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مفتاح محمود الزعليك
باحث بقسم الفيزياء مركز بحوث الطاقات المتجددة وتحليه المياه بتاجوراء
ص.ب. 87803 تاجوراء (طرابلس) الجماهيرية العظمى
د. فرج مفتاح بسيبسو
باحث ورئيس مجموعة الحسابات الهيدروحرارية بقسم المفاعل مركز بحوث الطاقات المتجددة وتحليه المياه بتاجوراء
ص.ب. 87803 تاجوراء (طرابلس) الجماهيرية العظمى
:البريد اللكتروني email@example.com
عنوان الورقة تحديد توزيع الفيض النيتروني الحـــراري الناتـج من تعريــض شــريحة الفضة للمصــدر النيتروني ( ) Pu – Be
Determination of Thermal Neutron Flux from )Pu-Be( Source of Silver Foil تحديد توزيع الفيض النيتروني الحراري الناتج من تعريض شريحة الفضة للمصدر النيتروني ( ) Pu – Be
الم صدر( )Pu – Beيع تبر من أ هم م صادر النيترونات ال تي يم كن ا ستخدامها في تشع يع شريحة الفضة, وهذا المصدر النيتروني له مميزات عالية من أهمها القابلية العال ية للستعادة, وفترة ن صف عمره طويلة. القي مة المطل قة والن سبية لقياسات شدة كثا فة النيترون يم كن ح سابها بد قة عند ما يتـم تعريـض شريحـة الفضـة للمجال النيترونـي والقيام بقياس نشاطهـا الشعاعـي، وهذا مـا يعرف بالتنش يط الشعا عي. إن الغرض من هذه الور قة البحث ية هو تحد يد توز يع الف يض النيترو ني الحراري الناتج من تـشـعيع شريحة الفضة للمصدر النيتروني ()Pu- Beالموجود بمنظومة التشعيع بجامعة ( ).A.G.Hقسـم الفيزياء النوويـة والذي ينتـج حوالي (5.5 × 601 ) n/secعنــد عدة أبعاد (مسافات)، وبمقـارنة هـذه النتـائـج المعملية بالـنتـائج النظرية للـفيض النيتـروني المتحصل علي ـها م ـن ( )ANISN CODEالم ـعـد بوا سطة (1991 , )Dydejczykوهذه النتائج تبين بأن هناك توافـق جيـد بيـن توزيـع الفيـض النيترونـي المعملي والنظري ولكـن الفرق فـي قيـم الفيـض النيترو ني النا تج من عدم د قة قياس القي مة المطل قة للنشاط الشعا عي لشري حة الف ضة ومعدل قياس القراءات. Abstract Pu-Be source is one of the most important neutron source can be used for activation of silver foil. This source has the following characteristics: high
reproducibility and long lifetime. The absolute and relative measurements of neutron intensities can be precisely determined by activating a foil in the neutron field and counting its radioactivity. In the present work the experimentally thermal neutron flux obtained from activation of silver foil at different distance from the axis of Pu-Be neutron source with yield 5.5x106 n/s. was compared with theoretical estimated thermal flux obtained from (ANISN CODE) prepared by (Dydejczyk 1991) the results conduct good agreement was achieved between the special distribution of the experimentally determined thermal neutron flux and theoretical estimated thermal neutron flux. The difference between the values of neutron fluxes is probably due to absolute measurement of silver foil activity. 1. Introduction The neutron strength Q (i.e. the number of neutrons emitted by the source per second) of laboratory neutron source are determined by using primary standardization techniques such as the manganese activation method or the use of the long counter. Such sources are extensively used for fast neutron calibration in the laboratory. For thermal neutron calibration purposes a sigma pile or paraffin or polyethylene mode rated system is normally used . In the case of exposure to slow neutrons, the increased blackening beneath a suitable filter such as cadmium, arising from the (n,γ) reaction in the filter may be used for assessment of slow neutron doses . For fast neutron doses a special film-pack which uses a nuclear emulsion to record recoil proton tracks based on the emulsion is used . The whole
assembly is made light-tight and part of it is covered with a cadmium filter to absorb slow neutron which would otherwise give rise to confusing proton tracks resulting from the (n,p) reaction with the nitrogen of the cellulose base. Thus there are two types of film badge. One is for fast neutrons and the other for other types of radiation. They are normally worn on the chest to enable a whole body dose assessment to be made . The biological effects of slow neutrons are considerably smaller than the effect of neutrons in the energy range from 1-10 MeV. The existence of several substances with very high capture crosses sections for thermal neutrons. And the fact that this cross section has the same energy dependence as the slow neutrons effects in tissues. The dosimetry of slow neutrons is less problematic than the dosimetry fast neutrons . All nuclear reactions which are triggered by slow neutrons such as (n, α), (n, p), (n,γ) reactions which can in principle be employed for the detection of this particles. The α-particles, protons or gamma-ray emitted in theses reactions are the ones which produce the scintillation in suitable materials. The problem of gamma-ray discrimination is facilitated by selecting substance with large slow neutron cross section. The combined energy of the αparticles and 3H nucleus formed in the reaction gamma-ray discrimination is no problem . The cross section of boron for low neutrons is ten-times as greater as that of lithium. The pulse height very small in this case because the combined energy
6 3 3 Li (n, α )1 H is 4.8MeV so that
of α- particle and recoil nucleus is only 2.3 MeV and the efficiency is very poor for the heavy particles . Only detectors, which contain appreciable amounts of hydrogen, can be expected to be real value for fast neutron dosimetry. All other elements are less effective since the fractional energy transfer in collision between neutrons and other atoms decreases rapidly with the atomic weight of the partner. Even scintillates with highest hydrogen concentration attainable appear rather inefficient considering the relatively strong effects of fast neutrons in tissues. Scintillates which contain other light atoms like lithium have been investigated a possible detectors for fast neutrons but apparently no conclusive results have yet been reported . The activation equipment describe in forth Arab conference on peaceful uses of atomic energy, Tunis, 1998 (9). 2. The aim of this work The fundamental aim of the present work is to determine the thermal neutron fluxes of silver foil in the proximately of the Pu-Be neutron source, and compared the experimentally results of thermal flux with the theoretically estimated thermal flux from ANISN code which prepared by. Dydejczyk 1991.
3. Method of study The method used is the absolute method to determination of the thermal neutron fluxes from the irradiation of silver foil, the absolute measurement of the induced activity of the silver isotope (108Ag) is known and the detection efficiency
of the detector is also well known. It means the determined of the activity of silver foil in the neutron field (Pu-Be) source and counting radioactivity. The neutron activation analysis procedure are shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. The main steps of the consecutive analysis. The thermal flux of silver foil determine at different distance from the source (2.75 cm every 0.5 cm to 5.75 cm) by using this formula .
Φ th =
A( absolut activity ) n σ υ (1 - exp(-λ t a ) × exp(-λ t c )
Where A is the absolute activity of 108Ag, n is the number of radioactive nuclei, σ is the cross section of (108Ag), which is equal 45 barn, λ is the decay constant of (108Ag), where λ = Ln2/T1/2 and T1/2 for 108Ag = 2.42 min. The important energies of the decay mode of silver is β − (energy) 1.77 MeV (97%), β + = 0.010 MeV, γ = 0.632 MeV (1.90%) and 0.511 MeV (0.20%) as showing in Figure 2, and Figure 3 shows the relation between the activity and irradiation time.
108 47 Ag
0.841 MeV )0.02%(
1.77 )97 %(
γ 0.632 MeV )1.8%(
108 48 Cd
.(Figure 2. The important energies of the decay of Silver (108Ag
ro ) 108 Ag( = 5 × 242 ×12.2min 47
1 − e −λ t
t a = 5 ×t 1
Figure 3. The relation between the activity and time.
4. Activation Procedure.
The Activation of silver foil measurement of foil activity using a G.M counter Procedure including the following steps:. 1. Preparation of the activation set-up for the measurement of a silver foil in the polyethylene block, as shown in Figure 4.
The sample or foil of silver was irradiated for ta=12.2 min using Pu-Be neutron source.
3. Preparation of the counting arrangement as shown in figure6, also G.M counter was used to measure the background before counting the sample.
Measurement of the cooling time tc, the time between the end of irradiation and the beginning of counting.
5. Placement of irradiated sample in the G.M counter and the performance measurement. 6. Irradiate the silver foil and measurement of the activity of the foil at various distances from the source, starting from 2.75 cm every 0.5 cm to 5.75 cm. 7. Determination of the activity of the foil (silver) at different distances from the source. 8. Determination of the thermal flux at the same distance. 9. Plotting of the thermal neutron flux distribution curve.
1 = G. M. T 2 = FOIL 3 = SHEILDING HOUSE
1 2 3
HIGH VOLTAGE SUPPLY
Figure 4. The arrangement of experiment setup. 5. Results of Experiment The experimental results of the thermal neutron flux distribution are obtained, form the activation measurement of the silver foil, and their theoretical calculations are given in Table.1. Also in Figure 5 shows theoretical thermal neutron flux distribution from the numerical solution of one-dimensional Boltzmann transport equation using ANISN code, and Figure 6 shows the thermal neutron flux distribution obtained both experimentally and theoretically. Table.1 Results of the neutron flux distributions for distance between 2.75 5.75 form the axis of the Pu-Be source. Distance from Source Axis )cm( 2.75 3.25 3.75 4.25 4.75 5.25 5.75 Silver Foil G.M counter × 103 [n/cm .s] 7.08 8.71 8.64 8.54 8.48 8.05 7.85 Theoretical estimation × 104 [n/cm .s] 1.03 1.07 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.02 0.98
For every measurement, the relative average error of silver foil was about 22 %. Table 2 gives the relative errors in percentage defined as the difference between recorded neutron fluxes (experimentally) and estimated neutron flux (theoretically) according to this equation:
( Φ rec − Φ est ) × 100 Φ est
Table.2 Relative errors in the determination of thermal neutron flux. Distance )cm( 2.75 3.25 3.75 4.25 4.75 5.25 5.75 Average error Relative Ag. Foil G.M counter -31.0 -19.0 -21.0 -21.0 -20.0 -21.0 -20.8 -21.8
Thermal neutron Flux [n/cm .sec]
1.0x10 8.0x10 6.0x10 4.0x10 2.0x10
0.0 0 10 20 Distance )cm( 30 40
Figure 5. Theoretical thermal neutron flux distribution.
Neutron Flux Distribution
Silver Foil G.M. Counter Theoretical Estimation
Figure 6. Thermal neutron flux distribution obtained both experimentally and theoretically
Three main types of isotopic neutron sources can be distinguished namely alpha-emitters, which produce neutron through an (α,n) reaction, Gamma-emitters through a (γ,n) reaction and isotopes of heavy elements which undergo spontaneous fission. The radioactive (α,n) source emit neutrons as a result of 9Be (α,η) 12C nuclear reaction. This reaction produce neutrons with different energies (non-mono-energetic neutrons) because of the following reasons: the alpha particles have different initial energies and many of alpha particles lose part of their initial energy by collision before they interact with a 9Be nucleus. The 12C can be left in an excited state. The (α,n) reaction for 9Be is commercially induced by the alpha-emitting radioisotopes
produced by this reaction have a spectrum of energies ranging from 0 to about 11 MeV, the average neutron energy from these sources being about 4.5 MeV. Slow neutrons can be obtained from this source by moderating fast neutrons in water, paraffin or other hydrogen containing materials. Fast neutrons are slowed down to thermal energy by elastic collisions, in the case of hydrogen the mean number of collisions to thermals a fast neutron is 18 collisions. The alpha energies of
which decays with the half-life of 24300 years, are 5.10, 5.13, and 5.15 MeV. Plutonium can be mixed with beryllium to produce Pu-Be source. The authors applied this source in the present work. The source has the following characteristics: high reproducibility, long lifetime, and they do not radiate gamma rays. The absolute and relative measurements of neutron intensities can be precisely determined by activating a foil in the neutron field and counting its radioactivity.
In the present work thermal neutron flux of the silver foil mined with mass 0.168 gm and thickness of 40 μm was determined. Silver exists in nature in two isotopes of atomic masses 107 and 108.both isotopes undergo useful relation for neutron activation analysis, the silver isotopes
Ag is produced from
Ag nuclear reaction after a half-life (T1/2) of 2.42 min with cross-section 45 barn
and beta energy 1.77 MeV. The estimated thermal neutron flux distribution from numerical solution of one-dimensional Boltzmann transport equation using ANISN code, the ANISN code input program was prepared by Dydejczyk (1991). The discrete coordinate simulation was performed for a cylindrical geometry using an AMULTIGROUP cross-section library. The result of the simulation was a thermal neutron flux distribution in the range from zero to 30 cm from the axis of Pu-Be source, which is compared with the thermal neutron flux distribution obtained experimentally by irradiation of silver foil. The shape of the spatial distribution was similar even though obtained values slightly differ, because not all necessary corrections were undertaken (correction coefficient between real activity and recorded count rate). The relative errors in percentage defined as the difference between recorded neutron flux (experimentally) and estimated neutron flux (theoretically), for every measurement the relative average error for silver foil was about 22%.
7. Conclusion The present work leads to the following conclusion
1. Good agreement was achieved between the special distribution of the experimentally determined thermal neutron flux and theoretical estimated thermal flux. 2. The difference between the numerical values of neutron fluxes is probably due to the absolute measurement of foil activity. 3. The relative average error of silver foil measured was 22%
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