Steering system is an integral part of every automobile. From the ordinary motor cycles to space vehicles, the easy manoeuvring & stability of the vehicle has always been the main subject of concern of the design engineers and research labs all over the world. In this scenario a new technology has emerged known as power steering- which must be a familiar word to every one who has at least once heard of something called a car which has enhanced features, enabling the driver to control the automobile with ease. The power steering helps the driver in manoeuvring the vehicle during sharp turns by multiplying the effort applied by the driver. This is done by increasing the sensitivity of the steering wheel to minute forces applied by the user. The two type of power steering systems that’s most commonly used are

1. Hydraulic power steering 2. Electric power steering

The report looks into the basic power steering mechanism used in the above two systems and their implications, advantages & limitations. The report starts with the steering basics, then goes into power steering technologies used in implementing the different power steering mechanisms and ends with a comparison of the two mechanisms so that an in depth analysis of each system can be very well understood.


In the case of parallelogram linkage train. with a minimum of effort. The most commonly used arrangement today is parallelogram type of linkage. In the manual steering system. This arm can be made to swing from side to side (cross steering) or from back (fore-and-aft steering). . the turning efforts are multiplied by a hydraulic assist. Basically there are two general types of steering systems 1. PITMAN ARM Starting at the gear box. converting torque from the steering gear to mechanical force for movement of the steering linkage. STEERING LINKAGE Linkage is necessary to connect the steering gear box pitman arm to the steering arms. The steering gear shaft turns in direct relation to input from the driver. Power steering. the driver’s effort to turn the steering wheel is the primary force that causes the front wheels to swivel to left or right on the steering knuckles. 2. The pitman arm attaches to the steering gear shaft and acts as a lever. it swings from side to side. and without excessive movement of the steering wheel. The pitman arm is moved by the gear box cross shaft. Manual steering. In power steering. there is an arm called a pitman arm.The steering system is designed to allow the driver to move the front wheels to the right or left.

an adjuster assembly. a turn of the steering wheel causes the worm gear to rotate the sector and the pitman arm shaft. two tie rod assemblies. dust boots and boot clamps. gear housing. Worm & sector type steering. The rack-and-pinion gear set does two things: • It converts the rotational motion of the steering wheel into the linear motion needed to turn the wheels. and grommet mountings and bolts.MANUAL STEERING There are mainly three types of manual steering systems commonly used. this manual movement is relayed to the steering shaft and shaft joint. WORM& SECTOR TYPE STEERING The manual worm and sector steering gear assembly uses a steering shaft with a three-turn worm gear supported and straddled by ball bearing assemblies. Since the pinion teeth mesh with the teeth on the rack gear. In operation. When the steering wheel is turned. • It provides a gear reduction. and then to the pinion shaft. This movement is transmitted to the pitman arm and throughout the steering train to the wheel spindles. . The tie rods and tie rod ends then transmit this movement to the steering knuckles and wheels. 3. 1. Rack & Pinion steering. 2. Re-circulating Ball steering. rack gear. RACK & PINION STEERING A typical rack and pinion steering gear assembly consists of a pinion shaft and bearing assembly. The worm meshes with a 14-tooth sector attached to the top end of the pitman arm shaft. making it easier to turn the wheels. the rotary motion is changed to transverse movement of the rack gear.

In operation. Movement of the ball nut is carried to the sector gear by teeth on the side of ball nut. Hydraulic power steering 2. moves with the ball nut to rotate the pitman arm shaft and activate the steering linkage. The sector gear. a ball nut assembly is filled with ball bearings which roll along groves between the worm teeth and grooves inside the ball nut. Power steering is generally divided into two 1. and movement of the re-circulating ball causes the ball nut to move up and down along the worm. It should ease steering wheel manipulation. Electric power steering HYDRAULIC POWER STEERING . The balls re-circulate from one end of the ball nut to the other through a pair of ball return guides. the worm gear on the end of the steering shaft rotates. in turn. When the steering wheel is turned.RE-CIRCULATING BALL STEERING Re-circulating ball steering works on the principle of turning forces transmitted through ball bearings from a worm gear on the steering shaft to a sector gear on the pitman arm shaft. POWER STEERING Power steering is designed to reduce the steering wheel turning effort by utilizing hydraulic pressure to bolster or strengthen the normal torque developed by the steering gear box.

Self contained steering 2. and gears in an integral unit. Two general types are 1. Linkage type steering In both. 1. There are several different models of the self – contained type. This valve admits oil. power piston. but all share many basic design principles. a control valve is actuated by driver steering effort. This second type uses a conventional standard gear box. Pressure developed by the unit is applied to the pitman shaft. Offset power steering . under heavy pressure to one side or other of a hydraulic piston. They may be divided into two general categories. The other type uses a hydraulic cylinder and control valve attached to the linkage system. SELF – CONTAINED POWER STEERING The self – contained unit places the control valve mechanism. In-line power steering 2. Both systems use a hydraulic pump generally belt driven by the engine. One type controls and utilizes the hydraulic pressure directly with in the steering gear box housing.Hydraulic power steering systems are of two general types. The pressure the oil creates against the piston is transferred to either the pitman shaft or to a direct connection to the steering linkage which assists the driver in manipulating the front wheels.

WORKING One end of the power cylinder is attached to the frame. The ball nut presses on one sector and the power piston rack engages the other set of sector teeth. The rack and pinion is used to steer the car in the event of power steering failure. The relay rod is attached to the control valve. which is connected to the power cylinder by high pressure hoses. the other end is connected to the steering linkage relay rod. Pressure of the pitman shaft ball.The above figure represents self-contained offset type. An internal rotary valve directs power steering fluid flow and controls pressure to reduce steering effort. actuates the control valve. This system uses a conventional manual gear box. The pitman shaft sector teeth’s are built on both sides. The end of the pitman arm is formed into a ball. The additional force offered by the pressurized oil is applied to the pitman shaft by a power piston rod working in separate power cylinder. The power piston has a rack of gear teeth cut in one side that mesh with a separate set of pitman sector teeth. POWER RACK & PINION STEERING Power rack and pinion steering assemblies are hydraulic/ mechanical unit with an integral piston and rack assembly. The control valve then transmits oil pressure to one side or the other of the power cylinder piston. or if . A pitman arm actuates the power cylinder control valve. either to right or left. LINKAGE TYPE POWER STEEIRNG The linkage type power steering system employs a power cylinder and control valve to provide the power assist. which is placed in the control valve assembly in a ball socket arrangement.

The fluid in the other end of the power cylinder is forced to the control valve and back to the pump reservoir. the control valve is centered by the twisting force of the torsion bar. The figure given below represents a rotaryvane pump. As a result. resistance is created by the weight of the car and tire-to-road friction.the engine (which drives the pump) stalls. The difference in pressure on either side of the piston (which is attached to the rack) helps move the rack to reduce turning effort. When the steering effort stops. It contains a set of retractable vanes that spins inside an oval chamber. causing a torsion bar in the rotary valve to deflect. As the vanes spins. pressure is equalized on both sides of the piston. especially at high engine speeds when so much fluid is being pumped. This changes the position of the valve spool and sleeve. The amount of flow provided by the pump depends on the car's engine speed. the pump moves much more fluid than necessary when the engine is running at faster speeds. The pump is driven by the cars engine via a belt and pulley. and the front wheels return to a straight ahead position POWER STEERING PUMP The hydraulic power for the steering is provided by a pump. thereby directing fluid under pressure to the proper end of the power cylinder. they pull hydraulic fluid from the return line at low pressure and force it into the outlet at high pressure. The pump contains a pressure-relief valve to make sure that the pressure does not get too high. ROTARY VALVE . When the steering wheel is turned. The pump must be designed to provide adequate flow when the engine is idling.

But if the spool valve is turned one way or the other. ports open up to provide highpressure fluid to the appropriate line. it rotates the inside of the spool valve relative to the outside. The more torque the driver uses to turn the wheels. When the steering wheel is not being turned. the system shouldn't provide any assist. The bottom of the torsion bar connects to the outer part of the spool valve. connecting to either the pinion gear or the worm gear depending on which type of steering the car has. the amount of rotation between the inner and outer parts of the spool valve depends on how much torque the driver applies to the steering wheel. Electric Power Steering functions in a very similar way. This time however the power source is an electric motor. They have a built-in . taking its power from the car's battery. both hydraulic lines provide the same amount of pressure to the steering gear. It also connects to the top end of the torsion bar.A power-steering system should assist the driver only when he is exerting force on the steering wheel (such as when starting a turn). in that a power source. The device that senses the force on the steering wheel is called the rotary valve. kicks in when driver turn the wheel. The torsion bar also turns the output of the steering gear. The system is powered by electrical current being drawn from the vehicle's electrics. ELECTRIC POWER STEERING Electric Power Steering was first introduced in the mid 1970s to prevent the sudden loss of control caused by the loss of the hydraulic assistance if the engine were to stall with the car still moving. this time electric only. The torsion bar is a thin rod of metal that twists when torque is applied to it. As the bar twists. The top of the bar is connected to the steering wheel. and the bottom of the bar is connected to the pinion or worm gear (which turns the wheels). When the driver is not exerting force (such as when driving in a straight line). so the amount of torque in the torsion bar is equal to the amount of torque the driver is using to turn the wheels. The key to the rotary valve is a torsion bar. the more the bar twists. Since the inner part of the spool valve is also connected to the steering shaft (and therefore to the steering wheel). The Electric Power Steering works independently from the engine. The input from the steering shaft forms the inner part of a spool-valve assembly.

Vehicle and engine speed information are relayed to the ECU. just below the steering device so that if the electrical power supply were to fail. Additionally. then it will default to a conventional unassisted steering system. unlike a conventional hydraulic assisted system. The figure below shows the working principle of electric power steering. . Torque sensor: detects the driver’s input torque of the steering wheel. There are two types of EPS systems being mass produced: (1) A column type where the motor and reduction gear are mounted on the steering column. if the engine was to stop whilst the car is moving then the electrically assisted steering system will still operates. PINION TYPE ELECRIC POWER STEERING Figure given shows the construction of pinion type EPS. which is then used for vehicle speedreactive type EPS systems. Motor: generates turning force according to output from the ECU. Reduction gear: reduces the rotary speed of the motor and amplifies the turning force. (2) A pinion type where the motor and reduction gear are mounted on the pinion of the rack and pinion assembly. Electronic control unit (ECU): performs turning force calculations based on signals from the torque sensor. The main parts are defined below. as well as the movement of the vehicle.

EPS is regarded as an energy saving power steering system. As a result. there is no hydraulic fluid related environmental pollution at both the production and disposal stages of the vehicle and steering system.ADVANTAGE OF EPS OVER HYDRAULIC POWER STEERING (1) Saving energy EPS system consumes power only when the driver turns the steering wheel. . (2) Environmentally friendly Since hydraulic fluid is eliminated in the EPS system. Therefore. 5% of the energy that a conventional hydraulic power steering system uses is all that is required for the EPS system. fuel consumption is 3 to 5% less for EPS-equipped vehicles.

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF STEER BY WIRE CONCLUSION Different types of steering systems have been discussed above and it can be conclude that EPS(Electric power steering) is the best among them. steer by-wire. car steering systems haven't changed much. Steer by-wire systems enhance safety. This would free up space in the engine compartment by eliminating the steering shaft. It would contain sensors that tell the car what the driver is doing with the wheel. It would also reduce vibration inside the car. Most of the . and allow car designers more flexibility. The driver's steering controller is connected through the network to motors that are connected to the steering rack or individual corners. Originally used in the aerospace industry. by-wire technology is making its way into the ground transportation sector. But in the next decade. increase fuel economy.FUTURE OF POWER STEERING A “by-wire” denotes a control system that replaces traditional mechanical or hydraulic linkages with electronic connections between control units that drive electromechanical actuators. we'll see advances in car steering that will result in more efficient cars and a more comfortable ride. A steer by-wire system replaces the steering column with control units linked by a fault-tolerant network. These systems would completely eliminate the mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the steering. provide varying levels of “road feel”. The output of these sensors would be used to control a motorized steering system. replacing it with a purely electronic control system. and brake by-wire. and have some motors in it to provide the driver with feedback on what the car is doing. In the past fifty years. Automotive by-wire includes three categories: throttle by-wire.

REFERENCES .future systems will be using “ By – wire “ technologies. Research is currently going on in this “ Steer wire “ mechanism in various parts of world.

Kirt Eschtruth and Farhad Bolourchi " Diagnostic Development for an Electric Power steering system" SAE 2000-01-0819 2. .Howstuffworks. 7. Roy McCann "Variable Effort Steering for Vehicle Stability Enhancement Using an Electric Power Steering System" SAE 2000-01-0817 3. kawai. www. www. Mark Kushion. " Auto Mechanics Fundamentals " 5. "Automobile Encyclopedia " 6. Sanket "Development of Electric Power Steering". T. SAE 910014 4. Shimizu.

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