel EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
118

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500

Fuel Consumption
FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 4 3 2 1 0 400 500 400 500

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

Figure C.39 – Trial 4 diesel EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
119

Speed
V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 6 4 2 0 400 500 600 400 500 600 400 500 600

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

Figure C.40 – Trial 5 diesel EURO 1 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
120

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 300 400 500 300 400 500

40 30 20 10 0
0 100 200 Time (s) Particulate Matter 300 400 500

PM (mg/s)

4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500

Figure C.41 – Trial 1 diesel EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
121

Speed
V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption 400 500 600

FC (mg/s)

3000 2000 1000 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 400 500 600

Time (s)

Figure C.42 – Trial 2 diesel EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
122

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700

3 2 1 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 700

Figure C.43 – Trial 3 diesel EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
123

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 400 500 400 500

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

Particulate Matter PM (mg/s)

3 2 1 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500

Figure C.44 – Trial 4 diesel EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter

124

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Axis Title Particulate Matter 400 500 600 400 500 600 400 500 600

PM (mg/s)

4 3 2 1 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

Figure C.45 – Trial 5 diesel EURO 2 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
125

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 300 400 500

Time (s)
NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 300 400 500

Time (s)

Figure C.46 – Trial 1 diesel EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
126

Speed V (km/h) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Fuel Consumption
FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 400 500 600 400 500 600

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 100 200 300
Time (s)

400

500

600

Figure C.47 – Trial 2 diesel EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
127

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700

Time (s)

Figure C.48 – Trial 3 diesel EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
128

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s)

3000 2000 1000 0
0 100 200 300 400 500

Time (s)
NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500

Time (s)
Particulate Matter

PM (mg/s)

1.5 1 0.5 0 0 100 200 300 400 500

Time (s)

Figure C.49 – Trial 4 diesel EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
129

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Time (s)
Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 400 500 600

Time (s)
Particulate Matter

PM (mg/s)

1.5 1 0.5 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600

Figure C.50 – Trial 5 diesel EURO 3 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
130

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0

0

100

200
Time (s)

300

400

500

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 1 0.5 0 0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500 300 400 500 300 400 500

Figure C.51 – Trial 1 diesel EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
131

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 700 400 500 600 700

Particulate Matter
PM (mg/s)

1
0.5 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 700

Figure C.52 – Trial 2 diesel EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
132

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx 400 500

NOx (mg/s)

40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter 400 500

PM (mg/s)

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500

Figure C.53 – Trial 3 diesel EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
133

Speed
V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Time (s)
Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

NOx NOx (mg/s) 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 400 500 600

Figure C.54 – Trial 4 diesel EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
134

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500

Time (s)
Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 Time (s) NOx Axis Title 300 400 500

30 20 10 0
0 100 200 Time (s) Particulate Matter 300 400 500

PM (mg/s)

0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0
0 100 200 Time (s) 300 400 500

Figure C.55 – Trial 5 diesel EURO 4 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter

135

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 400 500 600

Time (s)
NOx NOx (mg/s) 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) 400 500 600 400 500 600

Figure C.56 – Trial 1 diesel EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
136

Speed
V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 400 500 600 700

3000 2000 1000 0
0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx 400 500 600 700

NOx (mg/s)

40 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter 400 500 600 700

PM (mg/s)

0.3 0.2 0.1 0

0

100

200

300
Time (s)

400

500

600

700

Figure C.57 – Trial 2 diesel EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
137

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 400 500 400 500 400 500

Time (s)

Figure C.58 – Trial 3 diesel EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
138

Speed V (km/h) 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Fuel Consumption FC (mg/s) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) NOx NOx (mg/s) 30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 Time (s) Particulate Matter PM (mg/s) 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 400 500 600 400 500 600 400 500 600

Time (s)

Figure C.59 – Trial 5 diesel EURO 5 passenger car time-series profile: (a) Speed, (b) Fuel Consumption, (c) NOx and (d) Particulate Matter
139

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