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Cement substitutes

The production of cement is a significant contributor to global warming. In addition to optimising the energy efficiency of Portland cement production plants, the amount of cement used in concrete mixes can be reduced by using cement substitutes.

The problem with Portland cement


Cement production is the third ranking producer of CO in the world after transport and energy generation. Cement production is responsible for 7-10% of the worlds total CO emission and 2% of that produced in the UK (according to the BCA). For every ton of cement produced, approx. 1 ton of CO is produced from che mical reaction and the burning of fossil fuel. The UK produces around 12,000,000 tonnes of cement per annum Cement production is increasing worldwide by approx. 5% per annum.

Cement substitutes
All cement substitutes have the dual benefit of replacing energy-intensive Portland cement, and of using material that would otherwise be landfilled. To varying degrees, cement substitutes work in two ways: First, they hydrate and cure like portland cement. Second they are "pozzolans," providing silica that reacts with hydrated lime, an unwanted byproduct of concrete curing.

Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), aka Fly ash


PFA is a by-product of burning coal in power stations. The ash is removed from the flue gases using electrostatic precipitators. PFA is routinely divided into 2 classes: Type C and Type F. The main difference is the lime (calcium) content of the ash. Ash of high calcium content is classed as Type F. Both types are routinely used in concrete production. For most purposes PFA can replace Portland cement at rates of 10-30%, though there have been examples of over 50% replacement.

Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS)


Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag is a by-product of the Iron industry and is produced at the blastfurnace. The molten slag is rapidly quenched in water and then is ground into a fine cementitious powder. The quality of the iron and the blastfurnace slag are interdependent. The composition of the iron particularly with regard to minor elements is monitored closely by measuring the chemistry of the blastfurnace slag. The process of recovering and producing one tonne of ground granulated blastfurnace slag powder produces approximately 0.1 tonne of CO. GGBS can replace Portland cement at rates of up to 90%. Mo re usually the maximum replacement level is around 70%. This reduces the CO emissions of concrete by up to 50%. It is common practice in the UK for ready mixed concrete companies to produce concrete with a cementitious component of 50% GGBS and 50% Portland cement.

Strength
Blast-furnace slag is most like Portland cement and least like a pozzolan. Class F PFA is most like a pozzolan, with Class C PFA between . While stronger and more durable in the end, it takes more time for pozzolans to gain strength than it does portland cement. For most construction purposes, high early strength is very desirable because it allows quicker finishing of slabs and earlier removal of forms. Reducing the amount of water, in part, can compensate for slow strength gain.

Durability
There are two durability conditions that cement substitutes help alleviate: Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR): High-silica aggregates and high-alkali cement (which is becoming more common) can create ASR, which causes internal expansion and crazing of concrete. Cement substitutes, especially slag, remove the alkalinity through pozzolanic action. Class C PFA varies in this ability, while Class F PFA is very effective. Sulfate Attack: Concrete made with 60% or more slag is very effective in mitigating attack by sulfates, found in some arid soils, seawater and wastewater. The pozzolanic action of fly ash also contributes to sulfate resistance.

Concrete Mix Design for M40


The mix design M-40 grade for Pier (Using Admixture Fosroc) provided here is for reference purpose only. Actual site conditions vary and thus this should be adjusted as per the location and other factors. Parameters for mix design M40 Grade Designation = M-40 Type of cement = O.P.C-43 grade Brand of cement = Vikram ( Grasim ) Admixture = Fosroc ( Conplast SP 430 G8M ) Fine Aggregate = Zone-II Sp. Gravity Cement = 3.15 Fine Aggregate = 2.61 Coarse Aggregate (20mm) = 2.65 Coarse Aggregate (10mm) = 2.66 Minimum Cement (As per contract) = 400 kg / m3 Maximum water cement ratio (As per contract) = 0.45 Mix Calculation: 1. Target Mean Strength = 40 + (5 X 1.65) = 48.25 Mpa 2. Selection of water cement ratio:Assume water cement ratio = 0.4 3. Calculation of cement content: Assume cement content 400 kg / m3 (As per contract Minimum cement content 400 kg / m3) 4. Calculation of water: 400 X 0.4 = 160 kg Which is less than 186 kg (As per Table No. 4, IS: 10262) Hence o.k. 5. Calculation for C.A. & F.A.: As per IS : 10262 , Cl. No. 3.5.1 V = [ W + (C/Sc) + (1/p) . (fa/Sfa) ] x (1/1000) V = [ W + (C/Sc) + {1/(1-p)} . (ca/Sca) ] x (1/1000) Where V = absolute volume of fresh concrete, which is equal to gross volume (m3) minus the volume of entrapped air , W = mass of water ( kg ) per m3 of concrete , C = mass of cement ( kg ) per m3 of concrete , Sc = specific gravity of cement, (p) = Ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume , (fa) , (ca) = total mass of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate (kg) per m3 of Concrete respectively, and Sfa , Sca = specific gravities of saturated surface dry fine aggregate and Coarse aggregate respectively. As per Table No. 3 , IS-10262, for 20mm maximum size entrapped air is 2% .

Assume F.A. by % of volume of total aggregate = 36.5 % 0.98 = [ 160 + ( 400 / 3.15 ) + ( 1 / 0.365 ) ( Fa / 2.61 )] ( 1 /1000 ) => Fa = 660.2 kg Say Fa = 660 kg. 0.98 = [ 160 + ( 400 / 3.15 ) + ( 1 / 0.635 ) ( Ca / 2.655 )] ( 1 /1000 ) => Ca = 1168.37 kg. Say Ca = 1168 kg. Considering 20 mm : 10mm = 0.6 : 0.4 20mm = 701 kg . 10mm = 467 kg . Hence Mix details per m3 Cement = 400 kg Water = 160 kg Fine aggregate = 660 kg Coarse aggregate 20 mm = 701 kg Coarse aggregate 10 mm = 467 kg Admixture = 0.6 % by weight of cement = 2.4 kg. Recron 3S = 900 gm Water: cement: F.A.: C.A. = 0.4: 1: 1.65: 2.92 Observation: -A. Mix was cohesive and homogeneous. B. Slump = 110mm C. No. of cube casted = 12 Nos. 7 days average compressive strength = 51.26 MPa. 28 days average compressive strength = 62.96 MPa which is greater than 48.25MPa Hence the mix is accepted.

Mix Design For M35 Grade Of Concrete


The mix design for M35 Grade Of Concrete for pile foundations provided here is for reference purpose only. Actual site conditions vary and thus this should be adjusted as per the location and other factors. Grade of Concrete : M35 Characteristic Strength (Fck) : 35 Mpa Standard Deviation : 1.91 Mpa* Target Mean Strength : T.M.S.= Fck +1.65 x S.D. (from I.S 456-2000) = 35+ 1.651.91 = 38.15 Mpa Test Data For Material: Aggregate Type : Crushed Specific Gravity Cement : 3.15 Coarse Aggregate : 2.67 Fine Aggregate : 2.62 Water Absorption: Coarse Aggregate : 0.5% Fine Aggregate : 1.0 %

MIX DESIGN Take Sand content as percentage of total aggregates = 36% Select Water Cement Ratio = 0.43 for concrete grade M35 (From Fig 2. of I.S. 10262- 1982) Select Water Content = 172 Kg (From IS: 10262 for 20 mm nominal size of aggregates Maximum Water Content = 186 Kg/ M3 ) Hence, Cement Content= 172 / 0.43 = 400 Kg / M3 Formula for Mix Proportion of Fine and Coarse Aggregate: 1000(1-a0) = {(Cement Content / Sp. Gr. Of Cement) + Water Content +(F a / Sp. Gr.* Pf )} 1000(1-a0) = {(Cement Content / Sp. Gr. Of Cement) + Water Content +C a / Sp. Gr.* Pc )} Where Ca = Coarse Aggregate Content Fa = Fine Aggregate Content Pf = Sand Content as percentage of total Aggregates = 0.36 Pc = Coarse Aggregate Content as percentage of total Aggregates. = 0.64 a0 = Percentage air content in concrete (As per IS :10262 for 20 mm nominal size of aggregates air content is 2 %) = 0.02 Hence, 1000(1-0.02) = {(400 /3.15) + 172 +(Fa / 2.62 x 0.36)} Fa = 642 Kg/ Cum As the sand is of Zone II no adjustment is required for sand. Sand Content = 642 Kg/ Cum 1000(1-0.02) = {(400 /3.15) + 172 +(Ca / 2.67 x 0.64)} Hence, Ca = 1165 Kg/ Cum From combined gradation of Coarse aggregates it has been found out that the proportion of 53:47 of 20 mm & 10 mm aggregates produces the best gradation as per IS: 383. Hence, 20 mm Aggregates = 619 Kg And 10 mm Aggregates = 546 Kg To obtain slump in the range of 150-190 mm water reducing admixture brand SP430 from Fosroc with a dose of 0.3 % by weight of Cement shall be used. Hence the Mix Proportion becomes:

Cem W/C Water Sand 20mm 10mm Admix 400 0.43 172 635 619 564 1.2 1 0.43 1.6 1.547 1.36 0.003

Units Kg/ M3

Cement : Sand: Coarse Aggregates = 1 : 1.6 : 2.907