Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute

EPIC STUDIES Author(s): V. S. Sukthankar Source: Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 18, No. 1 (1936-37), pp. 176 Published by: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41688328 . Accessed: 02/06/2013 02:36
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Ännals Bhandarkar Research Vol. XVIII ]

of

the Oriental

Institute October 1936 EPIC STUDIES BY V. S. SUKTHANKAR : A Text-historical [ Part I

VI. The Bhrgus and the Bhsbata

Study1

The Bhrgus are unquestionably an interesting old clan.8 between the Sanskrit name Tempted by the tantalizing affinity Bhrgu and the Greek <t>'e y v in the name of $Aey v a $ and of A. Weber postulated a genetic connection betthe $'eyv'at, ween the Indian and the Greek names, and even ascribed Indogermanic antiquity to a certain legend about Bhrgu Vãruni preserved in the Satapatha Brãhmana ( 11. 6. 1 ), a legend of which he thoughthe had discovered a parallel in Greek mythology. The facile phonetic equation put up by Weber has not, however, commendeditselfto otherscholars, and we are not specially concerned with it either. But it cannot be gainsaid that the clan is very ancient and that some of their legends are of hoary antiquity. There are scattered notices about the Bhrgus to be found from the Vedic Samhitãs onwards through the Brãhmana, Ãranyaka and Upanisad literature up to the Epics and the Purãnas, steadily growing in volume and importance. ff. 1 Forthefirst oftheSeries, of.JBBRAS ( Nti). 4. 157 instalment ; the intheseAnnals, vol. 11, pp. 165-191, haveappeared 259-283; following four vol.16,pp.90-114 ; vol.17,pp.185-202. 2 The bestgenoral oftheBhrgus has beengivenby E. Sieg in account the Encyclopaedia ), s. v. of Religionand Ethics ( edited by Hastings " Bhrigu ForVedicreferences and Keith,Vedic Index see also Macdonell " Cyavana " Bhfgu etc. and v. Names s. , ¡Subjects of

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Institute Annals oftheBhandarkar Oriental Research

Not only is the clan ancient, its legends also are highly interesting. So suggestive in fact are the early mythsof this clan that they had in formeryears engrossed the attentionof many a and called forth a variety of instudent of Indian mythology, terpretations. Thus Bergaigne looked upon the Bhrgu myth of the Bgveda as merely a more developed formof the early tradition about the descent of fireand identifiedBhrgu with Agni. A. Kuhn and A. Barth agreed in regardingthe Bhrgus as personificationsof the lightning flash, and Kuhn tried to harmonize the Greek mythregarding the descent of fire with the Vedic. A. Weber, as already remarked, saw in a legend preserved in the Satapatha Brãhmana a relic of primitive Indo-germanic mythology, But even the later legends of these people are not without a certain amount of grandiosity. Just consider the figure of Paraáurãma : a matricide,annihilator of the Ksatriyas and finally an avalara of Yisnu, all in one. The popularityof the Paraáurãma legend in India is attested by the number of places, scattered all over India, which are associated with his name and his exploits and held sacred to his memory.1 Near the Kangra District ofthe Pan jab thereis a very ancient temple dedicated to Paraáurãma, a name notyet applied to him in our epic. In the State of Udaipur there is a sacred pool where Rãma is said to have bathed and atoned for his sins. In the Bijapur District of the Bombay Presidency, an axe-shaped rock marks the spot where Rãma is represented as having washed his famous axe ( parašu ), which has given him his nick-name Paraáurãma, Rãma-with-the-Axe. Even this irresistibleaxe of his has been deified,and thereis in Mysore State a temple dedicated to it. Gokarna shows an old tank dedicated to Mahãdeva, which is said to have been built by the son ofJamadagni. Even the Lakhlmpur District of distant Assam has a pool to show to which, his according to popular belief, Parasurãma had surrendered dreadedaxe, and which attractspilgrimsfromevery part of India. the absorbing interestofthe Bhärgava myths, Notwithstanding it is primarily not their interpretationthat is attempted here. 1 Cf.Anujan Achan(citing the Imperial Gazetteer ), Paraáurãma Legend and its Significance was readat theEighthSession of the , p. 8 f. Thepaper All-India Oriental 1935) and has since been published Conference ( Mysore with oftheGovernment thespecialsanction ofCochin. separately

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to give a succinct account of all that the Great Epic of India has to say about the Bhrgus. In essence. This content downloaded from 137. has acquired considerable fascination for me. but it seemed to me that it has not been studied with that degree of attentionto details which it deserves.123. But at the end of the paper it is shown that the investigation might at the same time yield results which are not without general value fora partial elucidation of the obscure historyof this venerable old text.a subject which. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . could have been presented here in The Ehärgava references it but different ways. this is merelya text-critical study. appeared best to take them up for many study in the sequence in which they appear in our epic. it must be admitted. Even this material is not entirely new. to examine the material book by book and chapter by chapter. Exigencies of space. I thereforepropose to rect angle. is the richestmine justified.having engaged my attentionfor a numbr of years. It is a trite observation but it is neverthelesstrue that even what appears on the face of it to be a most insignificant detail might be foundto yield a valuable clue if looked at fromthe corto get.132.as also That is a task fraughtwith difficulties one for which the presentwriterfeels he is not adequately equipped. The choice of the source-book is abundantly because the Mahäbhärata. study the manner in which they are presented. The total numberof passages of the Mahäbhärata in which the Bhärgavas are mentionedis astonishinglylarge. We shall find that there are many more Bhärgavas mentionedin our epic than commonlyknown and many more referencesto Bhärgavas than commonlysuspected. investigate theirrepetitionsand even discrepancies. a veritable thesaurus of Bhärgava legends. having already attractedthe attention of scholars.Epic Studies( VI ) 3 and uncertainties. containing as it does the largest numberand the greatest variety of such legends. which is oftendifficult re-examine here the Bhärgava references in our Great Epic in considerable detail. as I believe. for the explorationof the Bhärgava material. in other words. which occur in the Mahäbhärata.69 on Sun. My intention is to pass under review here all the myths and legends relating to the differentBhrgus. subjecting themto a critical analysis. The modest aim of this paper is to collect and collate the Bhärgava referencesin the Mahäbhärata.

already in the second chapter of the Ãdiparvan. the Parvasamgraha. which is in fact. I add here a genealogical table which will enable the reader to follow the legends of the Bhrgus and the discussions about them with greater ease. somethinglike a Table of Contents.compelled the writerto restricthimself to the discussion of only the more importantof the references. The table is made up from the data of the Mahãbhãrata itself.132. " B. Yayãti) [ Yadu Cyavana ( m. the war.it appears to be very much abridged. That comes about in this way.69 on Sun. a character which Jämadagnya. Satyavatl) Sunaka I Jamadagni (m. was called Kuruksetra ( Gltä 1. Puloma ) Kavi i Šukra I Devayânï ( m. Ghrtãcl) I 1 Euru (m. This content downloaded from 137.1 ( 1932 in theJournal % ). Pramadvarã) Rclka (m.forthe greaterpart of it. 1 ) : 1 In theAdiparvan. the by this Institute published edition( Poona 1929-1933 edition theChitrashala References usedbeing ).f vol. elsewhere .but it is undoubtedlynot complete. pp. Sukanyã & ÃrusI ) i I I Aurva Pramati ( m. the most famous of them. and ay ofBomb oftheUniversity Purasurãma citedabove. andits SignificAohan thepaper Legend byAnujan ance( 1935 ). are distinguished to theVulgate byprefixing 2 Specialstudies : IravatiKarwe. Renukã) Turvasu | Hama Jämadagnya ÃDIPARVAN1 Strangely enough. 115-139 .123. The place wherethe Mahãbhãrata war as everybodyknows who knows anything at all about was fought. Rama avatar a. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Genealogical Tree of the Bhrgus Bhrgu ( m. onParaáurâma "TheParaéurSma Myth.we make our acquaintance with one of the Bhãrgavas. ofthatbook aretotheCritical Edition thereferences to the Vulgate ( Poona1933 ). " to them.4 Institute Annals of theBhandarkar Oriental Research however.lacking many details and intermediate links.2not yet a full-fledged has no connection whatsoever with the action of the in reality sublime tragedywhich is going to be unfoldedin the epic.

the sacred spot where the Bhãrgava Räma. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It was in fact. son of Lomaharsana.as the Süta proceeds to explain. who recites the epic at the twelve-year sacrificial session held in the Naimisa Forest under the auspices of Saunaka. samdhau Rãmah sastrabhrtäm varah I Tretãdvãparayoh II ksatram asakrtpãrthivam jaghãnãmarsacoditah I sa sarvamksatram ulsãdya svavïryenâiialadyutih rudhirahradãn II cakãra panca Samantapañcake hradesukrodhamwrcchitah I sa tesu rudhirãmbhahsu II nah šrutam rudhirerieti pitrnsamtarpayãmãsa This content downloaded from 137. situated probably somewhere in the neighbourhoodof Kuruksetra. 3 fif.123. 2. 2. probably forming a circle ( hence obviously Samantapañcaka ).) •* I am dvijanisevitam kam nãma puny Sa mantapafica yatrãbhavat pitra I gatavãnasmi tamdêéamyuddham II mahiksitam sarvesãm ca ca Kuruiiãm Pãnfavãnãm iha I didrksurãgatas tasmãtsamipambhavatãm That obviously needed a little explication. giving him the boon that those sanguinary pools of his would become holy places of pilgrimage ): ( 1. 1 ) : itiyad iiktam sutanandanaI Samantapañcakam m li icchUmahe srotum etatsarvamyathãnyãyam vaya. Süta it a Bhãrgava the be narrated to the story And from by proves place of pilgrimage. beforehim and pacified him. 2. They want to know all about this new place of pilgrimage ( 1. and standing in the middle offeredthe uncanny oblation of congealed blood to his until the shades of the departed ancestors appeared forefathers. 3 ). 1. Accordingly we find in the beginning of the second chapter a query about this Samantapañcaka from the sages who formed the audience. gives the name of the place as Samantapañcaka and is careful enough to add that he had visited that sacred spot and was as a matter of fact just returningfromit ( 1. the foremost varah 1. 11 f.132. afterextirpating of weapon-bearers ( éastrabhrtãm the warrior race during the interval betweenthe Treta and the Dväpara Ages.Epic Studies(VI) 5 samavetäyuyutsavah ' Kuruksetre dharmaksetre mãmákahPãndavãs coiva But the Sùta Ugrašravas.69 on Sun. had made fivepools of blood.

2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . cf. which is an abridged version of a dialogue occura sub-section of the Ãranyakaring in the Tirthayãtrãparvan. which has made the Kuruwaging a holy war ( dharmayuddha ksetraa dharmaksetra. 3.132. othersimilar enlargementsof Bhärgava anecdotes. ): Rãma Rãma mahãbhãgaprítãhsma tarnBhärgava I cd vikr amena ca te vibhoI anayã pitrbhaktyã varanivrrirsva bhadramte kimtcchasimahãdyute I Rãma uvãca I yadi mepitaráhprltã yadyanugrãhyatã mayiI ca rosabhibhütena utsãditam ksalram yac mayã I etc. 2.those shining examples ofknighthood and chivalry.6 Annals of theBhandarkar Oriental Research Institute A few stanzas later we read that the Kuru-Pändava war was also foughtat this Samantapañcaka ( 1. it may be mentioned that this short account of the annihilation of the Ksatriyas by the Brahmin Rãma Jãmadagnya.has been even amplified in later times by the interpolationof a shortdialogue ( of eight lines ) between Rãma Jãmadagnya and his Bhärgava ancestors ( Ädi 71* . B.69 on Sun. is found at this point only in certain Devanãgarl MSS. 374f. with the redactorsof our Mahãbhãrata. and as as in Bengali We shall have occasion to mention therefore certainly suspect. vol. p. well the entire Southern recension. a mammoth fair. parvan. and is missing in the ( including those of the K MSS. Even now at every solar eclipse there is held at Kuruksetra. This passage. 29 ff. 83.a very popular theme. as will be seen later on. " " Version ).123.8 ( 1886 This content downloaded from 137. ofIndia. In passing. 1 Imperial Gazetteer ). ).a name which has struck deep root in the memory of the people. The people of India have forgotten this Bhärgava synonym: they remember only Kuruksetra. 9 ) : antarê caiva samprãpteKalidvãparayorábhñt1 II Ktiru-Pãndavasenayoh yuddharh Samantapaficake Samantapañcaka is thus made out to be only another name of Kuruksetra : evidently a Bhärgava name.1 corners hailing from the different of India. who reverentlyvisit the spot hallowed by the blood of their beloved kings of yore.who counting their lives as straw fell fighting. which attracts hundreds of thousands of devout pilgrims.

casting aside their pride. When the earth was thus bereft of Ksatriya manhood. its exultant note ringing like a distant echo in the remotest corners and crevices of this huge epos. the Ksatriya women. 58 ofthe Adi. The first with slight variations. which was composed by Krsna Dvaipãyana to spread in this world the fame of the highsouled Pändavas and of otherpuissant Ksatriyas ( 1. in throve generation. They cohabited with the Ksatriya women. The chapter.desoribes the circumstances which led to the incarnation of the gods and goddesses of the Purãnic pantheon on this earth an allusion to the great of ours. Thus sprang women up a second Ksatriya race fromthe surviving Ksatriya new The Brahmins. who ushered in again the Golden Age. Their offsprings Ksatriyas. But the account begins wifch exploit of the Bhãrgava Rãma. It occurs. never out of season.69 on Sun. thereremained of the warrior caste only the females. over and over again in our Mahãbhãrata. 25 f. approached the Brahmins foroffsprings.as a matter of fact. 58. 4 ) : ' nihksatriyãm krlvõ prthwïm pura I trihsaptakrtvah II ( I ) Jamadagnyas tapas tepeMahendreparvatottame line of this stanza is worthyof special note. having Brahmins at their headU 58. only in season. in pity for their sad plight. Thus thousands of Ksatriya women conceived from their interwere the virtuous course with pious Brahmins. and the theme is the same. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .123. were again established the four castes. and the Ksatriya race was in imminent danger of becoming totally extinct ( Adi 58 ). 10): This content downloaded from 137.Epic Studies( VI ) 7 The next referenceto the Bhãrgava Rama occurs in adhy. blessed with long life. 56.132. not from passion. With these Ksatriya women cohabited the Brahmins of rigid vows of those times. retired to Mount Mahendra to practise austerities. his total extirpation of the bad old kings of yore ( 1. ascetic with intercourse owing to their there And virtue. 8.) : '' krtam punyaciktrsurß Krsria-Dvaipäyanenedam I klrtim pralhayatãloke Pãndavãnãm mahãtmanãm avívate ca bhûridr jasara II anyesãmksatriyanãm When the Bhãrgava Rãma. aftermaking a clean sweep of the Ksatriyas.

emerged fromtheir places of concealment and resumed sovereignty.in different formsand shapes. But in a variant version of the same incident. which occurs in the Santi ( adhy. wnich explains the origin and genealogy of the different orders of beings. afterhis retirement to the forest. the eleven Rudras.gandharvas and apsarases incarnate themselves.took birthin royal families and elsewhereon this earth. who with a view to freeing her from the tyranny of her oppressorsordains that the various gods and goddesses. oppressedby this vicious and godless creation. which list does not include Bhrgu. namely. the narrator. 60. The six mind-bornsons of Brahmã are : Marici. defeatedby the gods and expelled fromheaven.8 Annals of theBhandarkarOrientalResearch Institute ksatram I evamtad brãhmanaih ksatriyãsu tapasvíbhth ' dharmeria rdhyata jãtam sudirghenâyusãnvitam 9 catvãro pi tadä varilababhüvur 11 brãhmanottarah tahprajãh prthivlpãla I dharmavrataparãyanãh caiva ãdhibhir narãh |l vimuktah sarvašo vyãdhibhis Later the Asuras. while admitting that there was a general slaughter of the Ksatriyas. the only Brahmanic genealogy considered by the epic bards worthy of inclusion in this chapter. 48-49 of the Vulgate ) and which will be discussed in due course. 60. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Vaisampãyana is quite certain that the Ksatriyas were totally annihilated by Räma and the race was regeneratedby Brahmins. This confused cosmogonie account ( 1. Pulaha and Kratu.and so again godless kings were born here on this earth. to wage war vvith In this legend. contains also a genealogy of the Bhãrgavas.132. which is here skilfully interwoven with the much lauded exploit ofthe Bhärgava Rama. from the gods downwards. The goddess Earth. But in this prologue to the Ãdiparvan. Sri-Krsna himself. 1 ) begins with the enumeration of the six mind-born( mãnasa ) sons of Brahmã and the eleven sons of Sthãnu. in order to continue their fight forsupremacy.123. Atri. the Brahmin appears in the rôle of the de facto Creator of the Later Ksatriyas. allows that some Ksatriyas had escaped death at the hands of the Bhärgava Räma and. the Asuras.lodged a complaintwith Brahma.69 on Sun. Añgiras. adhy. Pulastya. Daksa This content downloaded from 137. entirely Anotherlittle digression.

The genealogy given here is shortand mentions only the well-known descendantsof one branch of the Bhärgava clan. 6. R. being born by piercing his heart.132. desire sprang up in the mind of Brahma. 1 ). This content downloaded from 137. 1 ) also. ] Z I Annal«. Satapatha Brähmana ( 11. Seeing that assemblage öf celestial damsels of exceeding beauty. Thereupon.123. 1 ). in theformof Varnýma. and Daksa's wife fromhis left thumb. 1. 1 ). 9. according to which Bhrgu was born from the seed of Prajãpati which had fallen in the fire. Bhrgu and Angiras. The Kasyapa's offsprings list of gods and demi-gods closes with the progeny of Kašyapa ( 1. son of Marici. 34 ) that the seed of Prajãpati became divided into threeparts. There seems to be a partial synthesis of some of these divergent versions in the confused Anuáãsana account cited above. 60. after this list of celestials. on the burning fire. Brahma was presiding and all the gods and the goddesses were present. 39 ) : te y esa devaganorajan kìrtitas nupúrvaêahI II yam Idrtayitvã manujahsarvapãpaihpramucyate Immediately. As soon as the seed came out. come Bhrgu and his descendants ( 1. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Epic Studies(VI) $ was born from the right thumb of Brahma. But this ancestryof Bhrgu is in conflictwith another account foundin the epic ( Anusäsana 85 of the Vulgate ). to Kašyapa. of whom he gave away thirteen. fromVaruna he obtained the knowledge of Brahma. Brahma took it up with the sacrificial ladle and poured it as a libation of clarifiedbutter. fromwhich were born Ãditya.69 on Sun. while Mahãdeva. the branch made famous by Rama Jãmadagnya. the paternity of Bhrgu with two others is attributed to Varuna. Daksa begat fifty daughters on his wife. On fcheother hand. 3. Bhrgu is said to be the son of Varuna . in the Pañcavimsa Brähmana ( 18. I. for we read in the Aitareya Brähmana ( 3.in a lot. forming a sacrifice. The latter account has partial Vedic support. accordwas pering to which. 40 ) : bhittvã nihsrto Brahmanohrdayam bhagavãnBhrguh' The close proximityto the gods is perhaps a covert indication of the high position of the Bhrgus in the Precedence List. 1. 60. were the gods and the titans ( asuras ). Taittirïya Äranyaka ( 9. The pedigree begins with Bhrgu who also was a son of Brahma. with the necessary mantra8% B. Further in the Taittirïya Upanisad ( 1. O.

Aurva-ßcIka-JamadagniRäma. mentioningYayäti and his fivesons. 71.according to the computation of Pargiter. only a few chapterslater. From Cyavana the pedigree runs as follows : Cyavana. we findthe statementthat Bhrgu had two sons. another came out of the burning charcoals and hence he passed by the name of Angiras . One arose from the flames and hencehe was called Bhrgu .123. However. forwhom our epic shows great predilection. Kavi ( whose son was Sukra ) and Cyavana. which is probably the reason why it has been excerptedhere from some Purãnic source. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the thirdoriginated froma heap of extinguished coals and was called Kavi. This traditionwe find faintly reflectedin a stanza ( Adi 216 * ). And thus although the connection of this episode with the main epic story is of a very slender character. the epic relating at great length the well-known storyof Yayäti ( Yayãtyupãkhyãna. 70. a remote ancestor of the Pãndavas. Vaiáarhpãyana briefly sketches the early history of the Lunar Dynasty. 6 : ' BhrgurmaharsirbhagavãnBrahmanã vai svayambhuvã Varunasyakrataujãtah pãvakãd iti nah šrutam'' Here we see that the great seer Bhrgu is said to have been produced by the self-createLord Brahmã during Varuna's sacrifice fromFire. This content downloaded from 137. to returnto the pedigreeofthe Bhrgus given in Adi 60. Between Yayäti and the Pãn4avas there intervene. The story of Yayäti is as follows. But Janamejaya is not satisfiedwith this sketchyaccount and requests Vaiáampâyana to relate in detail the story of Yayäti. interpolatedin most MSS.69 on Sun. About both Šukra and Cyavana. in which Šukra and his haughty and ambitious daughter Devayãnl play a prominentrôle. Adi 71-80 ). " tenth in descent from Prajäpati " ( daéamo yah Prajãpateh 1. 1 ). of the Northern recension after1« 5.io OrientalResearch Institute Annals oftheBhandarkar three beings emerged from the sacrificial fire. About Rclka alone the epic has not very much to narrate. nearly ninety generations.132. but it is full of the wonderful exploits ofthe remainingBhärgavas mentioned here. In adhy. Thus we find. it possesses considerable Bhãrgava interest. we hear a great deal in our Mahäbhärata.

are having a bathe in a neighbouring river. not so Brhaspati. Sarmisthä had become Devayanťs slave.69 on Sun. Vrsaparvan's daughter. however. son of Aňgiras.Sukra. by dint of importunityand feminine logic to act so that her menstrual period will not be " wasted.132. and goes in a huffto her father. and Sarmisthä throws her rival into a dry well overgrown with grass. a powerfulsorcerer. Accordingly Yayäti exchanged his decrepitude for the youth of his youngest son. the Bhãrgava Sukra ( Kã vya Ušanas) that of the Asuras. There ensues a heftyquarrel between the girls. an honour which Kaoa politely but firmly declines. who was then the court chaplain of the Asura king Visaparvan. Previously. who with the approval of her father. so that Sarmisthä by mistake took -up the dress of DevayanI. This content downloaded from 137. Sukra.123. and so it happens. Yayäti has been warned beforehandby Sukra that he must on no account call Sarmisthä on to his bed. And there she remains until she is seen and palled out ofthe well by the gallant king Yayäti. Brhaspati's son Kaca goes to Sukra. and lives with him as his disciple in order to obtain fromhim a knowledge of the art of reviving the dead. But Sarmisthä prevails upon the softhearted and indulgent Yayäti. as a recompense for her overbearing conduct towards Devayäni. The gods were therefore handicapped in their wars with the Asuras. Subsequently none day when Devayäni and Sarmisthä. which had been left by the girls on the river bank. Devayäni learns the truth of the whole affair one day by accident. She now accompanies Devayäni to the capital of Yayäti and the three people live in happiness for some time. The enraged Sukra curses Yayäti of the perfidy the effects of premature decrepihe would that instantly suffer tude. and adds that Yayäti might transfer his premature old age at will to any one who is willing to take it on in his stead. while Devayäni has only two. like all the other Bhãrgavas. Indra tossed their clothes about. had the knowledge of the secret of reviving the dead ( samjivanl vidyã). was the preceptor of the gods . 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . So at the instance of the gods. forthe husband of one's friendis the same as one's own husband Yayäfciis constrained to admit the logic and begets on her secretly threesons.Epic Studies(VI) Il Brhaspati. complaining bitterly of her husband. He relents. Sukra* s daughter Devayäni falls headlong in love with Kaca and openly proposes marriage. marries her.

It is no otherthan the story of the Bhãrgava Rãma and its sequel. when Kãáyapa gives his parting blessing to his beloved daughter. He proposes instead that a Brahmin be called to officiate ( niyoga) and do the job. the Bhãrgava Rãma slew Arjuna. he could think of no betterboon than to wish that she might be like Sarmisthã? bahumatãbhava ' bhartur Yayãteriva Šarmistha u Be thou of highly honoured thy husband. And taking up his bow and astras exterminated the Ksatriyas more ) magical missiles ( than once. He cites a precedent for this Upaddharma. 98 of the Ädi • this time in the course of a conversation between Bhlsma and Satyavatl.69 on Sun. Indian tradition honours Sarmisthã as thepatternof a wife most honoured by her husband. The continuance of the royal family of death of both Kurus was sorely jeopardized by the untiifielty the sons of Šamtanu. king of the Haihayas. the son of Krtavlrya. the Bhãragvl Devayãnl has it all her own way and poor Sarmisthã has been thrust in the background except in the finale.123. In this version of the Yayãti legend.12 Annals oftheBhandankar Institute Research Oriental Püru son of Sarmisthã. the virtuous Brahmins of the This content downloaded from 137. as was Sarmisthã of Yayãti I of the Ksatriyas by the Bhãrgava Rã ma The extermination and the subsequent regenerationof the Ksatriya race by pious Brahmins finda mentionalready forthe thirdtime in adhy. Satyavatl asks Bhlsma to marrythe young and beautiful widows of his half-brother Vicitravlrya and beget childern on them for the continuation of the race of the Kurus. which raises Sarmisthã s youngest son to the throneand the tables are turnedon Devayãnl. forin Kalidasa's famous drama. Then he set out on his war chariot to con. To avenge the death of his father. a proposal which Bhlsma firmlyrejects as that would mean a deliberate breaking of his vow of celibacy. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .132. he hurled his mighty quer the world. 98. Bhlsma relates. who was the only one of his five sons willing to take on his old age and to whom he subsequentlyhanded over his vast kingdom as a reward for his filial affection. In spite of the Yayãtyupãkhyãna. In days of yore this illustrious descendant of Bhrgu annihilated the Ksatriyas thrice seven times ( 1. Sakuntalã. Citrãrigada and Vicitravlrya. 3 ) : krtanihksatríyã pura I ( II ) trihsaptakrtvah prthivi of Then froma high sense duty.

who is the foremost of all varah) ? weapon-bearers( sarvaèastrabhrtãm Once the symbol is accepted. He asked Drona to choose what he wanted. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Rãma accordingly gave all his This content downloaded from 137. And who would be more suitable as guru than the Bhãrgava Räma. his sacrificingpriest. Äcärya Drona is the guru of the Kauravas and the Pãndavas and of all the othervaliant Ksatriyas of the time.132. Räma ruefully confessed to him that whatever wealth he at one time possessed he had freely presented to the Brahmins . and asked for some wealth for himself. who was about to start forthe forest. it is treatedas real.69 on Sun. He then happened to hear that the Bhãrgava Räma was bestowing wealth on Brahmins. the myth may not be properlyregarded as concerned with events in time. who lived in the interval between the Dvãpara and the Kali Ages.123. but the basis of the symbolism is significant. 121 of the Ãdi. He was also one of the greatest warriors on the side of the Kauravas in the Bhärata War. and the myth is worked out in great detail. No inconsistencyor anachronism is felt.Epic Studies(VI) 13 day co-habited with the widows of the Ksatriyas massacred by and thus revithe Bhãrgava Rama and begat on them offsprings ved the almost extinct race of the Ksatriyas. SatyavatI should unhesitatinglyfollow this excellent precedent and arrange for the revival of the dying race of the Kurus. In this pseudo-historicalepic.he began to feel the pinch of poverty. So far we have come across only legends of the past achievereference to a direct contact ments of the Bhärgavas. he had even presented the earth to Kasyapa. The pupilship is only symbolical. So Drona presented himself is ever-living beforethe great Bhãrgava. Drona of course chose the famous missiles with which Rãma had conquered the whole earth. And now he had nothingleft except his mortal body and his weapons and magical missiles ( aslras ). The first between a Bhãrgava and one of the epic characters occurs in adhy. who only a few chapters previTherefore to have lived in the interval betweenthe Tretã and said is ously the Dvãpara Ages is here represented as the teacher ( guru ) of Äcärya Drona. Thus we are told that when Drona had finished his studies and taken up the duties of a householder. because Räma " " ( cirajtvin). the Bhãrgava Rãma. But Äcärya Drona must also have a guru.

who was urging them to proceed to the capital of Drupada to attend the svayamvaraof Draupadl. the Aurvopãkhyãna. which is. Vasistha relates to him the story of the Bhãrgava Aurva.14 Annals oftheBhandarkar Institute Oriental Research weapons to Drona. The storyof Drona was apparently popular. which are a pure and unadulterated digression. king of the Gandharvas. for we findit repeated in an abridged formin adhy.demanded it back. Citraratha and Arjuna soon become close friends. among them the well-known storyof Vasistha. turnedascetic and in the end became (A a Brahmin.69 on Sun. Citraratha. It is related how Visvãmitra. how king Kalmäsapäda Saudãsa was cursed by Vasistha's son Sakti ( or Šaktri ) to become a cannibal and how he began his career as a cannibal by devouringVasistha's own sons including Sakti . tried to seize Vasistha' a sacred cow ñmadhenu ) and.a digression within a digression. This storyof Aurva is as follows.as a matterof fact. 169 to 172 of the Ãdi. This sudden to the skilful raconteur friendshipgives the necessary opportunity to smuggle in some stories. son of Sakti.which is itselfa digression (upãkhyãna). failing.132. Once upon a time there was a king by name Krtavlrya of the Haihayas. for some reason or other. whose family priests were the Bhrgus. as a matter of fact. It then happened that one of the Ksatriyas. fromdestroyingthe whole creation in his frenzy. We learn another fragmentof Bhãrgava history from adhy. Afterhis death the princes of his family. accidentally digging the ground in the settlement of the Bhrgus. came upon a large store of wealh buried under This content downloaded from 137. king of Kanyakubja. it being related there to the Pãndavas by a Brahmin. It will thus be seen that the Bhãrgava legend is emboxed withinthe Vasistha legend. instructinghim at the same time fully in the science of arms. but not all. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .relates to Arjuna a numberof interestingbat flimsily introducedanecdotes. how Vasistha subsequentlyfreedthe king from the effectsof the curse. While the Panda va brotherswere proceeding by slow stages to the capital of king Drupada to attend Draupadťs svayamvara . Then finallyto dissuade his enraged grandson Parãsara.123. they are opposed on the way by Citraratha Angãraparna. On them he bestowed great wealth. The Bhrgus came out with some of it. whom Arjuna after a brief fight overcomes. 154.

My good sirs " said the Brahmin lady. had concealed her embryoin her thigh. when. they roamed about in the forest. Bereftof sight. some of the Bhrgu women took shelter in the inaccessible fastnesses of the Himalayas. the child was born fromhis mother'sthigh. therefore. When you took to destroying even the embryos of the Bhrgu race. On learning what Aurva was doing to avenge the wrong done to them by the Ksatriyas. mine. the shades of his ancestors came to him and addressed him as follows•* This content downloaded from 137. " begging that their eyesight might be restored. born of my thigh ( Uru) . But that descendant of the Bhãrgava race did not forget that outrage and resolved in his mind upon destroying this wicked world. blinding the Haihayas with his lustre.123. and the high-bornchild forgave them. I have not robbed you of your eyesight. By the intensity of his austerities he afflicted all the worlds.tyour eyesight has been you. nor am I angry with you. But this scion of the Bhrgus seems certainly to be angry with you. whose wrath has been kindled by the massacre of his kinsmen. the entire Veda with its sir angas revealed itself to him when he was still in the womb. Enraged at what they naturally considered deceitful conduct on the part of the Bhrgus.69 on Sun. Thereuponall those Ksatriyas on their bended knees said to that " high-bornchild. The Ksatriyas.Epic Studies( VI ) Ì5 ground. when they came to know of it. the Ksatriyas used violence to the Bhrgus. meekly approaching the faultless Brahmin lady. The Ksatriyas even hunted down the women of the Bhrgus. the child was held by me concealed in my thigh for one hundred years. prostrated themselves before her.and. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Your eyesight has no doubt been destroyedby this high-souled Bhãrgava. and pacifiedby your humbly prostratingyourself beforehim. he may restoreyour eyesight". and slew themall indiscriminately. pursued her with the intentionof decimating her embryo.he desires to kill tha. Fursued by the Ksatriyas. lo and behold. It is by his divine effulgence my good sirs.132. Pray. That he may do good to the Bhrgu race. in orderto perpetuatethe race of the Bhärgavas. Forgive us ". and with a view to exterminating the race killed all those that were pregnant. One of these women. With that object in view he started performing the most severe austerities. to this excellent son of destroyed. Being enraged at the slaughter of his kinsmen.

and suicide was a cowardly act and a sin. There is.16 Annals oftheBhandarkar OrientalResearch institute "O Aurva. " They explain to him that the Ksatriyas were really not to blame for the slaughter of the Bhrgus ! How could those puny Ksatriyas ever hope to kill the Bhärgavas ? That contretemps was a little contrivance of the Bhärgavas themselves. There is first of all the feud with the Ksatriyas. or else he would be destroyed uncontrollable wrath.but he had made a vow to destorythe world in order to calm his own anger and he must himselfby the fireof his destroyit. 19 ). And so the world was in imminentdanger of being totally destroyed! But the ancestorsof Aurva show him a way out of the dilemma. lastly. whose sole desire was to obtain heaven? Aurva replies that that may be all true. O child. his wrath dwells in the ocean.123. with the aid of his magical japons. which finallydevelops into the creation of the figure of the Bhãrgava Rama. They had thereforestaged that little quarrel with those foolishand arrogant Ksatriyas. annihilating the Ksatriyas thrice seven times. avenge some private wrong done with reference This content downloaded from 137. They wisely advise him to fling the fireof his wrath in the waters." who single-handed. those sinless effulgent specimens of humanity. "the foremostof all weapon-bearers. so that the Ksatriyas might get enraged and kill them. which are the primeval source and support of the world. Controlthy anger and forgive the people. to to the family.69 on Sun. but death dared not touch them. Of what use could wealth be to those emancipated souls. 171. as they did. conquers the whole earth. And now. the appearance of the shades of the ancestors. in the shape of horse's head ( hayasiras).132. consuming its waters.and Aurva does so. the prowess of thy fierceausterities has been seen by us. who step in to stop the carnage either contemplated ( as here ) or actually perpetrated ( as in the case of Rama ). In the above legend we may notice some of the repeatedmotives of Bhãrgava stories. the ostras . The fact was that the Bhärgavas were tired of theirlives and longed to die. whose effulgentlustre either blinds the oppressor ( as here ) or consumes him ( as in the case of Cyavana ). Then there is the motif of the opportune birth of a miraculous child. which are the world ( lokã hy ãpomayãh smrtah1. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

In adhy. secondly. 14. begins with the Erection of the Darbar Hall and ends with the Second Gambling Match. 17-19 ). are two *• firstly. and of no special interestto us. many of the Bhãrgavas.narratedby Krsna ( adhy. consisting as it does mainly of spirited dialogue and dramatic action.the somewhat lengthyand imaginative descriptions(âkhyãnas) by Närada of the halls of the celestials Indra. in this parvan. Bhrgu. Thus. 2 ) : ' Ramena ksatrañi yad avašesitam Jãmadagnyena m trasa ñita '' ksa idam loke tasmãd avarajam yad fhj It was mentionedabove that thehigh esteem in which our epic bards held Rãma Jãmadagnya had led to his being represented as the teacher of Ãcãrya Dropa in the science of arms. as also as a matterofcourse in the newly erectedhall of Yudhisthira. Rama.69 on Sun.132. These static figuresare like mural decorations. along with other famous sages and seers of the past. The real important digressions. the Bhãrgava material is extremelyscanty. to wit. Rama's exterminationof the Ksatriyas. 8. and of upa~ khyãnasas such there are none. The Bhãigavas are nevertheless briefly mentioned several times. Varuna. I.the previous history of Jarãsamdha. Mãrkandeya.123. and.that the contemporary Ksatriyas were far inferiorto that old race of Ksatriyas that was exterminated by the Bhãrgava Rãma ( B. is mentioned in adhy. in the halls of the celestials mentionedabove. naturally. 14. 2. precededby a short Niti tractate ( adhy. which is really never by our bards. This content downloaded from 137. which is a compact little book with 81 chapters and about 2700 stanzas ( in the Vulgate ).Epic Studies(VI) Sabhãparvan 17 The short Sabhã. 5-12 ) . Here the story marches forwardby rapid strides. We shall therefore ignore them. are several times mentioned as being present. They are likewise presentat the coronation of Yudhisthira. Rãma has been placed by mistake among the royal sages ( rajareis). The same belief thatRãma ideology is responsibleforthe sedulously fostered an idea is of Bhlsma which taken hold of was the teacher also. Kubera and Brahmã. B. R. Yama. which occur early in the beginning. The digressions are few and far between. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Krsna quite forgotten prefaces his long reply to Yudhisthira regarding the prerequisites of the Rãjasuya sacrificeby pointing out. Jãmadagnya. O. Consequently. ] 3 [ Annals. quite irrelevantly.

and bathing in the Kotitîrtha. the necessary details about the • the name of the tirtha . ( of the yäträ section.one obtains the merit of giving . 11 and O king. the pilgrim obtains the merit of performing 10 ašvamedha . 37. We furtherfind that one Bhãrgava takes a considerable share in the story-telling that is done here.132. the ritual acts to be done particular tirtha there. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . one obtains . The list of tïrthas Vulgate ) is said to have been first communicated by the sage Pulastya to Bhlsma and then repeatedby Nãrada to Yudhistliira.) : ayam ca sarvarãjnãmvai balaélâghimahãbalahi sisyoviprasyaBhãrata II Jãmadagnyasya dayitah yenãtmabalam ãèrityarãjãno yudhinirjitah1 tamca Karnam atikramya '' kathamKrsnas tvayãrcitah VAN ÄRANY ♦ AKAPAR This book is a veritable thesaurus of ancient Brahmanic myths and legends.One should then go. the Amba episode ( Ambopãkhyãna). to ( the shrine of) Tarantuka. So. one obtains the merit of performing1 agnistoma sacrifice and goes to the world of the Nãgas. diet and subdued soul. going to Sãlukinl bathing in the Dasãávamedha. which gives. a man is born handsome ( in a futurebirth.ti Institute Annals oftheBhandarkar OrientalResearch and further developed in that late addition to the Udyoga. to the exoellent ofcourse X This content downloaded from 137. tirthaof the Asvins.123. for example. 15 f.69 on Sun. Kama is representedas standing in the same relation to Karna. .Going to the the merit of performing 1 ašvamedha sacrifice. . O virtuous man. We accordingly find that a fair amount of Bhãrgava material has been incorporatedin it. The firstimportant referenceto the Bhrgus is in the Tlrthagiven in adhy. with regulated away 1000 kine. we read ( B. ): Thus. Staying thereonly for one night. 83. and finallythe merit (puriya) accruing from these acts. in the space of a stanza or two.One should then proceed. the protégé and ally of Duryodhana. the gate-keeper. 2. in his denunciation of Krsna.Then going to the Pañcanada.Then going to SarpadevI. 13 ff. 82 ff. Nãgas. It is in reality a metrical compendium of tirthas . that excellent tirtha of the sacrifices. 3. Siáupãla mentions Karna's pupilship under Rama as one of Karna's qualifications entitlinghim to receive the argha ( B. O virtuous man.

3. By your power.Then going to Muñjavata. 83. O greatly ef" Having been fulgentone. situated in Jayanti. What dost thou wish to have ? thus addressed by his ancestors. The storyis as follows. one obtains the meritof performing 1 agnistoma sacrifice. one obtains the merit of giving away 1000 kine. Bathing in Ekahamsa.. which of the interest the to roused compiler appears have considerably and to which he has devoted not less than 32 lines. O fortunate one ! We are pleased. ). of which this is already the fourth repetitionin some formor other..132. thus spoke with joined " If hands to his ancestors: you are pleased with me and if I have deservedyour favour. sacrifice. where Visnu in times of yore appeared in the formof a boar.going to the Krtasauca. Only very rarely is this drearyenumeration interruptedby a briefaccount of some myth or legend connected with the place of pilgrimage in question. and fasting for one night. O Rama. The shades of these ancestors appear" ed beforehim and addressed him as follows : O Rama. that foremost of smiters ( Rãmah praharatãmvarah B. The story is of course no otherthan that of the extirpation of the Ksatriya race by the Bhãrgava Rama. after exterminating The greatly effulgent the Ksatriyas with great valour. with thy filial piety and with thy great valour.O foremost of men. Now we findembedded in this list the legend connected with the Rãmahradas ( B. the place sacred to Sthänu. one obtains the meritof performing1 rajasüya sacrifice. formed five lakes filled with that blood the blood of the slaughtered warriors. 26 ff. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Rama. Bathing there. O Bhãrgava. And he offered as oblation to his forefathers. This content downloaded from 137.69 on Sun. one should then visit SomatTrtha. and obtains the merit of performing . Also may these sanguinary lakes become holy the world Hearing places of pilgrimage celebratedthroughout of his ancestors words wore these righteous highly pleased . the pilgrim 1 pundarlka becomes purified. Bathing in it.O king of kings.123.thenby your grace I desire that I may again derive pleasure in asceticism. 83.who were most gratified by this supreme act of filial piety. 3. one acquires the position of gãyapatya . may I bè freedfromthe sin I have incurred by killing these Ksatriyas in a fitof wrath.And so on and so forth.-O ruler of men. Rama. and heroic Rama. 31 ).Epic Studies(VI) 19 tirtha called Vãrãha. Ask for a boon.

and like all interpolationsproving itselfto be somewhat of a bad fit.and lead him to the eternal celestial regions Having granted these boons to Rãma and affectionately taken leave of him.Leading the life of a student of the sacred lore and observing sacred vows. but thou art already freedfromthat sin. He who will bathe in these lakes here oblations to his ancestors will please his manes and offer and they will gratifyall his heart's desires. went to Ayodhyft This content downloaded from 137. The reader will easily recognize this as the story which was briefly related already in connection with Samantapañcaka. but some subsequent reviser. 34 ff)." celebrated in the three worlds. 99. the shades became invisible. Visnu. In fact Rämahrada appears to be only anothername of Samantapañcaka* one of the tlrthas explicitly mentionedas having been visited by the Süta ( that is. These lakes of thine shall without doubt become places of pilgrimage. made up mostly of bits and pieces of verses borrowedfromthe present context. Once upon a time. beforehe came to Saunaka's sacrifice. if a person bathes in the Lakes of Rãma ( Rämahrada ) and worships Rama. between avatar the Jãmadagnya Rãma and the Dãáarathi Rãma. and in that connectionthis story was briefly narrated by the Süta to the sages of the Naimisa Forest. A few chapters later. It was thus that thebloody lakes ofthat illustrious descendant of Bhrgu became sacred places of pilgrimage. It will be recalled that some information was asked then about Samantapañcaka in adhy. told in connection with a Bhrgutîrtha. the putative narrator of the Mahäbhãrata).123. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . had interpolatedat that place the dialogue between Rãma and his ancestors ( compressed into eight lines ).69 on Sun.132. There the story was originally summarized in four stanzas. he will obtain much gold. especially by virtue of thy great filial piety. apparently not satisfied with such a cursoryallusion to this epoch-making feat of Rãma.99 which Yudhisthira and his party are said to have visited ( B. we have a strange story of a conflict betweentwo different as of the same god. Forsooth thou hast exterminatedthe Ksatriyas in a fitof wrath. the storygoes. 2 of the Ãdi. 3. Rãma Jãmadagnya to meet Rãma Dãáarathi and to test his strength..âô Annals oftheBhandarkar Institute Oriental Research and filled with joy they thus replied to Rama : " Let thy austerities prosper. fortheyhave fallen owing to their own misdeeds.

in the Mahãbhárata. involving disrespect towards the Bhãrgava Rãma.which is narratedat some length in the Rãmãyana. composed probably with the object of glorifyingthe Ksatriya Rãma at the cost of the Brahmin Rãma. But the next chapter( 100 ) again contains a Bhãrgava story. Rãma J.astounding Rãma J. Abashed. hospitably. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . having lost his lustre ( teja« ). Rãma confounds Rãma J. is not even alluded to in the Rãmopãkhyãna of our epic and belongs evidently to a different complex of legends. moreovera discordant note.and it strikes tually a misfit. to test his strength and shoots an arrow which convulses the whole world. textually it is an obvious misfit. was sent by his father to the boundary of his kingdom to receive Rãma J. Fortunately we are not leftto deduce the spuriousness of this passage merely fromintrinsic arguments. made popular bj the Gltã (adhy. Conmust be quite a moderninterpolation. This grotesque story.an omission supportedby the Kašmlrl version and even by some ancient Devanãgarl MS3. and rebukes him for his overweening conduct.132. which he regains later at some tirtha or other. but was flagrantly insulted by the latter.69 on Sun. Rãma D. for. with which it has absolutely no connection» Not only is this bizarre story contexit is a very poorpiece of composition. It appears to have been smuggled into the capacious folds of the Ãranyakaparvan in quite recent times by some well-meaning but ignorantNorthern interpolator anxious to vindicate the boast ofthe epic to be a complete encyclopaedia of the Hindu legendary lore. the passage is missing entirely in the Southern recension. 11 ). neverthelessbends the bow given to him by Rãma J. Yudhisthira is that he might regain the lustre asked to bathe in the same tirtha he had lost in his conflictwith Duryodhana. who in our epic is otherwise throughout held up forour admiration as the foremost of weapon-bearers and fighters. quite inharmonious with the MahSbhãrata context. Lomaša relates how the Kãlakeyas under theleadership of Vrtra persecuted the celestials. completely by showing him his D. returnsto Mount Mahendra.Epic Studies(VI) 21 Rãma D. which are apt to be discredited . The story.123. the legend of Dadhlca.being incongruously wedged in between two halves of the Agastya legend. who betookthem« This content downloaded from 137. further cosmic form( mévarïLpa ).

Rama.123.132. SatyavatI. a disciple of the Bhãrgava Rãma. tall as the Himalayas and that Indra was always mightily afraid of him on account of his lustre. king of Kanyakubja. her motheran ašmttha . The latter advises themto go to the ( Bhärgava ) Dadhïca and ask for his bones. which may be summarized as follows. the headquarters of Rãma. now a mmnyasin a welcome opportunity to the bard for the . affords presentationof a full-lengthportraitofthe hero of the Bhãrgavas. asking forhis protection.the architectof the gods. and both should partake óf different dishes of some special caru prepared by him with powerfulincantations and endowed with magical potency.22 Institute OrientalResearch Annals oftheBhandarkar selves to Brahma. where it is said of Dadhïca that he was the strongest of all creatures.visits the newly married couple and gives his young daughter-in-law the boon that she would give birthto a giftedson. but Rcïka supplied them and gained her. Aurva is meant ).with which Indra vanquished the enemies of the gods. and so would her mother. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . who fashioned out of his bones the thunderbolt. They rest on Mount Mahendra and hear there from Akrtavrana. Gãdhi perhaps did not relish his suit and triedto evade it by demanding a present of a thousand peculiarly coloured horses. Yet again. There a most beautiful daughter was bornto him. he prescribes that she should embrace an udumbaratree. The Pändavas bathe at the mouth of the Ganges and proceed to the river VaitaranI in Kalinga.the arrival of Yudhisthira and his party at Mount Mahendra. To fortifythe boon. The storyis repeated in the account of the pilgrimage of Baladeva ( Salya 51 in the Vulgate ). whom the Bhãrgava Rcïka wooed. who was a great sorcerer. The sage magnanimously gives up his body for the good of the three worlds. had retiredto the forest to practise religious austerities. Gädhi. a few chapters later. the well-known story of Rãma. where the altar of Kašyapa is. with the result that the daughter was about to give birth to a Brahmin son with Ksatriyan qualities and the mothera Ksatriya son with This content downloaded from 137.69 on Sun. These good ladies go and exchange the trees as well as the dishes of caru which were apportionedto them by the great sage. son of Jamadagni ( Ãranyaka 115-117 in the Vulgate). The celestials took the bones of Dadhïca to Višvakarman. Then a Bhrgu ( perhaps.

Thus her son Jamadagni was saved from the taint of Ksatriyahood. who rivalled the sun in lustre. though peaceful in the study of the Vedas. The ungrateful king. which ultimately fell upon her grandsonRama.Epic Studies( VI) 23 Brahmanic qualities. She gave birth to five sons • Rumanvat. not heeding the hospitality. sportingin water with his numerouswives.who comes to know of this interchangeby occult means. as prophesied. daughter of king Prasenajit. 115.he gives a further who had really been deceived by her mother. Then one day when Renukã of rigid vows happened to see Citraratha. a revengeful and blood-thirstywarrior. But the Bhrgu. the handsome king of Mãrttikãvataka. ( a variant of the kãmadhenu motif of the Vasilha- This content downloaded from 137. 45 ). Moved boon to the daughter-in-law. Rama Jãmadagnya. And the family lived again happily forsome time. as desired by his mother. by her entreaties. Then one day Arjuna Karta* vïrya Sahasrabãhu came to the hermitage and was hospitably received by the Bhãrgavas. took his axe and withouthesitation chopped off his mother's head! Jamadagni. intoxicated with the pride of power.132. When she fortitude returnedto the hermitage. her forsookher and she feltthe pangs of desire. comes rushing to the hermitage and tells his daughter-in-law what was going to happen. A military type. granted Rama several boons. Four of them refused to do the atrocious deed and were cursed by the angry and disappointedfatherfortheir disobedience. In a fitof rage he called in turn upon each of his sons to kill their unchaste mother. Then came last of all " " that slayer of hostile heroes. when sternly commandedby his lather to slay his mother. Vasu. who turnedout to be. for the entire science of arms with the fourkinds of magical missiles spontaneously came to him. perpetrator of cruel and sanguiwho excelled deeds. Jamadagni marriedRenukã. Visvävasu. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Susena.accustomed to receive and obey orders. a Brahmin nary Jamadagni. and last but not least Rama. among them the boon that the motherwhom Rama had decapitated mightbe restoredto life. Jamadagni noticed her pollution and guessed her secret.123. 3. was not " withoutmartial equipment. postponingthe action of the potentcharm. mightilypleased with the instant obedience of his son. The family lived happily forsome time. seized and carried off by forcefromthe hermitagethe calf of the sacred cow of the sage. without any instructionfrom M anybody ( B.69 on Sun.Rama.

until several times above.123. went to Badarl. 3.Rama offered at last his ancestor Rclka appeared and stoppedhim. 9 ) : hrtvã trihsaptakrtvdh prthivlm nihksairiyãm prabhuhI II ( III ) pama cakãra rudhirahradãn Samantapañcake of blood in these as has pools Standing already been narrated oblations to the manes. He is represented here as a worshipper of Dattãtreya. Arjuua Kârtavïrya insulted Indra. and spitefullybrokethe big trees in the hermitage grounds. and persecuted all creatures. and the entire earth was conquered by Rãma of " immeasurable lustre ( B. and Arfuna's sons then slew the unresisting Jamadagni. This interpolation begins with the previous history of Arjuna Kârtavïrya.by the addition of a passage of 23 lines to it and which is chiefly of ( B. Then this annihilator of the Ksatriya race was at last satisfiedand retired to Mount Mahendra. in which he bestowperformed ed the earth upon Kaáyapa. 9-19 ). Thereupon the exalted god. He was duly received and honoured by Yudhisthira and his party. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .like several otherBhãrgava episodes. Rama firstslew the arrogant Arjuna Kârtavïrya. This account has been amplified in later times.132.and he honoured them in turn. which is prefixed intereston account of the vague suggestion it contains to the effectthat the Bhãrgava Rãma was an avalara of Visnu. Thereupon the celestials and the sages met together and went in a body to Visnu to ask forhis protection. 117. 3. Intoxicated with the pride of power. Rama then a great sacrificeto gratifyIndra. king of Haihayas. 3. 117. Then the exalted god ( Visnu ) held a consultation with Indra. promising to do the needful. 115.24 Annals oftheBhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Viávãmitra legend ). trampled upon the sages and even upon the celestials. It is then narratedthat the Bhãrgava Rãma appeared therein person on Mount Mahendra to meet the Pändavas.69 on Sun. The god of gods (Indra) told Visnu what had to be done. his priest. 15 ). his This content downloaded from 137. This was the beginning of a terriblefeud. by whose favour he had obtained a golden vimãna and a wonderfulchariot. Thus did hostilityarise between Rãma and the Ksatriyas of this earth. Then Räma slaughterd the sons of Arjuna K. and finallydestroyedall Ksatriyas offthe earth thrice seven times and made five pools of blood in Samantapañcaka ( B. engaging himself in austerities of a rather severe " type.

if not natural. who should. B. they are represented as taking part and more frequently. 122. along with otherancient sages like Nãrada. -Here the introduction suddenly breaks off. slay Arjun^ Kârtavîrya. as Rãma Jãmadagnya. which is miscalled the Kãrtavlryopãkhyãna. I. ends at adhy. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 117 of the Vulgate.123.115. in the fulness of time. in the descriptionof largely attended and important meetings and and such treatment of these characters is quite state functions. The Pãndavas reach the Payosnl and the Narmadã rivers and hear fromLomaáa the story ( upäkhyüna ) of Cyavana : how he demanded in marriage a young princess.132. The above storyof Rãma. Jtclkaand so on are generally used as static figures. The passage is missing in the entire Southernrecension and in some Northernmanuscripts including those of the Kaámlrl version. But the Bhãrgavas and especially treatthe Bhãrgava Rãma . Rama Jãmadagnya and the other Bhãrgavas such as Cyavana. The suggestion probably is that at the consultation betweenIndra and Visnu it was decided that Visnu should incarnate himselfon the earth as the son of Jamadagni.Epic Studies(VI) 15 favourite retreat. There can thereforebe no doubt about its being a comparatively recent interpolation.69 on Sun. wh 4 JAnnals.by name Sukanyã. which in no way affects the course of events but which serves to establish and maintain contact betweenthe Bhãrgavas and the epio characters. At adhy. J This content downloaded from 137. O. As already remarkedabove. In another context Rãma is said to have fought with Bhlsma. intelligible. 122-124 and about half of adhy.are accorded a somewhat different more action in the ment. son of Bhrgu. we have another Bhãrgava story. Here he is represented as having shown himselfto the Pãndavas. a fight which lasted for twenty-three days but was absolutely barrep of any consequence. Elsewhere also we shall findRãma and some of other Bhãrgavas represented as taking some innocuous part in the action. We have seen that the Bhãrgava definitely Rãma is said to have given all his astras to Drona. as a special favour. 3. and the storynarratedabove about Gädhi and Rcika begins (B. 125 •• the story of the great wizard Cyavana.but that is leftunsaid. which covers adhy.20). He is alsp said to have taught Bhlsma and Karna. R.

With the permissionof her husband she consents to the second proposal. The bewildered king inquired about the cause of this strange mishap. in youthful headlessness. they propose that they would rejuvenate Cyavana. Cyavana had to dip into the waters of the lake.69 on Sun. so long Cyavana. son of Bhrgu.48 ff. Little did she think of the dire consequences of her childish act. and mistaking them fora species of glow-worm. the gleaming eyes of the sage. pierced the eyes of the sage with a thorn.26 Annals oftheBhandarkar Institute Oriental Research had innocentlyand unwittinglyblinded him . practisedausteritiesin a forest that an ant-hill was formedround him.123. headon him the with the inflicted smarting by pain thoughtlessly less princess. 1 The three of 1 Analluring oftheideaunderlying motif has thisintriguing explanation beengiven in hisMaya 1936). The sage would relent only if the mischievous but fascinating the princess is given to him in marriage. Without reflecting. engaged in self mortification in the ant-hill. but none of his soldiers and companions could enlighten him. into the primordial element. Some time later the A&vins saw the faultless Sukanyä bathing in the lake adjoining the hermitage of the sage. They also were smittenby her ravishing beauty and asked her to accept one of them for her husband instead of the blind old sage. however. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . paralyzing the arm of Indra. The sage imprisoned within the ant-hill gazed longingly at the youthful princess. who would have preventedit. There came one day to that place king Saryäti.the king's entire army suffered suddenly from a complete stoppage of urine and excreta. how he recovered his sight by the grace of the Asvins and how he gave them on that accunt the Soma libation. The storyruns thus. Zimmer . This content downloaded from 137. The occurrence remained a mysteryuntil the guilty princess confessed her misdemeanour. clad in a single garment and adorned with costly ornaments. As she would not consent. Sukanyä saw.and addressed some words to her which she did not hear. For throughthe anger of the offended sage. along with the Ašvins ( Fountain of Youth motif). accompanied by his daughter Sukanyä. Der indische ( Stuttgart Mythos pp.132. king agreed to bestow his beautiful daughter on the high-souled Cyavana and returned to his own city. Saryäti forthwith set out to pacify the irate sage. and then she should choose. the womb of all creation. with beautiful eyebrows and tapering thighs. byH.

Indra grants the wish of Cyavana. Indra then attemptsto hurl the thunderboltat him.endowed with magical efficacy. Sukanyã is however able to choose the right man.Epic Studies( VI ) 27 them came out of the water. The backgroundis a Bhärgava hermitage. At the same time the great sorcerercreated by his magic a terrible demon ( krlyã) called Mada ( Intoxication ). 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .13). a minor " " . Bhrgu. but as Cyavana will notheed. the king of gods. the fatherof Cyavana. He thoroughlyhumbled Indra.69 on Sun.Indra tries to stop the sacrilegious act . Soon afterwards. In the next chapter again we have a passing allusion to a Bhãrgava. good Cyavana (1. One night he became very thirsty.123.6. Cyavana promises the Ašvins a draught of the Soma juice during a regular sacrifice. who had to submit to the will of Cyavana.merelythe mouth of the gods. But Cyavana was too quick forhim. had only cursed Agni.132. Instantly Cyavana paralyzed Indra s arm and broughthim to his knees. all looking exactly alike. Indra at the same time apologizes and explains that he had opposed Cyavana merelyto spread the fame of Cyavana and his father-in-law Saryãti throughout the world : a significantand propheticutterance. The pious Yuvanäsva Saudyumni is practising austerities for the sake of progeny. qu6en and keptthe jar containing the dose in a corner of the This content downloaded from 137. at which he offers who used to be altogetherexcluded on these festive occasions on account oftheir being medioine-men. By virtue of her unswerving loyalty to her husband. This sorcererhad actually prepared a foradministeringit to the potion. to be sarvabhaksa did bad and devourer of all things. even better. though the main actors are not Bhrgus. who triumphantly continues the sacrificeand gives the Ašvins.he entersthe hermitageof the Bhärgava who was engaged some magical rites in orderto make Yuvanãáva'^ in performing queen give birthto a son. in fact. Searching for water. When Mada rushes towards Indra to slay him. who remains unnamed. god. In gratefulness for the gift of youth and beauty. Saryãti. Since that time the on a basis Ašvins participateregularly in the sacrificial offerings of equality with the othergods. the promised libation of Soma. Here is a dilemma ( Nala-Damayantï motif). Saryãti comes to visit his son-in-law Cyavana and the latter arranges a great sacrifice for the firstdraughtof Soma to the Ašvins.

ripping open his left side. not knowing that the water was charmedand intendedin fact forthe queen. In this version. like the first. was born to him. Whoever drinks it must give birth to a son. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . when out hunting. whose discourses on the most divers topics extend over 51 chapters ( 182-232 ) in the Vulgate. and appears to be the older version. playing the rôle of the officiating priest and saviour of Yuvanãáva. but owing to some propitiatory rites performedby the Bhrgu.the monarch guided by it reached a sacrificial enclosure and foundtheresome sacrificial butter( ãjya ). The thirsty king found it. Nor did he partake of the magical preparation at night in the dark.and a son. which he -deliversforthe delectation and edificationof the Pãndavas. Consequently the king became himself pregnant.69 on Sun. but had gone out hunting. The second version moreovermakes no mentionof any Bhrgu. The second storyis sketchy and lacking in definition. Here was a mess. which is an importantdiscrepancy. drained the potion to the dregs. by adding a Bhrgu as an officiating priest and generally making the picture more vivid and realistic. Thereupon the king became pregnant and was delivered of a son ( Mãndhãtr ) by the Aávins. The rest of the story is nearly the sáme. king Yuvanãáva was not practising austerities forsecuting the birth of a son.28 Institute Annals oftheBhandarkar OrientalResearch hermitage. There we are told that once upon a time king Yuvanãáva. This is not his firstvisit to the Pãndavas by any means. Seeing at a distance a curl of smoke. For early in the beginning of their exile. when the Fändavas had settled in the Dvaifcavana Forest. which he greedily swallowed. Mãndhãtr. when the smoke fromthe sacred hearth could yet be seen by him. It is interestingto compare this version of the story of Mãndhãtr with the one which occurs in the Dronaparvan ( adhy. Yuvanãsva himselfescaped unhurt. 62 of the Vulgate ). became thirsty.123.132. But the potion prepared by a Bhrgu is infallible in its effect. In the first the details are filled out. but presumably in full daylight. and. containing about 2200 stanzas ( Mãrkandeya-samãsyã ). The next Bhãrgava of importancewe meet with in the Äranyaka is the sage Mãrkandeya. and his steed was exhausted. Mãrkandeya had paid a flying visit This content downloaded from 137.

is a childish story.however. but that he was a Bhärgava is beyond doubt. This content downloaded from 137. He relates. 4 : as Bhrgukula-sresthain B. like that of Noah.which asks the sage to protect it. the popular storyof Rama and Sïtâ. 190. Moreover Märkapda is explicitly declared to be a goira founderof the Bhrgu clan in the Matsya Puräna ( 195. 60 .22. These two upäkhyanas . 5: as Bhrgu-nandanain B. How he was exactly connected with the two well-known Bhrgu families of our Mahãbhãrata avana-Rãma and Bhrgu-Cyavana-Sunaka ) is not ( Bhrgu-Cy exactly known .69 on Sun. to console Yudhisthira and relates to him the Rãmopãkhyãna. as is well known. Äranyaka 187 in the Vulgate). 15: as Bhärgava-sattama in B. that distant cousin of the Semitic Noah with his ark. According to this legend ( Matsyopãkhyãna. He turns up again. as well as the Sãvitryupãkhyãna. 15.is how The most interesting he actually witnessedthe act of creation and dissolution in progress. 217.there is. without notice or warning. also towards the end of their exile. 205. stories of Manu. Mãrkandeya was one of the cirajivins: eternally youthful though many thousand years old. 183. We have here in fact in Mãrkandeya a Brahmanic counterpartof the Ksatriya Manu.7. He is referred to as Bhargavz in B. Manu. Indradyumna (fatherof Janaka). together comprise about 1060 stanzas. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .25 ). 189. narrated by Mãrkandeya.123. while saying his usual prayerson the bank of a river. Vrsadarbha. Kuvaläsva and of Skanda Kãrttikeya. 3. the Mãrkandeya Puräna. 97 . He is also responsible forthe famous story of the Righteous Hunter ( dharma-vijãdha ) of Mithilä. of Mãrkandeya's stories. 3.Sibi. 201. 3. 2 13. that immortalstoryof a wife's splendid devotion. sees a tiny little fish. Some of the subjects of Märkandeya's discourses to the Pändavas are the following : great power of Brahmins -. 20 ). merit of benevolence to Brahmins . 3. Yayãti. Besides these. Thus the Märkandeya-samäsyä together with the two latter upäkhyanascomprise 3260 stanzas. among others. 205.132. son of Vivasvat. as a matter of fact. and differentforms of Agni. wife's duty to her husband . which is nearly one fourth of the entireextentof this extensive parvan.also related by the same sage Mãrkandeya. a whole Puräna named afterhim.Epic Studies(FI ) 29 to them( aclhy. The legend of Manu. seeds and so on.

in the river Ganges. Manu quietly gets out of the ark and. When the deluge comes. Then otherbeings.Winternitz. From BrahmS are born his mind-bornsons ( mãnasa-putras ). the lord of creatures. like a drunkenwench staggered from side to side on the bosom of the agitated ocean.emerge from his heart. Manu will creat all beings '• gods.thumbs and so on.321 f. Manu places the fishsuccessively in a tank. and in the ocean. When the flood subsides. The ark is towed by the hornedfishon the ocean. Manu gets into the ark with the Seven Sages. the creative aspect of the deity. as has been surmised. None is greater than I. Before parting fromManu. probably of Semitic origin. Then out of Nârâyana's navel emerges Brahmã. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . breast. They propagate this worldofours.3o Annals oftheBhandarkar OrientalResearch Institute Manu rears the fishin a small earthen vessel. the fishwarns him of the impending catastropheand advises him to build an ark and keep carefully a store of seeds of all kinds. as he has all the necessary seeds with himselfin the ark. the mobile and the immobile creation.3>7 This content downloaded from 137. reclining on the coils of the Eternal Serpant( Sesa-Auanta ) floatingon the waters. is. 31 ( 1901 Gesellschuft ). I am BrahmS. which would imply a parallel oreationby Manu. " This story. des Altertums undder Naturvölker". In the end theship is fastenedon to the peak of the Himalayas. The Purãnic theoryof creation is that there is a deluge . 1 If Manu creates all beings. The ship. Brahmã is thrown out of employment.69 on Sun. asuras and human beings. vol.which appears to belong to a different complex of myths and does not at all fitwell in the Mahãbhãrata cycle. These are the Prajãpatis. nothing remains of the universe except Visnu-Nãrãyana. Before parting again from Manu and " the Seven Sages. In the formof a fish I have saved you all fromthis peril. a state of things which is not at all what is intended by the legend. seated on a lotus. The fishkeeps on growing larger and larger. Since a " Die Flutsagen 1 Cf.132.123. In this complex there is clearly no room for the Semitic legend. the Fish says.. The process is repeated at each dissolution •* it is an eternal recurrence. which during the deluge flooded " everything. there would be no difficultyin creating the world anew. which the fishsoon outgrows. male and female. ff. called Naubandhana. in Mitteilungen derAnthropologischen in Wien. pp. which is projectingout of the water.

inside the child he found the world whose destruction he had seen with his own eyes. they were all there. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . nor does he keep a store of seeds with himself. He also felt inexpressiblysad at that awful destruction. all the oceans. seas and rivers of the world. and he kept ponderingover that matter. requires neitherfood nor drink to live. The man who could live through the dissolution of the world can only be a perfect Yogi . gods and demons.132. Seeing his confusion.the child softly told him to go into his body and rest there. Märkandeya found himselfalone. women and childrenwhomhe had known. Märkandeya could not at all imagine banyan tree ( nyagrodha hovr that little helpless child could have survived all that cataclysmal devastation. an addition which accompanies all late accretions to the Great Epic ( B. when he suddenly found This content downloaded from 137. it should seem that the Semitic legend was introduced into India at a fairlyearly date but has remained unassimilated. being human afterall. tramping about all by himselfon the surfaoe of the endless ocean. 187. So when the world was overwhelmedwith floodsand the creation was gradually submerged. 1 ). Then all of a sudden he noticed a little child resting on the extendedbranch of a huge ).69 on Sun.and the child opened ita little mouthand drew him gently inside. There is none equal to you in " years save Brahma Paramesthin. all the men. He wandered about inside forhundredsof years and still he could not findthe end of it all. 8.123.appears to me to be clearly betrayed by the phalašruti at the end of the chapter. Aftersome time Märkandeya.however. all animals. lo and behold. the moon and the stars. 3. " and a perfect Yogi is deathless. The sun. Ánd. inside the little stomach of that wonderful little child.Epic Studies(VI) 31 variant version of this legend is found even in the Satapatha Brãhmana ( 1. walking on the waters of the ocean. Its exotic character. says Yudhisthira to the he But Bhãrgava Märkandeya. He can walk on water as easily as on land. 58 emended ): Manoi ciritamãditah' ya idam srriuyãn nityafh $a sukhisjivvasiddharihah iyan mrah It svargalokam The Indian Noah is a man of a very different character. begins to feel a little tired and lonely. He requires neither boat nor horned fishto save him . standing near the child.

Like the seed which has been well planted. The Bhãrgava Mãrkandeya is. the only man who had survived the last deluge*witnessed the act of dissolution and creation in progress. He sees and recognizes God. Yudhisthira mourns his fate 1 An illuminating ona different version ofthissamemyth is commentary . he had no need forany seeds. There was only an involution s the world had been only withdrawn into the interiorof God. Mãrkandeya. 135 ) : I jñütumicchãmideva tvãihmayãihcailãm tavottamãm The divine Child declares itself tobe Nãrãyana. He wants to know God. but that is not sufficient forhim. The seeds are therepermanently.His Mãyã.putting forthin due time blossoms and fruits and other seeds. The occasion forrelating the storyarises in the following way. Jayadratha. but is defeated and captured.and reveals to Mãrkandeya His real nature and character. He had seen God. that Mãyã which had not been understood even by the gods themselves( B. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1 As this Brahmin Noah had no need for the ark. 3. as already mentioned. blown out by his gentle exhalation. an abridgementof the Bäma story in about 750 stanzas. Creation.132.stood in his own person face to face with Nãrãyana in the uttersolitude of total annihilation. according to this account. There had been in fact no destruction at all : that destruction was an illusion. It is left to us infer this unique honour •* that the Bhãrgava Mãrkandeya is the only perfectYogi that ever lived.was not Markandeya's concern : it was the business of Brahmã.moreover. but it is nowheremade clear why Mãrkandeya was singled out for an unmotivatedtheme. byH. Then the child spoke to the sage. and ultimately pardoned and released.52 ff. 188. and then it suddenly dawned on Mãrkandeya who the Child was. given Maya Mythos. This content downloaded from 137.32 Institute Oriental Research Annals oftheBhandarkar himself outside the child.123.a near relative of the Kurus and the Pãndavas tries to carry off Draupadl. is interstedonly in knowing and understandingthings. Derindische pp. Mãrkandeya relates to the Pãndavas the famous Rãmopãkhyãna (Ãranyaka 273-292 in the Vulgate ). the universe will grow of itself. A little later. the Yogi.the indestructible source of the world. know about His nature and character.69 on Sun. Zimmer.

Who could be now a betternarratorof the storyof Rama than the Bhärgava Mãrkandeya. Now the entire story of the attempted rape of Draupadl by Jayadratha is so ill conceived and unconvincing that it appears to have been invented solely forthe purpose of introducinga summary of the Rãmãyana. the son Bhlsmaasks: of Jamadagni ?" ( B. 10 X B. Addressing Duryodhana. unembellished by any episodic enlargement. R. To console Yudhisthira. the only man who had witnessed the happenings in this world in all the different ages.the dummy of the bard. by her deep feminineintuiinsistentimportunity tion and by her unflinchingdevotion to her husband ( Ãranyaka 293-299 in the Vulgate ).who rescuesher husband fromdeath by the ( upãkhyana of her pleading. ] 5 [ Annals. " Who is superior to Drona except Rãma. 4. This content downloaded from 137. and then asks Mãrkandeya if he had ever seen or heard of a woman as devoted to her husband as Draupadl.132. 51. And that is the last episode of the Ãranyaka narratedby the Bhãrgava Mãrkandeya and in fact the last episode of this parvan in which a Bhãrgava is concerned. witnessed even the dissolution and creation of the world? 44 19 Afterhearing the storyof Rãma. age old and yet eternally young. This book contains consequently no upãkhyãnasand there is no room for any Bhãrgava digression. O. Yudhisthira.Epic Studies(VI) 33 be rather abruptlyintroducand asks Mãrkandeya. says that he did not grieve so much on his own or his brothers' account as he did on account of the daughterof Drupada.and the storymarches rapidly forward. I. who seems fco ed forthe purpose of the story.123. The referencesto the Bhãrgavas are few and far between. and they are incidental allusions to the greatnessor heroism of the Bhãrgavas. One of these may be adduced forthe purpose of illustration. as in the Sabhã.69 on Sun. Mãrkandeya then relates the well-known story ) of Sãvitrl. if there is any mortal more unfortunatethan himself. the narrative is plain and straightforward. VlRÄTAPARVAN In the shortVirãtaparvan. Thereupon Mãrkandeya relates the story of the Dãáarathi Rama. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

and we findhim coming into direct contact actual conflict with some of the epic characters. an account of a council held by the Pãndavas. The Bhärgava Rãma appearing here in the rôle of a This content downloaded from 137.34 Annals of theBhandarkar Institute Oriental Research UDYOGAPARVAN The Udyogaparvan furnishes its quota of references to the Bhãrgavas. The Bhärgava Rãma. flings them at the enemy. 94). unasked. 95). where Krsna is coramisioned to go and treat with Dhrtarãstra.69 on Sun. and compel him to surrender and acknowledge his defeat.123. The ascetics meeklydecline. 72 ff. relates.provided they were assured that they would be treated with fairness and given what is theirsby right (adhy. whom he duly honours. Nara reads Dambhodbhava a sermon on kindnessto all creatures and humility towards on self-contral. So in the end Nara takes up a handful of grass and. On his asking them whither they were bound. by a descriptionof Krspa's journeyto Hãstinapura. in which he announces thatthePãndavas were ready to obay implicitly the commands of Dhrtarãstra. They change into deadly missiles. Here again Rãma Jãmadagnya emerges from the obscurity of myth and legend. The sages then take leave of him and proceed on their way. Brahmins. . 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . who wants to be acknowledged the unconquered and unconquerable hero. where they are received with due honours by Bhlsma (adhy.challenges in his cupidity the sages Nara and Nãrãyana ( who were then practising penance at Badarl) to with him. 96 ). The proceedingsbegin with a long perorationby Krsna. explains that they were on their way to attend the council meeting which was going to be held at Hãstinapura in orderto witness the proceedings and listen to the discussion. charging the blades in his hand with mystic potency. Led by Rãma Jãmadagnya. taking advantage of the spell of silence which followedKrsna's diplomatic speech.which is followed in adhy.and in one case. we have of the Vulgate version of the TJdyoga. the Bhärgava Rama. but Dambhodbhava fight is importunate. gets up and. overpowering the soldiers of Dambhodbhava. In adhy. 83 ff. On the way he meets a company of ancient sages. advising peace. who is apparently their spokesman. The foolish king Dambhodbhava. at least to the Bhärgava Räma. the storyof Dambhodbhava ( adhy. they arrive in due course at the capital of the Kurus and present themselves in the darbar hall.132.

Hotravähana tells him the previous historyof Ambã and also her future plans. While these deliberations are proceeding. armed with a bow and a sword and his famous axe (parasu ) . therecomes'along by chance Ambâ's grandfather. Bhïsma -explains to Duryodhana that. and then relates the whole life historyof Sikhandin.with the very obvious object of reiterating and emphasizing the identitybetween Nara-Nãrãyana and Arjuna-Krsna. The story is developed in this way. fightwhich ends in a stalemate. While the ascetics are cogitatingas to how they should help her. 173-196 of the Vulgate ).comes therethe following morning.who at birthhad been a girl. to whomshe was engaged and who subsequently refusedto marry her on account of her abduction by Bhïsma. having been disappointed of marriage throughBhïsma's action.Epic Studies(VI) 35 peace-makerconcludes by advising conciliation and pointing out that Nara is Arjuna. while Nãrãyana is Krsna. The story is an unnecessary digression. vowed to compass his death and how the Bhãrgava Rama. The Udyogaparvan closes with a story ( Ambopäkhyäna).69 on Sun. who in a previous birth was Amba. a.on the war-path. There she meets a company of ascetics.132. he would not fight with Šikharidin. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in which the Bhãrgava Rama plays a very active and prominent part ( adhy. Bhïsma narrates how Ambã.because of a vow he had taken. foughtwith Bhïsma at Kuruksetra fortwenty-three days. nursing her grief and vowing vengeance. having promisedto help her.123. By a fortunate fortunes. But since Rãma has taken the vow that he would on no account take up arms except at the bidding of the twice-born. he has to be persuaded by the sages to espouse Ambâ's cause* This content downloaded from 137. who advises her to seek the help of his friend Rama Jâmadagnya. accident Rãma . Akrtavarna decides thatBhïsma is certainly responsibleforAmbâ's misand is the party deserving punishment. Räma's disciple and faithful followerAkrtavranaappears on the scene. who sympathizewith her and devise means to help her. the daughterof the king of Kâsï. she left him and wandered about alone in a neighbouringforest.the royal sage Hotravähana. When Ambã was repulsed by Salva. Ambã again relates the whole story of her unfortunate life to the Bhãrgava Rãma and beseeches him to slay the oÉfending Bhïsma.

recover and resume the fight. who had supported him and encouraged him that same day while he was lying wounded and unconscious on the battlefield. in which millions and billions of arrows are showeredby each combatant and cut up by the opponent. Rama ordersBhisma to take back Amba or failing that fighta duel with he decides to fight.69 on Sun. the gods go fromone to the otherof the combatants. goes to Rãma. Bhïsma thinksof the sleep missile. He puts and prostrates down his bow and arrow.36 Institute Oriental Research Annals oftheBhandarkar He then proceeds with Amba and all the assembled sages to the banks of the Sarasvatl and fromthere sends a message to Bhisma.Ganga. with the river Ganges ) Bhlsma's motherGaògãdevI ( identified but without success. who meets him at the boundary of the Kuru kingdom. who was one of the Vasus. by discharging which he could put the Bhãrgava Rãma to sleep on the fieldof battle. his guru% This content downloaded from 137. Even aftermany days of constantfighting. various magical missiles are flung by which alternatelythe combatantsget wounded. followingminutely all thestrictrules of chivalry. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The two missiles clash in the middle and neutralize each other. which is capable of shattering the the terrific earth. Finally the shades of his ancestors persuade Rãma to lay aside his weapon?. That is sufficientfor Bhisma. drawn by white horses.132. when at last Rãma wounded by an arrow '• it is a of Bhisma falls down in a swoon. the gods intervene. The fight tries to stop the impending fight lasts forseveral days.fall down. back to the city and returns. furnished with all arms and acin a chariot made of silver. the grim contest continues indecisively.trying to pacify them. and unlike the deadly combats of the Bhãrata war. which he then reluctantlydoes. saw in a dream a group of eight Brahmins ( the Eight Vasus ).fhe gods stand between the combatants and make the fightimpossible. Then one night Bhisma.123. Since Bhisma cannot do the former.They remind him of a magical missile of his. As he is about to discharge that missile. The fight is continued on the following days.goes him. with varying luck. During the commotioncaused by these weapons. With Bhlsma's mother. Next day the fight began again and the combatants hurled at each other simultaneously Brahma missile. coutrements. Seeing that neitherof them is preparedto yield and be the first to retire fromthe fieldof battle. Bhl9ma stops fighting gentlemanlyduel. Still the combatants are not pacified and will not leave the field.

is utterlybarrenofany result beyond adding a -few hundredlines to the text ! One peculiar thing we notice about this story is the sudden change of heart on the part of the Bhãrgave Rãma.132. which in some shape or other must have formed the kernel of the Mahãbhãrata. 31 ).69 on Sun. 12. who had learnt the secrets of the science of arms fromRäma in the guise of a Brahmin bat later had to confessthat he was a Ksatriya. Thus this titanic conflict between Bhisma and the Bhãrgava Rãma. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 43 ) •* occurring in one of the chapters of the first I aklistakãririUm tesarti evemetatpurãvrttam II vara as ca atam bhedorãjyavinãéasca jay jay The Bhãrata. and victory. among some descendantsof Bharata. cohering togetherso as to forma more or less harmonious whole. This does not prevent him subsequentlyfromcursing Karna.Epic Studies(VI) 37 himselfat his feet They soon forget their quarrel and become friendsagain. A rough sketchof the original plan of the epic is preserved in a stanza book ( 1. There Rãma is reported to have said to Karna that the Brãhma weapon can neverbe learnt by one who is not a Brahmin ( B.was a trilogyconsisting of the storyofthe dissension. which kernel has served as a nucleus forthe growthof a vast amount of secondary material. This content downloaded from 137. 3.here we are surprised with the statement that in Bhïsma Rãma had taken a Ksatriya pupil and had apparently taught him so well that the pupil knew not only as much as the guru but perhaps even more. for. though Bhisma had used the Brahma missile successfully against Räma in the combat mentionedabove. 55. Bhismaparvan " With the Bhismaparvan begin what mây be called the battle " books. which is said to have lasted for three and twentydays. While in all other accounts of him he is represented as the inveterate foe of the Ksatriyas and the epic bards aré never weary of telling us that he had exterminated the Ksatriyas thrice seven times* here we findhim befriendingthe royal sage Hotravãhana and championing the lost cause of an unhappy Ksatriya damsel 1 The episode shows another inconsistency in the behaviour of Rama. according to this statement.123.loss of the kingdom.

such as Kubora.or at least semi-human. however.in the enumeration of the so-called vibhütis of Srl-Krsna. semidivine beings. Three of them. The fourthand last section of this book is a lengthy account in eighty chapters ( or about 4300 stanzas ) of the fightof the first ten days ofthe Great War. Some are merely terrestrial featuressuch as mountains. according to the Vulgate. The vibhütisare said to be infinite( nastyanlo vistarasya me. such as Indra. Vãsudeva. Some of these vibhütisare pure and simple gods. the Bhagavadgltã. eagle ( Garuda ) and so on. playing on the theme of his encounterwith Bhlsma.132. for the most part trivial and confinedto the glorification of Rãma Jãmadagnya.123. so to say. Afterthe Bhagavadgítã.the ocean and so on. Some are celestial luminaries such as the Sun. sixty enumerated and they are worthyof close study. There are mentioned among these vibhütis only nine human.38 OrientalResearch Institute Annals oftheBhandarkar The Bhlsmaparvan. Visnu. Of these the first two are mainly geographical tractates : Jambükhanda-nirmäna-parvan and Bhümi-parvan. whom we may regard as historical or semihistorical personalities. the keystoneof the whole new superstructure of the remodelled Bhãrata and which has passed into world literature. Some are yet other supernatural beings. The third is the famous philosophical discourse. Arjuna and Vyãsa.rivers. 19 in the Vulgate but about of them have been specifically version). that is.Gita 10. up to the fall of Bhlsma. The Bhãrgava Eãma is subtly praised by saying that Bhlsma was a hero whom even Rama could not defeat.and as such their inclusion in this list is expected and may be said This content downloaded from 137. Consequently this sub-section also contains no Bhãrgava episode or forthat matterany other episodic narrative at all. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . are well-known and important epic characters. Siva and so on. They are. the account of the fightruns on smoothlyand is not allowed to be interrupted by any digressions.69 on Sun. and the Moon. elephant ( Airãvata ). which is. is divided into four sections ( upaparvans). Some are even animals such as the serpent( Sesa ). Citraratha and others. But the Bhagavadgltã itselfcontains an interesting allusion to the Bhrgus and that is in the tenthchapter. But passing allusions to the Bhãrgavas are not by any means wanting even in this final section of the Bhlsmaparvan.

a clan closely connectedwith the Bhrgus fromvery ancient times. the Bhãrgava priest of the Asuras. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the priest of the gods. and that he had cursed various people. SrïKrsna identifies himself. Abhimanyu with a small following pierces the Kaurava ring-formation ( cakra-vyuha ). Then. Gita 10. hwis Šukra.69 on Sun. SrI-Krsna Bhãrgava Rãma. There remain three. And about Bhrgu's greatness even the Mahâbhãrata has nothing to narratebeyond the fact that his wife Pulomã was abducted by a cannibal called Puloman ( Adi ) or Damša ( Sãnti ). the official messenger between the gods and the men. but Brahmã had nearly a dozen sons of that kind. to be quite natural. brave fight This content downloaded from 137. further. Of perfected beings ( siddhas). but why Bhrgu should be considered greatest great sages ( maharsis) is somewhat enigmatic.132. who is ( sastra-bhrt identified by some authorities as Rama son of Dašaratha.123. Lastly. regarded. DRONAPARVAN The Dronaparvan supplies what is forour purpose one of the most interestingof Bhãrgava referencesin the Mahâbhãrata. a celebratedsage. SrI-Krsna says. one of the Angirases. he is Kapila. Rama son of Jamadagni. SrI-Krsna says. of these all . All is or are more or less intelligible . the ). may of the the as class . but w'10 in my opinion is meant to be no otherthan the much lauded hero of the Mahâbhãrata poets. of great sages ( maharsis says. the asuric counterpart of Brhaspati.or at least two. 25 ). Of Kavis. who all became Prajãpatis and founders of gotras. for each vibhuti othervibhUtis of a the first or foremost the as or more be less. They may therefore of divine sages ( devarsis). with Brhaspati. He is not reckoned among the Seven Sages ( saptarsis). he is Bhrgu ( maharslnlmBhrguraham.Epic Studies( VI) 39 be ignored. On the thirteenth day of the Great War during Arjuna's temporaryabsence.quite naturally again. Of weapon-bearers ). probablythe codifierof the Sãmkhya. and Abhimanyu is slain after a ¡ one of the most tragic episodes of the Great Epic. but Jayadratha intercepts his followersand isolates him. the system most popular with the epic bards. SrI-Krsna declares himself to be Nãrada.are clearly Bhãrgavas. He is no doubt said to be a son of Brahma. SrI-Krsna declares himself to be Rama. Of household priests.

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To console Yudhisthira for the untimely death of Abhimanyu, Vyãsa tells him many stories illustrating the transitoriness of human life. At that time he relates how N arada comfortedSrñ* jaya in a time of bereavementby telling him ofthe sixteen kings of great merit,who neverthelessall died when their time came ( adhy. 55-71 of the Vulgate ). These kings were,as a matter of fact, all cakravartins, sovereigns who had conquered surrounding or kingdoms broughtthemunder theirsway and established a paramountposition on more or less extensive regions around their own kingdoms. The episode, whioh is known as the Sodasarâjakïya, recountsthe heroic deeds and the meritoriousactions of sixteen of such famous kings of antiquity. The sixteen kings are these : ( 1 ) Marutta,son of Aviksit; ( 2 ) Suhotra Ãtithina¡ ( 3 ) Paurava ( Brhadratha,king of Aňga ) ; ( 4 ) Sibi, son of Usinera ; ( 5 ) Rama, son of Dašaratha ; ( 6 ) Bhaglratha, son of Dillpa ; ( 7 ) Dillpa Ailavila ; ( 8 ) Mãndhãtr,son of Yuvanâãva ; ( 9 ) Yayãti, son of Nahusa ; ( 10 ) Ambarlsa,son of Nãbhãga ; ( 11 ) Sasabindu, son of Citraratha ; ( 12 ) Gaya, son of Amürtarayas; ( 13 ) Rantideva, son of Samkrti; ( 14 ) Bharata, son of Duhsanta ; ( 15 ) Prthu, son of Vena ; and, last but not least, (16) the Bhãrgava Rãma, son of Jamadagni. Accordingly we have here a vivid and colourful description of that great feat of the Bhãrgava Rãma, the extirpation of Ksatriyas, an account which courts mistrustby its appalling exaggeration and staggeringfigures ( adhy. 70 of the Vulgate ). We are told how Rãma took a vow to relieve the Earth of her burden of Ksatriyas. Thereafter he first slew Kãrtavlrya, who was never beforedefeatedin battle. Then of Ksatriyas he their ears and noses and breaking slaughtered 64,000,cutting off their teeth,besides stiflingin smoke 7000 Haihayas ( the clan to which Arjuna Kãrtavirya belonged ) and torturing them, and butchering10,000 with his own axe. . . . Then the puissant son of Jamdagni, marchingagainst the Kaámlras, the Daradas, the Kuntis, the Ksudrakas and Mãlavas, the Aňgas, Vaňgas and Kaliňgas, the Videhas, the Tãmraliptakas, the Raksovähas, the Vltihotras,the Trigartas, the Mãrttikâvatas, the Sibis and other warrior races, thousands in number,slew them all with arrowsof exceeding sharpness. Going fromcountryto country, he slew

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Èpic Studies(VI )

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thousands and hundredsof thousands of Ksatriyas, creating a veritabledeluge of blood and fillingmany lakes with it. . . • Then bringingunder his sway all the eighteen divisions of the earth, that descendant of Bhrgu celebrated a hundred sacrifices,like a second Indra, when he gave away costly gifts ( daksinã) to Brahmins. The sacrificial altar, full eight nalas hi^h and made entirelyof gold, embellished with hundreds of gems and adorned with thousands of banners, as also this earth abounding in domestic and wild animals, was accepted by Kasyapa fromthe Bhãrgava Rama as his sacrificial fee for performingthe sacrifice. Rama also gave him many thousands of huge elephants adorned with golden ornaments. Freeing the earth of robbers that infestedher,making her full of righteous and amiable people, Räma gave the earth to Kasyapa at his great horse sacrifice. Then comes the Bhãrgava slogan ( B. 7. 70. 20 ) • I ( IV ) krtvã nihksatriyãih prabhuh prthivirn trihsaptakrtvah Having cleared the earth of Ksatriyas thriceseven times,having celebrated a hundred sacrifices, Räma gave the earth to the Brahmins. When the earth with her seven grand divisions was bestowed by him upon Kasyapa, then the latter said to Rama, " "Go thou out of this earth at my command ! Hearing these of weapon-bearers, obedientto words of Kasyapa, that foremost the command of a Brahmin, caused the ocean to roll back and to give him a new stripof land to live in, and Rama took up his abode on Mount Mahendra. It is instructive to compare this Story of Sixteen Kings with a variant version of it in the Santi ( adhy. 29 of the Vulgate ), as related to the same Yudhisthira by Sri Krsna. After the battle the monthof mourning is spent outside the capital on the banks of the Ganges. Yudhisthira, very dejected, proposesto renounce the kingdom and retire to the forest. At Arjuna's request, Krsna tries to console him and so relates to him the Story of Sixteen Kings, which Nãrada had once related to king Srñjaya. The stories are naturally almost the same as those related to Yudhisthira by Vyãsa afterthe death of Abhimanyu. There is, however,one very striking difference. Fifteen of the kings in the " il list are the same ; the sixteenth king of the Dronalist, namely, the Bhãrgava Ráma, is conspicuous by his absence in the Sänti 6 [ Annals, B. O. R. I. ]

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list ! He is replaced by a real king, Sagara son of Iksvãku, who was indeed a very famous king, fully deserving to be included in this list of the celebrated sixteen kings of antiquity, whereas the Bhãrgava Rama was no king at all and does not properlyfall into this enumeration. His " extermination" of the Ksatriyas was merelyan act of vendetta. And although he is said to have conquered the whole earth, he never was crowned a king. Thereforethe proprietyof including his exploits in the Sodasarãjaklya is more than questionable. In fact it would never - with strike anybodyexcept an unscrupulous Brahmin redactor strong Bhãrgava leanings to perpetrate such a tendentious perversionand fatherit upon Vyãsa. KARNAPARVAN Karna is representedin our epic as a pupil of the Bhãrgava Rãma, like Bhlsma and Drona. So thereare several casual re- in his capacity as the ferences guru of Karna~to Rãma Jamadagnya in the course of this parvan. In adhy. 31 ( of the Vulgate ), we have a reference to the bow ( Vi jay a ) which Karna had received from the Bhãrgava Rãma, who in his turn had obtained it fromIndra himself. Indra had used it in his fightwith the Daityas : Rãma had used it in his campaign against the Ksatriyas of the earth, which he had conquered thrice seven times ( B. 8. 31. 46 ) •' dhanusä yerta trihsaptakrtvah prthivi nirjitã I ( V ) On the seventeenthday of the war, Duryodhana persuades Salya to be Karna's charioteer and to encourage him tells the storyhow Karna had become possessed even of celestial weapons throughthe Bhãrgava Rãma. To emphasize further the great importanceof Karna, Duryodhana then narratesa story which shows the greatness of Karna'» guru, Rãma Jãmadagnya ( adhy. 34 of the Vulgate ). Rama is in the Mahãbhãrata as a man- or rather a generally represented who had foughthis battles on this earth with other Supermanhuman beings like himself. Here we are told that he had fought with and vanquished even the Daityas. The story is this. To obtain celestial weapons fromMahãdeva, Rãma (like the Pan4ava Arjuna later ) was practising terrible austerities. At that time

This content downloaded from 137.132.123.69 on Sun, 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

needless to say.132. for fear of disturbing the sleep of his guru and thus incurringhis displeasure.69 on Sun. O Dař Then the Daityas began to fight with tyas. on the battlefieldby strokes that were like the strokesfromIndra* s thunderbolt. One day while Rãma was sleeping with his head resting in the lap of Karna. he concluded that his disciple was no Brahmin. Then Karna confesses his guilt and begs Râma's pardon. as only a Ksatriya could suffer Buch agony and keep still. Rama went up to the Asuras and said to them. saying that at the critical momentthe magical missiles of which he had . Duryodhana hastens to add that he had heard it himself from the lips of a pious and truthful Brahmin while the latter was relating it to king Dhrtarãstra. then Mahãdeva gave him those celestial missiles forwhich Rama was practising the terribleausterities. 8. Brahma could never reside firmly in one who is not a Brahmin : abrãhmane brahma na hi dhruvam syãt ( B. 42. Then in adhy. the thigh of the latter was bored throughby Indra (Arjuna's de factofather) in the formof a ferocious centipede. Perhaps feelingthat the storymightbe disbelieved. Karna relates that under the guise of a Brahmin he had been a disciple of the Bhãrgava Rãma in orderto learn fromhim the secret of certain magical missiles known to Rãma alone. In a variant version of this tale ( Sänti 3 in the Vulgate ) the wormwhich bad bored through Kama's thigh is said to have been not Indra in disguise. give me battle Rama. 9. Duryodhana's father. ). When Rãma woke up and saw this state of things.123. but a demon suffering the effectsof a ourse pronouncedon him by¿Bhrgu*J This content downloaded from 137. And so it happened. 42 ( of the Vulgate ).Epic Studies( VI ) 43 that even all the gods together the Asuras had become so powerful could not subdue them. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .even obtained knowledge fromRãma by such a dastardly trick the great Yogi could not see throughit would fail him. and Karna was weltering in blood but did not move a muscle. " Most invincible in battle as you are. Rãma pronounces a curse on Karna. After Raina had vanquished the invincible Asuras without the use of any special weapons. Then that delighter of the Bhãrgava clan slaughtered those Daityas. and so Mahãdeva asks the Bhãrgava Rãma to fight with them ( as Arjuna later fought with the Ni vãtaka vacas and otherdemons ).

The tragedy also does not permitthe development of any other sentiment.132. especially in the account of Balarama's pilgrimage. 9. The absence of reference to the Bhãrgavas. is not only thoroughly This content downloaded from 137. The parvan consists almost wholly of the description of the obsequial ceremonies of the warriors killed in the war and lamentations of women over their dead kinsfolk. which is fortunatelyheld free from digressions and interpolations. StrIparvan In the next book.Samantapañcaka and so on. which lay on his way. who.freefromreference to the Bhftrgavas. the StrIparvan.consisting of 27 chapters and about 800 stanzas in the Vulgate version. 7 f.123. and comprises only two : the Sauptika and the Aislka The first sub-parvan sub-parvarts describes the slaughter of the sleepers in the camp of the Pãndavas.there are only three incidental referencesto the Bhãrgavas.) : M yatraRamo mahabhãgoBhãrgavah sumahãtapah asakrtprthivim hat a m mgavã ' jitvã ksatriyapu '' upãdhyãyarh puraskrtya Raêyapam munisattamam ' ca ' ayajad vãjapeyena so évamêdhascitena caiva prthivim vai sasagarâm ' i pradadau daksiriãm SAUPTIKAPARVAN The Sauptika is one of the few books of the Mahãbhãrata which are entirely.or almost entirely.44 Annals oftheBhandarhar OrientalResearch Institute ŠALYAPARVAN In the Salyaparvan there are only stray referencesto the Bhãrgavas. while the second gives an account of the use of the world-destroyingdart Aislka by Aávatthãrnan. The book is short.69 on Sun. consisting of 18 chapters and about 800 stanzas in the Vulgate version. 49. as already remarked. which like the former is short. At Râtnatïrthawe have a repetitionof the storythat Kašyapa officiated at the sacrificecelebrated by Rama Bhärgava after conquering the whole earth and annihilating the Ksatriyas ( B.during which ßalaräma visits another very obvious digression of course all the places sacred to the Bhãrgavas such as Rämatlrtha. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .had strictlyspeaking no connection whatso^ ever with the Kuru-Pañcála heroes.

Later on a bed the distant Bhlsma. Already in adhy. Krsna then sets out with the Pãndava brothersand his followers This content downloaded from 137. ful to the redactorsof our Mahãbhãrata.entersthe capital in state. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but we are told on the otherhand that the ravisher of Pulomä was reduced to ashes by Bhrgu's son Cyavana.making up in some measure forthe deficiencyof the last threebooks. The month of mourning is spent by the Pãndavas outside the capital on the banks of the Ganges. which is in essence a manual of instruction in ) (rãjadharma ). that the worm which bites Karna and bores a hole through his leg is not Indra but a demon called Damsa.123. conduct in time of calamity (ãpaddharma king-craft ) compiled in the peculiar peand emancipation ( moksadharma the redactors of the Great Epic by developed technique dagogic forthe edificationof the people combined with their entertainment. under the false pretenceof being a Brahmin. In any event the happy resultofthis discourse of the sage was that Yudhisthira. where. In the course of the narrative Nãrada repeats with more details the storywe have already noticed as to how Karna had easily deceived the Bhãrgava Räma and obtained from him the care) fully guarded secretof the famous Brahma missile ( brahYncistra. then her ravisher's name was given as Puloman in adhy. who had tried to carry offBhrgu'g wife.Epic Studies( VI ) 45 but is an omission forwhich we may be truly grateappropriate. as mentionedalready. If this wife be Pulomã.132. and a Bhrgu too. (of the Vulgate) we hear of the Bhãrgava Rama. who remains lying on the battlefield of arrows and who in a long hymn of adoration invokes Krsna.69 on Sun.thereis no mentionof Bhrgu's curse . There Nãrada relates to Yudhisthira the story of the early career of Karna. 4 of the Ãdi. ŠXNTIPARVAN The Santi. An interestingpoint of differencebetween this version of the storyand that given in the Karnaparvan is. But perhaps this demon Damsa is some otherravisher of Bhrgu's wife. 2 f. which is here said to be a secret of the gods ( deva-guhya).is inthe obsequial ceremoniesof his stalled on the throneand performs ecstatictrancecommuneswith an Krsna in departedkinsmen. casting offgrief. however.supplies its quota of Bhãrgava material.

In the first version it was Satyavatl's fatherin-law who prepares the magical carus. always devoted to'peace. an easy opportunity affords foranotherrepetition of the legend of Rãm a's heroic exploit. 12. Here we have now an attestation of the entire storyby SriKrsna. of the extirpationof the Ksatriyas and of the subsequent "regeneration of the race. Jamadagni was robbed of his calf by Arjuna Kãrtavlrya himself. and it was they who broughtaway the calf of Jamadagni's sacrificial This content downloaded from 137. 9 ) •* vasxdhãmkrtvãmhksatriyãm trihsaptakrtvo prabhvb' ihedãniihtato Rãmah karmanovirarãmaha II ( VI ) " " Yudhisthira.69 on Sun.46 Institute Annals oftheBhandarkar OrientalResearch to visit Bhlsma on his deathbed. which were subsequently exchanged by the good. In the Ãranyaka version. SrlKrsna in passing points to those lakes and says ( B. who prepares them. two of which are noteworthy. 12. a full-size account of the birthof the Bhãrgava Rãma. Arjuna is a perfectangel of a man. 48. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . by the redactorsof the epic with the Bhãrgava tirťha Samantapañcaka.has an" insatiable longing to hear all about the exterminationof the Ksatriyas by the Bhãrgava Rãma thoughhe had heard it all before fromother story-tellers. The arrival ofthe party at the which it will be remembered has been identified battlefield.132. to Yudhisthira himself in the Ãrapyaka. His sons on the other hand were " proud and cruel ".and he has besides some doubts which he forthwith refers to Krsna ( B. The other is a somewhat more' serious discrepancy. ever obedient to Brahmins and ready to protectail classes . here it is Satyavatl's husband himself. a desciple of Rãma. ladies who were to f partake of them. a variant of the story told by Akrtavrana. 48. he had given away the earth to Brahmins in a horse sacrifice which he had performed. There are naturally several discrepancies between the two versions. -'who is representedthere as a perfectfiend. That was the very spot where the Bhãrgava Rãma had established those five lakes of blood.Rclka. In the storyas told by SrI-Krsna.123. the dummy of the rhapsode. 10 ): ä nihksatriyã trihsaptakrlvah prihivikrt purã I tvamatra mesamsayomahãn il ( VII ) Rametti fathãtiha To solve this doubt of Yudhisthira Krsna gratuitously volunteers to repeatthe whole storyof Rãma fromthe very beginning.

Various explanations of the mystery as of the we have seen In the earlier chapters epic. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . She had concealed some Haihayas among women. Some other Ksatriyas were broughtup in the forestamong the kine. He oon- This content downloaded from 137. 64 ) : krtvãnihksatriyãm prabhuh{ trihsaptakrtvah prthivim daksinãmasvamedhãnte KaéyapãyãdadattatahM ( VIII ) The matterbeing now attested by Sri-Krsna himself.132. some in the oowpens among the calves. pounded. 12. 5 ) : the child belongs to him who has gone through the form of marriage with the mother. Some were protectedby the Ocean.123. some Pauravas among the bears of Mount ßksavant. to say whether Akrtavrana or SriKrsna was more truthful. That was however not the view of SrIKrsna. several times.69 on Sun. SrI-Krsna evidently did not know anything about the procreationof Ksatriyas by pious Brahmins on the widows of the Ksatriyas slaughtered by the bloodthirstyBhãrgava. And the old Ksatriya dynasties were resuscitated by Kaéyapa. As it is difficult. and that was in fact Yudhisthira 's doubt. It mustalways have been somethingof a puzzle to all thoughtful personswhere Ksatriyas like the Kauravas and the Pãndavas and even SrI-Krsna himselfcame from after the Ksatriya race had been wiped out thrice seven times by the Bhãrgava Rãma. These had all escaped destructionat the hands of the formidable Bhãrgava. in the absence of independent evidence. it must remain a moot point whether the guilty party is Arjuna Kãrtavírya or his sons. some by the wolves on Mount Qrdhrakuta. 49. His explanation was that the Earth had concealed some Ksatriyas. Then SrIKrsna goes on to tell Yudhisthira that the Ksatriyas were annihilated by the Bhãrgava Rãma thrice seven times. who orderedRãma to clear out from the earth which he had first givtn to Kasyapa as a part of the sacrificial fee and restored by and by those scions of the old Ksatriya families to their rightful heritage.which he had expressed have been proto SrI-Krsna.at this distance of time. it cannot be describedby revilers of Brahmins as a fabrication made by the Brahmins themselves. 98.it was the pious Brahmins who procreatedchildren on the widows of the Ksatriyas slain by Rãma and they became Ksatriyas by the Vedic rule pãnigrãhasya(anayah( 1. speaking exactly like a Bhãrgava ( B.Epic Studies( VI ) 47 cow.

12. the eponymous ancestor of the Bhãrgavas. 84): Ramo Bhrgukulodvahah I bhavisyãmi Tretãyuge Ksatram cotsãdayisyãmi il samrddhabalavãhanam This stanza cannot be impugned on the score of documentary evidence. The otherreferenceis in the same chapter. This shows that the theoryof avatãraa is still developing in the epic and their numberis not yet fired. ( 4 ) good and evil. one of his ten avatãras . But both references occur in the Nârãyanlya section ofthe Moksadharma. ( 2 ) life and death. 12. 88 f. 49. ) : fat ah prthivyä tan samãniya Kasyapah ' nirdistãms II vlryasammatãn abhyasiñcan mahlpãlãn ksatriyãn ' tesãmputrãéca pautrãé ca yesãmvamsahpratisthitãh At the beginning of the thirdgreat sub-division of the Santi. : Hamsah Kûrmaè ca Matsyašca prãdurbhãvaddvijottama I Varãho Narasimhaš ca Vãmano Rama èva ca ' Ramo Dãêarathié cairn SãtvatahKalkir èva ca ' fromthe Moksadharma is important as containing one of the two actual referencesin our Mahãbhãrata to the Bhärgava Rama as an avatara of Visnu. 12. ( 3 ) caste distinctions.132. and finally (6) the other world.a few stanzas earlier (B. which have been collated by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute for a critical edition of that book. ( 5 ) the four stages of life. but the passage is suspect.69 on Sun. It will be seen that it is a complete tractate on Hindu Ontology. It should thus seem that the Mahãbhãrata does not This content downloaded from 137. 103 f. as it is missing in some Grantha MSS.48 Oriental institute Research Annals oftheBhandarkar eludes by remarkingthat the present Ksatriyas are the legitimate offsprings of those ancient Ksatriyas ( B. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Eschatology and Ethics that is here attributedto Bhrgu. 339. 339. nor are the avatãras fully canonized. and some old Devanãgarí MSS. 182-192 of the Vulgate ). we have a lengthy discourse attributed to Bhrgu.123. which summarizes in the form of questions and answers almost the entire Brahmanic teaching on the subject of ( 1 ) the elements. called the Bhrgu-Bhãradvãja-samvãda ( adhy.Sociology. the Moksadharma. The oft-citedstanza B. which is notoriouslya late addition to our Mahãbhãrata. which is unanimous in its favour.

123. O.Bhãrgava BSma to be an avatãra of Visnu. while the son of ßclka's wife would have been a model Ksatriya . J This content downloaded from 137. We have here a repetitionof the old storyhow Rclka married Gädhi's daughter SatyavatI. In passing it may be mentioned that the present version agrees with the Säntiparvan version in making Rclka the giver of the boons. The previous chapter ( 3 ) relates the mighty deeds of the Ksatriya Viávãmitra. whereas in the Äranyaka version this person is some ancestor of Rclka. which led to his attaining the coveted status of a Brahmin. while his nephew Jamadagni. forsome reason that is not yet quite clear. Early in the beginning of this book ( adhy. while he had put the entire accumulated energy of Ksatriyahood in the caru intended for her mother. In adhy. B. The motherand the daughter exchange the trees they had to embrace and the carus of which they had to partake.132. we have the third repetitionof the legend of the birth of Jamadagni. owing to the pleadings of SatyavatI. I. but. who obtained some boons forherselfand her mother. 7 ( Annals. The wise Rclka had purposelymade the prescriptionsdifferently. 14. 4. 4 ). 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . postponement This story we have had at Äranyaka 115 and Santi 49 of the Vulgate. under similar conditions. 273 at once oalls forth the reaction .Èpic Studies(VI) 49 necessarily presupposethe . He had in fact put the entire accumulated energy of Brahmanism in the caru of his wife. ANUSÄ8AN APARVAN The Anuáãsana.69 on Sun. The consequence of the exchange slyly effectedby the mother was that the son of Gãdhi 's wife turned out to be a man with Brahmanic propensities. Bhlsma explains how it came about that Viávãmitra who was ofmingled Brahmin and Ksatriya parentage was born in the Ksatriya caste with Brahmanic qualities. The mere mentionof Bhãrgava Rãma in B. is the richest in Bhãrgava material. 13. the great sage graciously gives his consent to the of the doom to Satyavatťs grand-son. R. either Rclka's fatheror perhaps Bhrgu himself. was born in the Brahmin caste with Ksatriyan qualities.

Once upon a time it so happened that Devašarman had to go away from his hermitage on some sacrificial business. Not feeling quite sure about his little Ruci. Through that declaration of Bhrgu. Sudeva was likewise defeated and killed by the Haihayas. The son of Divodãsa defeatedin turn all the Haihayas. the story goes. a son Pratardana.50 Institute Annals oftheBhanddrkar Ortental Research krta' yena nihksatriyã trihsaptaJcrtvah prthivl II etc. The sage Devasarman. had a beautiful wife Euci ( Beauty ) by name. fled to the hermitageof Bhrgu. His was Pramati . the Bhãrgava the old sage taking into his confidence Vipula. especially against the amorous advances of Indra. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 30 ( of the Vulgate ) we are told how a Ksatriya Vltahavya was made a Brahmin by the mere word of a Bhrgu. In adhy. who was hiding in Bhrgu's hermitage. Vltahavya actually became a Brahmin. Bhlsma expatiates on the fascination and frailty of women. when Vltahavya pursued by Pratardana. whose son Sudeva succeeded him on the throne. *ho obtained forhim. When Pratardana demanded from Bhrgu the surrenderof Vltahavya. Vatsa. an interesting storyin which mesmerismor hypnotismplays some part (Vipulopâkhyãna. Devasarman pathetcally ien~ assuming different This content downloaded from 137. who built Vârânasï. The storyis as follows. he fled to his priestBharadvãja. the root of all evil. Haihaya and Tãlajangha. from whom came the Saunakas. 40-43 in the Vulgate ). ( IX ) GovindaRamenãklistakarmanã Jãmadagnyena In adhy. his disciple. 40. king of Kãál. throughsacrifice. Likewise defeatedby the Haihayas. adhy. his son was Ruru . a descendant of Saryãti had two sons. descendant eleventh whose was son Grtsamada. and to support his statement he relates the story of Vipula. Sudeva was succeeded by Divodãsa.123. who had attractedthe attention of the gay king of the gods. on the northernbank of the Ganges and the southern bank of the Gomatl.132. who was an adept at formsat will. The hundred sons of Haihaya attackad and killed Haryaáva. another Bhãrgava.69 on Sun. who could not tell a lie. His descendantsare set out forfifteen generations. Indra. Bhrgu in orderto save the life of Vltahavya said that therewere only Brahmins in the hermitage. told him to protect his slender-waisted wife. his son was Sunaka.

remains externally indifferentto the blandishmentsof Indra. who was of mixed Brahmin and Ksatriya parentage was born in the Ksatriya caste with Brahmanic qualities. Indra. puzzled by and realizes how matters stand. Only one man had been able to protecta woman and that] was the Bhãrgava Vipula ( B.Epic Studies( VI ) 51 joined his disciple to take every care and see that lascivious king of the celestials did not defilethat frivolous wife of his. Then Vipula faces the philanderer and soundly rebukes him. in which a cow was found to be the only equivalent possible forthe ransom of the sage Cyavana. 52-56 ). Ruci. 18) and repeated by the latter to Yudhisthira. and Indra slinks away abashed. A few chapterslater we have again a Bhãrgava story. who had captivated his mind.69 on Sun. like a wretcheddog licking the havis placed near the sacrificial altar. 27 ) : I tenaikena tu raksã vai Vipulena krtãstriyãh 'sminraksitum nrpa yositamII nãnyahsaklas triloke This storywas told by the Bhãrgava Mãrkandeya to Bhlsma ( B. Indra comes as expected and makes overtures to the beautiful Ruci. the Cyavanopãkhyãna in seven chapters (50-56). and we have here practically a repetitionof the explanation given above (in adhy. the last five deal really with that topic of perennial interest. throughthe influenceof Vipula. who was peerlesson earth in beauty. while Rama under similar conditions was born in the Brahmin caste with the oppo- This content downloaded from 137. 43. the behaviour of Ruci. 13. which is divided into two parts : the first two chapters ( 50-51 ) illustrate the sanctity of cows. 43. reflects At that momentVipula leaves the body of Ruci and re-enters his own body. though anxious to reciprocate. we come back to the anecdote of Rãma Jãmadagnya. 13. Vipula decided to enter into her by his yogic power and live in her withouther being conscious of it. To protectthe virtue of Ruci. the mingled Brahmin and Ksatriya parentage of the Bhãrgava Räma. may be passed over. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .123. In the firststory. 4 of this very parvan) of the circumstances under which Visvãmitra.132. until the critical mo® ment was passed. who was living within her and guiding her actions. In the second story( adhy.

Also how did a man born in the family of the Kuáikas. ) : "I have a great curiosity. an ancestor of the Bhärgava Rãma. followed with trepidation by the king and the queen. the sage gives the rDyai couple vicious digs with a heavy iron goad. So in the end he has to This content downloaded from 137. in orderto vex him. Cyavana wants to prevent the harm that will come to his clan by Rama's adopting the practices of the Ksatriyas. he is warmly welcomed with unfeigned joy. and also served with meticulous care and obsequiousness by the king and the queen. a danger of which he has prophetic knowledge. belonged by birthto a family of Brahmin sages. returningin a dejected mood to the room set apart for the sage. to never satisfied. 1 ff. Yudhisite qualities. He repairs to Kuáika. and ultimately yokes them to a heavily laden war-chariot. Suddenly the sage wakes up and goes out.During the drive through the city. and. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . about Jamadagnťs son Rama.i J Annals of theBhandarkar Oriental Research Institute comes about in this way. through whose descendant the harm was to happen. 52. damning him and his descendantsto eternal perdition. calculated to try the patience of the unfortunatecouple. The sage has a meal and he then sleeps for twenty-onedays.123. O Lord. When the sage presents himself before the king and says that he wants to observe a certain vow while living in the palace with the king. remarked. and. and as suddenly vanishes ! The king looks for him in vain. The repetition the about whose Bhärgava Kama is. Still the sage finds no change in their behaviour.gently shampooinghis legs. of all righteouspersons. who was a Ksatriya. become a Brahmin ? Great indeed was the power of the high-souled Rama !" as also that of Viávãmifcra The answer is given by Bhîsma by relating the prophecy which had been made by Cyavana.132. finds him again. says Bhlsma'1( B. You should satisfy that that foremost How was Rama born. 13. if he finds a favourable opportunity. Ho* did he become a followerof Ksatriyan practices ? Relate to me in detail the circumstances of Rama's birth. that truly valorous hero ? He curiosity. stretchedas before on his luxurious bed ! The sage practises many tricks of this type. during which the king and the queen wait upon him without food or drink. as already curiosity sthira.to pronounce a malediction on Kusika. distributing all the while in charity the entire wealth of the king.69 on Sun.

the magical palace and the park vanish. about Visvãmitra. and before that in the Santi ( adhy. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and so on and so forth. the exchange of the trees and the carua by the motherand the daughter. it having occurred already at adhy.69 on Sun. Through the lustreof theBhrgus. Aftera short while. 13. 115-117 ). Incidentally it may be mentionedthat this is the occurrence of this interesting story of the birth of the fourth Bhãrgava Räma.123. Kusika's grandson (Visvãmitra) would be an ascetic endowed with the splendour of fire( B.Epic Studies( VI ) 53 of him and he express himself as satisfied with thdr treatment the the to come there back to forest. a fair imitation of Indra's paradise. Then the king feels that Brahmic power was bcnumof life. 4 of this . 55. When he approaches Cyavana. the sage the summum Kusika wants to know why Cyavana had come a boon. 32 ) : eva têjasã ' Bhrguriãm W Pautras te bhavitãvipras tapasvïpãvakadyutih Then follows in the final chapter Cyavana's prophecy about the persecutionof the Bhrgus. about Rclka.that is. about Urva ( or Aurva).132. The king and queen take a little rest for time after forty-two the first days of trial and spend the night The next morning the king other's in each company. In this connection we have again an This content downloaded from 137. and Jamadagni. 48 ) and the veryparvan Ãranyaka ( adhy. him gives him and what all those incidents implied. Of the boons that will be given to the two ladies by Bhrgu. Now it happens that the same advice had been given to the Bhãrgava Räma by Vasilha and othersages. and there sits in the solitude of the the sage who had yoked themto the chariot and ill-treated forest them in other ways. asking royal couple goes on the following day. The shades of his ancestors had appeared to Bhisma and told him that the giftof gold purifiesthe giver. Cyavana to live with tells him frankly what his intention was and also prophesies that Kusika's wish would be fulfilled in so far that a descendant of Kusika's ( Visvãmitra ) would become a Brahmin. happily and queen go to the forestto pay their respects to the sage and see therea magnificentpalace standing in a big park. Kusika's grand-daughter. who will marryGãdhi s daughter. Some chapterslater we again meet with the Bhãrgava Rãma when Bhisma tells Yudhisthira about the merit of the gift of gold.

and his the arrows shot by him. The frightenedluminary comes to him in the guise of a poor Brahmin.123. appropriato to be offeredto gods on diverse occasions and the meritaccruing fromthe presentation. 84. lamps.who tries to dissuade him fromcarryingout his terrible threat. 13. They are said to J^e prajãpatis and progenitorsof many tribes and clans. In adhy. This account of the origin of shoes and sandals is. I believe. Chapter 95 relates how the practice arose of giving umbrellas and sandals to Brahmins at érãddhas and other religious rites. Above. I had referred to palpable evidence of the " " bhrguization of a legend. aromatics. not found outside the Mahãbhãrata.132. but on learning the real cause of the delay. wanted to shook down the offending sun fromhis high position in the heavens.69 on Sun. a long rambling chapter with 168 stanzas. Sorely afflicwife Renukä was fetching ted by the scorching heat of the midday sun. 31 ) : Jcrtã trihsaptakrtvah nihksatriyã prthiví pura I tatojitvä mahimkrlsnämRamo rãjivalocanahII etc. 98 ( of the Vulgate ) we have a reportby Bhlsma of a discussion between the Bhãrgava Sukra and Bali about flowers. she rested just for a momentunder the shade of an umbrageous tree. In the end Jamadagni is pacified and receives fromthe sun the first umbrella and the first pair of leather sandals. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .already alluded to above. the irascible Bhrgu scolded his wife for her tardiness. To make a gift of themto Brahmins is highly meritorious.but is recognized by the Bhrgu and reprimanded. Angiras and Kavi. It will be a surprise to many that our sandals and umbrellas we also owe to a Bhrgu. Being kept waiting. deals with the mysteiy. of the birthof Bhrgu. in fact of the entire mankind. 99-100 of the This content downloaded from 137. ( X ) The next chapter ( 85 ). Once upon a time Jamadagni was amusing himselfby shooting arrows at a distant target. We have another illuminating instance of the process in the next story ( adhy.54 Annals oftheBhandarkar OrientalResearch Institute allusion to the extirpationof the Ksatriyas and the conquest of the earth by Rama ( B. while discussing the Dronaparvan version of the Sodaãarãjaklya.

Epic Studies( VI ) 55 Vulgate ) told by Bhlsma to Yudhisthira. Bhrgu befriends him and gives him the assurance that he ( Bhrgu ) would somehow bring about the downfall of the tyrant. " addressed Agastya as follows : Do you shut your eyes. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Bhrgu of unfading glory and great energy enteredinto the locks of Agastya. when king of the gods. who knows beforehand. possessed of great lustre.could absorb the power of any being on whom he set his eyes.123. A simpler version of this legend occurs in the Udyoga ( adhy. that on a certain day he would sit hidden inside the matted locks of the sage and fromthat position he would curse Nahusa. Agastya. Nahusa. Bhrgu. that Nahusa was going to kick Agastya. his foottouched the head of Agastya. because Agastya. 11-17 ) and is again alluded to in the Santi ( adhy. who stood still like a wooden post.69 on Sun. Soon after.was ipso facto deprivedof all his spiritiial power. Bhrgu. Having said while I enterinto the matted hair of your head this. by the terms of the boon which Brahma and the gods had foolishlygiven him. proposes to Agastya. There it is related that Nahusa became extremelyarrogant and caused the sages to carry his palanquin. 342 ).having oppressedthe sages. Nahusa. took This content downloaded from 137.132. by spiritual prevision. when kicked by the tyrant. Nahusa saw Agastya approach for being yoked to his chariot. While being carried about in this way. losing therebysome of his spiritual power. who was sitting in the matted locks of Agastya. who by his curse turned him into a boa. Bhrgu. Subsequently. in anticipation of it. Under these circumstances.even the resourceful Agastya could not effectively curse Nahusa. The revised version of the legend in the Anüsäsana stages beforehanda confabulation between Bhrgu and Agastya Agastya wants to damn Nahusa but does not know how to. So when the opportunemomentcame. he was hurled down from heaven and turned into a boa by the curse of a Brahmin sage. It is anotherversion of the well-known legend of Nahusa 's fall fromheaven.like all the gods and sages who had been oppressed by Nahusa and were utterlypowerless beforehim. Bhrgu. neglected the daily offerings to the gods including the bali. The defectin the construction of this naïve storyis very obvious and must have been early noticed by the diaskeuasts themselves. being in full view of the other.

When the sage was thus struck on the head. When Cyavana was going to put his magic in operation. but Indra was adamant. Mada. Agastya though thus treated by Nahusa did not yield to anger. as we have sben. who had heard a different from Salya. lndra apologizes to Cyavana. who was sitting within the mattedlocks of Agastya. maintains naturally a discreetsilence about these discrepancies and proceeds to question Bhlsma about some other matters on which he wanted information. He refused to accept the Soma libation in Cyavana's sacrifice. as narrated in the Udyoga. The lord of celestials. had. Oyavana. This content downloaded from 137. Beseeched by the gods. whohad notbeenseen became transformed into .head with his left foot. Nahusa forthwith a boa and in that formdroppeddown on the earth. version of the story Yudhisthira. The gods were wavering in their mind. who had been rejuvenated and cured of blindness by the Ašvins. promised them that they should drink Soma with Indra and the othergods. 156 ). Indra rushes on him with a mountain and thunderbolt. are allowed to share the Soma libation with the othergods.5¿ Annals oftheBhandarkar Oriental institute Research care not to look at Nahusa. Next. who were frightened to death by this terrible apparition. in the course of a long passage devoted to the praise of Brahmins. showing that the Brahmins are mightier than even the gods. Bhrgu had acted thus. and the As v ins. the storyof Cyavana is repeated( adhy. The pious sage Agastya still did not yield to anger. 123 of the Vulgate ). himself enraged at thisjpusillanimity. This story was already narrated to Yudhisthira by the sage Lnmasa in the Äranyaka ( adhy. who is about to gobble up all the gods. if those lowcaste Aávins were invited at the same time.123. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . thenstruckAgastya on the. patronized by the great wizard. Then Cyavana creates a fearsome monster. Then Nahusa urged Agastya with his goad.69 on Sun.but is instantlyparalyzed by Oyavana and broughtto submission. then Bhrgu.132. " became incensed and cursed the sinful Nahusa saying. Thou hast kicked the head of the great sage. changed into a boa ! Thus imprecated by Bhrgu. Fully acquainted with the power which the illustrious Nahusa had acquired on account of the boon which Brahma had given him. fall down therefore on the earth.

] This content downloaded from 137. intoxicated as they were by the pride of pomp and power. which has been just described( B.we have an allusion to the annihilation of Ksatriyas by the Bhärgava Rama. used this time fora different purpose ( adhy. when he was indiscreetenough to divulge some secretto Puloman. Bhärgava Rama practisedthe most austere penances.Epic Studies(VI) Asvamedhaparvan 57 An echo of the above storywe findearly in the course of the Asvamedhaparvan. On his way he meets in a desertthe sage Uttaiika. In anotherdigression. 9.123. which we shall next consider. B. In adhy. 29-30 of the Vulgate ). The last Bhärgava storyof the Mahãbhãrata is the Uttankopäkhyäna of this parvan ( adhy. 14. Thus admonished by his departed anees by selfthe tors. had not listened to the wholesome advice he had given 8 [ Annals. It is here made the basis of a homily on the vanity of life. O. R.the Bhärgava Rama was taught by the shades of his ancestorsthat greaterthan any victory over kings was the conquest of one's own self : the ascetic ideal.69 on Sun. After the murderof Arjuna Kârtavïrya and the extermination of the Ksatriyas.that highly blessed one acquired that supreme felicitywhich it is so difficult to obtain. Srî-Krsna pacifies Uttanka by enlighteninghim about his divine nature and divine mission. who is ready to pronounce a malediction on Krsna when he learns that the latter had not broughtabout peace between the contending Kauravas and Pändavas. complaining that the Kurus. I. 9 we find Agni taunting Indra about the humiliation of the latter at the hands of Cyavana. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 53-58 of the Vulgate ).132. After the death of Bhlsma. 31 ) s yatra ŠaryatimCyamnoyãjayisyan somamagrhnãdekah I sahãsvibhyãm tam ivam kruddhah purastãc pratyasedhih m II smara tam Mahendra CharyTitiyajña Agni may have added the storyof his own humiliation at the hands of another wizard of the same clan.the Anugltãparvan. and as a consequence of this excercise of self-control. the seducer of Bbrgu's mfe Pulomä. This conquest is made mortification. Krsna returnsto Dvãrakã. but forobvious reasonshe does not do so. Bhrgu.

He relates how Uttanka had escaped being eaten by the cannibal king Saudäsa and obtained the ear-jewels of Saudäsa 's queen MadayantI as fee for his guru Gautama. in the second he remains nameless. but with some significant differencesin the are in part different.fact which does not appear from the Ãdiparvan fora Bhârgava. At Uttanka's request. the husband of Ahalyä . It will be noticed that this Ufctankopäkhyäna is but a variant ( metrical ) version of Pausyaparvan. The only reason forciting the story of Uttanka here. a. This storyimpels the intelligent Janamejaya to ask Vaišampãyana what penances the great Uttañka had practised so that he had the temerity to threaten even Visnu ( SrI-Krspa ). whom the arrogantking had belaboured with a hunter. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and he proceeds to relate the story of Uttanka.69 on Sun. as in the Ãdi. and how Uttanka recovered them fromthe subterranean world of the Nãgas. and who had to be gently pacified by the great god by showing him his cosmic formto supporthis asservations. a ( prose ) sub-sectionof the Ãdi ( adhy. the snake which had bitten king Pariksit and been the cause of his premature death . version.58 Institute Oriental Research Annals oftheBhandarkar them fortheir welfare. in the first version»the name of the snake is given as Taksaka.was in a position to curse an avatãra of Visnu himkind of tapas self forhis apparent fault in not conciliating the Pãndavas and the Kauravas and preventingthe fratricidal war. giving him rare boons. made popular by the Gîta. The dramatis perscmae tor is not Yeda.devotion to one's guru is a who by the power of his austerities .123. If we now go back to the Àdi. we shall find that this figure of Uttanka has been further deftly woven into the fabricof This content downloaded from 137. We have thus here a documentation . Vaithat it was his supreme devotion to his guru áampãyana replies that had endowed him with this great spiritual power. Moreover. how on the way the ear-jewels were stolen by a snake (naga). but Gotama. is that in the Ašvamedha version of the story Uttanka is several times called a Bhârgava. likewise the king from whom Uttanka gets the earjewels is here not Pausya but Saudäsa ( Kalmäsapäda ).in this paper.132. Srï-Krsna shows him his cosmic form( rüpamaiivaram). who had become a cannibal by the curse of some great sage. 3 ). The precepdetails.

Uttaůka betakes himselfstraightto the Pãndava Janamejaya in Hãstinapura and prevails upon the king to punish Taksaka for causing the death of Pariksit. according to some editions. For.132. 18 f. who is to recite the Mahãbhãrata. At Uttanka's instance Janamejaya instituted the snake sacrifice. the consideration of which I had intentionallypostponed and to which we shall now turn. Our debt to this Bhärgava is therefore very obvious. Now the Mahãbhãrata that we nowpossess is said to have been recited by the Suta Ugraáravas beforeŠaunaka exactly as he had heard it during the recitation of the poem by Vyäsa's own pupil Vaisampäyana at the famous snake sacrificewhich was institutedby king Janamejaya at the instigation of Uttanka.has two variant openings. linking up with that in adhy. The Mahãbhãrata. as is well known.) : uktavän' yãm rãjfio Vaisafhpãyana Janamejayasya sa rsis tustyäsaire Dvaipãyanãjnayâ I! yathãvat ' samitâm Vyãsasyãdbhutakarmanah vedaiscaturbhih il icchãmodharmyãm pãpabhayâpahãfn samhilàmšrotům The Suta accordingly commences with some mahgala stanza® il. There are still a few more Bhärgava stories in the Mahãbhãrata. We run into a nest of Bhärgava legends.20): This content downloaded from 137.Epic Studies( VI ) 59 the epic and not allowed to remain merely as a loose appendage. it is narrated that. and at this sacrificeYaisampayana first recited the Mahäbhärata.sage in the to recite stories for the edificasacred Naimisa Forest and offers of the tion and entertainment guests. 1. the sages assembled there express their desire to hear the celebrated Mahãbhãrata ( 1. In the first ( Ãdi 1 ). already in the fourthsub-sectionof the Ãdi. during the twelve-yearsacrificial session inaugurated by the.69 on Sun. when the Suta ( or. 3 of the Ädi. as a matter of fact. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . presents himself at the hermitage of Kulapati Saunaka.123. the Paulomaparvan. Sauti) Ugrasravas. after his adventure in the world of the Nagas. This Uttafikopãkhyãnacontains the last important referencein the Mahãbhãrata to the Bhãrgavas. in the short metricaltail of the ( prose ) Pausyaparvan. 1. which have not been discussed above.

123. The significanceof this branch and its connection with our version of the Mahãbhãrata will become apparent presently. Here the assembled sages do not themselves order the entertainment. Cyavana. Bhrgu.¿o Oriental AnnalsoftheBhandarkar Institute Research ' âdyampurusam Uanaiïipuruhůtaůipurustutam rtamekaksarambrahmavyaktavyaktani sanätamm U etc.69 on Sun. 3 ) : taira vamiamaham pürvamsrotum icchãmiBhãrgavam ' etãmkalyâhsma Bravane tava M kathayasvakathãm The Süta obediently proceeds to relate the history of that 44 most illustrious family of the Bhrgus. The scene totally ignores the first is the same. as the sages in the first instance had done. he instead of asking duly performed the Süta to narrate the Mahãbhãrata. Here the Bhãrgava interestis very clear and unmistakable. we come upon another opening. It is a digression pure and simple. to relate first the historyof the Bhãrgavas ( 1. 4 of the Ãdi.. introduced with the very obvious object of glorifying the Bhãrgavas and giving a permanent form to some of the Bhãrgava myths and legends. 5. Agni and the Maruts " (1. which ! The Suta is re-introduced. a sage cf almost mythical character. When in the next chapter ( 5 ). but the programmeis changed. Pramati. the Kulapati joins the company.but ask the Süta to wait until the Kulapati Saunaka comes. which is honoured even by the celestials with Indra. Ruru and Sunaka. are consecratedto an account of the wonderfuldeeds of some entirely of the Bhãrgavas. an account which is noteven remotelyconnected in actual fact with the incidents or characters of our epic. In adhy. after having his round of daily duties.132. strange to say. is here said to have been created from Brahmã fromthe sacrificial fireduring Varuna's sacrifice (216*) ? Bhrgurmaharsir bhagavãnBrahmanãvii svayambhuvä ' Varuwsya krataujätah pãvakãd itinah èrutamn This content downloaded from 137.which latter languishes and breaks offsomewhere. the eponymous ancestor of the family. which form the Paulomaparvan. Accordingly eight chapters( 5-12 ). represented by . 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 5). 5. These chapters are a short historyof one special branch of the Bhãrgava clan. which are followedby a sort of prologue. Bhrgu. tells him.

who has fallen in love with her. after his return to the hermitage. during his absence. there came to Bhrgu's hermitage. abandons her beautiful daughter near the hermitage of the sage Sthülakesa. By the miraculous powers of his austere penance. Shortlybeforethe celebration of their marriage Pramadvarã is bittenby a venemous snake and dies. a demon ( räksasa ) Puloman. Pramati arranges her marriage with his son Ruru. The snake begs to be spared and so Ruru does not kill it. the demon.123. Pulomä returnshome safely with the baby. 10 ). like Janamejaya before him. who became enamoured of her and wanted to carry her off. and ultimately marries her. The eurse pronounced previous This content downloaded from 137.132. Bhrgu only learns of this incident. the sfeory tinues ( adhy.however. The serpent body only concealed the the effectsof a soul of a sage. On gettingfromAgni an answer in the affirmative. The fact was that this Pulomä was first betrothed to Puloman and afterwards given by her fatherto Bhrgu.good and bad ( sarva-bhaksa ). son of Pramati. 60 40 ) : bhiítvã nihsrto bhagavãnBhrguhI Brahmanohrdayam conWhile Bhrgu's wife Pulomä was pregnant. who was suffering metamorphosed birth a in him on ( adhy. Ruru takes a vow to destroy all the snakes in the world.he curses god Agni. Incensed at the outrage. Menakä an apsaras. 8 the story of Ruru. One day Ruru comes across a harmless old snake of the variety known as dundubha ( adhy. assuming way Cyavana is born. this Bhärgava gives up half of his life to Pramadvarã and revives her.69 on Sun. the demon asked Agni whethershe was really Bhrgu s wife. 5-6 ). whose fatherPariksit had died as the result of a snake-bite. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Epic Studies(VI) 6i This interpolated stanza ( found only in N ) contradicts the statementin the main body of the text ( documented jointly by N that Bhrgu was born by piercing the heart andS) to the effect of Brahma ( 1. Tbere follows in adhy. On the boar. His lustre instantlyreduces to ashes the demonic ravisherof his motherand saves her from a very awkward predicament. saying that Agni would be an eater of all things. of a form carried her the off. and Puloman wanted to have his Pulomä back. She is called Pramadvarã. leaving Ruru disconsolate. To make sure oí his facts. 9 ). whom he regards as the prime cause of the disaster.

. 32 f.Tanamejaya teacher and Pausya. 12 of the Adi.mentioned is toldabout hira in the Baladeva-tírthayãtrã a legend ( Salyaparvan ) . 13-53 ). a section which. This story of the snake sacrifice as told by Pramati to his son Ruru was repeated verbatim by the Süta to Saunaka and forms in our sub-secversion of the Mahäbhärata the Ãstlkaparvan.69 on Sun. ( 2) in the Anuáãsana Grtsamada . havebeenignored in thispaper. who cursesDharma brated in theÄdi.62 Institute OrientalResearch Annals oftheBhandarkar sage declares ahimsã to be the highest duty of a Brahmin. who was the ofUttanka andchaplain of. none is actuallycalleda Bhärgava in our exceptGrtsamada. as already mentioned. ( 3 ) Veda . This content downloaded from 137.132. which was narrated to king Janamejaya by Vaisampäyana in the intervals of that snake sacrifice ( 1.thesonofYayatibythe BhUrgavi descendant Devay3nl. they were saved by the Brahmin Ãstika ( adhy. 53.123. ) J Mahabhãratam ãkyhãnamPãnfavanãm yašaskaramI anas tadä il yatprstahKr sua.1 But even this analysis does not give an adequate idea of the total numberof Bhärgava referencesin the Great 1 Thefollowing be included sages shouldprobablyfurther amongthe : ( 1 ) Arstisena Bhrgus several times inthe Äranyaka. mentioned briefly . Nor is there. himself was distantly withthe Bhãfgavas. connected epic. ( 4 ) Paila . Janamejaya had once tried to destroy the race of snakes by performing a snake sacrifice. any mention of the epic in the immediate sequel up to adhy. over.if? entirelyconcerned with the historyof a branch of the Bhärgava clan. and ( 5 ) Mãndavya ofthepupils in the cele. one ofVyä8a.as a matterof fact. afterhaving heard first gava legends and thenthe story of the snake sacrifice ( which had been previously related by the Bhärgava Pramati to his son Ruru ). 12 ). 11 ).Dvaipãy Janameiayena ' mdhivat tadä sah karmãntaresu srãvayãmãsa tãmaham vidhivat šrotům icchãmivai katliãmII puriyãm This completes our survey of the Bhärgava material in the Mahäbhärata. SrI-Kpsna a being ofYadu. Saunaka at last expresses the desire to hear the Mahäbhärata of Krsna Dvaipäyana. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Morethey ofthem. there is no mention of the Mahäbhärata at all. Ruru subsequently hears the story of Janamejaya's snake sacrifice from his fatherPramati ( adhy. Thepartthey story ) ofAnímãndavya ( upãkhyãna playin and therefore ourepicis small. the fifth tion of the Ädi ( adhy. 53. 53 the Bhärof the Adi I Only in adhy. It will be noticed that fromadhy. a sage. 4 to adhy.

On the otherhand some of the ancient Bhärgavas seem to have come seriously into conflict with the Ksatriyas. Bliïsma is once praised by saying that he could not be defeated even by Rama. The relations of Rãma Jãmadagnya with the Ksatriyas are so well known and have been repeated above so often that it is 1 Even these maybe considered ifa suitable presents opportunity later.69 on Sun. state functions. These details could not be considered in the presentpaper for want of space. Rclka had married SatyavatI. Jamadagnťs wife Renukä is likewise said to have been a princess by birth. Outstanding incidents of their history are frequently alluded to. A warrior is eulogized by saying that in heroismhe was the equal of the Bhãrgava Rãma.123. The Bhãrgavl Devayãnl was moreover married to king Yayäti : the only pratiloma. Thus a man is praised by saying that his intelligence is like that of Sukra. perhaps more intimately associated with the ancient Ksatriyas than most of the other Brahmin clans. the daughterof king Gädhi of Kanyakubja and sister of the famous Viávãmitra. and his descendants became Bhärgavas. The devotion of Sukanyä to her husband Cyavana has been made proverbial by constant citation. being largely connected with them by matrimonial ties. The names of their heroes are habitually introduced in similes and metaphors: they are the standards of comparison ( upamãna). Thus Cyavana is said to have married Sukanyä. council meetings and all important assemblies. festive gatherings. the daughter of king Saryäti.especially the epic heroes. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . along with otherancient sages. in the descriptionsof martial combats. itself.132. King Vltahavya had been adopted and made a Brahmin by a Bhrgu. The Bhärgavas regularly occur as static figures. being a daughter of king Prasenajit of Ayodhyã.Epic Studies(VI) 63 Epic. This content downloaded from 137. In other places the valour and effulgence of Cyavana and Aurva are utilized for the sake of a passing comparison. briefly.1 Retrospect the From legends preservedin our epic it should seem that the Bhärgavas were a Brahmin clan. marriage on record in Brahmanical literature. to which everybody else is compared. even in the course of other narratives.

69 on Sun. which have been alluded to above. it is implied that Bhrgu was the greatestof the maharsis% thoughhis name is not included even in the list of the famous Seven Sages. who had been elected king of gods and who had become arrogantand irreligious owing to this sudden elevation to power. Thus Bhrgu pronouncesa curse on Agni. In another contextin our epic.a god fervently . another Aryan god. But even in the case of Aurva and Jamadagni. was one of the projUpatis. The wizard Cyavana paralyzed the arm of therecalcitrantIndra. the supreme god of the Bhägavatas or Vaisnavas.the eponymousancestor of the Bhärgavas. was gently pacifiedby the avatãra. unbending and revengeful.123. The kings of the earth are of course like vermin beforethese Bhärgavas. and they have to beg formercy on theirbended knees. The bards love to dwell on his martial exploits. To our epic bards they are at the same ?timeomniscient and omnipotent Supermen. The Bhãrgava Uttanka. repeating them wheneverthe slightest opprtunityfor it presents itself. exceptingthe shorttail at the end of the poem. While the otherprajapatis like Daksa are said to have issued fromdifferent limbs of Brahmä. domineering.the Bhärgavas were like gods walking on earth. when about to curse Srl-Krsna. In these conflicts the Bhärgavas are represented in our epic as irascible sages.132. the epic has to relate conflicts with the Ksatriyas. Bhrgu is represented as having sprung fromBrahma's heart. Bhrgu. a high god of the Vedic Aryans. Owing to these occult powers. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .who had become so chieflyby virtue of theirrigid austerities and the magical or spiritual' powers acquired by them.for no fault of his. lauded and worshippedby the simple Aryans He also cursed ( according to one version ) Nahusa. The shadow of this colossus overspreads the entire epic. King Kušika grovels at the feet of Cyavana and meekly submits to all varieties of indignities forfear that the great sage might curse him. In our epic he is not yet a full-fledgedatatara. The mightyHaihayas tremblebeforethe infantAurva. Jamadagni would shoot down the Sun. arrogant.64 Institute Annals oftheBhandarkar OrientalResearch unnecessary to dilate upon them here. But the Bhãrgava most popular with our bards is surely Räma Jämadagnya. the noblest of the internal organs of man or god. who blinds them by his effulgence. but on the high way to be ele- This content downloaded from 137. or rather greater than mere gods.

who divides it among Brahmins. ing to the Bhãrgavas. Ambopãkhyãna ( Udyoga ). the CyavanaKuàika-samvãda and the Mãrkandeya-samãsyã.are said to have been initiated army into the science of arms by Rãma Jämadagnya. his priest. in different Rãma is related in all four times. Anotherstrikingfeatureof these Bhãrgava legends in our Mahãbhãrata is the frequent repetition of these legends on occasions in the course of the e pio. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I.123. ] 9 [ Annals. Drona and Karna .Epic Studies (VI) 6$ vated to fchat being made to make the rank. and so on. Rãma fightseven the enemies of the gods. enemies whom the gods themselves could not subdue. though the latter aocording to the epic itself.lived at the end of the Treta Age and the Kuru-Pändava war took place at the end of the Dvãpara. ) relatThe epic contains a number of episodes ( upãkhyãnas KãrtaAdi the such ). with the same assurance and success. That the and Jamadagni Bhãrgava Rãma exterminatedthe Ksatriyas thrice seven times is mentionedtentimes. which appears to have been a slogan prthivi the humiliation of the pride of the Ksatriyas but of the bards ) . O. This content downloaded from 137.Bhlsma. He freesthe earth of the burden of Ksatriyas thrice seven times and makes the gift of the earth to Kaáyapa. Thus the legend of different Uttanka. Besides these there are important discussions and discourses attributed to some of the celebratedBhãrgavas. and the account of Karnapspupilship under him.69 on Sun. As the Bhãrgava Rãma is the varah. vlryopãkhyãna( Aranyaka ). such is the prowess of his fierce austerities. and Uttankopãkhyãna ( Ašvamedha ). The legend of the birth of told twice . is each contexts. surreptitiousefforts epic document his divinity. He conquers the whole world. two of theepic. threeof the leading warriors of the Kaurava . alone and unaided .in nearly identical form ( trihsaptakrtvah krtãnihksatriyã pura. Aurvopãkhyãna( as. are also devoted to the legends sub-parvans independent of the Bhãrgavas. R. the storyof Drona's obtaining weapons fromthe Bhãrgava Rãma. a phrase the bards love perfectwarrior( sarvasastrabhrtam to apply to him ). It is to be noted that the Bhãrgavas spring into this promiB. Vipulopãkhyãna ( Santi ). The entirePauloma and a large section of the Pausya. by the Bhãrgava Rãma is mentionedabout a score of times. such as the Bhrgu-Bhãradvãja-samvãda. the myth of the altercation between Cyavana and Indra.132.

influencedstrongly by the cult of ancestorworship. and it seems certain that both the Bhrgus and the Aňgirases dabbled a great deal in the black art and were feared on that account.132. These references supply nevertheless rudimentary clues of ideas and sentimentswhich were probably magnifiedin the imagination of theremotedescendants of a powerfulancient clan.èé Ànnals oftheBhandarkar Oriental Research Institute iience all oí a sudden in the Mahâbhârata.1 There the Bhärgavas are frequentlyalluded to as and they appear in the rôle of a group of devoted to the fire-cult anoient firepriests. We look in vain for of their phenomenal power and glory in the Vedic any reflection literature. They are said to have procured fire for mankind. The Atharvaveda is also known as Bhrgvañgiras. In the Battle of Ten Kings. forexample. The Cyavana-Aávins legend of the epic findssome supportin the statementof the Rgveda to the effect that the Aávins rejuvenated Cyavana. The connectionof the Bhrgus with the Atharvaveda explains the element of witchcraftin the Bhärgava legends of our epic.123. for example. such as. mentioned above. Thus we see that the Vedic referencesgive no ground forexplaining the eminence of the ancient Bhärgavas implied by the epic account. or the paralyzing of the arm of Indra by Cyavana and of the creation of the monster called Mada. as 1 Maodonell and Keith. the Bhärgavas are mentioned with the Druhyus. The Srñjaya Vaitahavyas succumb as the result of an attack on Bhrgu. vol.2. This content downloaded from 137. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Brähmanas amplifythis account. 109.p. The Aitareya Brãhmana shows Bhrgu in a similar light. In many passages they are associated with the Añgirases. making him " " The acceptable to his wife and a husband of maidens.Thus. the revival of the dead by the Bhärgava Šukra. the close connection of the Bhrgus withthe firecult may perhaps serve to explain the paît that Agni plays in many of the Bhärgava legends in the Mahäbhärata. That they probably came into conflict with other clans and especially perhaps the Ksatriyas is indicated by the fact that in the last-named Veda the name of Bhrgu is the dangers incurred by those who oppress chosen to exemplify Brahmins.Veite Index . That the Bhrgus had in some way championed the cause of Brahmins against other clans is.69 on Sun.

painted with a thick brush and in vivid colours.at least unintentional. hitherto undiscovered. In the first place. we cannot avoid the conclusion that the Bhärgava heroes occupy a surprisinglylarge portionof the canvas .which is said to depict the Bhärata War. The figuresof the Bhãrgavas have also been magnified to colossal proportions.Epic Studies(VI) 67 already mentioned. Then we have equally clear 4 " and definiteevidence of the tendentious bhrguization of older legends. And it is more than probable that if the epic is examined yet more minutely.69 on Sun. the Bhãrgavas are representedin our epic throughout as the people. to wit. the Stories of Sixteen Kings ( $odasarâjakïya ) and the Nahu$a- This content downloaded from 137. which is entirelymade up of Bhärgava legends and has not even the remotestintrinsicconnection with the storyof the epic. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . one with and the otherwithoutsome important Bhärgava element.fillingup as they do much of the available space of the background. Their intimate association with the Añgirases implied in the Vedic literature is reflected faithfullyin many of the stories and genealogies of our epic. we have very clear and definite evidence of the fact that our epic has been consciously and deliberatelyexpanded at least in one instance : the surreptitious addition of a bunch of Bhärgava legends to the Kuru-Pändava epic in the shape of the so-called Paulomaparvan in the Ädi. will be broughtto light. being just ordinaryfeaturesof epic treatment. which occur in the epic itself in two forms. and the interminable repetition of their stories and legends are entirely unconscious.and without any ulterior motive.123. as the Roman How does that come about ? lawyer would have asked. a negligible fraction of the epic ).132. books on which the average reader of the poem bestows but scant attention.supportedby a referencein the Atharvaveda. Their mythsand legends are uniformly distributed over the entireextentof the Great Epic with the parvans ( 10 and 15-18) execption of some shortand unimportant at the end ( comprising in all not more than 2500 stanzas. To imagine that all this fulsome eulogy liberally showered upon the heroes of the Bhãrgavas. still furtherevidence of Bhärgava material. " " Cui bonof . in the Taking a collective view of these Bhärgava references Great Epic. In short.would be indeed naïve.

however. 11 sofort erzählt nicht wiederzur anderenFassungzurück. gerade wieimGesetzbuohe des Manu die Fassungder Bhãrgavasich eingedrängt thisfruitful idea anyfurther. vol.to a certain extent. Our Ãstlka is that tale which was narrated to the Bhãrgava Ruru by his fatherPramati. though generally catholic of Brahmanic in their selection legends and doctrines. '* he remarks. being misled 44 UnserMahãbhãrata kehrt aber bytheimmediate . one of which is clearly inspired by a Bhãrgava. 12. 5.123. We are thus told that it was the Bhãrgava Uttañka who instigated Janamejaya to undertake the snake sacrificeat which the Mahãbhãrata was first publicly recited. was also a Bhãrgava ! So when Saunaka says that he wants to hear the historyof the Bhãrgavas beforeanything else ( 1.69 on Sun. which toleratesa close juxtaposition of indirect testimony of the discrepantversions. p.132. sequel.6$ Oriental AnnalsoftheBhandarkar Institute Research Agastya legend. sondern. and eclectic as regards theirreligious and philosophical outlook.1 bothfortunately preservedby the conservative instinct of the redactors. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .in a slightly exaggerated formperhaps.2 ( 1893). Ugraêravas This content downloaded from 137. that the Mahãbhãrata was or has come to be an encyclopaedia of Brahmanic traditionand it thereforecontains also all the Bhãrgava legends.beforewhom the Mahãbhãrata is said to have been recited by the Suta Ugraáravas.Im Folgenden Pramati den Ruru wie früher. One can. But it mightbe contendedthat we are unnecessarily emphasizing the Bhãrgava element. we must take account of the very importantfact that the Kulapati Saunaka himself. The epic itselfsays ( 1. 3 ) : tatravamšamáham pürvamšrotům icckãmiBhãrgavam I . easily convince oneselfthat the diaskeuasts who boldly conceived the colossal idea of convertingthe popular Epic of the Bhäratas into the Encyclopaedia Brahmanica . the reason forthis peculiar predilectionof the host of the Suta is very evident. helped by a process of conflation peculiar to the Mahãbhãrata. He didnotfollow. hat". We have also noticed that our Mahãbhãrata contains two variant openings. by Holtzmann. yet they 1 Thiswas noticed Das Mahãbhãrata . We have further made to connect some Bhãrgava or otherwith the propagaeffort tion of the epic. 33 ) : na tatkvačitI yad ihãstitad anyatrayan nehosti That is undoubtedlytrue. however. 56. demà aunaka . " Es liegthierdie E'nleitung des Mahãbhãrata der Bhãrgavavor. And last but not least.

2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . They appear like negligible details on the vast canvas of the epic and are easilj lost sight of in this colossal accumulation of apparently most heterogeneous elements. The result of his quest for Bhãrgava referenceswill astonish the reader. Very differently treatedare the Bhãrgava legends in our Mahãbhãrata. the Bhãrgavas had to be magnifieda great deal and their legends. Aurva. so liberally that they appear almost to eclipse the heroes of the Great Epic itself. Krsna and Arjuna. Commentis superfluous. Kãnvas. we might compare the other great epic of India. Gautamas. This content downloaded from 137. To make any impressionby the side of the titanic figures of the old epic like Bhlsma and Karna.132. and that they do not apportion anything like the same amount of space and breadth of treatment to the myths and legends of otherBrahmanic families such as the Ãgastyas. Kãéyapas. but they are comparatively few in numberand hardly ever repeated. so far as I know. only to narrate:somestories. at all. About our Bhrgu. The legendo of these otherfamilies or clans are by no means entirely ignored in our Mahãbhãrata. containing a host of Brahmanic legends and stories. And we accordingly findthat the legends have been repeated.123. it is the one in which he challenges Rãma Dãàarathi and is worstedin the encounter ! We learn nothing more about Jamadagni fromthe Rãmãyana than the bald fact that he was slain by Arjuna Kãrtavlrya. The references are remarkably few and extremely meagre. Just forthe sake of contrast. so often that the redactorsthemselves must have in time come to believe in them5 and the figures have been magnified. a vibhütiof Srl-Krsna.Epic Studies(Fl) 69 were probablynot entirelywithouttheir preferencesand prejudices. and so on. the only thing recordedin the Rãmãyana is that his wife was decapitated by Visnu ! Cyavana has been introduced in Valmíkťs epic. Ätreyas. had to be repeated. Vãsisttías. who as an inis not mentioned fant had blinded the Haihayas by his effulgence. The solitary refervarah) has been ence to our Rama Jãmadagnya ( sarvaéastrabhrlãm noticed above . for Bhãrgava references That epic also is a Brahmanic epic. the Rãmãyana. which were probably not so well known then as now.which are all the same carefullybalanced so as to produce a more or less homogeneous impression.69 on Sun.

according to tradition. The scene changes from the bustling and scintillating pageantry of the Kaurava Court to the reflective calm and leisure of the sylvan retreatof the Bhrgus. who is said to have recited the Bhãrata of Vyäsa.the Bhãrata. the reputed author of the Mahäbhärata. occurring as it does almost wholly in the episodic portion of the epic. it was notthe work of Vyäsa. 1.the Suta obediently does so. unfortunately is largely a matter of speculation.123. Even according to the traditional view. Bhãrgava The question how precisely this Bhãrgava element. with the next recorded recitation of The case was different the Mahäbhärata : it was by the Suta Ugrašravas in the presence of the Bhãrgava Saunaka during the twelve-year sacrifice instituted by the latter.132. Even before the recitation commences. Saunaka explicitly asks the Süta. would now be inclined to deny that our epic texthas undergone momentousalterations in the course This content downloaded from 137.69 on Sun. to narrate first and. during the intervals of the shortsnake sacrificecelebratedby king Janamejaya. in the presence of Vyäsa himself. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . because the diaskeuasts have been fortunately frankenough to admit that his work. had no episodes to speak of ( 1. There should be. Few scholars. There is a very clear shifting of the centre of gravity. therefore. I imagine.61): cakre Bhãratasamhitam caturviméatisâhasrïm I vina tãvad Bhãratam budhaih II upãkhyãnair procyate It could again hardly have been the work of Vaiáampãyana. came into the cycle but is the answer Bhãrata the of legends intriguing.which we findconcentratedmostlyin the upãkhyãnas .70 OrientalResearch Institute AnnalsoftheBhandarkar Now therecan be no question that all this Bhãrgava material in our present Mahäbhärata is entirelyforeignto the plan of the original saga of the Bhäratas.nay deliberate .as he had been taught by his guru . in my opinion no hesitation in concluding that in our versionof .000 stanzas. the directpupil of Vyäsa. as directedby his host. who had come thereto recite his of all the history of the Bhärgavas Mahäbhärata. which originally consisted merelyof 24. Here we have a differentmilieu and a different interest.weaving thê Mahäbhärata there is a conscious or rathtr together of the Bhãrata legends withthe together stitching stories.

it seems probable that in the formative . To continue to be a vital force in the life of a progressive people. No disparagementor condemnation of the text is therebyimplied.director indi period of the epic a powerfulBhãrgava influence behind been at so to the has rect work.adjusted to the varying needs of the occasion and the differingtastes of the audience. however. has always been a fluid text. say scenes.with scenes telescoped all in one plane.Epie Studies{VI) 71 oř its long and eventfulhistory* It is now generally recognized that the Bhärata.not necessarily factitivehistory a naïve fashion. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Therein lies on the contraryits capital interest and importance forus. The fact of expurgation and elaboration is only an outward indication of its being a book ofinspirationand guidance in life. inevitable and in a wider sense wholly right.in the transmissionof the epic is the Süta. As already remarked. without much regard to perspectiveor perhaps with its own peculiar technique of perspective. like the popular lays. The next traditionallink.123. This element had obviously obtruded itself upon the original nucleus. Is the Suta then responsible for the conversion of the Bhärata into the Mahãbhãrata ? Now I do not doubt that some able to compose ex of the Sötas probablywere gifted versifiers. certainly after the time of the original author Vyäsa and probably after that of Vaisampãyana. Nobody is.and not merely a book lying unused and forgotten on a dustybook-shelf. And this is no drawback in the case of our text.arranged in of Indian culture.132. shortbardic poems and to improvise lays to suit themto tempore the varying tastes and requirementsof the audience. The process is quite normal.so credulous nowadays as to imagine the Süta ás the author of those extensive innovations that must This content downloaded from 137. we shall be crediting these minstrelswith an accomplishmentfar beyond theirnatural capacity.in shaping our epic forus. however.69 on Sun. It is a rapid-motion picture reel of many ages . the epic must be a slow-changing book.something like the sculptured panels on the gateways and the railings of the Buddhist Stupa at Sanchi or the mural frescoesof Ajanta. ballads and early epics of all countries and all people. But if we consider these Sütas capable of composing on the spur of che momentsuch masses of narrative episodes and didactic discourses as we findin our Mahãbhãrata.

however difficultit may This content downloaded from 137. permeated by a conscious didactic purpose.000 stanzas ( taking the traditional figure as a rough guide forour speculations ) into an encyclopaedia of the present dimensions. And to the inspired creators of a traditional book of that type we must at least allow poetic licence and common imagination.prosaic. informed with deep religious feeling. matterof-factchronicle. It was before everything else a work of art. the most popular of Indian devices of literary composition. the highest type of Indian poetry . 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in a generationor two. focussed more on ideas and ideals than on factsand figures. It was actually regarded by later generations as a Mvya : krtam mayedam bhagavankavyam paramapüjitamI . We are not in any case. creative art. by an ununderstandingand ungrateful posterity. based upon a laboriously compiled critical apparatus. is bidding.72 Annals oftheBhandarkar Oriental Institute Research have teen necessary in orderto converta heroic poem of about 24. appropriateto regard it merelyas a poetic fiction.123. I mean no disparagementeither of the text . the Rãmãyana.69 on Sun. ifc the shelves of our libraries hundredsof ponderoustomesand compendiums ofnational and world history. an elusive truthby a tangible facile myth. But there is no symbolismwithout a basis. The Mahãbhãrata never was a scientific chronicle of that type and it would be egregious folly to regard it as such. and they are mostlyforgotten.If it were would surely not have lived for2500 years. We have on that. as far as I can see.having committed so obviously unnatural and improbablethat it seems clearly more a "frame-story". Our epic does not pretendto be a dry. like its sister epic. nor a statistical historyin the modern sense.prepared along approved lines by laborious professors of history. It is above all an inspired poem. constrained to accept every single statementof the epic in its exact literal sense. in which people were not interestedthen so much as now : a work in which a moral was conveyed by a parable.132. idealistic in conception. farfromit. The entirestorythat the Suta had heard the epic at* its firstrecitation by Vaisampäyana and reproducedit verbatim at Saunaka's it to memoryaftera single hearing. And when I say that. But hardly anybody reads these works twice.

according to a tradition preservedin the work itself. I. the most famous and popular of ancient Indian worksbearing on the Dharmasãstra. R. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .a featurewhich has given this venerable old monumentof Indian antiquity its rank as Smrti and its abiding value and interestto the Hindus. is the ancient Code 10 [ Annals. is so patentthat it does not need to be especially pointed out. The connectionof the Bhrgus with the Dharmasãstra is perhaps not so well known. but is nevertheless equally certain.123. who used to recite the poem in the Heroic Age. But their. Though the philosophyof the Mahãbhãrata is oftentimes rathershaky. though less tangible and therefore more difficultto demonstrate. our Manusmrti. the frame-story conscious admission of the fact that the Bhãrata had at a critical stage of its evolution passed into the sphere of influence of the Bhrgus. therecan be no two opinions about the fact that the Mahãbhãrata offers a very sound and complete exposition of Dharma and NIti according to Indian theorists. especially so far as it concerns the Dharma and Nïti elements. which is proverbial in the Mahãbhãrata. with due regard to traditional usage. B.isto my mind neverthelessprobable .influencein an entirely different sphere.and though the religious beliefs which find expression there are perplexingly eclectic. Now it happens that Dharma and Niti are just the two topics in which the Bhrgus had specializedand with which their names are prominently associated. oscillating between Vaisnavism and Saivism. ] This content downloaded from 137. The connection of the Bhãrgava Šukra with Niti. through the medium of the wandering minstrel.132. The Bhãrgava influenceis implied in the person of the Kulapati Saunaka. between Henotheism and Pantheism. nay to all truechildern of MotherIndia.69 on Sun. concentrated chiefly in the Santi and Anusãsana. The influenceof the Bhãrgavas in the narrative portion of the Great Epic is very evident and can hardly be disputed.Epic Studies(VI) 73 be forus to reach the elusive subconscious or unconscious. to give the new recension a settingappropriateto it and indicating the source at the same time. The Süta. O. One has only to recall that. being in places abstruse and confused. I mean the incorporation into the epic of large masses of didactic material. To of our Mahãbhãrata is directlyan unmy mind. is kept on.

it may be pointed out. The not unlike Manusmrti. . It is also recognized that there is intimate question connection between the Mahãbharata and the Manusmrti. strengand direct Bhärgava influence. The essence of the book ( Bhãratasãvitri ).132. 5.j): urdhvabahur me I esa na ca kaécicchrnoti viraumy W na sevyate dharmãdartbaš ca kãmaéca aa kimartharh na jatu kãmãn na bhayãnna lóbhãd I dharmam tyajejjïvitasyâpihetoh tvanityè dharmah sukhaduhkhe nityo tv hetur jívo nityo asya anityahW The infiltration of masses of Bhärgava material in the shape of Bhärgava mythsand legends. 12 and 16 alone of the Great Epic. 62 f. which are again foundverbatim( or with only slight variations ) in parvans3.Our Mahãbhãrata is itselfa dharma-granthi. stanzas of the Manusmrti.is given as ( B. Dharma is the foundation on which the whole stately edificeof the Great Epic has been reared. Then on the side of the Mahãbharata. But this does no^ at all This content downloaded from 137. thus appear to finda simple and straightforward explanation in the assumption of an important diaskeuasis unitary of the epic undervery . The Bhãrata war was a dharmaryuddha fieldof battle was a dharmarksetra. embodyingthe moral of the story.69 on Sun. Narãyana incarnatedhimself as SrI-Krsna to restorethe fallen Dharma. Accordingto Bühlens computation. he is Dharma incarnate. the manner of its treatment. 18.that is nearly 10 per cent of the total. and to a great extentalso the material of which it is composed. The hero of the epic is Dharmaa of son Dharma himself räja. The s yatodharmas tatojayah. The opinions of Manu have been frequently cited in our Mahãbharata ( ityevam Manur abravtt thereare about 260 ).74 Research Annals oftheBhandarkarOriental Instiiuit of Manu in the formin which it was communicated to mankind even commonly known as the Bhrguby Bhrgu and is therefore I see not the slightestreason to an which explanation samhitã. and even that strange admixtureof the Epic with the Dharma and Niti elements. has an introduction in conception to the ñrstchapterof our epic : a few stanzas agree to some extent even in their wording. or doubt. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .which latter especially has so long puzzled many inquirers into the genesis of the Mahãbhãrata.123.

the work.000 stanzas. with the idea of developing the epic into a vehicle of popular instructionand edification combinedwith entertainment.and Nltisãstra and probably also developedleanings towards Visnuism). now elevated to the rank of the Fifth Veda.since it is most likely that just as the differentcollections of Vedic hymns. in my opinion. and additions and alterations. This heroic poem. In the process of the redaction by the Bhrgus. That would. for some time. must have been made in it continuouslythroughoutits long historyof about 2500 years. in very ancient times an epic poem of about 24. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ed. out but hands.they mighthelp us to lift up a cornerof the thick veil enveloping our Great Epic and allow us to have a covert peep into its history. attributed to Vyãsa (the " u Expander ). naturally and to an extent unconsciously.(Vi ) Epic Studies 75 imply that the text has remained untouched after this first diaskeuasis . the various Brähmanas and the ritualistic manuals were all. full of ageold wisdom and wonderfulmasters of the art of myth-weaving. account for the apparent homogeneous this heterogeneousmass : it all came from different character of* of the same mould. Like all traditional works. If the above considerations have any validity. which used to be recited by the Sutas mostly at royal courts and had in course of time become very popular.it was a slowas already remarkchanging book .132. These anchorites. so also our remodelledBhãrata. which had respectivelycultivated and developed them. which described in ßreat detail the Bhãrata War and sang the glory of the Pãndavas. These further additions were in the main probably made in the firstinstance by the Bhärgavas themselves in the centuries that immediatelyfollowed the firstimportant diaskeuasis under Bhãrgava supervision. received that characteristic and indelible stamp This content downloaded from 137. Such a peep would show that there existed in India.69 on Sun.123. far fromit. was at a critical stage of its historyappropriatedby the Bhrgus ( who had certainlyspecialized in the Dharma. must have remained for some time in the exclusive possession of the Bhärgavas as their close literary preserve. the same book yet different. the Bhãrata. took fromthe Sûtas the Bhãrata and gave back to the world the Mahãbhãrata. the closely guarded property of diverse Vedic schools and families of sages.

it seems to me. which must have still existed at the time of the compositionof the Ãávalâyana Grhya Sütra. but retained its character as a traditional work.69 on Sun. The colossal success of this Bhärgava recension of the ancient Epic of the Bhäratas. thft clearer. a success which in one sense was richly deserved. It may be surmised that this remodelled Bhärata remained for some considerable time in the hands of the Bhãrgavas. the Great Epic of Bhärata varsa.123.not property entirelyclosed to minor alteration and expansion. 2 Jun 2013 02:36:18 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . schauung" of the Bhrgus. The further traces of Bhärgava influenceon the Epic of the Bhäratas. as their exclusive literary property. Like otherbranches of the hieratic literature. who had developed it and so' to say re-created it. was the indirect cause of the neglect and subsequent disappearance of the original heroic poem.76 Institute Annals oftheBhandarkar OrientalResearch which was predeterminedby the eventful history. when the epic at last passed out of the hands of the Bhrgus and became the common of the literati of India. reveredand cherishedby the people as the work of Maharsi Vyäsa and serving still a3 a vehicle of popular education.the natural " and the peculiar Weltanproclivities. it still remained a fluidtext.and they exploited it thereafterand propagated it in their own way.132. inspiration and edification as inwe pursue the study of the tended by the Bhrgus. the special endowments. will become the history of our Mahä~ bhärata. This content downloaded from 137. This little episode in its historynecessarily gave our poem the anomalous character of an Epos and " Rechtsbuch" combined.

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