The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the

views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Gap and Needs for GenderSpecific Evidence and Data on Food Security and Nutrition
by

Seeva RAMASAWMY (Statistician FAO RAP) (Statistician,

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Facts and Figures on Food Security g y and Nutrition

9 1 in 8 people in the world (868 million) are
undernourished d i h d out t of f which hi h about b tt two thi third d are i in A Asia. i

9 80% of labour of paddy rice in Asia are women 9 Approx. Approx 2 billion suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. deficiencies
9
Globally, more than 1.4 billion adults are overweight . more than one third of child deaths are attributable to undernutrition

9 Globally,

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Facts and Figures on Food Security g y and Nutrition

9 In

Asia 27% of children under the age of five are stunted, (low height for age)

9 1 in 3 children are underweight g in South Asia ( (low weight g
for age)

9 Approx. 1 in 6 children in South Asia suffer from wasting
(low weight for height).

9 East Asia and the Pacific is close to achieving the adequate
Iodized Salt target of 90 per cent.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Gender Specific Evidence and Data p
"The utilisation of gender-sensitive indicators allows for effective monitoring and evaluation of project or programme activities.” (FAO 2001). The State Th St t of f Food F d and d Agriculture A i lt (SOFA, (SOFA FAO 2011): 2011) Women in Agriculture. p that achieving gg gender equality q y and “ emphasizes empowering women in agriculture is crucial for agricultural development and food security”. It calls for improved collection and analysis of baseline data with monitoring and evaluation of gender impacts.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Why Integrate Gender into Agricultural and Rural Development?

¾ Women represent the majority of the rural poor (70%) ¾ Economic productivity of the rural poor is largely about
enabling bl women to realize l their h f full ll potential l and d improve their own and their families’ quality of life.

¾ Although many times it goes unrecognized, women
play a major role in the livelihood and survival strategies of poor rural households.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Why Gender into Agricultural and Rural y Integrate g g Development? (Con’d)

¾ Women have proven to be a driving force in achieving
project effectiveness and reducing poverty.

¾ Research shows that better nutritional outcomes
and welfare gains can be achieved from improving women’s education level, access to resources, and control over income.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

GAINS from closing the Gender Gap

¾ Improve crop production yield gap by 20-30% ¾ Increase agricultural output by 2.5 2 5 - 4% ¾ Improve household food consumption in terms of
quality q y and q quality y of diets ( (more diversify y food) )

¾ Reduce the number of undernourished people by 1217% (100-150) million people

¾ Reduce Child Malnutrition/Maternal mortality ¾ Broader economic and social gains ¾ Better health, nutrition and education outcomes for
children

¾ Builds human capital which promotes economic growth

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Wh t are G d St ti ti /I di t ? What Gender Statistics/Indicators?
Gender statistics is a field of statistics which cuts across the traditional fields to identify, produce and di disseminate i t statistics t ti ti th that t reflect fl t th the realities liti of f th the lives of women and men and policy issues relating to Gender (UNECE, 2010) G d statistics Gender i i are needed d d to provide id an evidence id base for research and policy development

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

What are Gender Statistics/Indicators? Con’d
The development of gender statistics involves the p as the production p of f other statistics, , but same steps with specific regard to integrating gender issues and reflecting gender concerns . Sex-disaggregated Sex disaggregated data are needed to show the

9Differences that exist between women and men in
a given gi society i t

9Differences in access to and control over resources, 9Differences in skills and interests. 9.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

What are Gender Indicators?
Indicators are essential for ensuring development y level effectiveness at the country

™Need to be developed as part of the national planning and
i l implementation t ti policy; li

™Need to be given the same priority as other markers
/indicators of economic or social change, such as economic growth (GDP, CPI, FPI, Unemployment rate, etc.)

™Ensure country ownership over both the indicators and
q p policy y decisions. subsequent

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Why look at Gender Statistics/Indicators?
Gender statistics are essential to identify and meet women's needs equally with those of men men.

™Enable E bl better b tt planning l i f for policies, li i and d actions ti f both for b th
women and men.

™Holding institutions accountable for their commitments
on gender equality.

™Help to stimulate change through data collection
processes and analysis.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Who needs Gender Indicators?

¾ Governments

for incorporating gender perspectives in all policies policies, programmes and projects to ensure that they impact equally on women and men, for evaluating the impact of their gender programmes,

¾ Development partners

¾ Gender equality activists (NGOS) for assessing gender
(in)equality or (in)justice and for advocacy purposes.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Gender Issues in Agriculture impacting on Food Security and Nutrition

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

Feminization of agriculture G d b Gender-based d inequalities i liti i in access t to productive d ti and financial resources and in off-farm employment opportunities Capacity building Participation, political status Quality Q y of life, , domestic violence Work in black or grey labour markets Self-employment in rural areas Female farm farm-heads heads Land rights/use Women’s representation in decision-making; farm/agricultural organizations

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Gender Sectors in Agriculture impacting on Food Security and Nutrition

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

Crop Production Production, Livestock Livestock, Fisheries and Forestry Agriculture Extension and Research Irrigation and Drainage Land Administration and Management Micro- and Small/Medium Enterprise Finance Participation and Civic Engagement S i lI Social Inclusion l i Social Protection The development of gender statistics involves the same steps p as the production p of f other statistics

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

How to Integrate Gender Evidence Based Information for Improving Food Security and Nutrition

™ Identification Id ifi i of f gender d issues i i in society i ™ Production of gender statistics ™ Dissemination of gender statistics ™ Gender and policy analysis ™ Use of gender analysis for policy actions ™ Identification of data gaps and improving data
collection

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Data Sources of Gender Statistics
Common types of data collection at country level:

¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾

Agricultural Census / Surveys Population p Censuses, , National household sample surveys (Consumption, Labour Force, etc.) Business surveys ( Economic activity, activity Establishment, Establishment etc.) Administrative records.

Time Use Survey is becoming an important tool for collecting data among members of household.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Key Questions for Assessing Food Insecurity and Nutrition
Who are the food insecure population groups? € Where Wh are th these f food di insecure population l ti groups l located? t d? € Where and How do households acquire their food? € How food is distributed in the p population p / households? € What type of diet do households consume? € What types of food (nutrients) are children consuming? € What Wh t are the th i incomes, where h d do i individuals di id l get t th their i incomes and how income is distributed among the households? € What are the productive resources of households and its members? € What social p protection schemes households receiving? g
€

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Challenges for Gender Evidenced Based Data for A i F dI i and dN ii Assessing Food Insecurity Nutrition
€ Convince

statisticians and users, of the importance and feasibility of such data. data Institutions need to develop standards, concepts, t d definitions fi iti and d measurements t with ith appropriate manuals, guidelines, tools and training Will to legislate laws to adopt International Conventions on gender indicators. Will to take ownership and use gender indicators to support evidence based policies.

€ International

€ Political

€ Political

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Thank y you for f y your attention

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