Social Studies 11/Ms Scheuer

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Ch 14 Review Questions Part 1: Living Standards
Total Marks: 21
Refer to pages 341-365 of your text: Counterpoints On a separate sheet of paper in blue/black pen or typed answer the following questions in full sentences or point form – make sure you answer ALL the questions and that they are answered thoroughly.

Defining Poverty (11.5 marks) 1. What criteria does the United Nations use to measure development? (1) Adult literacy, life expectancy, per-capita GDP 2. Use Figure 14-2 on page 342 and respond to Questions #1-3 below the map. (1.5) 1. Highest: North America, Europe Lowest: Africa and India/Middle East Middle: South America and East Asia, Northern Africa/Middle East 2. 2. Many purple regions are North, but a few of them are in the south such as Argentina and Australia. India and much of Africa is actually north of the Equator. 3. Asia has the widest range, due to big populations, varying cultures and religions, varying economic wealth. 3. What did scientists mean when they referred to the “developed” and the “underdeveloped/developing” in regards to countries? (1) - Wealth, infrastructure, modernization 4. What do we mean by the terms First World, Second World, Third World? Can you think of an appropriate example (a country) for each “world?” (2) First World: Developed (eg. Canada) Second World: Developing (eg. Brazil)
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Third World: Underdeveloped (eg. Kenya) 5. What terms do we use today to describe the various worlds of development? (1) Developed, Newly Industrialized, Developing, Highly Indebted Poor Countries 6. What are highly (or heavily) indebted poor countries (HIPCs)? (0.5) They are at the bottom of the Human Development Index 7. Complete the table below on this sheet: (3) Poverty in Canada (pages 344-345) Poverty in Developing Countries (pages 344-345)

Access to Health Care Access to government and private social programs to give assistance to those in need

No electricity No sanitation or clean water Illiterate Denied the right to vote

8. How does the World Bank Measure poverty? (0.5) Living on less than $1US per day. 9. How do we measure poverty in Canada? (0.5) 56% or more of your income is spent on the necessities of life (food, shelter, clothing) 10. How do Americans define poverty? (0.5) The cost of a minimum adequate diet, multiplied by three. If you make less than that, you are considered impoverished. Are poor nations made to stay poor by rich nations? (4.5 marks) 11. If the world has enough food on any given day to provide for each of its 7 billion members, why are 800+ million people starving around the world? Explain your thoughts. (1) LACK OF ACCESS TO THIS FOOD! (because of location, money) 12. Since WWII, several developing countries have had their resources squeezed out by loans made by western banks and the World Bank + the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Read page 347 and complete the section below on this sheet of paper. (2.5) Phase 1: Post war loans and assistance lead to debt. The consequences of some of these projects lead to environmental damage.

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Phase 2: Banks loaned money but some of it had gone to corrupt dictators which left many nations in further debt. Phase 3: The IMF and the World Bank came back to provide loans so that countries could pay back debts owed to the banks in phase 2. Phase 4: Today, if a country wants a loan from the IMF, it must restructure the economy . Such programs are called Structural Aid Programs. 13. What is Canada’s position on HIPCs? (1) Canada believes that the debt belonging to these countries should be forgiven. In other words, their debt should be erased so they can begin to improve their living standards. Poverty on Aboriginal Reserves (5 marks) 14. Read “Up Close: Poverty on Aboriginal Reserves” and answer the following questions. a. What are the typical conditions of Aboriginal reserves in Canada? How does this compare to conditions of developing countries? (2) Conditions: High infant mortality, substandard housing, low life expectancy, few social services. This is very similar to conditions of developing countries. b. Identify solutions that First Nations suggest to improve condition and lessen dependence. How could the federal government support these suggestions? (2) Let them have a share in the profit from natural resources, including giving them jobs in these sectors. c. Do you agree with Chief Coon Come that winning a share of natural resources will improve conditions for most Native Canadians? Explain why or why not. (1) Your opinion.

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