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LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS

IN POWER SYSTEMS

Badrul H. Chowdhury

Professor

Electrical & Computer Engineering Department

University of Missouri-Rolla

Introdu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1

Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2

Developing Power Flow Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2

Power-Flow Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.6

Example of N-R Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.12

Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.15

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.16

INTRODUCTION

The load-flow problem models the nonlinear relationships among bus power injections,

power demands, and bus voltages and angles, with the network constants providing the

circuit parameters. It is the heart of most system-planning studies and also the starting

point for transient and dynamic stability studies. This section provides a formulation of

the load-flow problem and its associated solution strategies. An understanding of the

fundamentals of three-phase systems is assumed, including per-unit calculations, complex

power relationships, and circuit-analysis techniques.

There are two popular numerical methods for solving the power-flow equations. These

are the Gauss-Seidel (G-S) and the Newton-Raphson (N-R) Methods (Grainger and

Stevenson, 1994; Elgerd, 1982; Glover and Sharma, 1994). The N-R method is superior

to the G-S method because it exhibits a faster convergence characteristic. However, the

N-R method suffers from the disadvantage that a “flat start” is not always possible since

the solution at the beginning can oscillate without converging toward the solution. In or-

der to avoid this problem, the load-flow solution is often started with a G-S algorithm fol-

lowed by the N-R algorithm after a few iterations.

There is also an approximate but faster method for the load-flow solution. It is a varia-

tion of the N-R method, called the fast-decoupled method, which was introduced by Stott

and Alsac (1974). We will not be covering this method in this section.

11.1

11.2 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

NOMENCLATURE

SG complex power generation R series resistance

S complex bus power X series reactance

PD real power demand, MW Zs series impedance

PG real power generation XG synchronous reactance

P real bus power Yii driving point admittance at bus i

QD reactive power demand in Yij transfer admittance between

MVAR busses i and j

QG reactive power generation Yij magnitude of Yij

Q reactive bus power ij angle of Yij

V bus voltage magnitude E synchronous machine-gener-

bus voltage angle ated voltage

V̂ complex voltage Î complex current

B shunt susceptance Ybus bus admittance matrix

yp shunt admittance

A two-bus example, shown in Fig. 11.1, is used to simplify the development of the

power-flow equations. The system consists of two busses connected by a transmission

line. One can observe that there are six electrical quantities associated with each bus: PD ,

PG , QD , QG , V, and . This is the most general case, in which each bus is shown to have

both generation and demand. In reality, not all busses will have power generation. The

impedance diagram of the two-bus system is shown in Fig. 11.2. The transmission line is

represented by a -model and the synchronous generator is represented by a source

behind a synchronous reactance. The loads are assumed to be constant impedance for the

sake of representing them on the impedance diagram. Typically, the load is represented

by a constant power device, as shown in subsequent figures.

Figure 11.3 is the same as Fig. 11.2 but with the generation and demand bundled

together to represent “bus power,” which represents bus power injections. Bus power is

defined as

S1 SG1 SD1 (PG1 PD1) j(QG1 QD1) (1)

and

S2 SG2 SD2 (PG2 PD2) j(QG2 QD2) (2)

Also, injected current at bus 1 is

Î1 ÎG 1 ÎD 1 (3)

LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.3

Î2 ÎG 2 ÎD 2 (4)

All quantities are assumed to be per unit. Then, since

S1 V̂1Î1* Q P1 jQ1 V̂1Î1* Q (P1 jQ1) V̂1*Î1 (5)

and, since

S2 V̂2Î2* Q P2 jQ2 V̂2Î2* Q (P2 jQ2) V̂2* Î2 (6)

FIGURE 11.3 Bus powers with transmission line -model for the

two-bus system.

11.4 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

Let us define current flows in the circuit as shown in Fig. 11.4. Therefore, at bus 1

Î1 Î1 Î1

Î1 (yp ys)V̂1 (ys)V̂2 (7)

Î1 Y11V̂1 Y12V̂2 (8)

sum of admittances connected at bus 1 yp ys

where Y11 (9)

negative of the admittance between busses 1 and 2 ys

Y12 (10)

Similarly, at bus 2

Î2 Î2 Î2

Î2 (ys)V̂1 (yp ys)V̂2 (11)

Î2 Y21V̂1 Y22V̂2 (12)

Y22 (13)

negative of the admittance between busses 2 and 1 ys Y12

Y21 (14)

Hence, for the two-bus power system, the current injections are

II YY

1

2

11

21

Y12

Y22 V̂V̂

1

2

(15)

In matrix notation,

Ibus YbusVbus (16)

The two-bus system can easily be extended to a larger system. Consider an n-bus sys-

tem. Figure 11.5a shows the connections from bus 1 of this system to all the other busses.

Figure 11.5b shows the transmission line models. Equations (5) through (16) that were

LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.5

derived for the two-bus system can now be extended to represent the n-bus system. This is

shown next.

Î1 V̂1yp12 V̂1yp13 V̂1yp1n (V̂1 V̂2)ys12 (V̂1 V̂3)ys13

(V̂1 V̂2)ys1n

(yp12 yp13 yp1n ys12 ys13 ys1n)V̂n ys12V̂2 ys13V̂3

ys1nV̂n (17)

Î1 Y11V̂1 Y12 V̂2 Y13 V̂3 Y1n V̂n (18)

n

Î1 YijVˆj

j1

(21)

11.6 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

n

P1 jQ1 V̂1*I1 V̂1* Y1jVˆj (22)

j1

n

Pi jQi V̂i* YijVˆj i 1, 2, . . . , n (23)

j1

Equation (23) represents the nonlinear power-flow equations. Equation (15) can also be

rewritten for an n-bus system:

Î1 Y11 Y12 … Y1n V̂1

Î2 Y21 Y22 … Y2n V̂2

… (24)

În Yn1 Yn2 … Ynn V̂n

or

where

Y11 Y12 … Y1n

Y21 Y22 … Y2n

Ybus bus admittance matrix (26)

Yn1 Yn2 … Ynn

POWER-FLOW SOLUTION

Let us take a generic bus as shown in Fig. 11.6. As mentioned earlier, each bus has six

quantities or variables associated with it. They are V , , PG , QG , PD , and QD. Assuming

that there are n busses in the system, there would be a total of 6n variables.

LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.7

Slack or swing V , , PD , QD PG , QG

Voltage-controlled V , PG , PD , QD , QG

Load PG, QD, PD, QD V ,

The power-flow Eq. (23) can be resolved into the real and reactive parts as follows:

n

Pi Real V̂i*YijV̂j i 1, 2, . . . , n (27)

j1

n

Qi Imag V̂i* YijV̂j i 1, 2, . . . , n (28)

j1

Thus, there are 2n equations and 6n variables for the n-bus system. Since there cannot be

a solution in such case, 4n variables have to be prespecified. Based on parameter specifi-

cations, we can now classify the busses as shown in Table 11.1.

We will now describe the methods used in solving the power-flow equations.

n

Pi jQ i V̂i* YijV̂j i 1, 2, . . . , n (23)

j1

n

V̂i*YiiV̂i V̂ *i YijV̂j

j1, ji

(29)

n

Q V̂i*YiiV̂i (Pi jQ i) V̂i*YijV̂j

j1, ji

(30)

Pi jQ i n

Q YiiV̂i

V̂i*

YijV̂j

j1, ji

(31)

Pi jQ i n

V̂i*

YijV̂j

j1, ji

Q V̂i (32)

Yii

Also, from (29),

V̂i*YijV̂j

n

Pi Re V̂i*YiiV̂i (33)

j1, ji

and

11.8 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

V̂i*YijV̂j

n

Q i Imag V̂i*YiiV̂i (34)

j1, ji

Step 1. Assign Initial Guesses to Unknown Voltage Magnitudes and Angles

V 1.0, 0

Step 2a. For Load Buses, Find V̂i form Eq. (32)

YijV̂j(k) Yii

n

V i(k1) (Pi jQ i) Vi*(k)

j1, ji

where k iteration no. For voltage-controlled busses, find V̂i using (34) and (32) to-

gether. That is, find Qi first.

YijV (k)j

n

Q (k1)

i Imag V̂i*(k) V (k)

i Yii

j1, ji

Then

YijV̂j* Yii

n

V (k1)

i (Pi jQ i)/V̂i*(k)

j1, ji

(k1)

However, V i is specified for voltage-controlled busses. So,Vi(k1) Vi , spec i, calc

In using Eqs. (32) and (34), one must remember to use the most recently calculated

values of bus voltages in each iteration. So, for example, if there are five busses in the

system being studied, and one has determined new values of bus voltages at busses 1 – 3,

then during the determination of bus voltage at bus 4, one should use these newly calcu-

lated values of bus voltages at 1, 2, and 3; busses 4 and 5 will have the values from the

previous iteration.

Step 2b. For Faster Convergence, Apply Acceleration Factor to Load Buses

V (k1) (k) (k) (k)

(35)

Step 3. Check Convergence

Re [V̂ (k1)

i ] Re [V̂ (k)

i ] (36)

That is, the absolute value of the difference of the real part of the voltage between

successive iterations should be less than a tolerance value . Typically, 104, and

also,

Imag [V̂i(k1)] Imag[V̂i(k)] (37)

That is, the absolute value of the difference of the imaginary value of the voltage should

be less than a tolerance value .

LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.9

putation.

If the difference is greater than tolerance, return to Step 3. If the difference is less than

tolerance, the solution has converged; go to Step 4.

Step 4. Find Slack Bus Power PG and QG from Eqs. (27) and (28)

Step 5. Find All Line Flows as Described in the Next Section

Computing Line Flows. As the last step in any power-flow solution, one has to find the

line flows. This is illustrated by the two-bus system shown in Fig. 11.7. Line current, Îij,

at bus i is defined positive in the direction i : j.

Let Sij, Sji be line powers defined positive into the line at bus i and j, respectively.

V̂i* V̂j*y*

s Vi ypi

2 *

(39)

Sji Pji jQ ji V̂jÎj*i V̂j

V̂j* V̂i*y*

s Vj ypi

* 2

(40)

The power loss in line (i j) is the algebraic sum of the power flows determined from

(39) and (40).

SLij Sij Sji (41)

The Newton-Raphson method enables us to replace the nonlinear set of power-flow equa-

tions of (23) with a linear set. We will show this after the basis for the method is explained.

The Taylor series expansion of a function f(x) of a single variable, x, around the point

(x a) is given by

f

x a

(x a)n 2f

2! x2 a

(x a)n nf

n! xn

n (42)

where

f

x a value of the derivative evaluated at x a.

n:

11.10 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

f

f(x) f(a) (x a) x

a

(43)

For a function of n variables, one can expand around the point: (x1 a1), (x2 a2),

(xn an) with (xk ak) 1 and k 1, 2, . . . , n. Then, Eq. (42) becomes

f

x1 a1

(x2 a2)

f

x2 a2

… (xn an)

f

xn an

(44)

f2(x1, x2, . . . , xn) y2

(45)

fn(x1, x2, . . . , xn) yn

or

fk(x1, x2, . . . , xn) yk k 1, 2, . . . , n

Assume initial values x(0) (0) (1)

When x(0)

k are close to the solution, xk, the xs

k are small.

Using the approximate Taylor’s series, we have

1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) x1

(0) (0)

fk

x1 x1(0)

x2

fk

x2 x(0)

2

xn

fk

xn

xn(0)

yk k 1, 2, . . . , n (46)

f 1 f 1 f 1 x1

…

x1 x1(0) x2 x2(0) xn xn(0)

y1f1(x(0) (0) (0)

1 , x2 , . . . , xn )

f 2 f 2 f 2 x2

…

y2f2(x(0)

1 , x(0)

2 , ... , x(0)

n )

x1 x1(0) x1 x2(0) xn xn(0)

(47)

ynfn(x(0) (0) (0)

1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) f n f n f n

…

x1 x1(0) x2 x2(0) xn xn(0) xn

or

[U](0) [J](0)[X](0) (48)

where [J] is the Jacobian matrix.

[X] ([J](0))1[U](0) (49)

LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.11

[X](1) [X](0) [X](0) (50)

Generally,

[X](k1) [X](k) [X](k) (51)

where k iteration number.

The N-R method is typically applied on the real form of the power-flow equations:

n

Pi Vi Vk yik cos (k i ik) fip

k1

(52)

n

i 1, . . . , n

Qi Vi Vk yik sin (k i ik) fiq (53)

k1

Assume, temporarily, that all busses, except bus 1, are of the “load” type. Thus, the

unknown parameters consist of the (n 1) voltage phasors, V̂2 , . . . , V̂n. In terms of real

variables, these are:

Angles 2, 3, . . . , n (n 1) variables

Magnitudes V2, V3, . . . , Vn (n 1) variables

Rewriting (47) for the power-flow equations,

∆P2(0) f2 p

f2 p

f2 p

f2 p

f2p

∆2(0)

(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)

… …

2 3 n V2 Vn

∆P3(0) f3 p

f3 p

f3p

f3 p

f3p

∆3(0)

(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)

… …

2 3 n V2 Vn

∆Pn(0) fnp

fnp

fnp

fnp

fnp

∆n(0)

(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)

… …

2 3 n V2 Vn

(54)

∆Q(0) f2q

f2 q

f2q

f2q f2q ∆V2(0)

(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)

2

… …

2 3 n V2 Vn

∆Q(0) f3q

f3q

f3q

f3q

f3q

∆V3(0)

(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)

3

… …

2 3 n V2 Vn

∆Q(0) fnq

fnq

fnq

fnq

fnq

∆Vn(0)

(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)

n

… …

2 3 n V2 Vn

11.12 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

Before proceeding any further, we need to account for voltage-controlled busses. For

every voltage-controlled bus in the system, delete the corresponding row and column

from the Jacobian matrix. This is done because the mismatch element for a voltage-

controlled bus is unknown.

Writing Eq. (54) in matrix form,

U (0) J(0) X (0) (55)

J (0) the Jacobian matrix evalutated at the initial guesses

X (0) the error vector at the zeroth iteration

Step 0. Formulate and Assemble Ybus in Per Unit

Step 1. Assign Initial Guesses to Unknown Voltage Magnitudes and Angles for a

Flat Start

V 1.0, 0

Step 2. Determine the Mismatch Vector U for Iteration k

Step 3. Determine the Jacobian Matrix J for Iteration k

Step 4. Determine Error Vector X from Eq. (55)

Set X at iteration (k 1): X(k1) X(k) X(k). Check if the power mismatches are

within tolerance. If so, go to Step 5. Otherwise, go back to Step 2.

Step 5. Find Slack Bus Power PG and QG from Eqs. (27) and (28)

Step 6. Compute Line Flows Using Eqs. (39) and (40) and the Total Line Losses

from Eq. (41)

Consider the three-bus system shown in Fig. 11.8. Known quantities are also shown.

Given: V̂11.0 0 p.u., V2 1.0 p.u., P2 0.6 p.u., P3 0.8 p.u., Q3 0.6.

LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.13

Step 0.

j7 j2 j5

Ybus j2 j6 j4

j5 j4 j9

Step 1.

(0)

2 0

(0) 0

X (0) 3 0

V2 1.0

V3 0 1.0

Step 2.

P2 f2p y21 V2 V1 cos (1 2 21) y22 V2 V2 cos (2 2 22)

y23 V2 V3 cos (3 2 23) (56)

Q2 f2q y21 V2 V1 sin (1 2 21) y22 V2 V2 sin (2 2 22)

y23 V2 V3 sin (3 2 23) (57)

P3 f3p y31 V3 V1 cos (1 3 31) y32 V3 V2 cos (2 3 32)

y33 V32 cos (3 3 33) (58)

Q3 f3q y31 V3 V1 sin (1 3 31) y32 V3 V2 sin (2 3 32)

y33 V32 sin 23 (59)

The specified bus powers are: P2S 0.6, P3S 0.8, Q3S 0.6. The calculated bus

0

powers at this iteration are: P2 2.1.1 cos (0 0 90) 6.1.1 cos (90°) 4.1.1

cos (0 0 90) 0, P 03 5.1.1 cos 90 4.1.1 cos 90 9.12 cos (90) 0, Q 03

(5.1.1 sin 90 4.1.1 sin 90° 9.12 sin (90°)) 0. Therefore, the mismatches are

P2 0.6; P3 0.8; Q3 0.6.

Step 3.

f2p

y21 V1 V2 sin (2 21) y23 V2 V3 sin (2 3 23) (60)

2

f2q

y23 V2 V3 sin (3 2 23) (61)

3

, , ,

2 V2 V3 3

No need to evaluate these since bus 2

f2 p , f3 p , f3q is a voltage-controlled bus.

V2 V2 V2

11.14 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

f2p

y23 V2 cos (3 2 23) (62)

V3

Therefore, at the initial guesses,

f2p

f2p

f2p

0 0

6 4 0

2 3 V3

f3p

0

y32 V3 V2 sin (2 3 32) 4 (63)

2

f3p

0

[y31 V3 V1 sin (3 31) y32 V3 V2 sin (3 2 32)] 9 (64)

3

f3p 0

[y31 V1 cos (1 3 31) y32 V2 cos (2 3 32)

V3

2y33 V3 cos 33] 0 (65)

f3q

0

[y32 V3 V2 cos (2 3 32)] 0 (66)

2

f3q

0

[y31 V3 V1 cos (3 1 31)

d2

y32 V3 V2 cos (3 2 32)] 0 (67)

f3q

0

[y31 V1 sin (1 3 31) y32 V2 sin (2 3 32)

V3

2y33 V3 sin 33] 9 (68)

P (0)

2 6 4 0 0 2

P (0)

3 4 9 0 0 3

Q (0)

2 0 0 10 4 V2

Q (0)

3 0 0 4 9 V3

0.6 6 4 0 2

0.8 4 9 0 3

0.6 0 0 0 V3

Step 4.

To solve the preceding equations, one can resort to inversion of the Jacobian matrix.

However, computationally, it is more efficient to apply a numerical technique such as the

LOAD-FLOW ANALYSIS IN POWER SYSTEMS 11.15

Gaussian elimination technique. The latter can be found in any textbook dealing with

numerical analysis. This technique is applied next.

0.6 6 4 0 2 Divide by 6

0.8 4 9 0 3 Divide by 4

0.6 0 0 0 V3

0.1 1 0.667 0 2

0.2 1 2.25 0 3 Add this row to row 1

0.6 0 0 9 V3

0.1 1 0.667 0 2

0.1 0 1.583 0 3 Divide by 1.583

0.6 0 0 9 V3

0.1 1 0.667 0 2

0.063 0 1 0 3

0.6 0 0 9 V3

By back substitution,

0.6

V3(1) V2(0) V3 V3 0.067 ;

9

1.0 0.067

0.933 3 0.063 ;

2 0 0.063 0.063 2 0.1 0.667 3

0.058 ;

2 0 0.058 0.058

Continue further iterations until convergence is achieved.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

The two solution strategies described here comprise the basic steps in a load-flow solu-

tion. The reader should be reminded that, occasionally, an off-nominal transformer, a

capacitor, or other network devices also have to be modeled. Most of these models can

be represented in the bus admittance matrix. Another practical consideration that one

needs to bear in mind is that all generators have upper and lower limits of reactive

power generation. Hence, if during a load flow iteration it is found that any one of the

generators is violating its limits, then that particular bus where the generator is located

is said to have lost voltage control and, thus, should be treated as a load bus in subse-

quent iterations.

As is obvious from the two methods, computer-based analysis is essential for obtain-

ing accurate load-flow solutions of any realistically sized power system. A computer-

11.16 HANDBOOK OF ELECTRIC POWER CALCULATIONS

based analysis typically utilizes many numerical techniques, such as optimal ordering

and sparsity techniques, in order to reduce memory and storage requirements. There are

several excellent load-flow programs available that are widely used by engineers in util-

ity companies for frequent system studies. While industry-grade load-flow software

tends to be very expensive, there are now many educational versions of load-flow soft-

ware available that are inexpensive and quite adequate for classroom use or for studying

small-scale systems.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Elgerd, O. I. 1982. Electric Energy Systems Theory — An Introduction, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-

Hill.

Glover, J. D., and M. Sharma. 1994. Power System Analysis, and Design, 2nd ed. Boston: PWS

Publishing.

Grainger, J. J., and W. D. Stevenson. 1994. Power System Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stott, B., and O. Alsac. 1974. “Fast Decoupled Load Flow,” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus

& Systems, Vol. PAS-93, pp. 859 – 869.

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