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SECTION 11

LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS
IN POWER SYSTEMS
Badrul H. Chowdhury
Professor
Electrical & Computer Engineering Department
University of Missouri-Rolla

Introdu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2
Developing Power Flow Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2
Power-Flow Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6
Example of N-R Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.12
Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.15
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.16

INTRODUCTION

The load-flow problem models the nonlinear relationships among bus power injections,
power demands, and bus voltages and angles, with the network constants providing the
circuit parameters. It is the heart of most system-planning studies and also the starting
point for transient and dynamic stability studies. This section provides a formulation of
the load-flow problem and its associated solution strategies. An understanding of the
fundamentals of three-phase systems is assumed, including per-unit calculations, complex
power relationships, and circuit-analysis techniques.
There are two popular numerical methods for solving the power-flow equations. These
are the Gauss-Seidel (G-S) and the Newton-Raphson (N-R) Methods (Grainger and
Stevenson, 1994; Elgerd, 1982; Glover and Sharma, 1994). The N-R method is superior
to the G-S method because it exhibits a faster convergence characteristic. However, the
N-R method suffers from the disadvantage that a “flat start” is not always possible since
the solution at the beginning can oscillate without converging toward the solution. In or-
der to avoid this problem, the load-flow solution is often started with a G-S algorithm fol-
lowed by the N-R algorithm after a few iterations.
There is also an approximate but faster method for the load-flow solution. It is a varia-
tion of the N-R method, called the fast-decoupled method, which was introduced by Stott
and Alsac (1974). We will not be covering this method in this section.

11.1
11.2 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

NOMENCLATURE

SD  complex power demand ys  series admittance


SG  complex power generation R  series resistance
S  complex bus power X  series reactance
PD  real power demand, MW Zs  series impedance
PG  real power generation XG  synchronous reactance
P  real bus power Yii  driving point admittance at bus i
QD  reactive power demand in Yij  transfer admittance between
MVAR busses i and j
QG  reactive power generation Yij  magnitude of Yij
Q  reactive bus power ij  angle of Yij
V   bus voltage magnitude E  synchronous machine-gener-
  bus voltage angle ated voltage
V̂  complex voltage Î  complex current
B  shunt susceptance Ybus  bus admittance matrix
yp  shunt admittance

DEVELOPING POWER-FLOW EQUATIONS

A two-bus example, shown in Fig. 11.1, is used to simplify the development of the
power-flow equations. The system consists of two busses connected by a transmission
line. One can observe that there are six electrical quantities associated with each bus: PD ,
PG , QD , QG , V, and . This is the most general case, in which each bus is shown to have
both generation and demand. In reality, not all busses will have power generation. The
impedance diagram of the two-bus system is shown in Fig. 11.2. The transmission line is
represented by a -model and the synchronous generator is represented by a source
behind a synchronous reactance. The loads are assumed to be constant impedance for the
sake of representing them on the impedance diagram. Typically, the load is represented
by a constant power device, as shown in subsequent figures.
Figure 11.3 is the same as Fig. 11.2 but with the generation and demand bundled
together to represent “bus power,” which represents bus power injections. Bus power is
defined as
S1  SG1  SD1  (PG1  PD1)  j(QG1  QD1) (1)
and
S2  SG2  SD2  (PG2  PD2)  j(QG2  QD2) (2)
Also, injected current at bus 1 is
Î1  ÎG 1  ÎD 1 (3)
LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.3

FIGURE 11.1 A two-bus power system.

FIGURE 11.2 Impedance diagram for the two-bus power system.

and injected current at bus 2 is


Î2  ÎG 2  ÎD 2 (4)
All quantities are assumed to be per unit. Then, since
S1  V̂1Î1* Q P1  jQ1  V̂1Î1* Q (P1  jQ1)  V̂1*Î1 (5)
and, since
S2  V̂2Î2* Q P2  jQ2  V̂2Î2* Q (P2  jQ2)  V̂2* Î2 (6)

FIGURE 11.3 Bus powers with transmission line -model for the
two-bus system.
11.4 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

FIGURE 11.4 Current flows in the network model.

Let us define current flows in the circuit as shown in Fig. 11.4. Therefore, at bus 1
Î1  Î1  Î1

 V̂1yp  (V̂1  V̂2)ys


Î1  (yp  ys)V̂1  (ys)V̂2 (7)
 Î1  Y11V̂1  Y12V̂2 (8)
 sum of admittances connected at bus 1  yp  ys
where Y11  (9)
 negative of the admittance between busses 1 and 2  ys
Y12  (10)

Similarly, at bus 2
Î2  Î2  Î2

 V̂2yp  (V̂2  V̂1)ys


Î2  (ys)V̂1  (yp  ys)V̂2 (11)
Î2  Y21V̂1  Y22V̂2 (12)

 sum of all admittances connected at bus 2  yp  ys


Y22  (13)
 negative of the admittance between busses 2 and 1  ys  Y12
Y21  (14)
Hence, for the two-bus power system, the current injections are

II  YY
1

2
11

21
Y12
Y22 V̂V̂ 
1

2
(15)

In matrix notation,
Ibus  YbusVbus (16)
The two-bus system can easily be extended to a larger system. Consider an n-bus sys-
tem. Figure 11.5a shows the connections from bus 1 of this system to all the other busses.
Figure 11.5b shows the transmission line models. Equations (5) through (16) that were
LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.5

FIGURE 11.5a Extending the analysis to an n-bus system.

FIGURE 11.5b The -model for the n-bus system.

derived for the two-bus system can now be extended to represent the n-bus system. This is
shown next.
Î1  V̂1yp12  V̂1yp13   V̂1yp1n  (V̂1  V̂2)ys12  (V̂1  V̂3)ys13  
(V̂1  V̂2)ys1n
 (yp12  yp13   yp1n  ys12  ys13   ys1n)V̂n  ys12V̂2  ys13V̂3
  ys1nV̂n (17)
Î1 Y11V̂1  Y12 V̂2  Y13 V̂3   Y1n V̂n (18)

where Y11  (yp12  yp13   yp1n  ys12  ys13   ys1n) (19)

 sum of all admittances connected to bus 1

Y12  yS12; Y13  yS13; Y1n  ys1n (20)


n
 Î1   YijVˆj
j1
(21)
11.6 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

Also, extending the power Eq. (5) to an n-bus system,


n
P1  jQ1  V̂1*I1  V̂1* Y1jVˆj (22)
j1

Equation (22) can be written for any generic bus i:


n
Pi  jQi  V̂i* YijVˆj i  1, 2, . . . , n (23)
j1

Equation (23) represents the nonlinear power-flow equations. Equation (15) can also be
rewritten for an n-bus system:

   
Î1 Y11 Y12 … Y1n V̂1
Î2 Y21 Y22 … Y2n V̂2
 … (24)
    
În Yn1 Yn2 … Ynn V̂n

or

Ibus  Ybus Vbus (25)


where

 
Y11 Y12 … Y1n
Y21 Y22 … Y2n
Ybus   bus admittance matrix (26)
  
Yn1 Yn2 … Ynn

POWER-FLOW SOLUTION

Let us take a generic bus as shown in Fig. 11.6. As mentioned earlier, each bus has six
quantities or variables associated with it. They are V ,  , PG , QG , PD , and QD. Assuming
that there are n busses in the system, there would be a total of 6n variables.

FIGURE 11.6 A generic bus.


LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.7

TABLE 11.1 Bus Classifications

Bus classification Prespecified variables Unknown variables


Slack or swing V , , PD , QD PG , QG
Voltage-controlled V , PG , PD , QD , QG
Load PG, QD, PD, QD  V , 

The power-flow Eq. (23) can be resolved into the real and reactive parts as follows:

 
n
 Pi  Real V̂i*YijV̂j i  1, 2, . . . , n (27)
j1

 
n
Qi  Imag V̂i* YijV̂j i  1, 2, . . . , n (28)
j1

Thus, there are 2n equations and 6n variables for the n-bus system. Since there cannot be
a solution in such case, 4n variables have to be prespecified. Based on parameter specifi-
cations, we can now classify the busses as shown in Table 11.1.
We will now describe the methods used in solving the power-flow equations.

Gauss-Seidel (G-S) Algorithm for Power-Flow Solution

Note that the power-flow equations are


n
Pi  jQ i  V̂i*  YijV̂j i 1, 2, . . . , n (23)
j1

n
 V̂i*YiiV̂i   V̂ *i YijV̂j
j1, j i
(29)

n
Q V̂i*YiiV̂i  (Pi  jQ i)   V̂i*YijV̂j
j1, j i
(30)

Pi  jQ i n
Q YiiV̂i 
V̂i*
  YijV̂j
j1, j i
(31)

Pi  jQ i n

V̂i*
  YijV̂j
j1, j i
Q V̂i  (32)
Yii
Also, from (29),

  V̂i*YijV̂j
n
Pi  Re V̂i*YiiV̂i  (33)
j1, j i

and
11.8 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

  V̂i*YijV̂j
n
Q i  Imag V̂i*YiiV̂i  (34)
j1, j i

where Yij are elements of the Ybus.

The G-S Algorithm

Step 0. Formulate and Assemble Ybus in Per Unit


Step 1. Assign Initial Guesses to Unknown Voltage Magnitudes and Angles
V   1.0, 0
Step 2a. For Load Buses, Find V̂i form Eq. (32)

  YijV̂j(k)  Yii
n
V i(k1)  (Pi jQ i)  Vi*(k) 
j1, ji

where k  iteration no. For voltage-controlled busses, find V̂i using (34) and (32) to-
gether. That is, find Qi first.

   YijV (k)j 
n
Q (k1)
i  Imag V̂i*(k) V (k)
i Yii 
j1, j i

Then

  YijV̂j*  Yii
n
V (k1)
i  (Pi  jQ i)/V̂i*(k) 
j1, j i

(k1)
However, V i is specified for voltage-controlled busses. So,Vi(k1)  Vi , spec   i, calc
In using Eqs. (32) and (34), one must remember to use the most recently calculated
values of bus voltages in each iteration. So, for example, if there are five busses in the
system being studied, and one has determined new values of bus voltages at busses 1 – 3,
then during the determination of bus voltage at bus 4, one should use these newly calcu-
lated values of bus voltages at 1, 2, and 3; busses 4 and 5 will have the values from the
previous iteration.
Step 2b. For Faster Convergence, Apply Acceleration Factor to Load Buses

i,acc  V i,acc  (V i  V i,acc)


V (k1) (k) (k) (k)
(35)

where  acceleration factor.


Step 3. Check Convergence
Re [V̂ (k1)
i ]  Re [V̂ (k)
i ]  (36)
That is, the absolute value of the difference of the real part of the voltage between
successive iterations should be less than a tolerance value . Typically,   104, and
also,
Imag [V̂i(k1)]  Imag[V̂i(k)]   (37)
That is, the absolute value of the difference of the imaginary value of the voltage should
be less than a tolerance value .
LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.9

FIGURE 11.7 A two-bus system illustrating line-flow com-


putation.

If the difference is greater than tolerance, return to Step 3. If the difference is less than
tolerance, the solution has converged; go to Step 4.
Step 4. Find Slack Bus Power PG and QG from Eqs. (27) and (28)
Step 5. Find All Line Flows as Described in the Next Section
Computing Line Flows. As the last step in any power-flow solution, one has to find the
line flows. This is illustrated by the two-bus system shown in Fig. 11.7. Line current, Îij,
at bus i is defined positive in the direction i : j.

Îij  Îs Îpi(V̂i  V̂j)ys  V̂iypi (38)


Let Sij, Sji be line powers defined positive into the line at bus i and j, respectively.

Sij  Pij  jQ ij  V̂iÎi*j  V̂i


V̂i*  V̂j* y*
s  Vi ypi
2 *
(39)
Sji  Pji  jQ ji  V̂jÎj*i  V̂j
V̂j*  V̂i* y*
s  Vj ypi
* 2
(40)
The power loss in line (i  j) is the algebraic sum of the power flows determined from
(39) and (40).
SLij  Sij  Sji (41)

Newton-Raphson (N-R) Method for Power-Flow Solution


The Newton-Raphson method enables us to replace the nonlinear set of power-flow equa-
tions of (23) with a linear set. We will show this after the basis for the method is explained.
The Taylor series expansion of a function f(x) of a single variable, x, around the point
(x  a) is given by

f(x)  f(a)  (xa)


f
x a 

(x  a)n 2f
2! x2 a
 
(x  a)n nf
n! xn
 n (42)

where
f
x a  value of the derivative evaluated at x  a.

The series converges if lim n  0.


n: 
11.10 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

If (x  a)  1 then we can neglect the higher-order terms and write (42) as


f
f(x) f(a)  (x  a) x 
a
(43)

For a function of n variables, one can expand around the point: (x1  a1), (x2  a2),
(xn  an) with (xk  ak)  1 and k  1, 2, . . . , n. Then, Eq. (42) becomes

f(x1, x2, . . . , xn) f(a1, a2, . . . , an)  (x1  a1)


f
x1  a1
 (x2  a2)
f
x2  a2

 …  (xn  an)
f
xn  an
(44)

Let us consider a set of nonlinear equations, each a function of n variables:

f1(x1, x2, . . . , xn)  y1


f2(x1, x2, . . . , xn)  y2
 (45)
fn(x1, x2, . . . , xn)  yn
or
fk(x1, x2, . . . , xn)  yk k  1, 2, . . . , n

k and some correction, xk, which when added to xk yield xk .


Assume initial values x(0) (0) (1)

When x(0)
k are close to the solution, xk, the xs
k are small.
Using the approximate Taylor’s series, we have

fk(x1, x2, . . . , xn)  fk(x(0)


1 , x2 , . . . , xn )  x1
(0) (0)
fk
x1  x1(0)
 x2
fk
x2  x(0)
2
 

xn
fk
xn 
xn(0)
 yk k  1, 2, . . . , n (46)

or, in matrix form,

 
  


f 1 f 1 f 1 x1

x1 x1(0) x2 x2(0) xn xn(0)

  
 
y1f1(x(0) (0) (0)
1 , x2 , . . . , xn )
f 2 f 2 f 2 x2

y2f2(x(0)
1 , x(0)
2 , ... , x(0)
n )
x1 x1(0) x1 x2(0) xn xn(0)
 (47)
      

  
ynfn(x(0) (0) (0)
1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) f n f n f n

x1 x1(0) x2 x2(0) xn xn(0) xn

or
[U](0)  [J](0)[X](0) (48)
where [J] is the Jacobian matrix.
 [X]  ([J](0))1[U](0) (49)
LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.11

To continue iteration, find [X](1) from


[X](1)  [X](0)  [X](0) (50)
Generally,
[X](k1)  [X](k)  [X](k) (51)
where k  iteration number.

The Newton-Raphson Method Applied to Power-Flow Equations

The N-R method is typically applied on the real form of the power-flow equations:
n


Pi   Vi Vk yik cos (k  i  ik)  fip
k1
(52)

n
i  1, . . . , n
Qi    Vi Vk yik sin (k  i  ik)  fiq (53)
k1

Assume, temporarily, that all busses, except bus 1, are of the “load” type. Thus, the
unknown parameters consist of the (n  1) voltage phasors, V̂2 , . . . , V̂n. In terms of real
variables, these are:
Angles 2, 3, . . . , n (n  1) variables
Magnitudes V2, V3, . . . , Vn (n  1) variables
Rewriting (47) for the power-flow equations,

∆P2(0) f2 p
 f2 p
 f2 p
 f2 p
 f2p
 ∆2(0)
(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)
… …
 2 3  n   V2    Vn 

∆P3(0) f3 p
 f3 p

f3p
 f3 p
 f3p
 ∆3(0)
(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)
… …
 2 3  n   V2    Vn 
        

∆Pn(0) fnp
 fnp
 fnp
 fnp
 fnp
 ∆n(0)
(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)
… …
 2 3  n   V2    Vn 

 
(54)
∆Q(0) f2q
 f2 q
 f2q
 f2q f2q ∆V2(0)
(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)
2
… …
 2 3  n   V2    Vn 

∆Q(0) f3q
 f3q
 f3q
 f3q
 f3q
 ∆V3(0)
(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)
3
… …
 2 3  n   V2    Vn 

        

∆Q(0) fnq
 fnq
 fnq
 fnq
 fnq
 ∆Vn(0)
(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)
n
… …
 2 3  n   V2    Vn 
11.12 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

Before proceeding any further, we need to account for voltage-controlled busses. For
every voltage-controlled bus in the system, delete the corresponding row and column
from the Jacobian matrix. This is done because the mismatch element for a voltage-
controlled bus is unknown.
Writing Eq. (54) in matrix form,
U (0)  J(0) X (0) (55)

where U (0)  vector of power mismatches at initial guesses


J (0)  the Jacobian matrix evalutated at the initial guesses
X (0)  the error vector at the zeroth iteration

The N-R Algorithm


Step 0. Formulate and Assemble Ybus in Per Unit
Step 1. Assign Initial Guesses to Unknown Voltage Magnitudes and Angles for a
Flat Start
V   1.0,   0
Step 2. Determine the Mismatch Vector U for Iteration k
Step 3. Determine the Jacobian Matrix J for Iteration k
Step 4. Determine Error Vector X from Eq. (55)
Set X at iteration (k  1): X(k1)  X(k)  X(k). Check if the power mismatches are
within tolerance. If so, go to Step 5. Otherwise, go back to Step 2.
Step 5. Find Slack Bus Power PG and QG from Eqs. (27) and (28)
Step 6. Compute Line Flows Using Eqs. (39) and (40) and the Total Line Losses
from Eq. (41)

EXAMPLE OF N-R SOLUTION

Consider the three-bus system shown in Fig. 11.8. Known quantities are also shown.
Given: V̂11.0 0 p.u., V2  1.0 p.u., P2  0.6 p.u., P3  0.8 p.u., Q3  0.6.

FIGURE 11.8 A three-bus example power system.


LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.13

Step 0.

 
j7 j2 j5
Ybus  j2 j6 j4
j5 j4 j9

Step 1.
(0)

 
2 0
(0) 0
X (0)  3 0 
V2  1.0
V3 0 1.0

Step 2.

P2  f2p  y21 V2 V1 cos (1  2  21)  y22 V2 V2 cos (2  2  22)
 y23 V2 V3 cos (3  2  23) (56)

Q2  f2q  y21 V2 V1 sin (1  2  21)  y22 V2 V2 sin (2  2  22)
 y23 V2 V3 sin (3  2  23) (57)

P3  f3p  y31 V3 V1 cos (1  3  31)  y32 V3 V2 cos (2  3  32)
 y33 V32 cos (3  3  33) (58)

Q3  f3q  y31 V3 V1 sin (1  3  31)  y32 V3 V2 sin (2  3  32)
 y33 V32 sin 23 (59)
The specified bus powers are: P2S  0.6, P3S  0.8, Q3S  0.6. The calculated bus
0
powers at this iteration are: P2  2.1.1 cos (0  0  90)  6.1.1 cos (90°)  4.1.1
cos (0  0  90)  0, P 03  5.1.1 cos 90  4.1.1 cos 90  9.12 cos (90)  0, Q 03 
(5.1.1 sin 90  4.1.1 sin 90°  9.12 sin (90°))  0. Therefore, the mismatches are
P2  0.6; P3  0.8; Q3  0.6.
Step 3.

f2p
 y21 V1 V2 sin (2  21)  y23 V2 V3 sin (2  3  23) (60)
2

f2q
 y23 V2 V3 sin (3  2  23) (61)
3

f2q f2q f2q f2q


, , ,
 2   V2    V3  3
No need to evaluate these since bus 2
f2 p , f3 p , f3q is a voltage-controlled bus.
  V2    V2    V2 
11.14 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

f2p
 y23 V2 cos (3  2  23) (62)
V3
Therefore, at the initial guesses,

f2p
 f2p
 f2p
0 0

6  4 0
2 3 V3

f3p

0
 y32 V3 V2 sin (2  3  32)  4 (63)
2

f3p

0

  [y31 V3 V1  sin (3  31)  y32 V3 V2 sin (3  2  32)]  9 (64)
3


f3p 0
 [y31 V1 cos (1  3  31)  y32 V2 cos (2  3  32)
 V3
 2y33 V3 cos 33]  0 (65)

f3q

0
 [y32 V3 V2 cos (2  3  32)]  0 (66)
2

f3q

0
 [y31 V3 V1 cos (3  1  31)
d2
 y32 V3 V2 cos (3  2  32)]  0 (67)

f3q

0
 [y31 V1 sin (1  3  31)  y32 V2 sin (2  3  32)
 V3
 2y33 V3 sin 33]  9 (68)

   
P (0)
2 6 4 0 0 2
P (0)
3 4 9 0 0  3

Q (0)
2 0 0 10 4 V2
Q (0)
3 0 0 4 9 V3

After the row and column corresponding to bus 2 are eliminated:

   
0.6 6 4 0 2
 0.8  4 9 0 3
0.6 0 0 0 V3

Step 4.
To solve the preceding equations, one can resort to inversion of the Jacobian matrix.
However, computationally, it is more efficient to apply a numerical technique such as the
LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.15

Gaussian elimination technique. The latter can be found in any textbook dealing with
numerical analysis. This technique is applied next.

   
0.6 6 4 0 2 Divide by 6
0.8  4 9 0 3 Divide by 4
0.6 0 0 0 V3

   
0.1 1 0.667 0  2
0.2  1 2.25 0 3 Add this row to row 1
0.6 0 0 9 V3

   
0.1 1 0.667 0  2
0.1  0 1.583 0 3 Divide by 1.583
0.6 0 0 9 V3

   
0.1 1 0.667 0  2
0.063  0 1 0 3
0.6 0 0 9 V3

By back substitution,

0.6
V3(1)  V2(0)  V3 V3    0.067 ;
9
 1.0  0.067
 0.933 3  0.063 ;
2  0  0.063  0.063 2  0.1  0.667  3
 0.058 ;
2  0  0.058  0.058
Continue further iterations until convergence is achieved.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

The two solution strategies described here comprise the basic steps in a load-flow solu-
tion. The reader should be reminded that, occasionally, an off-nominal transformer, a
capacitor, or other network devices also have to be modeled. Most of these models can
be represented in the bus admittance matrix. Another practical consideration that one
needs to bear in mind is that all generators have upper and lower limits of reactive
power generation. Hence, if during a load flow iteration it is found that any one of the
generators is violating its limits, then that particular bus where the generator is located
is said to have lost voltage control and, thus, should be treated as a load bus in subse-
quent iterations.
As is obvious from the two methods, computer-based analysis is essential for obtain-
ing accurate load-flow solutions of any realistically sized power system. A computer-
11.16 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

based analysis typically utilizes many numerical techniques, such as optimal ordering
and sparsity techniques, in order to reduce memory and storage requirements. There are
several excellent load-flow programs available that are widely used by engineers in util-
ity companies for frequent system studies. While industry-grade load-flow software
tends to be very expensive, there are now many educational versions of load-flow soft-
ware available that are inexpensive and quite adequate for classroom use or for studying
small-scale systems.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Elgerd, O. I. 1982. Electric Energy Systems Theory — An Introduction, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-
Hill.
Glover, J. D., and M. Sharma. 1994. Power System Analysis, and Design, 2nd ed. Boston: PWS
Publishing.
Grainger, J. J., and W. D. Stevenson. 1994. Power System Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Stott, B., and O. Alsac. 1974. “Fast Decoupled Load Flow,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus
& Systems, Vol. PAS-93, pp. 859 – 869.