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ICELT Peer Observation Task 1 : Teaching Aids. Task Objective.

This task aims to consider how teaching aids may be best exploited. You will gather information about the ways in which and the purposes for which teaching aids were used in the lesson. Procedure. Before the lesson. 1. Arrange to observe a lesson. Find out the lesson's objectives and, ideally, obtain a copy of the lesson plan. 2. From what you find out in advance about the lesson, predict: - what teaching aids might be used; - how they might be used - what you think the board might be used for; - how the board might be used. During the lesson. 1. Make a note of the teaching aids used in the lesson and their function. 2. At three points during the lesson copy the contents and layout of the board exactly. 3. Take notes about what happens while the board is being written on. After the lesson. 1. Discuss the use and effectiveness of the teaching aids used during the lesson. Which aids were most effective and which the least? Were they handled smoothly and efficiently? 2. Discuss the decisions made about layout and board use. Would you have used the board differently? How? 3. Analyse the data you collected from the lesson, would you say the board was used randomly or systematically, or somewhere in between? If you detected a system to the board use, describe it and evaluate its effectiveness. What system would you advocate for board use and why? 4. Other aspects of teaching aids you may consider are: -Who uses the aids - the teacher or the learners? Is there a place for learners to write on the board for example? Are there any dangers? - What happens in the lesson while the teacher is writing on the board? - How clear and professionally presented were the teaching aids? What image can aids present to the learners? Reflection. Using this observed lesson as a mirror of your own teaching, what comments can you make about the use of teaching aids in your classes. Is there anything you would want to change, experiment with, how could you go about doing so? What aspects would you like to develop in the future?

Adapted by A. Navarro from ICELT Induction Pack Centres Observation Tasks and Guidelines(tasks originally designed by International Training Institute Istanbul & Cultura Inglesa Brazil)

ICELT Peer Observation Task 2 : Patterns of interaction. Task Objective. This task is concerned with how communication takes place in a classroom setting, and specifically the patterns of interaction. In this task you will collect data about how communication is realised in the classroom. Procedure. Before the lesson. 1. Arrange to observe a lesson. 2. Read this task. During the lesson. 1. Draw up a seating plan including students names 2. Draw lines between the people who are speaking to each other. You may have to draw new seating plans for different phases of the lesson (esp. if students move around a lot). Decide on symbols to represent different kinds of interactions: for example, an arrowhead can indicate a nominated question, a return arrowhead indicates a response. Work out symbols for other kinds of interaction i.e. an open Question from the teacher; an unprompted response from a student; students interacting in closed / open pairs; students interacting undirected by the teacher; an unprompted question by a student etc. (For ideas see Woodward, T. 1989) After the lesson. 1. Analyse the notes you have taken and make some summary statements of the overall patterns of interaction. Discuss the lesson with the teacher you observed referring to the communication patterns that emerged. 2. Which patterns of interaction would be the most conducive to or facilitate learning? 3. Much has been written about pair / group work. What advantages and disadvantages can you see? 4. How 'natural' was the communication between the learners and between the learners and the teacher? 5. Were there any instances of 'genuine communication' i.e. not prompted by the learning context. Reflection. Using this observed lesson as a mirror of your own teaching, what comments can you make about the patterns of communication in your classes. Is there anything you would want to change, experiment with, how could you go about doing so? What aspects would you like to develop in the future?

Adapted by A. Navarro from ICELT Induction Pack Centres Observation Tasks and Guidelines(tasks originally designed by International Training Institute Istanbul & Cultura Inglesa Brazil

ICELT Peer Observation Task 3 : Giving Instructions. Task Objective. A key time in the lesson is the transition period between one activity and another, especially when this entails the students moving from group, pair or individual work. These periods require clear instructions from the teacher to the students if the lesson is to flow smoothly and effectively. In this task we will be examining the language of instructions. This will involve both the choice of what to include and exclude, what accompaniments are valuable, and what sequence is effective. Procedure. Before the lesson. If possible, have a look at a lesson plan for the lesson you will be observing. The plan should give you an idea of the stages of the lesson and activities students will be doing. Consider the plan from the point of view of where you would expect instructions to be given. Now, having carefully read the activities planned, roughly script the instructions as you would give them. During the lesson. 1. Listen carefully for the teacher's instructions. Collect these by scripting them as accurately as possible. 2. Notice if there was any visual support, modelling or checking and whether the teacher had to repeat instructions. Note if the instructions were understood. You could prepare columns as below to fill in during the lesson. Phase of the lesson Predicted instructions Scripted instructions. Comments.

ICELT Peer Observation Task 3 : Giving Instructions After the lesson.

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1. To what extent did the instructions you predicted occur in the lesson? How were they different? 2. Looking over the chunks of instructions you recorded, what patterns or tendencies do you notice in the teacher's language? 3. What stages / features could you identify or suggest that might serve to make a set of instructions more effective? 4. One possible paradigm for instruction giving is as follows: Signal to engage class attention State the overall aim of the task Organise seating grouping Give instructions. Check instructions Signal to start activity Monitor understanding - repeat above if necessary. Evaluate this paradigm. Is there a place for breaking up instructions throughout the activity? How necessary is stage (2) above? Would you alter the order of any stages? What factors would influence your decision? 5. How do you resolve the apparent conflict in these two pieces of advice: a) Instructions 'should generally be below the level of the learners' (Gower & Walters 1988:25). b) Learners 'usually understand at a higher level than they speak or write (ibid.:41) Reflection. What is your attitude to giving instructions? Have you become more aware of the process of instruction giving as a result of this task? Does your attitude reveal anything about your own learning style?

Adapted by A. Navarro from ICELT Induction Pack Centres Observation Tasks and Guidelines(tasks originally designed by International Training Institute Istanbul & Cultura Inglesa Brazil)

ICELT Peer Observation Task 4: - Language Presentation This has been designed as a checklist, but more detail and comments could be given if required. 1. Was the language to be taught appropriate? 2. Did the teacher analyse the language carefully? 3. Was the aim of the lesson sufficiently limited? 4. Were the language items presented in a sensible order? 5. Was the language presented related to known language? 6. Apart from the new items, was all the language used known language? 7. Was the teacher's language natural? 8. Did the teacher indicate and limitations of the new language to particular varieties. 9. Was a rule given? Was it a good idea? 10. Vocabulary: was it appropriate? enough? too much? related? adequately presented? If definitions were used, were they accurate? Did they use only known language? 11. Pronunciation Did the teacher foresee and make provision for problems? Were the models clear? Did the students hear it enough before saying it? Were pieces for repetition short enough? By the end of the lesson, could students pronounce the new material reasonably accurately and at normal speed? Reflection. Using this observed lesson as a mirror of your own teaching, what comments can you make about language presentation in your classes? Is there anything you would want to change, experiment with, how could you go about doing so? What aspects would you like to develop in the future?

Adapted by A. Navarro from ICELT Induction Pack Centres Observation Tasks and Guidelines(tasks originally designed by International Training Institute Istanbul & Cultura Inglesa Brazil)

ICELT Peer Observation Task 5 : Practising New Language 1. Note down the times for the different practice activities used: mechanical drills meaningful drills information / opinion gap role play humanistic activity game written exercise other (please specify) 2. Was there a progression from more mechanical to freer practice activities? If so, how was this achieved? 3. (How) did the teacher know that it was time to change activities? 4. Did all students participate? 5. Was there enough practice? Why do you think so? 6. How were errors dealt with? Was this appropriate? 7. How was pronunciation dealt with? Was this appropriate? 8. Was there a clear and meaningful reason for the activities? 9. Did the practice activities move smoothly from one to the other?

Reflection: 1. How could this part of the lesson have been improved? 2. What have you learned about your own teaching? 3. How can you improve it as a result? 4. Set two or three short-term goals to achieve these improvements.

Adapted by A. Navarro from ICELT Induction Pack Centres Observation Tasks and Guidelines(tasks originally designed by International Training Institute Istanbul & Cultura Inglesa Brazil)

ICELT Peer Observation Task 6 : Error Correction Create a sheet with five columns, headed: Error Type (Grammatical? Pronunciation? Communicative? Vocabulary?) Stage of Lesson (Controlled? Less Controlled? Free Activity?) Would you correct it or leave it? (When? On the spot? Later?) How would you correct it? Each time you hear a student error, write it down and fill in all the columns in the table. For example: Error: Hello Juan. How do you do? - Very well. Type: communicative Stage of Lesson: free (in a role play) Would you correct it or leave it?: correct after How would you correct it?: Ask when we say 'How do you do?' (at first meeting). Contrast with 'How are you'.

Reflection: What experience do you have of being corrected when speaking a foreign language? Do you think this has influenced your teaching? Much, if not all, of what a language teacher says and does in the classroom is a reflection of that teacher's belief (conscious or otherwise) about how people learn languages. Considering your own style of managing error, how does this reflect your underlying beliefs.

Adapted by A. Navarro from ICELT Induction Pack Centres Observation Tasks and Guidelines(tasks originally designed by International Training Institute Istanbul & Cultura Inglesa Brazil)

ICELT Peer Observation Task 7: Receptive Skills Here are some questions to consider when observing a lesson concentrating on reading or listening. 1. Was the material relevant? Was it appropriate and interesting? 2. Was any necessary vocabulary effectively taught beforehand? 3. Were the students motivated to read / listen? 4.If questions were asked, a) were they appropriate to the aims? b) was there a manageable number? c) were they easy to understand (i.e. simply expressed)? 5. If a task was given, a) was it appropriate to the aims? b) was the layout of the worksheet clear? c) were clear instructions given and checked? Was an example given? 6. Was appropriate structure / function / vocabulary focused on after the students understood the text / tape? 7. Was there any follow-up activity? 8. Was there variety of focus and activity in the lesson? 9. Was the material well-exploited? Reflection. Using this observed lesson as a mirror of your own teaching, what comments can you make about teaching receptive skills in your classes. Is there anything you would want to change, experiment with, how could you go about doing so? What aspects would you like to develop in the future?

Adapted by A. Navarro from ICELT Induction Pack Centres Observation Tasks and Guidelines(tasks originally designed by International Training Institute Istanbul & Cultura Inglesa Brazil)

ICELT Peer Observation Task 8: Learners Autonomy Task Objective. Traditionally we think of the classroom as the place where the teacher 'knows' and the students are there to find out. This model of education invests a great deal of power and responsibility with the teacher. In recent years this approach has been viewed with less favour by language teachers as they experiment with learner-centred teaching and ways to hand responsibility for learning over to the learners. This task aims to have you reflect on: - the decisions that are made in the learning encounter - who makes the decisions. Procedure. Before the lesson. 1. Arrange to observe a lesson. Discuss the lesson plan with the teacher and ask the teacher the first 4 questions in the list below. 2. Make yourself familiar with the rest of the questions in the list (adapted from Deller 1990:6). Predict what you expect the answers to be. During the lesson. Observe the lesson from the points of view of the questions in the list. As responses write T (teacher); S (student) or TS (a mixture) next to the questions. Don't be concerned to capture every instance - a rough indication is adequate. 1. Who chose the aims? 2. Who chose the language / skills focus? 3. Who chose the topics / and activities? 4. Who chose and prepared the materials? 5. Who chose the seating arrangements? 6. Who wrote on the board? 7. Who cleaned the board? 8. Whom did the students speak to? 9. Who created the pairs / groups? 10. Who decided when to stop an activity? 11. Who operated the equipment? 12. Who decided which questions or problems in the lesson were explored? 13. Who chose the vocabulary to be learnt? 14. Who gave meaning for words

ICELT Peer Observation Task 8: Learners Autonomy 15. Who spelled out new words? 16. Who gave explanations? 17. Who asked questions? 18. Who answered student questions? 19. Who repeated what was said if others didn't hear? 20. Who created the silences? 21. Who broke the silences? 22. Who checked the work? 23. Who chose the homework? 24. Who filled in the register? After the lesson.

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1. Based on your answers, what general tendencies did you observe? Did this surprise you? 2. The overriding question relates to who holds the power. However ask yourself -m what value is there in having students do X, rather than the teacher? 3. What does a 'power shift' imply for the roles of learners and teachers? How will this affect learning processes and outcomes? 4. Many teachers are loath to 'let go' some of the crucial decision making in their teaching. How do you account for this? What reasons might they give? 5. It might be argued that there are cross-cultural issues here; many students expect the teacher to hold all the decision making power about the learning process. How might they react if some of this power were offered to them? Reflection. Often when we observe someone teaching, the very process of observation stimulates selfreflection, as if observing is a kind of mirror. Can you predict what tendencies would emerge from your lessons. Respond to the questionnaire again, this time using your own teaching as a source of data. What aspects of classroom decision making would you like to share with your learners? What aspects would you like to develop in the future?

Adapted by A. Navarro from ICELT Induction Pack Centres Observation Tasks and Guidelines(tasks originally designed by International Training Institute Istanbul & Cultura Inglesa Brazil)