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EXPERIMENT: 10 YIELD CRITERION

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

AIM:

1. To investigate the principal stresses σ a and σb at any given point of a structural element or machine component when it is in a state of plane stress. 2. To evaluate the two different yield criteria ( Tresca and Von Mises ) for ductile materials under plane stresses.

INTRODUCTION:

Structural elements and machine components made of a ductile material arc usually designed so that the material will not yield under the expected loading conditions. When the element or component is under uniaxial stress (Fig. 1), the value of the normal stress σx, which will cause the material to yield, may be obtained readily from a tensile test conducted on a specimen of the same material, since the test specimen and the structural element or machine component are in the same state of stress. Thus, regardless of the actual mechanism which causes the material to yield, we may state that the element or component will be safe as long as σx<σY, where σY is the yield strength of the test specimen.

On the other hand, when a structural element or machine component is in a state of plane stress (Fig. 2a), the principal stresses σa and σb at any given point can be determined (Fig. 2b). The material may then be regarded as being in a state of biaxial stress at that point. Since this state is different from the state of uniaxial stress found in a specimen subjected to a tensile test, it is clearly not possible to predict directly from such a test whether or not the structural element or machine component under

Some criteria regarding the actual mechanism of failure of the material must be established. for plane stress. hence the maximum shearing stress in a tensile-test specimen is ½σY as the specimen starts to yield. On the other hand. According to this criterion. and to ½|σ max – σmin| if the 2 . a given structural component is safe as long as the maximum value τmax of the shearing stress in that component remains smaller than the corresponding value of the shearing stress in a tensile-test specimen of the same material as the specimen starts to yield. the maximum value τmax of the shearing stress is equal to ½|σmax| if the principal stresses are either both positive or both negative. Maximum-Shearing-Stress Criterion. The maximum value of the shearing stress under a centric axial load is equal to half the value of the corresponding normal axial stress.EXPERIMENT: 10 YIELD CRITERION SoM-CEVL investigation will fail.

known as the von Mises criterion. Maxirnum-Distortion-Enoryy Criterion According to this criterion.EXPERIMENT: 10 YIELD CRITERION SoM-CEVL maximum stress is positive and the minimum stress negative. the maximum-shearingstress criterion yields |σa – σb| < σY The relations obtained have been represented graphically in Fig. where σa and σb are the two principal stresses. the component will fail as a result of yield in the material. if the principal stresses σa and σb have the same sign. If it falls outside this area. the structural component is safe. If this point falls within the area shown in the figure. Any given state of stress will be represented in that figure by a point of coordinates σ a and σb. a given structural component is safe as long as the maximum value of the distortion energy per unit 3 . Thus. The hexagon associated with the initiation of yield in the material is known as Tresca's hexagon. the maximum-shearing-stress criterion gives |σa| < σY |σb| < σY If the principal stresses σa and σb have opposite signs. 3.

polypropylene (pp) strip specimens for shear yield tests..e. PROCEDURE : 1. i. Fixture for performing the shear yield test. If the distortion energy per unit volume in an isotropic material under plane stress is ud. 4 . the distortion energy per unit volume required to cause yield in a tensile-test specimen of the same material. Perform the tensile yield test with the pp dumbbell specimens and evaluate the yield point from the resulting stress-strain curve. This area is bounded by the ellipse of equation σa2 – σaσb + σb2 = σY2 APPARATUS: Tensile tester. 4. the maximumdistortion-energy criterion indicates that the structural component is safe as long as ud < (ud)Y.EXPERIMENT: 10 YIELD CRITERION SoM-CEVL volume in that material remains smaller than (ud)Y. pp dumbbell specimens for tensile yield tests. as long as the point of coordinates σ a and σb falls within the area shown in Fig.

EXPERIMENT: 10 YIELD CRITERION SoM-CEVL 2. Construct the corresponding Tresca’s hexagon and the von Mises’ ellipse and demonstrate the validity of these yield criteria. and how they can be applied in the design of structural components. DISCUSSION: Explain the principle of deriving the two yield criteria ( Tresca and von Mises) and their main differences. 5 . Mount the fixture on the tensile tester and perform the shear yield test with the pp strip specimens. 3.

EXPERIMENT: 10 YIELD CRITERION PART – 2 ANIMATION STEPS SoM-CEVL 6 .

EXPERIMENT: 10 YIELD CRITERION PART – 3 VIRTUAL LAB FRAME SoM-CEVL 7 .

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