

Department:

GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING
Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language:

Page 1 of 16
Revision:

PSST&DSS

AG

NJ

Draft

09/05/25

en

NIL

GUIDELINES FOR SUBSTATION SERVICE INSPECTION & CONDITION MONITORING

PSS T & D SUBSTATION – QUALITY MANAGEMENT ABB LTD.

for which as such there is no readymade guidelines available. Also to provide the visual inspection and condition based maintenance of Major equipments like Transformer. Disconnectors and LAs etc.  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 2 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL 1) INTRODUCTION This guideline is prepared in view of the requirements for switchyard service inspection (visual) and condition based maintenance of substation equipments. 2) SERVICE INSPECTION & CONDITION MONITORING GUIDELINE The substation in total and the individual items of equipment contained therein should be periodically inspected. These guidelines are necessarily general. The aim of this guideline is to provide in general visual inspection check points for the structures. CTs. so that necessary preventive action can be taken up. It is recommended to carry out maintenance of equipment as per manual supplied by manufacturer. grounding systems. to verify the health of the equipments. etc. Circuit breakers. LT switchboards. Whereas condition based monitoring checks (on line/ off line) are necessary to identify internal defects or abnormality. CVTs. Service visual inspection is the necessary activity to identify any visible abnormality or failure and require to be performed at specified interval. structures and other miscellaneous items in substations. PTs. All inspections and test procedures should also be performed in accordance with applicable codes and standards. . Binoculars should be used to view buses and other equipment located on structures.

Observe any damage paint/ galvanizing or signs of corrosion. clean the joints and replaced if found damage. If any damage observed. Earth pits should be kept wet so as to have low resistance. Inspect for paint condition. chalking effect. do necessary repaint or repair work. structures. Grounding System Check for loose connections of all ground connections at equipments. Inspect for deterioration. rusting etc. Structure Inspect all the structures for loose or missing bolts or nuts.  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 3 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL Painting and Galvanizing (Applicable to all equipments and systems) Depending on geographical location. damage paint. bending. . Measure overall ground grid resistance. other equipments etc. Inspect for any crack/ leakages in control room and water tank. Tighten the connections. exposed reinforcing steel. local environmental condition. and anchor bolt corrosion. Check for break/ missed cable trench cover. cracks. equipments etc. panels. Check for proper functioning of sump pump and drainage system. Civil work-Foundation and Control Room Inspect for sings of settlement. panels. honeycombing. The Value obtained should be comparable with initially measured values or designed values. buckling and cracking. periodic inspection of painting and galvanizing condition of structures. Check for any sparking marks at termination or joint. Observe the condition of any flexible braid type connections for damage. is required. spalling.

Check for loose connections. Check the functioning of annunciator panels. lugs. cracking of lugs etc. locks etc. Make this inspection at close range. relays and instruments externally to check for loose connections and damage to cases and covers. Check whether the instruments are reading or registering. Remove dust and dirt from porcelain insulators with suitable methods. Inspect for damage to enclosures. Check out for burned-out lamps. Flashover in the past may have damaged a portion of the glazing on the porcelain. Observe the condition of flexible buses and shield wires for any damages. Inspect shield grounding (where applicable). tightness. Outdoor and indoor panel) Examine meters. Cable Inspect exposed sections of cable for physical damage. cable support and termination. Check for any sparking marks at termination or joint. Inspect for bending of Alu-tube bending. doors. LT Cable & Metal clad switchgear (Control-Metering. . Relay panel. Porcelain Insulators and Bushings (For Bus post / Suspension / Circuit breaker / CT / CVT / PT & Transformer bushings) Inspect all insulators and equipment bushings for chipped petticoats and fractured or cracked porcelain. Inspect the insulation or jacket for signs of deterioration.  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 4 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL Buses and Shield wire Inspect for loose clamps or connections. latching mechanisms. Replaced damage bushings. Clean sparking marks if any and make proper joint with proper tightening and lugging.

Record the electrolyte temperature. Check electrolyte appearance. Battery charger: Observe temperature (by touch). Check the charging current and voltage. Compressor Check for leakage of air. Check for indoor and outdoor lighting systems for burned-out lamps or other component failures Verify that there is adequate supply of spares Inspect the fire protection system . Check for rusting of fasteners Check for any hotspots at conductor/ equipment/ stringing termination. Substation area. Check working of exhaust fan. check and attend the reason for the same. Check air pressure and Oil level. Check for low level or low specific gravity of the electrolyte. If temperature is found high.General • • • • • • Verify the existence of appropriate danger and informational warning signs. Observe the ground detector lamps for an indication of an undesirable ground on the dc system. Racks: Check for cleaning and corrosion. Verify whether they are missing or needs repainting. loose connections. Verify vent cap and flame arresters are in place.  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 5 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL Battery and battery charger Batteries: Check for any physical damage.

  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 6 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL • • • Check for bird/ animal nests or other foreign materials in the vicinity of energized equipment. ______. • • • • Inspect the area for weed growth. Ensure the gate latches are operable Ensure flexible braid-type connections are intact. overall cleanliness Observe the position of all circuit breakers in the auxiliary power system and verify the correctness of this position (indication on breaker). Ensure the fence fabric is intact and there is no rust. buses or fans. trash and unauthorized equipment storage. _____ . Observe the general condition of the substation yard. _____ . _____ . ______ .

OLTC surge relay/ checking of alarm/ 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 trip contacts Checking/ replacements of gaskets of terminal box Checking/ testing of Buchholz relay by oil draining Filtration/ degassing of main tank oil Filtration/ replacement of oil of OLTC Testing of bushing CTs Testing of bushing CTs Checking tightness of earthing connections Checking of alignment of horn gap Check for damage paint condition and corrosion for complete transformer with control cabinet Y Y SOS SOS SOS Y Y Y Frequency Y Y SOS SOS Y 2Y 2Y Y Y . Details 1 Check manual/ auto actuation of cooler oil pumps and 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 fans Cleaning of all bushings Replacement of damage/ cracked bushings Tightening of loose terminals Maintenance of OLTC driving mechanism Checking and cleaning of diverter contacts Checking and calibration of OTI .  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 7 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL 1. Buchholz relay.No. if required Electrical checking/ testing of pressure relief device. WTI Checking of all remote indications (WTI and Tap position indicator) and top up oil in pockets.No. TRANSFORMER A) Service Inspection Schedule Sr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Details Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Checking Frequency M M M M M M M of of of of of of of oil leaks oil level in main tank bushing oil level oil level in conservator oil level in OLTC conservator oil level in oil seal of breather condition of silica gel in breather B) Maintenance Schedule Sr.

A.No. Ratio) Measurement of winding resistance at all tap positions Measurement of winding ratio Recovery voltage measurement Degree of polymerization Core to Ground resistance Magnetic Balance test Magnetizing current test Furfuradehyde analysis Frequency ½Y ½Y 2Y 2Y 2Y 2Y Y SOS Y 2Y 2Y 4Y SOS SOS SOS SOS SOS SOS SOS 2. ppm of OLTC Diverter compartment oil (less frequently if operations are not more) Frequency Response Analysis C & Tan δ measurement of bushings C & Tan δ measurement of windings IR measurement of windings (Polarization index and D. space heaters. CIRCUIT BREAKERS (SF6 & AIR BLAST) A) Service Inspection Schedule Sr. Details Frequency . illumination etc. External cleaning of radiators Check tightness of all clamps and connectors Y Y Y Y Y C) Condition Monitoring (Condition based Maintenance) Sr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Details Dissolved Gas Analysis Oil physical and chemical tests Infrared scan Ultrasonic Partial discharge Sonic Fault detection Vibration Analysis BDV.  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 8 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL 18 * * * 19 20 Marshalling box (i) Cleaning of marshalling boxes of transformer and OLTC (ii) Tightening of terminations (iii) Checking of contactors.No.

No. air filter. PIRs and grading capacitors Checking of Close/ trip coil currents Checking of healthiness of operation counter Control cabinet (i) Checking of tightness of all cable termination in MB (ii) Checking of door sealing gaskets and replacement. oil quality. support insulators. if necessary (iii) Repainting of metallic surfaces (iv) Checking of space heaters Checking of tightness of foundation bolts Maintenance of air dryers in Air blast circuit breakers Functional checking of auto starting of air compressors and dryers Checking of air pressure drop during duty cycle operation Overhauling of compressors Maintenance of air dryer if provided Frequency Y Y SOS Y Y Y Y Y Y Y SOS Y Y ½Y Y Y SOS ½Y 10 11 12 13 14 15 . V-belt tension Check for crack in insulators M M M M QY M B) Maintenance Schedule Sr. Details 1 Check tightness of all clamps and connectors / 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 terminals Check for damage paint condition and corrosion Replaced damaged bushings Checking of all interlocks Checking of pressure settings Cleaning of breaker interrupter.  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 9 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL 1 2 3 4 5 6 Check for any gas/ air leakage Check for proper gas/ air pressure Check for any hot spots at any terminals Checking of oil leaks from grading capacitors Checking of air compressor for oil level.

if provided Check interlocking of isolators with breaker After maintenance trip the breaker through backup Y Y Y Y SOS Y Y U Y Y Y Y Y Y 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 C) Condition Monitoring (Condition based Maintenance) Sr.3s-CO) Checking of air pressure drop during duty cycle operation Checking of all operational lock-outs including SF6 density monitor Checking tightness of earthing connections Cleaning of auxiliary switch contacts with CTC Checking of local ON/OFF indicating lamps in breaker. PIR. Aux. duty cycle operation including rapid re-closing (O-0. replace the same if leakage observed (ii) Greasing/ lubrication of gears and various latches in the operating mechanism (iii) Checking of play of gaps in catch gears (iv) Maintenance of spring charging motors. arcing 4 5 contact length Capacitance and tan δ measurement of grading capacitors Dew point measurement of SF6 gas 4Y 3Y Frequency Y 2Y 2Y .No.) Static contact resistance measurement Dynamic contact resistance measurement (DCRM). contact wipe. cleaning of carbon brushes and contactors (v) Replacement of oil in dashpots Checking of pole discrepancy relay Functional checks. contact speed. contact travel. 1 2 3 Details CB operating timings (Main.  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 10 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL 16 Spring operated mechanism (i) Oil leakages from close and open dashpots.

if provided internally Checking of burden on secondary winding CT Marshalling box .No.No.Checking of space heater and illumination .Checking of oil leakage in terminal box Check corona effects Frequency M M M M B) Maintenance Schedule Sr. if provided 3 4 5 6 externally N2 pressure checking Checking of primary connection strips. Details Frequency .  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 11 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL 6 Dew point measurement of operating air at the outlet of air dryer (for Air blast CB) Y 3.Cleaning of marshalling box and junction box Checking for rusting and paints Check tightness of all clamps and connectors / terminals Checking tightness of earthing connections Frequency Y Y 2Y SOS SOS Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 7 8 9 C) Condition Monitoring (Condition based Maintenance) Sr.No. Details 1 Checking of oil leakage in terminal box 2 Checking of primary connection strips.Checking the tightness of all connections including earthing of PF terminal .Check healthiness of gaskets . CT Marshalling box . CURRENT TRANSFORMER A) Service Inspection Schedule Sr. 1 2 3 4 Details Checking of bellow expansion Checking of oil leakage and crack in insulators etc.

No. 1 2 3 4 5 Details Checking of oil leakage in terminal box Measurement of voltage at control room panel Visual checking of earthing HF point (in case it is not being used for PLCC) Checking of any breakage or cracks in cementing joint Cleaning of CVT capacitor stacks and tightness of terminal connections Frequency Y ½Y Y Y Y . POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS/ CAPACITANCE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS/ COUPLING CAPACITORS A) Service Inspection Schedule Sr.No.  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 12 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL 1 Thermovision scanning of CT Y 2 Measurement of Capacitance and Tan δ 2Y* 3 IR measurement (DAR) 2Y 4 Measurement of CT secondary resistance SOS 5 Magnetization characteristics SOS 6 CT ratio test SOS 7 DGA and testing of other parameters of oil SOS * To be repeated before one year from commissioning and then as per schedule 4. 1 2 3 4 Details Checking of bellow expansion Checking of oil leakage and crack in insulators etc. Marshalling box .Checking of oil leakage in terminal box Check corona effects Frequency M M M M B) Maintenance Schedule Sr.

  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 13 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL 6 Marshalling box .No. DISCONNECTORS AND EARTH SWITCHES A) Service Inspection Schedule Sr. nuts and pins. Cleaning of support insulators and checking of Frequency Y Y Y . Details 1 Cleaning and lubrication of main contacts. etc.Cleaning of marshalling box and junction box Checking for rusting and painting Check tightness of all clamps and connectors / terminals Checking tightness of earthing connections Y Y Y Y Y Y Y 7 8 9 C) Condition Monitoring (Condition based Maintenance) Sr. This test is not possible to be conducted at site if isolation of neutral of intermediate PT is not possible at site.Checking the tightness of all connections including earth connections . pins and bearings Checking of tightness of bolts. 5.Check healthiness of gaskets . Details 1 Checking of cracks in insulators 2 Observe the condition of contact surfaces and the area 3 around them Inspect the ease of operating mechanism (if possible) Frequency Y QY QY B) Maintenance Schedule Sr. earthing 2 3 blades.No.Checking of space heater and illumination .No. Details Frequency 1 Thermovision scanning of Capacitor stacks Y 2 Measurement of Capacitance and Tan δ 3Y* 3 Testing of EMU tank oil for BDV (if oil found discolored) SOS * To be repeated before one year from commissioning and then as per schedule.

No. Details 1 Checking of cracks in insulators 2 Check for pitted or blackened exhaust parts or other Frequency QY QY . MOM box and earth switch Operation check of isolator and earth swithch Checking of alignments of main contacts and earthing blades Checking and lubrication of linkages including transmission gears Checking and tightening of stopper bolts Cleaning of auxiliary switch contacts and greasing with silicon grease Lubrication of operating mechanism hinges.  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 14 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 insulator cracks. lock joints on levers. bearings Checking of all mounting bolts for tightness Checking of healthiness of door gaskets Checking of tightness of electrical connections Checking of spare heaters and illumination Checking of aluminum/ copper flexible connectors Checking for rusting and paints Check corona balls and rings for damage Y Y Y 2Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y C) Condition Monitoring (Condition based Maintenance) Sr. SURGE ARRESTERS A) Service Inspection Schedule Sr. if any Checking of interlocks Checking of earth connections of structure.No. 1 2 3 Details Thermovision scanning Main contact resistance measurement Earthing contact resistance measurement Frequency Y 2Y 2Y 6.

No. 1 2 3 4 Details Tightness and Cleaning of wave trap General inspection / cleaning of tuning unit Cleaning of post insulators (if provided) Repair of bird guard Frequency Y Y Y SOS Frequency Y C) Condition Monitoring (Condition based Maintenance) Sr. 1 2 3 Details Thermovision scanning of joints HF characteristics of line trap Measurement of blocking impedance and blocking Frequency Y Y 2Y .No. WAVE TRAPS A) Service Inspection Schedule Sr. Details 1 Checking of leakage current (Third harmonic resistive 2 3 current) Measurement of capacitance & Tan δ of each stack Measurement of IR of each stack Frequency Y SOS SOS Frequency Y Y Y 7. Details 1 Check for mechanical integrity of the main coil B) Maintenance Schedule Sr. surge monitor and earth C) Condition Monitoring (Condition based Maintenance) Sr.No.No.  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 15 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL evidence of pressure relief B) Maintenance Schedule Sr. 1 2 3 Details Testing of counters and leakage current meters Cleaning of insulators Checking of earth connections between surge arrester.No.

maintenance and condition monitoring of substation is to preserve the function or operation of a system. reliable electric power to customers 4) BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Specifically.Inspection and Maintenance Guidelines for Distribution substation 3. 4Y. QY-quarterly.once in 4 years. the function that has to be preserved for electric substations is the delivery of safe. Y-yearly. EPRI. 3Y-once in three years. SOS-as and when required.Monthly.  PSST&DSS Department: GUIDELINE FOR SUBSTATIONS SERVICE INSPECTION AND CONDITION MONITORING Prepared: Reviewed: Status: Date: Language: Page 16 of 16 Revision: AG NJ Draft 09/05/25 en NIL resistance M. Design Guide for Rural substations-USDA . 2Y-once in 2 years. 3) CONCLUSION The fundamental goal of inspection. Manual on EHV Substation Equipment maintenance 2.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful