# LECTURE 1: SAMPLING

Sampling Process = Transformation of analog signal into discrete time signal. x(t)

∑ x(t ).δ (t − n.Ts)
n =0

Fourrier spectrum of the sampled signal:

∑ x(t ).δ (t − n.Ts)
n =0

Xs( f ) = X ( f ) ∑ .δ ( f − n. fs ) where fs=1/Ts.
n=0

Xs( f ) = X ( f ) + X ( f − fs ) + X ( f + fs ) + X ( f − 2 fs ) + X ( f + 2 fs ).... The spectrum of the sampled signal is the periodization of the spectrum of the analog signal ( period= fs)

X(f )

-fmax 0

fmax

f

Xs ( f )
……

-fs-fmax

-fmax -fs+ fmax

fmax

fs-fmax

fs+ fmax

f

In order to avoid Overlap between different copies (replicas) of the spectrum, the sampling frequency should be chosen such that: fs-fmax>fmax fs> 2.fmax where fmax: maximum frequency of the analog signal.. this condition is known as nyquist criterion( minimum sampling frequency). If this condition is respected we can extract the spectrum of the analog signal from the spectrum of the samples. So we say that the signal is correctly represented by it’s samples.

Example1: what is the minimum sampling frequency required when : sin(6280.t ) x(t ) = 6280.t We need first the spectrum of x(t) We use the duality property of Fourrier transform sin(π . f .T 0) x(t ) = retT 0 so we can say that X ( f ) = T 0. π . f .T 0 sin(π .t.T 0) x(t ) = T 0 X ( f ) = rectT 0 OR π .t.T 0 sin(π .t. f 0) X ( f ) = rect f 0 x(t ) = f 0 π .t. f 0

Let’s write our signal in this form: sin(6280.t ) sin(π . f 0.t ) f 0 sin(π . f 0.t ) 1 x(t ) = = = X(f ) = rect f 0 6280.t π . f 0.t f 0 π . f 0.t f0 The maximum frequency fmax=f0/2 where π . f 0 =6280 so f0=2000 Hz. The Nyquist frequency=2.fmax=2.1000=2000 Hz

Example2: what is the minimum sampling frequency required when : sin(6280.t ) 2 x(t ) = [ ] 6280.t We need X(f). We use here the following fourrier transform property:
∞ ∞

FT[ x(t ).x(t ) ]

X ( f ) ⊗ X ( f )=

∫ X (α ). X ( f − α )dα =
−∞

∫ X (α ).X (−(α − f ))dα =
−∞

where

1 X(f ) = rect f 0 = A.rect f 0 f0 The convolution value @ a given frequency f is the area between X (α ) and X (−α ) shifted by a value of f. The amplitude of the convolution @ f=0 is:
f 0/2 − f 0/2 f 0/2

∫ X (α ). X (−α )dα = ∫

A 2 dα = A 2 . f 0

− f 0/2

For f=f0 .-->

∫ X (α ). X (−(α − f 0))dα =
−∞

X (α )
A

-f0/2

f0/2

X ( −(α + f 0))

A f0 -f0/2 f0/2 Graphically we calculate the area of the product X( α ) and X(- α ) shifted by f0.this integral gives 0 . For f>f0 the integral will be 0 no common area between the two part of the integral product=0 integral=0. Same for f=-f0.the integral 0 For f= f0/2 for example we have half the rectangle in common so the area= A2.f0/2.

So the convolution product twill look like the following figure
Convolution

A2 . f 0

-f0

0

f0

f

Now we know that the maximum frequency in the spectrum that is fmax=f0. The required sampling frequency is at least =2.fmax=2.2000=4000 Hz. We can use higher frequency rate but it’s unnecessarily high.