COMPUTER NETWORKS UNIT – I DATA COMMUNICATION A communication service enables the exchange of information between users at different locations

. Communication services & applications are everywhere. Some examples are Email and Internet surfing. Need for Computer Communication over Distances Computer communication has become essential for the following reasons: Computers can send data at a very fast speed over long distances using satellite and microwave links. Therefore, the cost of transfer of documents using computers is cheaper than other conventional means like telegrams. Computers can have fax system integrated with them. This allows them to send pictures along with the text. Thus the newspaper reports can be prepared and sent all over the world at a very high speed by composing and publishing them from different centers. The time taken to transmit the messages is very small. Hence different computers can be connected together and the users can work together as a group. Software packages have been developed for group working in Data Base Management (DBMS) and graphic works. Different departments of an organization may be separated physically being at distant places but their data could be stored on a central computer. This data is accessed by computers located in different departments. The data at the central computer may be updated from time to time and accessed by all users. This prevents any bottlenecks in the smooth functioning of the organization. The latest data (say for inventory) will be easily available at all times to all the users. Fluctuations of prices in foreign exchange and shares/equities can be communicated instantaneously using the medium of computer communications only. The transfer can be accelerated and verified at any instant of time. Data Communication: Data Communication is defined as the exchange of data between two devices via some form of transmission medium such as a wire cable. The communicating devices must be a part of a communication system made up of a combination of hardware (physical equipment) and software (programs). In Data Communications, data generally are defined as information that is stored in digital form. Data communications is the process of transferring digital information between two or more points. Information is defined as the knowledge or intelligence. Data communications can be summarized as the transmission, reception, and processing of digital information. For data communications to occur, the communicating devices must be part of a communication system made up of a combination of hardware (physical equipment) and software (programs). The effectiveness of a data communications system depends on four fundamental characteristics: Delivery, Accuracy, Timeliness, and Jitter. Components of Data Communication: The components of a data communication are Message: The message is the information to be communicated. It can consist of text, pictures, numbers, sound, video or audio. Sender: The sender is the device that sends the data message. It can be a computer or workstation telephone handset, video camera and so on. Receiver: The receiver is the device that receives the message. It can be a computer or workstation telephone handset, video camera and so on. Medium: The transmission medium is the physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver. It could be a twisted pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, or radio waves. 1 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh, Asst. Professor (CS/IT), United Group of Institutions, Allahabad

Numbers Numbers are also represented by using bit patterns. ISO: The international organization for standardization known as ISO has designed a code using a 32 – bit pattern. a code with much greater capacity is needed. Different sets of bit patterns have been designed to represent text symbols. An image is divided into a matrix of pixels. MUX/DEMUX and TRANSMITTER & RECIEVER. This code can represent up to 4. Each pixel is assigned a bit pattern. numbers or images. the ASCII bit patterns are augmented with an extra 0 at the left. Characteristics of Data Communication: The effectiveness of a data communication depends on three characteristics Correct Delivery: to be delivered to intended recipient (The system must deliver data to correct destination) Accurate Delivery: to be delivered in the same form as it was being sent (The system must deliver data accurately) Timely Delivery: to be delivered within specified time. Professor (CS/IT). Text: Text is represented as a bit pattern the number of bits in a pattern depends on the number of symbols in the language.Protocol: A protocol is a set of rules that governs data communications. The process of representing the symbols is called coding. The size of the pixel depends on what is called the resolution. It represents an agreement between the communicating devices. Asst. Each set is called a code. in the same order that they are produced and without significant delay. ASCII is not used to represent numbers. Audio is by nature different from text. Timely delivery means delivering data as they are produced. ASCII: The American National Standards Institute developed a code called the American Standard code for Information Interchange . Extended ASCII: To make the size of each pattern 1 byte (8 bits). It is continuous not discrete 2 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh. Other components of data communication may include: MODEM. Unicode uses 16 bits and can represent up to 65. 2. The number is directly converted to a binary number. Allahabad .296 symbols.294. The size and value of the pattern depends on the image. where each pixel is a small dot. 4.967. Data delivered late are useless.536 symbols. 1.This code uses 7 bits for each symbol. numbers. Unicode: To represent symbols belonging to languages other than English. Images Images are also represented by bit patterns. This kind of delivery is called real time transmission. United Group of Institutions. The system must deliver data in a timely manner. Data Representation Information comes in different forms such as text. images. audio and video. 3. Audio Audio is a representation of sound.

3. number of users. Walkie-talkies and CBR (citizen band radios) 3. text. when two people are communicating by a telephone line. Simplex lines are also called receive-only. The entire capacity of a channel is taken over by whichever of the two devices is transmitting at the time. and capabilities of the connected hardware and the efficiency of the software. Half-duplex (HDX): In half-duplex mode. the communication is unidirectional. access to government Network Performance Criteria Performance can be measured by means of transit time. 1. 4. the other can only receive. E. It is like a two-way street with traffic flowing in both directions at the same time. Telephone network. When one device is sending. What is Network / Defining Network An interconnected (able to exchange information) collection of autonomous computers. the other can only receive. 2. The monitor can only accept output. transmit-only or one-way-only lines. Transit time: The amount of time required for a message to travel from one device to another. each station can both transmit and receive but not at the same time. Simplex (SX): In simplex mode. 3 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh. Keyboards and monitors. Direction of Data Flow / Data Flow Mechanism Communication between two devices can be simplex. E. healthcare. half-duplex or full-duplex 1. 2. both can listen and talk at the same time. Professor (CS/IT). United Group of Institutions. response time. Only one of the devices on a link can transmit.g. Allahabad . Full-duplex (FDX): In full-duplex mode. Video Video can be produced either a continuous entity or it can be a combination of images. Signals going in either direction share the capacity of the link. Asst. type of transmission medium. Uses of networks  companies & organizations  resource sharing: programs. The full duplex is like a two –way street with traffic flowing in both directions at the same time. video or images) exchange and resource (printers. Commercial radio broadcasting is also an example. A set of nodes connected by communication links . the time it takes a link to recover from a failure. audio. Security: Network security is protecting data from unauthorized access.g. Response time: The elapsed time between an inquiry and a response. equipment and data  high reliability: multiple processors/links/file copies  scalability: gradually improve system performance  rapid communications & remote cooperation  access to remote & diverse information sources  communicating with other people  entertainment  education. Signals going in either direction share the capacity of the link.5. The half-duplex mode is like a onelane road with bi-directional traffic.g. E. Reliability: Reliability is measured by the frequency of failure.A node can be any device capable of sending &/or receiving data to &/or from other nodes in the network A connected collection of hardware and software that permits information (data. The keyboard can only introduce input. both stations can transmit and receive simultaneously. memory or link bandwidth) sharing.

it is a very slow method of data transmission. Its disadvantage is the large number of interconnecting cables between the two units. Parallel communication is used for short-distance data communications and within a computer. This is particularly true if the distance between the two units is great. Allahabad . to transmit an 8-bit binary number in parallel from one unit to another. and serial transmission is used for long-distance data communications. only one interconnecting lead is required. but also require special interfacing to minimize noise and distortion problems. This method of transmission can move a significant amount of data in a given period of time. For example. Professor (CS/IT). Asst.Serial and Parallel Transmission Methods There are two methods of transmitting digital data namely parallel and serial transmissions. cabling becomes complex and expensive. Serial data transmission is the process of transmitting binary words a bit at a time. While serial data transmission is much simpler and less expensive because of the use of a single interconnecting line. In parallel data transmission. Each bit requires its own separate data path. Serial data transmission is useful in systems where high speed is not a requirement. Long multiwire cables are not only expensive. For large binary words. all bits of the binary data are transmitted simultaneously. All bits of a word are transmitted at the same time. 4 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh. eight transmission lines are required. United Group of Institutions. Since the bits time-share the transmission medium.

So there is limitation in the number of taps a bus can support and on the distance between those taps. United Group of Institutions. A fault or break in the bus cable stops all transmission. There are following types of topologies: Bus. Professor (CS/IT). Demerits Difficult reconnection and isolation. Merits/Advantages Ease of installation. Mesh and Hybrid. It regenerates the bits and passes them along. Allahabad . A drop line is a connection running between the device and the main cable. As the signal travels farther and farther. 1. A point-to-point connection is established between the remote control and the televisions control system. Ring. Change of television channel by infrared remote control. 2. and the logical topology describes how the data actually flow through the network. The entire link is reserved for transmission between those two devices. Physical Topology / Network Topology Physical Topology refers to the way in which network is laid out physically or logically. Bus uses less cabling than mesh or star topologies. A tap is a connector that either splices into the main cable or punctures the sheathing of a cable to create a contact with a metallic core. The physical topology describes how the network is actually laid out. 2. Ring topology Each device has a dedicated point to point connection only with the two devices on either side of it. Star. Each device in the ring incorporates a repeater. Multipoint: A multipoint (also called multidrop) connection is one in which more than two specific devices share a single link. Two or more links form a topology. E. Bus topology One long cable acts as a backbone to link all the devices in a network Nodes are connected to the bus cable by drop lines and taps.g.Type of connection There are two possible types of connections 1. A signal is passed along the ring in one direction from device to device until it reaches the destination. it becomes weaker . Signal reflection at the taps can cause degradation in quality. The topology of a network is the geometric representation of the relationship of all the links and the linking devices tone another. when it receives the signal intended for another device. Asst. Point-to-point: A point-topoint connection provides a dedicated link between two devices. 5 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh. The capacity of the channel is shared either spatially or temporally.

Merits/Advantages Less expensive than a mesh topology. Robustness. To accommodate that many links every device on the network has (n-1) I/O ports. The hardware required to connect each link can be prohibitively expensive. 3. 6 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh. The constraints are maximum ring length and the number of devices. Allahabad . To add or delete a device requires changing only two connections. Asst. If one device has to send data to another it sends the data to the controller. If one link becomes unusable. Installation and reconfigure is easy. Star topology Each device has a dedicated point to point link only to a central controller usually called a hub. Requires less cable than a mesh. If one device does not receive the signal within a specified period. Professor (CS/IT). A fully connected mash network therefore has {n *(n-1)/2} physical channels to link n devices. If one link fails only that link is affected. Demerits Require more cable compared to bus and ring topologies. it does not incapacitate the entire system. it issue an alarm that alerts the network operator to the problem and its location Demerits A break in the ring disables the entire network. which then relays the data to the other connected device. Privacy or security: When every message travels along a dedicated line only the intended recipient Demerits The amount of cabling and the I/O ports required Installation and reconnection are difficult The sheer bulk of the wire accommodates more space than available. Merits/Advantages Dedicated link guarantees that each connection can carry its own data load.Merits/Advantages Easy to install and reconfigure. Each device needs only one link and I/O port to connect it to any number of others. The term dedicated means that the link carries traffic only between the two devices it connects. It can be solved by using a dual ring or a switch capable of closing off the break. United Group of Institutions. Mesh topology In a mesh topology each device has a dedicated point to point link to every other device. This eliminates the traffic problems that occur when links shared by multiple devices. 4.

ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities. Individual workstation might survive network failure if it doesn’t rely upon others 3. 1. and when it is communicated. It defines what is communicated. Protocols A protocol is a set of rules that governs data communication. MANs typically operate at speeds of 1. semantics and timing. Component evolution independent of system evolution 4. Wide Area Network (WAN) Wide area networks are the oldest type of data communications network that provide relatively slowspeed. school. primarily Ethernet and Token Ring. Frame Relay and X. They also tend to use certain connectivity technologies. the distance it covers and its physical architecture. Semantics and Timing 1. It refers what need to be transmitted.g. E.Categories of Network The three primary categories are of network are Local Area Network (LAN). Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN. and Wide Area Network (WAN). such as fiber-optical links. High transfer rates with low error rates 2. Access to other LANs and WANs 6. the second 8 bits to be the address of the receiver. There are following three components of protocol: Syntax. United Group of Institutions. controlled. This refers the order in which the data are presented. and managed by a single person or organization. office building. Asst. A MAN might be a single network like the cable television network or it usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a highcapacity backbone technology. the rest of the stream may be the message itself 2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN). The key elements of a protocol are syntax. LANs are also typically owned. long-distance transmission of data. How a particular pattern to be interpreted. an address specifies the route to be taken or the final destination of the message.g. Syntax: It refers to the structure or format of the data.5 Mbps to 10 Mbps and range from five miles to a few hundred miles in length. Its geographic scope falls between a WAN and LAN. E. Professor (CS/IT). and provides up-link services to wide area networks and the Internet. Share resources efficiently 2. the first 8 bits of data to be the address of the sender. In addition to operating in a limited space. such as country or entire continent. computer laboratory. how it is communicated. ownership. Support heterogeneous hardware/software 5. or closely positioned group of buildings. Semantics: It refers to the meaning of each section of bits. Allahabad . The category into which a network fall is determined by its size. A WAN differs from a LAN in several important ways. Examples of MANs are FDDI (fiber distributed data interface) and ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) 3. WANs tend to use technology like ATM. Local Area Network (LAN) A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home.25 for connectivity over the longer distances. LANs use a network operating system to provide two-way communications at bit rates in the range of 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps. Advantages of LAN: 1. 7 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh. voice and video information over relatively large and widely dispersed geographical areas. Most WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management. WANs interconnect routers in different locations.

IEEE. government agencies and other service providers to ensure kind of interconnectivity. and government regulatory agencies. Timing: It refers to two characteristics. ANSI. This is often established originally by manufacturers to define the functionality of a new product or technology.3. forums. De facto (from the fact) Standards that have not been approved by an organized body. when data should be sent and how fast they can be sent. Standards organizations Standards are developed through the cooperation of standards creation committees. 2. If a sender produces data at 100 Mbps and the receiver process data at only 1 Mbps. and standardize new technologies. United Group of 5. De jure (by law) Those that have been legislated by an officially recognized body. Electronic Industries Association: It is a nonprofit organization devoted to the promotion of electronics manufacturing concerns. International Telecommunications Union formerly the (CCITT): It a standard for telecommunication in general and data systems in particular. It oversees the development and adoption of international standards for computing and communications. 4. Data communication standards are divided into two categories:1. E. Asst. American National Standards Institute: It is a private nonprofit corporation and affiliated with the U. Standards Creation Committees 1. Forums It work with universities and users to test. It also made significant contributions by defining physical connection interfaces and electronic signaling specifications for data communication. Professor (CS/IT). Its activities include public awareness education and lobbying efforts in addition to standards development. It has been adopted as standards through widespread use. Allahabad . 3. See http://standards. electronics radio and in all related branches of Engineering. creativity. vendors. 8 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh. telecommunication technology and process To give a fixed quality and product to the customer To allow the same product to be re used again elsewhere To aid the design and implementation of ideas To provide guidelines to manufacturers. ISO. The forums are able to speed acceptance and use of those technologies in the telecommunications community.S federal government. technological and economic activity.g. International Standards Organization : It is active in developing cooperation in the realms of scientific. and product quality in the fields of electrical engineering. it will overload the receiver and data will be lost. EIA. ITU. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers : It aims to advance theory. Standards Why do we need standards? To create and maintain an open and competitive market for equipment manufacturers To guarantee national and international interoperability of data. evaluate.

Each layer adds to the services provided by the lower layers in such a manner that the highest layer is provided a full set of services to manage communications and run the applications. Below layer-1 is the physical layer through which actual communication occurs. a protocol is an agreement between the communicating parties on how communication is to proceed. layer n on one machine carries on conversation with the layer n on other machine. In reality. Between the layers service interfaces are defined. The messages from one layer to another are sent through those interfaces. Internet Standards It is a thoroughly tested specification that is useful to and adhered to by those who work with the internet. i. The basic elements of a layered model are services. no data is transferred from layer n on one machine to layer n of another machine. Asst.e. Regulatory Agencies Its purpose is to protect the public interest by regulating radio. With layered architectures. assigned a number. most of the networks are organized as a series of layers or levels. A service is a set of actions that a layer offers to another (higher) layer. It has authority over interstate and international commerce as it relates to communication. Protocol is a set of rules that a layer uses to exchange information with a peer entity. until the lowest layer is reached. In a n-layer architecture. Layered Network Architecture (Why Necessary) To reduce the design complexity. it is the peers that communicate using protocols. each layer passes data and control information to the layer immediately below it. each one build upon one below it.It presents their conclusions to standard bodies. Five-layer architecture is shown below. In other words. Instead. The benefits of the layered models are modularity and clear interfaces. The basic idea of a layered architecture is to divide the design into small pieces. and made available to all interested parties. open architecture and comparability between the different providers' components. the entities comprising the corresponding layers on different machines are called peers. protocols and interfaces. A basic principle is to ensure independence of layers by defining services provided by each layer to the next higher layer without defining how the services are to be performed. communications between two corresponding layers requires a unit of data called a protocol data unit (PDU). Professor (CS/IT). An Internet draft is a working document and it may be published as Request for Comment (RFC). Allahabad . television and wire cable communications. This permits changes in a layer without affecting other layers. A PDU can be a header 9 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh. A specification begins as an internet draft and attains Internet standard status. These rules concern both the contents and the order of the messages used. Basically. RFC is edited. It is a formalized regulation that must be followed. The rules and conventions used in this conversation are collectively known as the layer-n protocol. United Group of Institutions.

Data flows downward through the layers in the source system and upwards at the destination address. presentation and session—Layers 7. Allahabad . overhead information is added to a PDU in the form of headers and trailers. A list of protocols used by a certain system. 2. United Group of Institutions. The OSI reference model divides the problem of moving information between computers over a network medium into SEVEN smaller and more manageable problems. network. It coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium. Professor (CS/IT). one protocol per layer. headers and trailers are added and removed from the PDU. It deals with the mechanical (cable. It also defines the procedures and functions that physical devices and interfaces have to perform for transmission to occur. Each layer communicates with the same layer’s software or hardware on other computers. The OSI model describes how information or data makes its way from application programmes (such as spreadsheets) through a network medium (such as wire) to another application programme located on another network. Each layer provides a service to the layer above it in the protocol specification.added at the beginning of a message or a trailer appended to the end of a message. As data passes from one layer into another. A set of layers and protocols is known as network architecture. This process of adding or removing PDU information is called encapsulation/decapsulation. Asst. In 1984. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model/Architecture of Networks International standard organization (ISO) established a committee in 1977 to develop architecture for computer communication and the OSI model is the result of this effort. Physical Layer (Layer 1) {the physical layer is responsible for transmitting individual bits from one node to the next} The physical layer is the lowest layer of the OSI hierarchy and coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium. Between each pair of adjacent layers there is an interface. Data is Encapsulated with the necessary protocol information as it moves down the layers before network transit. The term “open” denotes the ability to connect any two systems which conform to the reference model and associated standards. and 1) are concerned with the flow of data from end to end through the network. The upper four layers of the OSI model (application. As with any layered architecture. The interface defines which primitives operations and services the lower layer offers to the upper layer adjacent to it. is called protocol stack. The seven layers are: The lower 4 layers (transport. 6 and 5) are orientated more toward services to the applications. the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model was approved as an international standard for communications architecture. data link and physical —Layers 4. 3. plugs and pins) and electrical 10 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh.

e. Also defines the type of transmission medium. The services of the data link layer include: Framing: The data link layer divides the stream of bits received from the network layer into manageable data units called frames. It treats each one independently as though each belong to separate message. Error control: Reliability is added to the physical layer by data link layer to detect and retransmit loss or damaged frames. Allahabad . This is achieved through a trailer added to the end of the frame Access control: When two or more devices are connected to the same link it determines which device has control over the link at any given time. signal strength. Routing and Forwarding: Select a route for the packet according to destination and forwards the packet. Networking: When independent networks or links are connected to create an internetwork or a large network the connective devices route the packet to the final destination. The services of the Network layer include: Logical Addressing: If a packet has to cross the network boundary then the header contains information of the logical addresses of the sender and the receiver. It ensures that each packet gets from its point of origin to its final destination . Data Flow Mechanism: It specifies the transmission mode like simplex. Physical and Logical Apearance: It specifies the physical topology like bus. If the frame is intended for a system located outside the sender’s network then the receiver address is the address of the connecting device that connects the network to the next one.specifications (modulation. ring. Flow Control: If the rate at which the data absorbed by the receiver is less than the rate produced in the sender.i. mesh and hybrid. Network Layer (Layer 3) {is responsible for the delivery of individual packets from the source host to the destination host} The network layer is responsible for source-to-destination delivery of a packet across multiple networks. It defines the type of representation how 0s and 1s are changed to signals. Synchronization of bits: Sender and the receiver must be synchronized at the bit level . Data rate: The number of bits sent each second is also defined by the physical layer. It transforms the physical layer a raw transmission facility to a reliable link. Data link layer (Layer 2) {the data link layer is responsible for transmitting frames from one node to the next} The data link layer is responsible for hop-to-hop (node-to-node) delivery. and also to prevent duplication of frames. 11 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh. star. the data link layer imposes a flow control mechanism to overwhelming the receiver. Representation of bits: To transmit the bits. Professor (CS/IT). half duplex or full duplex. the sender and the receiver clocks must be synchronized. voltage levels and bit times) of the interface and transmission media.It does not recognize any relationship between those packets. it must be encoded into electrical or optical signals. Physical Addressing: If the frames are to be distributed to different systems on the network the data link layer adds a header to the frame to define the receiver or sender of the frame. Asst. It makes physical layer appear error free to the network layer. The services of the physical layer include: Physical characteristics of interfaces and media: It defines the characteristics of the interface between the devices and the transmission media. United Group of Institutions.

These numbers enable the Transport layer to reassemble the message correctly upon arriving at the destination. compression. Connection control: The transport layer can be either connectionless or connection-oriented. Presentation layer (Layer 6) {responsible for translation. Error Control: Error control is performed end to end. maintains. pages 1 to 500 need not be retransmitted. Session Layer (Layer 5) {responsible for dialog control and synchronization} Session layer is the network dialog controller. At the sender. Communication between two processes takes place either in half-duplex or full-duplex. United Group of Institutions. Flow control: Flow control at this layer is performed end to end. retransmission begins at page 501. numbers.Framing: It breaks the larger packets into smaller packets if the packet is larger than the largest data frame the link will accept. Example If a system is sending a file of 2000 pages. It establishes. the transport layer makes sure that the entire message arrives at the receiving transport layer with out error. Source-todestination delivery means delivery from a specific process on one computer to a specific process on the other. The Since different computers use different encoding systems. and so on. So if a crash happens during the transmission of page 523. After all the data are transferred the connection is terminated. check points may be inserted after every 100 pages to ensure that each 100 page unit is advised and acknowledged independently. A connectionless transport layer treats segment as an independent packet and delivers it to the transport layer. Asst. the presentation layer is responsible for interoperability between these different encoding methods. Allahabad . The services of Transport layer includes: Service-point (port) addressing: Computers run several programs at the same time. the dialog between a terminal connected to a mainframe an be half-duplex. The services of Presentation layer includes: Translation . The packets lost in the transmission is identified and replaced. the presentation layer changes the information from its sender-dependent format into a 12 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh. Professor (CS/IT). and synchronizes the interaction between communicating systems. Segmentation and reassembly: A message is divided into segments and each segment contains a sequence number. At the sending side. Error correction is achieved through retransmission. E.The processes in two systems are usually exchanging information in the form of character strings.g. Synchronization: The session layer allows a process to add checkpoints into a stream of data. The services of session layer include: Dialog Control: Session layer allows two systems to enter in to a dialog. and encryption } It is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information exchanged between two systems. packet and massage switching Transport Layer (Layer 4) {is responsible for delivery of a message from one process to another} The network layer is responsible for process-to-process delivery that is source to destination delivery of the entire message. A connection-oriented transport layer makes a connection with the transport layer at the destination machine and delivers the packets. Switching: It is also concerned with circuit. The transport layer header therefore includes a type of address called a service – point address.

Professor (CS/IT). Compression. audio and video. Allahabad .common format. Decryption reverses the original process to transform the message back to its original form. Asst. The services of Application layer include: Network Virtual terminal. Application Layer (Layer 7) {responsible for providing services to the user} It enables the user (human/software) to access the network. to retrieve files from a remote computer and to manage or control files in a remote computer. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as electronic mail. A network virtual terminal is a software version of a physical terminal and allows a user to log on to a remote host. Directory services: It provides distributed database sources and access for global information about various objects and services. It reduces the number of bits to be transmitted. File transfer. The presentation layer at the receiving machine changes the common format into its receiver dependent format. The sender transforms the original information from to another form and sends the resulting message over the entire network. Encryption. United Group of Institutions. It is important in the transmission of text. Mail services: This application provides the basis for e-mail forwarding and storage. shared database management and other types of distributed information services. 13 By: Akhilesh Kumar Singh. access and management: This application allows a user to access files in a remote computer. remote file access and transfer.

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