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Be ginni ng Read ing and Wr it ing

Per spec tiv es on In str uct ion

PURPOSE

To help readers become familiar with critical concerns in the area and to identify what
we knowand what we still need to find out about the job of ushering primary grade
children into the community of readers and writers.

CONTENTIONS
A short historical look at the issues and controversies that have existed with respect to
early literacy instruction over the past 25 years.

Three issues of continuing concern in early literacy


• How to provide the best foundation for beginning literacy instruction
• When to begin formal literacy instruction
• The nature of beginning literacy instruction

The foundation for beginning literacy instruction


• Learning to read and write begins very early
• Children learn written language through active engagement with their world
• A much broader range of knowledge, dispositions, and strategies is involved
• A variety of paths to conventional reading and writing

When to begin formal literacy instruction


• During the first three-quarters of the twentieth century, first grade –age 6- was
generally accepted as the year to begin teaching reading.
• In 1980, most kindergartens were providing reading instruction to 5 years old.

The Nature of Beginning Literacy Instruction


How to teach beginning reading is the flash point of all the contentions related to early
literacy instruction

CONLUSIONS FROM RESEARCH


1. An emergent literacy approachprovides the foundation
2. Comprehension instruction is a core feature
3. A multifaceted word study program is essential
4. Writing-integrated and separated- is central
5. Reading fluency must be developed
6. Children need to practice by reading connected text
7. The early literacy program is conceptualized as developmental.

CONTINUING CHALLENGES

The how of phonemic Awareness Instruction


• Research has learly established phonemic awareness as significant in early
reading development and in literacy achievement throughout the elementary
school years.
The Role of Reading Aloud in the Curriculum
1. What is being Read ?

1. How the Reading is Done ?

The Texts Primary grade Children Should be Reading

• It was assumed that having children interact with such texts would foster the
development of their word recognition skills.

Student Diversity
• Student diversity of all kinds is on the increase in our schools, but the teaching
force as a whole is not very diverse.

• There are 3 characteristics of successful programs in schools:


1. Become informed about issues faced by students of diversity
2. Recognize that differences are not necessarily a roadblock to literacy success
3. Provide support and instruction and appropriate to children of diversity as well
as to mainstream populations

Use of Computers
• Computers have become an essential aspect of daily life in our society

• Computers are also creating new kinds of texts for reading and writing and
perhaps new “reading” and “writing” processes as well.