Introduction to Management: Managers depend on subordinates more than the reverse, and they are evaluated on the work

of other people rather than on their own work. The nature of management is to motivate and coordinate others to cope with diverse and far-reaching challenges. Managers set up the systems and conditions that help other people perform well. Managers are required to do more with less, to engage whole employees, to see change rather than stability as natural, and to inspire vision and cultural values that allow people to create a truly collaborative and productive workplace. The Definition of Management: Every day, managers solve difficult problems, turn organizations around, and achieve astonishing performances. To be successful, every organization needs good managers. Managers set goals, organize activities, motivate and communicate, measure performance, and develop people. These five manager activities apply not only to top executives, but also to the managers who are at middle and lower levels. The activities fall into four core management functions: planning (setting goals and deciding activities), organizing (organizing activities and people), leading (motivating, communicating with, and developing people), and controlling (establishing targets and measuring performance). Depending on their job situation, managers perform numerous and varied tasks, but they all can be categorized under these four primary functions. Management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources. The definition holds two important ideas: (1) the four functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling, and (2) the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner.

communicating goals to people throughout the organization. and making corrections as necessary. Organizing (Assign responsibility for task accomplishment) Organizing typically follows planning and reflects how the organization tries to accomplish the plan. Organizing involves assigning tasks. delegating authority. determining whether the organization is on target toward its goals. it defines where the organization wants to be in the future and how to get there. However. Leading means creating a shared culture and values.The Four Management Functions: Planning (Select goals and ways to attain them) Planning means identifying goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and use of resources needed to attain them. and infusing employees with the desire to perform at a high level. the ultimate responsibility for control still results with managers. Controlling (Monitor activities and make corrections) Controlling means monitoring employees‟ activities. To sum up management involves the following tasks:      Planning and setting objectives Designing the organizational structure Organizing human resources and non-human resources Organizing activities to encourage efficiency and effectiveness in teamwork Developing an operating philosophy and strategy . In other words. Leading (Use influence to motivate employees) Leading is the use of influence to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals. Recent trend is to place less emphasis on top-down control and more emphasis on training employees to monitor and correct themselves. grouping tasks into departments. Managers must ensure that the organization is moving toward its goals. and allocating resources across the organization.

including globalization. which are getting scarcer every day. The need for effective utilization of available resources. Social entity means being made up of two or more people. efficiency and environment protection 8.     Leading and coordinating resources Creating a conducive environment Ensuring satisfaction of customers. goal directed means designed to achieve some outcome. Significance of Management: 1. . Increasing social and environmental obligations and regulations. 2. Organizational Performance The second part of definition of management is the attainment of organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner. Complexity of regulatory and control measures for protecting the interests of stakeholders and 9. Organization is a social entity and goal directed and deliberately structured. Increasing competition among businesses 3. shareholders. Changing technology for cost. 4. 7. Organizations pervade our society. The large scale and multinational character of organization and their dominance. Growing customer awareness and demands for quality and value. 5. and global trade. The increasing complexity of modern businesses. suppliers and society Ensuring ethics in working and rendering services Ensuring an organization‟s survival within the social and environmental system by assessing social impact and  Assessing performance vis-à-vis tasks. 6. The changing market scenario from a sellers‟ market to buyers‟ market. and managers are responsible for seeing that resources are used wisely to attain organizational goals. Deliberately structured means that tasks are divided and responsibility for their performance is assigned to organization members. Management is so important because organizations are so important.

and innovation. resource allocation. All managers have to pay attention to costs.The responsibility of a manager is to coordinate resources in an effective and efficient manner to accomplish the organization‟s goals. evaluate. money. Although the degree of each skill necessary at different levels of an organization may vary. Conceptual Skills It is the cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole system and the relationships among its parts. all managers must possess skills in each of these important areas to perform effectively. but severe cost cutting to improve efficiency can sometimes hurt organizational effectiveness. which is the attainment of organizational goals by using resources in an efficient and effective manner. and people are necessary for producing a given volume of output. The ultimate responsibility of managers is to achieve high performance. and technical. Organizational effectiveness is the degree to which the organization achieves a stated goal. Efficiency and effectiveness can both be high in the same organization. human. Efficiency can be calculated as the amount of resources used to produce a product or service. and solve complex problems. Organizational efficiency refers to the amount of resources used to achieve an organizational goal. such as decision making. and the broader business and social environment. Conceptual skill involves knowing wher e one‟s team fits into the total organization and how the organization fits into the industry. The application of these skills changes as managers move up in the organization. require a broad view. It is based on how much raw material. Managers continually need to look for ways to increase efficiency while also meeting the company‟s quality and customer satisfaction goals. . long-term view-and to identify. Many of the responsibilities of top managers. or succeeds in accomplishing what it tries to do. It means the ability to think strategically-to take the broad. Management Skills The necessary skills for managing a department or an organization can be categorized in three: Conceptual. Organizational effectiveness means providing a product or service that customers value. Conceptual skills are needed by all managers but are especially important for managers at the top. the community.

techniques. organizational performance and reputation suffer. change or crisis. Human skill is demonstrated in the way a manger relates to other people. managers at the top need a strong understanding not only of the company but also of shifts in the industry and the larger environment. Technical skill includes mastery of the methods. The two major reasons managers fail are poor communication and poor interpersonal skills.To keep the company thriving. Many managers get promoted to their first management jobs by having excellent technical skills. coordinate. Human Skills It is the manager‟s ability to work with and through other people and to work effectively as a group member. Top causes of manager failure 1. or finance. lead. and resolve conflicts. including listening to employees and customers and showing genuine care and concern. manufacturing. communicate. Poor work relationships/interpersonal skills-78% . A manager‟s weaknesses become more apparent during stressful times of uncertainty. Ineffective communication skills and practices-81% 2. However. Technical Skills Technical skill is the understanding of and proficiency in the performance of specific tasks. technical skills become less important than human and conceptual skills as managers move up the hierarchy. facilitate. analytical ability. including the ability to motivate. Especially in times of uncertainty and crisis. It also includes specialized knowledge. and the competent use of tools and techniques to solve problems in that specific discipline. Technical skills are particularly important at lower organizational levels. Human skills are increasingly important for managers at all levels. and equipment involved in specific functions such as engineering. Organizations frequently lose good people because of front-line bosses who fail to show respect and concern for employees.If managers do not communicate effectively.

Top level managers They are at the top of the hierarchy and are responsible for the entire organization. Breakdown of delegation and empowerment-56% 7.Poor planning practices/reactionary behavior-45% Management Levels (Types) Managers use conceptual. There are three levels in the hierarchy. and meet different requirements for achieving high performance. They have titles such as president. leading. Inability to develop cooperation and teamwork-50% 9. or putting top management plans into action across the organization. and technical skills to perform the four management functions of planning. For top-level managers. But not all managers‟ jobs are the same. Lack of personal integrity and trustworthiness-52% 8. chairperson. Person-job mismatch-69% 4. Failure to adapt and break old habits-57% 6. work at different levels in the hierarchy. Failure to clarify direction or performance expectations-64% 5. coordinating teams. the main concern is facilitating individual employee performance. The manager‟s job differs across these three hierarchical levels and found that the primary focus changes at different levels. human.3. organizing. chief executive officer (CEO). Vertical differences: An important determinant of the manager‟s job is hierarchical level. executive director. and controlling in all organizations in different amounts and ways. and executive vice president. Managers are responsible for different departments. For first level managers. Top managers are responsible for . such as allocating resources. Middle managers though are concerned less with individual performance and more with linking groups of people. Inability to lead/motivate others-47% 10. the primary focus is monitoring the external environment and determining the best strategy to be competitive.

The success of the organization depends on the execution of strategies and the middle managers are the ones who make it work. First line managers are directly responsible for the production of goods and services. finance. The time horizon at this level is short. and making decisions that affect the entire organization. shaping corporate culture. human resources. Middle managers are responsible for implementing the overall strategies and policies defined by top managers. They are responsible for teams and non-management employees. and director of the research lab. and nurturing an entrepreneurial spirit that can help the company innovate and keep pace with rapid change. division head. They play a crucial role in driving innovation and enabling organizations to respond to rapid shifts in the environment. with the emphasis on accomplishing day-to-day goals. often inexperienced workers. line manger. They are the first or second level of management and have such titles as supervisor. Line managers are responsible for the manufacturing and . and office manager. They create horizontal networks that can help the organization act quickly. Horizontal differences Functional managers are responsible for departments that perform a single functional task and have employees with similar training and skills. and accounting. and ensuring adherence to company policies. manufacturing. and motivate subordinates. They are generally concerned with the near future rather than with long range planning. Functional departments include advertising. The job of first line managers also involve motivating and guiding young. Their primary concern is the application of rules and procedures to achieve efficient production. provide technical assistance. monitoring and interpreting the external environment. Middle managers work at middle levels of the organization and are responsible for business units and major departments. section chief. providing assistance as needed. sales. Examples of middle managers are department head. defining strategies for achieving them. Top managers are also responsible for communicating shared vision for the organization.setting organizational goals. They look to the long-term future and concern themselves with general environment al trends and the organization‟s overall success. manager of quality control.

though. Staff mangers are in charge of departments such as finance and human resources that support line departments. Whereas the individual performer strongly identifies with his or her specific tasks. It is a profound transformation in the way people think of themselves. and develops the habit of relying on self rather than others. But making the shift from individual contributor to manager is often departments that make or sell the product or service. One key to success is to recognize that becoming a manager involves more than learning a new set of skills. His or her mind is conditioned to think in terms of performing specific tasks and activities as expertly as possible. the manager has to identify with the broader organization and industry. General Managers are responsible for several departments that perform different functions. get things done through other people. on the other hand. Another problem for many new managers is that they expect to have greater freedom to do what they think is best for the organization. Being a successful manager means thinking in terms of building teams and networks. The individual performer gets things done mostly through his or her own efforts. A general manger is responsible for a self-contained division. . called personal identity. one of the most common mistakes new managers make is wanting to do all the work themselves rather than delegating to others and developing others‟ abilities. becoming a motivator and organizer within a highly interdependent system of people and work. The individual performer is a specialist and a “doer”. has to be a generalist and learn to coordinate a broad range of activities. The manager. The manger. Becoming a New Manager: Organizations often promote the star performers-those who demonstrate individual expertise in their area of responsibility and have an ability to work well with others-both to reward the individual and to build a new talent into the managerial ranks.

meetings. popularized by Professor Henry Mintzberg of McGill University. 1. The ten managerial roles identified by him have been placed under three categories: They are: I. A role is a set of expectations for a manager‟s behavior. coordinates diverse tasks -- Gets things done through others -A network builder -. train. The figurehead role (performing ceremonial and social duties as the organization‟s representative such as greeting visitors. Pertain to relationships with others and are related to the . and communicate with subordinates. counsel.Works in highly interdependent manner Managerial Roles Approach: One of the newer approaches to management theory is the managerial roles approach. performs specific Tasks  Gets things done through Own efforts  An individual actor  Works relatively Independently -Generalist. organizing. and controlling. 3. The liaison role (particularly with outsiders)-Maintain information links inside and outside organization. Interpersonal Roles human skills. Each role represents activities that managers undertake to ultimately accomplish the functions of planning.From Individual Identity-----------------------------------------To Manager Identity  Specialist. leading. The leader role-direct and motivate subordinates. use e-mail. signing legal documents) 2. phone calls.

The entrepreneurial role-involves the initiation of change. Decision Roles: Pertain to those events about which the manager must make a choice and take action. 1. memos. the controller about the need for additional budget resources. Informational Roles: Describe the activities used to maintain and develop an information network. 3. The resource-allocator role-pertains to decisions about how to assign people.) III. These roles often require conceptual as well as human skills. General Managers spend about 75% of their time communicating with other people. The spokesperson role (transmitting information to those outside the organization through speeches. 2. . equipment. reports. money. Constantly thinking about the future and how to get there. 1. The negotiator role (dealing with various persons and groups of persons)involves formal negotiations and bargaining to attain outcomes for the manager‟s unit of responsibility. The disturbance-handler role-involves resolving conflicts among subordinates or between the manager‟s department and other departments. 4. The disseminator role (passing information to subordinates) 3. and other resources to attain desired outcomes. time. or the union about a worker grievance. The manager meets and formally negotiates with others-a supplier about a late delivery. The recipient role (seek and receive information about the operation of an enterprise) 2.II.

” or „increase appreciation for the arts. “make a difference in the lives of the disenfranchised. but the metrics of success in nonprofits are much more ambiguous. They have difficulty of developing managerial dexterity to survive when conditions turn chaotic. grants. Financial resources for nonprofit organizations typically come from government appropriations. but the environment for small business today is highly complicated. and a major problem for many organizations is securing a steady stream of funds to continue operating.Managing in Small Businesses and Not For Profit Organizations Small businesses are growing in importance. leading. Not for profit organizations also require excellent management. In nonprofits. committed to serving clients with limited resources. If nonprofit managers can‟t demonstrate a highly efficient use of resources. they might have a hard time securing additional donations or government appropriations. In businesses. The primary difference is that managers in businesses direct their activities toward earning money for the company. Donors generally want their money to go directly to helping clients rather than for overhead costs. organizing. managers focus on improving the organization‟s products and services to increase sales revenues. It is easy to measure dollars and cents. however. growing company to the outside world. The functions of planning. and donations rather than from the sale of products or services to customers. Nonprofit managers. whereas managers in nonprofits direct their efforts toward generating some kind of social impact. Managers in small companies required to perform role as that of spokesperson because they must promote the small. Managers of nonprofit organizations struggle with the question of what constitutes results and effectiveness because the organizations do not have a conventional bottom line. services are typically provided to nonpaying client. must focus on keeping organizational costs as low as possible. The entrepreneur role is also critical in small businesses because managers have to be innovative and help their organization s develop new ideas to remain competitive. and controlling apply to nonprofits and managers in not for profit organizations use similar skills and perform similar activities.” This intangible nature also makes it more . Managers have to measure intangibles such as “improve public health”.

Turbulent Forces Dramatic advances in technology. many companies are shifting more and more chunks of what were once considered core functions to outside organizations via outsourcing. In addition. The most pervasive change affecting organizations and management is technology. The internet and electronic communication have transformed the way business is done and the way managers perform their jobs. small businesses. leader (to build a mission-driven community of employees and volunteers).difficult to gauge the performance of employees and managers. shifting social values. An added complication is that managers often depend on volunteers and donors who cannot be supervised and controlled in the same way a business manager deals with employees. Many organizations use digital technology to tie together employees and partners located worldwide. it‟s easy for people to do their jobs from home or other locations outside company walls. With new technology. . Managers in non-profit organizations to place more emphasis on the roles of spokesperson (to sell the organization to donors and the public). globalization. and resource allocator (to distribute government resources or grant funds that are often assigned topdown) Managers in all organizations-large corporations. changes in the workforce. and other environmental shifts have created a challenging environment for organizations. Innovative Management for the New Workplace: Rapid environmental shifts are causing fundamental transformation that have a dramatic impact on the manager‟s job. which requires coordination across organizations. and nonprofit organizations-carefully integrate and adjust the management functions and roles to meet challenges within their own circumstances and keep their organizations healthy.

work is free flowing and flexible. Knowledge is widely shared. and motivating employees. and learning that comes from working in a wide range of organizations. Interim managers. managers rethink their approach to organizing. and interim managers. The organization is coordinated and controlled through the vertical hierarchy. suppliers. with managers having to supervise and coordinate people who never actually “come to work” in the traditional sense. In the new workplace. and is comfortable with risk. Structures are flatter and lower level employees are empowered to make decisions based on widespread information and guided by the organization‟s mission and values. or contingent mangers. with decision-making authority residing with upper-level managers.New Workplace Characteristics The old workplace is characterized by routine. telecommuting. Employees typically perform their jobs in one specific company facility. shares knowledge. and standardized control procedures. Teams may include outside contractors. . Flexible hours. and people throughout the company keep in touch with a broad range of colleagues via advanced technology. are managers who are not affiliated with a specific organization but work on a project-by-project basis or temporarily provide expertise to organizations in a specific area. The valued worker is one who learns quickly. specialized tasks. Instead of “management -by-keeping-tabs. and ambiguity. When people are working at scattered locations. In the new workplace. change. According to one estimate the market for contingent managers will grow 90% over the next decade. and virtual teams are increasingly popular ways of working that require new skills from managers. People expect to work on a variety of projects and jobs throughout their careers rather than staying in one field or with one company. New Management Competencies In the face of these transitions. managers can‟t continually monitor behavior.” managers employ an empowering leadership style. and managers are cautious about sharing knowledge and information across boundaries. by contrast. This approach enables a company to benefit from specialist skills without making a long-term commitment. Individuals concentrate on doing their own specific tasks. variety. directing. competitors. work is often virtual. customers. and it provides flexibility for managers who like the challenge.

making all the decisions. . and managers encourage people to share information and knowledge. and knowing where their subordinates are and what they are doing at every moment. The shift to a new way of managing is not easy for traditional managers who are accustomed to being “in charge”.Success in the new workplace depends on collaboration across functions and hierarchical levels as well as with customers and other companies. Even many new managers have a hard time with today‟s flexible work environment. Experimentation and learning are key values.

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