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Yu, W.W.

Cold-Formed Steel Structures


Structural Engineering Handbook
Ed. Chen Wai-Fah
Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 1999
Col d-Formed Steel Structures
Wei -Wen Yu
Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Missouri-Rolla,
Rolla, MO
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Design Standards
7.3 Design Bases
AllowableStressDesign (ASD)

Limit StatesDesign or Load
and ResistanceFactor Design (LRFD)
7.4 Materialsand Mechanical Properties
Yield Point, TensileStrength, and Stress-Strain Relationship

Strength Increasefrom Cold Work of Forming

Modulusof
Elasticity, Tangent Modulus, and Shear Modulus

Ductility
7.5 Element Strength
Maximum Flat-Width-to-Thickness Ratios

Stiffened Ele-
mentsunder UniformCompression

StiffenedElementswith
StressGradient

Unstiffened Elementsunder UniformCom-
pression

UniformlyCompressedElementswithanEdgeStiff-
ener

Uniformly Compressed Elementswith Intermediate
Stiffeners
7.6 Member Design
Sectional Properties

Linear Methodfor ComputingSectional


Properties

Tension Members

Flexural Members

Concen-
tricallyLoadedCompressionMembers

CombinedAxial Load
and Bending

Cylindrical Tubular Members


7.7 Connectionsand Joints
Welded Connections

Bolted Connections

Screw Connec-
tions
7.8 Structural Systemsand Assemblies
Metal Buildings

Shear Diaphragms

Shell Roof Structures

Wall Stud Assemblies

Residential Construction

Composite
Construction
7.9 DeningTerms
References
Further Reading
7.1 Introduction
Cold-formed steel membersasshown in Figure7.1arewidely used in buildingconstruction, bridge
construction, storageracks, highway products, drainagefacilities, grain bins, transmission towers,
car bodies, railway coaches, and varioustypesof equipment. Thesesectionsarecold-formed from
carbon or lowalloy steel sheet, strip, plate, or at bar in cold-rollingmachinesor by pressbrakeor
bending brakeoperations. Thethicknessesof such membersusually rangefrom 0.0149 in. (0.378
mm) toabout 1/4in. (6.35mm) even though steel platesand barsasthick as1in. (25.4mm) can be
cold-formed into structural shapes.
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FIGURE7.1: Variousshapesof cold-formedsteel sections. (FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel
Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
Theuseof cold-formedsteel membersinbuildingconstructionbeganinthe1850sinboththeU.S.
and Great Britain. However, such steel memberswerenot widely used in buildingsin theU.S. until
the1940s. At thepresent time, cold-formed steel membersarewidelyused asconstruction materials
worldwide.
Comparedwith other materialssuch astimber andconcrete, cold-formedsteel memberscan offer
thefollowingadvantages: (1) lightness, (2) high strength and stiffness, (3) easeof prefabrication and
massproduction, (4) fast and easy erection and installation, and (5) economy in transportation and
handling, just to nameafew.
From thestructural design point of view, cold-formed steel memberscan beclassied into two
major types: (1) individual structural framing members (Figure 7.2) and (2) panels and decks
(Figure7.3).
In view of thefact that themajor function of theindividual framing members is to carry load,
structural strength and stiffness are the main considerations in design. The sections shown in
Figure7.2can beused asprimary framingmembersin buildingsup to four or vestoriesin height.
Intall multistorybuildings, themainframingistypicallyof heavyhot-rolledshapesandthesecondary
elementssuch aswall studs, joists, decks, or panelsmay beof cold-formed steel members. In this
case, theheavy hot-rolled steel shapesand thecold-formed steel sectionssupplement each other.
Thecold-formed steel sectionsshown in Figure7.3aregenerally used for roof decks, oor decks,
wall panels, andsidingmaterial in buildings. Steel decksnot onlyprovidestructural strengthtocarry
loads, but they also provideasurfaceon which ooring, roong, or concretell can beapplied as
shown in Figure7.4. They can also providespacefor electrical conduits. Thecellsof cellular panels
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FIGURE7.2: Cold-formed steel sectionsused for structural framing. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-
FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
FIGURE7.3: Decks, panels, andcorrugatedsheets. (FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design,
John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
can also beused asductsfor heatingand air conditioning. For compositeslabs, steel decksareused
not only asformwork duringconstruction, but also asreinforcement of thecompositesystem after
theconcretehardens. In addition, load-carryingpanelsand decksnot only withstand loadsnormal
to their surface, but they can also act asshear diaphragmsto resist forcesin their own planesif they
areadequately interconnected to each other and to supportingmembers.
Duringrecent years, cold-formed steel sectionshavebeen widely used in residential construction
and pre-engineered metal buildingsfor industrial, commercial, and agricultural applications. Metal
building systems are also used for community facilities such as recreation buildings, schools, and
churches. For additional information on cold-formed steel structures, seeYu [ 49] , Rhodes[ 36] , and
Hancock [ 28] .
7.2 DesignStandards
DesignstandardsandrecommendationsarenowavailableinAustralia[ 39] , Austria[ 31] , Canada[ 19] ,
Czechoslovakia[ 21] , Finland [ 26] , France[ 20] , Germany [ 23] , India[ 30] , Japan [ 14] , TheNether-
lands[ 27] , NewZealand[ 40] , ThePeoplesRepublicof China[ 34] , TheRepublicof SouthAfrica[ 38] ,
Sweden [ 44] , Romania[ 37] , U.K. [ 17] , U.S. [ 7] , USSR[ 41] , andelsewhere. Since1975, theEuropean
Convention for Constructional Steelwork [ 24] hasprepared several documentsfor thedesign and
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FIGURE7.4: Cellular oor decks. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley &
Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
testingof cold-formedsheet steel usedinbuildings. In1989, Eurocode3provideddesigninformation
for cold-formed steel members.
Thischapter presentsdiscussionson thedesign of cold-formedsteel structural membersfor usein
buildings. It ismainlybasedonthecurrent AISI combinedspecication[ 7] for allowablestressdesign
(ASD) and load and resistancefactor design (LRFD). It should benoted that in addition to theAISI
specication, in theU.S., many tradeassociationsand professional organizationshaveissued special
designrequirementsfor usingcold-formedsteel membersasoor androof decks[ 42] , roof trusses[ 6] ,
open web steel joists [ 43] , transmission poles [ 10] , storage racks [ 35] , shear diaphragms [ 7, 32] ,
compositeslabs[ 11] , metal buildings[ 33] , light framingsystems[ 15] , guardrails, structural supports
for highway signs, luminaries, and trafc signals [4] , automotive structural components [ 5] , and
others. For the design of cold-formed stainless steel structural members, see ASCE Standard 8-
90[ 12] .
7.3 DesignBases
For cold-formedsteel design, twodesignapproachesarebeingused. Theyare: (1) ASDand(2) LRFD.
Both methodsarebriey discussed in thissection.
7.3.1 AllowableStressDesign(ASD)
In theASD approach, therequired strengths(moments, axial forces, and shear forces) in structural
members are computed by accepted methods of structural analysis for the specied nominal or
workingloadsfor all applicableload combinationslisted below[ 7] .
1. D
2. D + L + (L
r
or S or R
r
)
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3. D + (W or E)
4. D + L + (L
r
or S or R
r
) + (W or E)
where
D = dead load
E = earthquakeload
L = liveload dueto intended useand occupancy
L
r
= roof liveload
R
r
= rain load, except for ponding
S = snowload
W = wind load
In addition, dueconsideration shouldalsobegiven totheloadsdueto(1) uidswith well-dened
pressureandmaximumheights, (2) weight andlateral pressureof soil andwater in soil, (3) ponding,
and (4) contraction or expansion resultingfromtemperature, shrinkage, moisturechanges, creep in
component materials, movement dueto different settlement, or combinationsthereof.
Therequired strengthsshouldnot exceedtheallowabledesignstrengthspermittedbytheapplicable
design standard. Theallowabledesign strength isdetermined by dividingthenominal strength by a
safety factor asfollows:
R
a
= R
n
/ (7.1)
where
R
a
= allowabledesign strength
R
n
= nominal strength
= safety factor
For thedesign of cold-formed steel structural membersusingtheAISI ASDmethod [ 7] , thesafety
factorsaregiven in Table7.1.
Whenwindor earthquakeloadsact incombinationwithdeadand/or liveloads, it hasbeenageneral
practiceto permit theallowabledesign strength to beincreased by afactor of one-third becausethe
action of wind or earthquake on a structure is highly localized and of very short duration. This
can also beaccomplished by permitting a25% reduction in thecombined load effectswithout the
increaseof theallowabledesign strength.
7.3.2 Limit StatesDesignor LoadandResistanceFactor Design(LRFD)
Two types of limit states are considered in the LRFD method. They are: (1) the limit state of
strength required to resist theextremeloadsduringthelifeof thestructureand (2) thelimit stateof
serviceability for astructureto performitsintended function.
For thelimit stateof strength, thegeneral format of theLRFDmethodisexpressedbythefollowing
equation:

i
Q
i
R
n
(7.2)
where

i
Q
i
= required strength
R
n
= design strength

i
=
load factors
Q
i
= load effects
=
resistancefactor
R
n
= nominal strength
Theload factorsand load combinationsarespecied in variousstandards. Accordingto theAISI
Specication [ 7] , thefollowing load factorsand load combinationsareused for cold-formed steel
design:
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TABLE7.1 Safety Factors, , and ResistanceFactors, , used in theAISI
Specication [ 7]
ASD LRFD
safety resistance
Typeof strength factor, factor,
(a) Stiffeners
Transversestiffeners 2.00 0.85
Shear stiffeners
a
1.67 0.90
(b) Tension members(seealso bolted connections) 1.67 0.95
(c) Flexural members
Bendingstrength
For sectionswith stiffened or partially stiffened
compression anges 1.67 0.95
For sectionswith unstiffened compression anges 1.67 0.90
Laterally unbraced beams 1.67 0.90
Beamshavingoneangethrough-fastened to deck or
sheathing(C- or Z-sections) 1.67 0.90
Beamshavingoneangefastened to astandingseamroof system 1.67 0.90
Web design
Shear strength
a
1.67 0.90
Web crippling
For singleunreinforced webs 1.85 0.75
For I-sections 2.00 0.80
For two nested Z-sections 1.80 0.85
(d) Concentrically loaded compression members 1.80 0.85
(e) Combined axial load and bending
For tension 1.67 0.95
For compression 1.80 0.85
For bending 1.67 0.90-0.95
(f ) Cylindrical tubular members
Bendingstrength 1.67 0.95
Axial compression 1.80 0.85
(g) Wall studsand wall assemblies
Wall studsin compression 1.80 0.85
Wall studsin bending 1.67 0.90-0.95
(h) Diaphragmconstruction 2.00-3.00 0.50-0.65
(i) Welded connections
Groovewelds
Tension or compression 2.50 0.90
Shear (welds) 2.50 0.80
Shear (basemetal) 2.50 0.90
Arcspot welds
Welds 2.50 0.60
Connected part 2.50 0.50-0.60
Minimumedgedistance 2.00-2.22 0.60-0.70
Tension 2.50 0.60
Arcseamwelds
Welds 2.50 0.60
Connected part 2.50 0.60
Fillet welds
Longitudinal loading(connected part) 2.50 0.55-0.60
Transverseloading(connected part) 2.50 0.60
Welds 2.50 0.60
Flaregroovewelds
Transverseloading(connected part) 2.50 0.55
Longitudinal loading(connected part) 2.50 0.55
Welds 2.50 0.60
ResistanceWelds 2.50 0.65
(j) Bolted connections
Minimumspacingand edgedistance 2.00-2.22 0.60-0.70
Tension strength on net section
With washers
Doubleshear connection 2.00 0.65
Singleshear connection 2.22 0.55
Without washers 2.22 0.65
Bearingstrength 2.22 0.55-0.70
Shear strength of bolts 2.40 0.65
Tensilestrength of bolts 2.00-2.25 0.75
(k) Screwconnections 3.00 0.50
(l) Shear rupture 2.00 0.75
(m) Connectionsto other materials(Bearing) 2.50 0.60
a
When h/t 0.96
_
Ek
v
/F
y
, = 1.50, = 1.0
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1. 1.4D + L
2. 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(L
r
or S or R
r
)
3. 1.2D + 1.6(L
r
or S or R
r
) + (0.5L or 0.8W)
4. 1.2D + 1.3W + 0.5L + 0.5(L
r
or S or R
r
)
5. 1.2D + 1.5E + 0.5L + 0.2S
6. 0.9D (1.3W or 1.5E)
All symbolsweredened previously.
Exceptions:
1. Theloadfactor for E incombinations(5) and(6) shouldbeequal to1.0whentheseismic
load model specied by theapplicablecodeor specication islimit statebased.
2. Theload factor for Lin combinations(3), (4), and (5) should beequal to1.0for garages,
areas occupied as places of public assembly, and all areas wheretheliveload is greater
than 100psf.
3. For wind load on individual purlins, girts, wall panels, and roof decks, multiply theload
factor for W by 0.9.
4. Theload factor for L
r
in combination (3) should beequal to 1.4in lieu of 1.6when the
roof liveload isdueto thepresenceof workmen and materialsduringrepair operations.
In addition, the following LRFD criteria apply to roof and oor composite construction using
cold-formed steel:
1.2D
s
+ 1.6C
w
+ 1.4C
where
D
s
= weight of steel deck
C
w
= weight of wet concreteduringconstruction
C = construction load, including equipment, workmen, and formwork, but excluding the
weight of thewet concrete.
Table 7.1 lists the factors, which are used for the AISI LRFD method for the design of cold-
formed steel members and connections [ 7] . It should be noted that different load factors and
resistance factors may be used in different standards. These factors are selected for the specic
nominal strength equationsadopted by thegiven standard or specication.
7.4 MaterialsandMechanical Properties
In theAISI Specication [ 7] , 14different steelsarepresentlylistedfor thedesign of cold-formedsteel
members. Table7.2 listssteel designations, ASTM designations, yield points, tensilestrengths, and
elongationsfor thesesteels.
Fromastructural standpoint, themost important propertiesof steel areasfollows:
1. Yield point or yield strength, F
y
2. Tensilestrength, F
u
3. Stress-strain relationship
4. Modulusof elasticity, tangent modulus, and shear modulus
5. Ductility
6. Weldability
7. Fatiguestrength
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TABLE7.2 Mechanical Propertiesof SteelsReferred to in theAISI 1996Specication
Elongation (%)
Yield Tensile In 2-in. In 8-in.
ASTM point, F
y
strength, F
u
gage gage
Steel designation designation (ksi) (ksi) length length
Structural steel A36 36 58-80 23
High-strength low-alloy A242(3/4in.
structural steel and under) 50 70 18
(3/4in. to
1-1/2in.) 46 67 21 18
Lowand intermediate A283Gr. A 24 45-60 30 27
tensilestrength B 27 50-65 28 25
carbon plates, shapes C 30 55-75 25 22
and bars D 33 60-80 23 20
Cold-formed welded A500
and seamlesscarbon Round tubing
steel structural tubing A 33 45 25
in roundsand shapes B 42 58 23
C 46 62 21
D 36 58 23
Shaped tubing
A 39 45 25
B 46 58 23
C 50 62 21
D 36 58 23
Structural steel with 42ksi A529Gr. 42 42 60-85 19
minimumyield point 50 50 70-100 18
Hot-rolled carbon steel A570Gr. 30 30 49 21-25
sheetsand stripsof 33 33 52 18-23
structural quality 36 36 53 17-22
40 40 55 15-21
45 45 60 13-19
50 50 65 11-17
High-strength low-alloy A572Gr. 42 42 60 24 20
columbium-vanadium 50 50 65 21 18
steelsof structural 60 60 75 18 16
quality 65 65 80 17 15
High-strength low-alloy A588 50 70 21 18
structural steel with
50ksi minimumyield point
Hot-rolled and cold-rolled A606
high-strength low-alloy Hot-rolled as
steel sheet and strip with rolled coils; 45 65 22
improved corrosion resistance annealed, or
normalized; and
cold-rolled
Hot-rolled as
rolled cut
lengths 50 70 22
Hot-rolled and cold-rolled A607Gr. 45 45 60(55) Hot-rolled 23-25
high-strength low-alloy Cold-rolled 22
columbiumand/or vanadium 50 50 65(60) Hot-rolled 20-22
steel sheet and strip Cold-rolled 20
55 55 70(65) Hot-rolled 18-20
Cold-rolled 18
60 60 75(70) Hot-rolled 16-18
Cold-rolled 16
65 65 80(75) Hot-rolled 14-16
Cold-rolled 15
70 70 85(80) Hot-rolled 12-14
Cold-rolled 14
Cold-rolled carbon A611Gr. A 25 42 26
structural steel sheet B 30 45 24
C 33 48 22
D 40 52 20
E 80 82
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TABLE7.2 Mechanical Propertiesof SteelsReferred to in theAISI 1996
Specication (continued)
Elongation (%)
Yield Tensile In 2-in. In 8-in.
ASTM point, F
y
strength, F
u
gage gage
Steel designation designation (ksi) (ksi) length length
Zinc-coated steel sheets A653SQGr. 33 33 45 20
of structural quality 37 37 52 18
40 40 55 16
50(class1) 50 65 12
50(class3) 50 70 12
80 80 82
HSLA Gr. 50 50 60 20
60 60 70 16
70 70 80 12(14)
80 80 90 10(12)
Hot-rolled high-strength A715Gr. 50 50 60 22-24
low-alloy steel sheets 60 60 70 20-22
and strip with improved 70 70 80 18
formability 80 80 90 14
Aluminum-zinc A792Gr. 33 33 45 20
alloy-coated by the 37 37 52 18
hot-dip process 40 40 55 16
general requirements 50 50 65 12
80 80 82
Notes:
1. Thetabulated valuesarebased on ASTM Standards.
2. 1in. = 25.4mm; 1ksi = 6.9MPa.
3. A653 Structural Quality Grade 80, Grade E of A611, and Structural Quality Grade 80 of A792 are
allowed in theAISI Specication under special conditions. For thesegrades, F
y
= 80ksi, F
u
= 82ksi,
elongationsareunspecied. SeeAISI Specication for reduction of yield point and tensilestrength.
4. For A653steel, HSLA Grades70and 80, theelongation in 2-in. gagelength given in theparenthesisis
for TypeII. Theother valueisfor TypeI.
5. For A607steel, thetensilestrength given in theparenthesisisfor Class2. Theother valueisfor Class1.
In addition, formability, durability, and toughnessarealso important propertiesfor cold-formed
steel.
7.4.1 YieldPoint, TensileStrength, andStress-StrainRelationship
AslistedinTable7.2, theyieldpointsor yieldstrengthsof all 14different steelsrangefrom24to80ksi
(166to552MPa). Thetensilestrengthsof thesamesteelsrangefrom42to100ksi (290to690MPa).
The ratios of the tensile strength-to-yield point vary from 1.12 to 2.22. As far as the stress-strain
relationship isconcerned, thestress-strain curvecan either bethesharp-yieldingtype(Figure7.5a)
or thegradual-yieldingtype(Figure7.5b).
7.4.2 StrengthIncreasefromColdWork of Forming
Themechanical properties(yield point, tensilestrength, and ductility) of cold-formed steel sections,
particularly at the corners, are sometimes substantially different from those of the at steel sheet,
strip, plate, or bar beforeforming. Thisisbecausethecold-forming operation increasestheyield
point and tensilestrength and at thesametimedecreasestheductility. Theeffectsof cold-work on
the mechanical properties of corners usually depend on several parameters. The ratios of tensile
strength-to-yield point, F
u
/F
y
, and insidebend radius-to-thickness, R/t , areconsidered to bethe
most important factorsto affect thechangein mechanical propertiesof cold-formed steel sections.
Design equationsaregiven in theAISI Specication [ 7] for computingthetensileyield strength of
cornersand theaveragefull-section tensileyield strength for design purposes.
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FIGURE7.5: Stress-strain curvesof steel sheet or strip. (a) Sharp-yielding. (b) Gradual-yielding.
(FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
7.4.3 Modulusof Elasticity, Tangent Modulus, andShear Modulus
Thestrength of cold-formed steel membersthat aregoverned by bucklingdependsnot only on the
yield point but also on themodulusof elasticity, E, and thetangent modulus, E
t
. A valueof E =
29,500 ksi (203 GPa) isused in theAISI Specication for thedesign of cold-formed steel structural
members. ThisE valueisslightly larger than thevalueof 29,000ksi (200GPa), which isbeingused
in theAISCSpecication for thedesign of hot-rolled shapes. Thetangent modulusisdened by the
slopeof thestress-strain curveat any given stresslevel asshown in Figure7.5b. For sharp-yielding
steels, E
t
= E up to theyield, but with gradual-yieldingsteels, E
t
= E only up to theproportional
limit, f
pr
(Figure 7.5b). Once the stress exceeds the proportional limit, the tangent modulus E
t
becomesprogressively smaller than theinitial modulusof elasticity. For cold-formed steel design,
theshear modulusistaken asG = 11,300ksi (77.9GPa) accordingto theAISI Specication.
7.4.4 Ductility
According to the AISI Specication, the ratio of F
u
/F
y
for the steels used for structural framing
membersshould not belessthan 1.08, and thetotal elongation should not belessthan 10% for a
2-in. (50.8 mm) gagelength. If theserequirementscannot bemet, an exception can bemadefor
purlinsand girtsfor which thefollowinglimitationsshould besatised when such amaterial isused:
(1) local elongation in a1/2-in. (12.7 mm) gagelength acrossthefractureshould not belessthan
20%and (2) uniformelongation outsidethefractureshould not belessthan 3%. It should benoted
that the required ductility for cold-formed steel structural members depends mainly on the type
of application and thesuitability of thematerial. Thesameamount of ductility that isconsidered
necessary for individual framing members may not beneeded for roof panels, siding, and similar
applications. For thisreason, even though Structural Grade80of ASTM A653steel, GradeEof A611
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steel, and Grade 80 of A792 steel do not meet the AISI requirements of the F
u
/F
y
ratio and the
elongation, thesesteelscan beused for roong, siding, and similar applicationsprovided that (1) the
yield strength, F
y
, used for design istaken as75% of thespecied minimum yield point or 60 ksi
(414MPa), whichever isless, and (2) thetensilestrength, F
u
, used for design istaken as75%of the
specied minimumtensilestressor 62ksi (427MPa), whichever isless.
7.5 Element Strength
For cold-formed steel members, the width-to-thickness ratios of individual elements are usually
large. Thesethin elementsmaybucklelocallyat astresslevel lower than theyield point of steel when
they aresubject to compression in exural bending and axial compression asshown in Figure7.6.
Therefore, for thedesign of such thin-walled sections, local buckling and postbuckling strength of
thin elementshaveoften been themajor design considerations. In addition, shear bucklingand web
cripplingshould also beconsidered in thedesign of beams.
FIGURE7.6: Local bucklingof compression elements. (a) Beams. (b) Columns. (From Yu, W.W.
1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
7.5.1 MaximumFlat-Width-to-ThicknessRatios
In cold-formed steel design, themaximum at-width-to-thicknessratio, w/t , for angesislimited
to thefollowingvaluesin theAISI Specication:
1. Stiffenedcompressionelement havingonelongitudinal edgeconnectedtoawebor ange
element, theother stiffened by
Simplelip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Any other kind of stiffener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
2. Stiffenedcompression element with both longitudinal edgesconnectedtoother stiffened
element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
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3. Unstiffened compression element and elementswith an inadequateedgestiffener . . . 60
For thedesign of beams, themaximumdepth-to-thicknessratio, h/t , for websare:
1. For unreinforced webs: (h/t )
max
= 200
2. For websthat areprovided with transversestiffeners:
Usingbearingstiffenersonly: (h/t )
max
= 260
Usingbearingstiffenersand intermediatestiffeners: (h/t )
max
= 300
7.5.2 StiffenedElementsunder UniformCompression
Thestrength of astiffened compression element such asthecompression angeof ahat section is
governedbyyieldingif itsw/t ratioisrelativelysmall. It maybegovernedbylocal bucklingasshown
in Figure7.7at astresslevel lessthan theyield point if itsw/t ratio isrelatively large.
FIGURE7.7: Local bucklingof stiffened compression angeof hat-shaped beam.
The elastic local buckling stress, f
cr
, of simply supported square plates and long plates can be
determined asfollows:
f
cr
=
k
2
E
12(1
2
)(w/t )
2
(7.3)
where
k = local bucklingcoefcient
E = modulusof elasticity of steel = 29.5 10
3
ksi (203GPa)
w = width of theplate
t = thicknessof theplate
= Poissonsratio
It iswell knownthat stiffenedcompressionelementswill not collapsewhenthelocal bucklingstress
isreached. Anadditional loadcanbecarriedbytheelement after bucklingbymeansof aredistribution
of stress. Thisphenomenon isknown aspostbucklingstrength andismost pronouncedfor elements
with largew/t ratios.
Themechanism of thepostbucklingaction can beeasily visualized from asquareplatemodel as
shown in Figure7.8[ 48] . It representstheportion abcd of thecompression angeof thehat section
illustrated in Figure7.7. Assoon astheplatestartsto buckle, thehorizontal barsin thegrid of the
model will act astierodsto counteract theincreasingdeection of thelongitudinal struts.
In the plate, the stress distribution is uniform prior to its buckling. After buckling, a portion
of theprebuckling load of thecenter strip transfersto theedgeportion of theplate. Asaresult, a
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE7.8: Postbucklingstrength model. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John
Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
nonuniform stress distribution is developed, as shown in Figure 7.9. The redistribution of stress
continuesuntil thestressat theedgereachestheyield point of steel and then theplatebeginsto fail.
FIGURE7.9: Stressdistribution in stiffened compression elements.
For cold-formed steel members, aconcept of effectivewidth hasbeen used for practical design.
In thisapproach, instead of consideringthenonuniform distribution of stressover theentirewidth
of theplate, w, it isassumed that thetotal load iscarried by actitiouseffectivewidth, b, subjected
to auniformly distributed stressequal to theedgestress, f
max
, asshown in Figure7.9. Thewidth, b,
isselectedsothat theareaunder thecurveof theactual nonuniformstressdistribution isequal tothe
sumof thetwo partsof theequivalent rectangular shaded areawith atotal width, b, and an intensity
of stressequal to theedgestress, f
max
. Based on theresearch ndingsof von Karman, Sechler, and
Donnell [ 45] , andWinter [ 47] , thefollowingequationshavebeendevelopedintheAISI Specication
for computingtheeffectivedesign width, b, for stiffened elementsunder uniformcompression [ 7] :
(a) Strength Determination
1. When 0.673, b = w (7.4)
2. When > 0.673, b = w (7.5)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
where
b = effective design width of uniformly compressed element for strength determination (Fig-
ure7.10)
w = at width of compression element
= reduction factor determined fromEquation 7.6:
= (1 0.22/)/ 1 (7.6)
where = plateslendernessfactor determined fromEquation 7.7:
= (1.052/

k)(w/t )(
_
f/E) (7.7)
where
k = platebucklingcoefcient =4.0for stiffenedelementssupportedbyaweboneachlongitudinal
edgeasshown in Figure7.10
t = thicknessof compression element
E = modulusof elasticity
f = maximumcompressiveedgestressin theelement without consideringthesafety factor
FIGURE7.10: Effectivedesign width of stiffened compression elements.
(b) Deection Determination
For deectiondetermination, Equations7.4through7.7canalsobeusedfor computingtheeffective
design width of compression elements, except that thecompressivestressshould becomputed on
thebasisof theeffectivesection at theload for which deection iscalculated.
Therelationship between and accordingto Equation 7.6isshown in Figure7.11.
EXAMPLE7.1:
Calculatetheeffectivewidth of thecompression angeof thebox section (Figure7.12) to beused
asabeambendingabout thex-axis. UseF
y
= 33ksi. Assumethat thebeamwebsarefully effective
and that thebendingmoment isbased on initiation of yielding.
Solution Becausethecompression angeof thegiven section isauniformly compressed
stiffened element, which issupported by aweb on each longitudinal edge, theeffectivewidth of the
angefor strength determination can becomputed byusingEquations7.4through 7.7with k =4.0.
Assumethat thebending strength of thesection isbased on Initiation of Yielding, y 2.50 in.
Therefore, theslendernessfactor for f = F
y
can becomputed fromEquation 7.7, i.e.,
k = 4.0
w = 6.50 2(R + t ) = 6.192 in.
w/t = 103.2
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE7.11: Reduction factor, , vs. slendernessfactor, . (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-Formed
Steel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
FIGURE7.12: Example7.1. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,
NewYork. With permission.)
f = 33 ksi
= (1.052/

k)(w/t )
_
f/E
= (1.052/

4.0)(103.2)
_
33/29,500 = 1.816
Since > 0.673, useEquations7.5and 7.6to computetheeffectivewidth, b, asfollows:
b = w = [(1 0.22/)/]w
= [(1 0.22/1.816)/1.816](6.192) = 3.00 in.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
7.5.3 StiffenedElementswithStressGradient
When aexural member issubject to bending moment, thebeam web isunder thestressgradient
condition (Figure7.13), in which thecompression portion of theweb may buckledueto thecom-
pressivestresscaused by bending. Theeffectivewidth of thebeam web can bedetermined from the
followingAISI provisions:
FIGURE7.13: Stiffened elementswith stressgradient.
(a) Strength Determination
Theeffectivewidths, b
1
and b
2
, asshown in Figure7.13, should bedetermined fromthefollowing
equations:
b
1
= b
e
/(3 ) (7.8)
For 0.236
b
2
= b
e
/2 (7.9)
b
1
+ b
2
should not exceed thecompression portion of theweb calculated on thebasisof effective
section.
For > 0.236
b
2
= b
e
b
1
(7.10)
whereb
e
= effectivewidth b determined by Equation 7.4or Equation 7.5with f
1
substituted for f
and with k determined asfollows:
k = 4 + 2(1 )
3
+ 2(1 ) (7.11)
= f
2
/f
1
(7.12)
f
1
, f
2
=stressesshown in Figure7.13calculated on thebasisof effectivesection. f
1
iscompression
(+) and f
2
can be either tension () or compression. In case f
1
and f
2
are both compression,
f
1
f
2
(b) Deection Determination
The effective widths used in computing deections should be determined as above, except that
f
d1
and f
d2
aresubstituted for f
1
and f
2
, wheref
d1
and f
d2
arethecomputed stressesf
1
and f
2
as
shown in Figure7.13based on theeffectivesection at theload for which deection isdetermined.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
7.5.4 UnstiffenedElementsunder UniformCompression
Theeffectivewidth of unstiffened elementsunder uniformcompression asshown in Figure7.14can
also becomputed by usingEquations7.4 through 7.7, except that thevalueof k should betaken as
0.43and theat width w ismeasured asshown in Figure7.14.
FIGURE7.14: Effectivedesign width of unstiffened compression elements.
7.5.5 UniformlyCompressedElementswithanEdgeStiffener
Thefollowingequationscan beused to determinetheeffectivewidth of theuniformly compressed
elementswith an edgestiffener asshown in Figure7.15.
FIGURE7.15: Compression elementswith an edgestiffener.
CaseI: For w/t S/3
I
a
= 0 (no edgestiffener needed)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
b = w
d
s
= d

s
for simplelip stiffener
A
s
= A

s
for other stiffener shapes (7.13)
CaseII: For S/3 < w/t < S
I
a
/t
4
= 399{[(w/t )/S]
_
k
u
/4}
3
n = 1/2
C
2
= I
s
/I
a
1
C
1
= 2 C
2
(7.14)
b should becalculated accordingto Equations7.4through 7.7, where
k = C
n
2
(k
a
k
u
) + k
u
k
u
= 0.43
For simplelip stiffener with 140

40

and D/w 0.8 where isasshown in Figure7.15:


k
a
= 5.25 5(D/w) 4.0
d
s
= C
2
d

s
For astiffener shapeother than simplelip:
k
a
= 4.0
A
s
= C
2
A

s
CaseIII: For w/t S
I
a
/t
4
= [115(w/t )/S] + 5 (7.15)
C
1
, C
2
, b, k, d
s
, and A
s
arecalculated per CaseII with n = 1/3
where
S = 1.28

E/f
k = bucklingcoefcient
d, w, D = dimensionsshown in Figure7.15
d
s
= reduced effectivewidth of thestiffener
d

s
= effectivewidth of thestiffener calculated asunstiffened element under uniformcom-
pression
C
1
, C
2
= coefcientsshown in Figure7.15
A
s
= reduced areaof thestiffener
I
a
= adequate moment of inertia of the stiffener, so that each component element will
behaveasastiffened element
I
s
, A

s
= moment of inertia of the full section of the stiffener about its own centroidal axis
parallel totheelement tobestiffened, andtheeffectiveareaof thestiffener, respectively
For thestiffener shown in Figure7.15,
I
s
= (d
3
t sin
2
)/12
A

s
= d

s
t
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
7.5.6 UniformlyCompressedElementswithIntermediate
Stiffeners
Theeffectivewidth of uniformlycompressed elementswith intermediatestiffenerscan alsobedeter-
mined from theAISI Specication, which includesseparatedesign rulesfor compression elements
with only one intermediate stiffener and compression elements with more than one intermediate
stiffener.
UniformlyCompressedElementswithOneIntermediateStiffener
Thefollowing equation can beused to determinetheeffectivewidth of theuniformly com-
pressed elementswith oneintermediatestiffener asshown in Figure7.16.
FIGURE7.16: Compression elementswith oneintermediatestiffener.
CaseI: For b
0
/t S
I
a
= 0 (no intermediatestiffener needed)
b = w
A
s
= A

s
CaseII: For S < b
0
/t < 3S
I
a
/t
4
= [50(b
0
/t )/S] 50
b and A
s
arecalculated accordingto Equations7.4through 7.7, where
k = 3(I
s
/I
a
)
1/2
+ 1 4
A
s
= A

s
(I
s
/I
a
) A

s
CaseIII: For b
0
/t 3S
I
a
/t
4
= [128(b
0
/t )/S] 285
b and A
s
arecalculated accordingto Equations7.4through 7.7, where
k = 3(I
s
/I
a
)
1/3
+ 1 4
A
s
= A

s
(I
s
/I
a
) A

s
In theaboveequations, all symbolsweredened previously.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
UniformlyCompressedElementswithMoreThanOneIntermediate
Stiffener
For thedetermination of theeffectivewidth of sub-elements, thestiffenersof astiffened ele-
ment with morethan onestiffener should bedisregarded unlesseach intermediatestiffener hasthe
minimumI
s
asfollows:
I
min
/t
4
= 3.66
_
(w/t )
2
(0.136E)/F
y
18.4
where
w/t = width-thicknessratio of thelarger stiffened sub-element
I
s
= moment of inertiaof thefull stiffener about itsown centroidal axisparallel to theelement
to bestiffened
For additional requirements, seetheAISI Specication.
7.6 Member Design
Thischapter dealswiththedesignof thefollowingcold-formedsteel structural members: (a) tension
members, (b) exural members, (c) concentricallyloadedcompressionmembers, (d) combinedaxial
load and bending, and (e) cylindrical tubular members. Thenominal strength equationswith safety
factors() and resistancefactors() areprovided in theSpecication [ 7] for thegiven limit states.
7.6.1 Sectional Properties
Thesectional propertiesof amember such asarea, moment of inertia, section modulus, and radius
of gyration arecalculated by usingtheconventional methodsof structural design. Theseproperties
arebased on either full cross-section dimensions, effectivewidths, or net section, asapplicable.
For thedesignof tensionmembers, thenominal tensilestrengthispresentlybasedonthenet section.
However, for exural members and axially loaded compression members, the full dimensions are
used when calculatingthecritical moment or load, whiletheeffectivedimensions, evaluated at the
stresscorrespondingto thecritical moment or load, areused to calculatethenominal strength.
7.6.2 Linear Methodfor ComputingSectional Properties
Becausethethicknessof cold-formedsteel membersisusuallyuniform, thecomputation of sectional
propertiescan besimpliedbyusinga linear or midline method. In thismethod, thematerial of
each element isconsidered to beconcentrated alongthecenterlineor midlineof thesteel sheet and
theareaelementsarereplaced by straight or curved lineelements. Thethicknessdimension, t , is
introduced after thelinear computationshavebeen completed. Thus, thetotal areaisA = Lt , and
themoment of inertiaof thesection isI = I

t , whereL isthetotal length of all lineelementsand I

isthemoment of inertiaof thecenterlineof thesteel sheet. Themomentsof inertiaof straight line


elementsand circular lineelementsareshown in Figure7.17.
7.6.3 TensionMembers
Thenominal tensilestrength of axially loaded cold-formed steel tension membersisdetermined by
thefollowingequation:
T
n
= A
n
F
y
(7.16)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE7.17: Propertiesof lineelements.
where
T
n
= nominal tensilestrength
A
n
= net areaof thecross-section
F
y
= design yield stress
When tension membersusebolted connectionsor circular holes, thenominal tensilestrength is
also limited by thetensilecapacity of connected partstreated separately by theAISI Specication [ 7]
under thesection titleof Bolted Connections.
7.6.4 Flexural Members
For thedesignof exural members, considerationshouldbegiventoseveral designfeatures: (a) bend-
ing strength and deection, (b) shear strength of webs and combined bending and shear, (c) web
crippling strength and combined bending and web crippling, and (d) bracing requirements. For
somecases, special consideration should also begiven to shear lagand angecurlingdueto theuse
of thin materials.
BendingStrength
Bending strengths of exural members are differentiated according to whether or not the
member islaterally braced. If such membersarelaterally supported, they aredesigned accordingto
thenominal section strength. Otherwise, if they arelaterally unbraced, then thebending strength
may be governed by the lateral buckling strength. For channels or Z-sections with tension ange
attachedtodeck or sheathingandwithcompression angelaterallyunbraced, andfor suchmembers
havingoneangefastened to astandingseam roof system, thenominal bendingstrength should be
reduced accordingto theAISI Specication.
Nominal SectionStrength
TwodesignproceduresarenowusedintheAISI Specicationfor determiningthenominal bending
strength. They are: (I) Initiationof Yieldingand (II) InelasticReserveCapacity.
Accordingto ProcedureI on thebasisof initiation of yielding, thenominal moment, M
n
, of the
cross-section istheeffectiveyield moment, M
y
, determined for theeffectiveareasof angesand the
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
beam web. Theeffectivewidth of thecompression angeand theeffectivedepth of theweb can be
computed fromthedesign equationsgiven in Section 7.5. Theyield moment of acold-formed steel
exural member isdened asthemoment at which an outer ber (tension, compression, or both)
rst attainstheyield point of thesteel. Figure7.18 showsthreetypesof stressdistribution for yield
FIGURE7.18: Stressdistribution for yield moment (based on initiation of yielding).
moment based on different locationsof theneutral axis. Accordingly, thenominal section strength
for initiation of yieldingcan becomputed asfollows:
M
n
= M
y
= S
e
F
y
(7.17)
where
S
e
= elasticsection modulusof theeffectivesection calculated with theextremecompression or
tension ber at F
y
F
y
= design yield stress
For cold-formed steel design, S
e
isusually computed by usingoneof thefollowingtwo cases:
1. If theneutral axis is closer to thetension than to thecompression ange(Casec), the
maximum stress occurs in the compression ange, and therefore the plate slenderness
ratio (Equation 7.7) and theeffectivewidth of thecompression angearedetermined
by thew/t ratioand f = F
y
. Thisprocedureisalsoapplicabletothosebeamsfor which
theneutral axisislocated at themid-depth of thesection (Casea).
2. If theneutral axis is closer to thecompression than to thetension ange(Caseb), the
maximumstressof F
y
occursin thetension ange. Thestressin thecompression ange
dependson thelocation of theneutral axis, which isdetermined by theeffectiveareaof
thesection. Thelatter cannot bedeterminedunlessthecompressivestressisknown. The
closed-form solution of thistypeof design ispossiblebut would beavery tediousand
complex procedure. It is, therefore, customary to determinethesectional propertiesof
thesection by successiveapproximation.
SeeExamples7.2and 7.3for thecalculation of nominal bendingstrengths.
EXAMPLE7.2:
UsetheASD and LRFD methodsto check theadequacy of theI-section with unstiffened anges
asshown in Figure7.19. Thenominal moment isbased on theinitiation of yieldingusingF
y
= 50
ksi. Assumethat lateral bracingisadequately provided. Thedead load moment M
D
= 30 in.-kips
and theliveload moment M
L
= 150in.-kips.
Solution
(A) ASD Method
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE7.19: Example7.2. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,
NewYork. With permission.)
1. Location of Neutral Axis. For R = 3/16in. and t = 0.135in., thesectional propertiesof
thecorner element areasfollows:
I
x
= I
y
= 0.0003889 in.
4
A = 0.05407 in.
2
x = y = 0.1564 in.
For theunstiffened compression ange,
w = 1.6775 in., w/t = 12.426
Usingk = 0.43and f = F
y
= 50ksi,
= (1.052/

k)(w/t )
_
f/E = 0.821 > 0.673
b = [(1 0.22/0.821)/0.821](1.6775) = 1.496 in.
Assumingthewebisfullyeffective, theneutral axisislocated at y
cg
=4.063in. asshown
in Figure7.20. Sincey
cg
> d/2, initial yield occursin thecompression ange.
Therefore, f = F
y
.
2. Check theweb for full effectivenessasfollows(Figure7.20):
f
1
= 46.03 ksi (compression)
f
2
= 44.48 ksi (tension)
= f
2
/f
1
= 0.966.
UsingEquation 7.11,
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE7.20: Stressdistribution in webs. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John
Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
k = 4 + 2(1 )
3
+ 2(1 ) = 23.13
h = 7.355 in.
h/t = 54.48
= (1.052/

k)(54.48)
_
46.03/29,500
= 0.471 < 0.673
b
e
= h = 7.355 in.
b
1
= b
e
/(3 ) = 1.855 in.
b
2
= b
e
/2 = 3.6775 in.
Sinceb
1
+ b
2
= 5.5325in. > 3.7405in., theweb isfully effective.
3. Themoment of inertiaI
x
is
I
x
= (Ay
2
) + 2I
web
(A)(y
cg
)
2
= 25.382 in.
4
Thesection modulusfor thetop ber is
S
e
= I
x
/y
cg
= 6.247 in.
3
4. Based on initiation of yielding, thenominal moment for section strength is
M
n
= S
e
F
y
= 312.35 in.-kips
5. Theallowablemoment or design moment is
M
a
= M
n
/ = 312.35/1.67 = 187.04 in.-kips
Based on thegiven data, therequired moment is
M = M
D
+ M
L
= 30 + 150 = 180 in.-kips
SinceM < M
a
, theI-section isadequatefor theASD method.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
(B) LRFD Method
1. Based on thenominal moment M
n
computed above, thedesign moment is

b
M
n
= 0.90(312.35) = 281.12 in.-kips
2. Therequired moment for combined dead and livemomentsis
M
u
= 1.2M
D
+ 1.6M
L
= (1.2 30) + (1.6 150)
= 276.00 in.-kips
Since
b
M
n
> M
u
, theI-section isadequatefor bendingstrength accordingtotheLRFD
approach.
EXAMPLE7.3:
Determinethenominal moment about thex-axisfor thehat section with stiffened compression
angeasshown in Figure7.21. Assumethat theyield point of steel is50ksi. Usethelinear method.
Thenominal moment isdetermined by initiation of yielding.
FIGURE7.21: Example7.3. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,
NewYork. With permission.)
Solution
1. Calculationof Sectional Properties. Inorder tousethelinear method, midlinedimensions
areshown in Figure7.22.
A. Corner element (Figures7.17and 7.22)
R

= R + t /2 = 0.240 in.
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FIGURE7.22: Lineelements. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,
NewYork. With permission.)
Arclength
L = 1.57R

= 0.3768 in.
c = 0.637R

= 0.1529 in.
B. Location of neutral axis
a. First approximation. For thecompression ange,
w = 15 2(R + t ) = 14.415 in.
w/t = 137.29
UsingEquations7.4through 7.7and assumingf = F
y
= 50ksi,
=
1.052

4
(137.29)
_
50
29500
= 2.973 > 0.673
=
_
1
0.22
2.973
_
/2.973 = 0.311
b = w = 0.311(14.415) = 4.483 in.
By usingtheeffectivewidth of thecompression angeand assumingtheweb
isfully effective, theneutral axiscan belocated asfollows:
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Distancefrom
Effectivelength L top ber y Ly
Element (in.) (in.) (in.
2
)
1 2 1.0475= 2.0950 9.9475 20.8400
2 2 0.3768= 0.7536 9.8604 7.4308
3 2 9.4150= 18.8300 5.0000 94.1500
4 2 0.3768= 0.7536 0.1396 0.1052
5 4.4830 0.0525 0.2354
Total 26.9152 122.7614
y
cg
=
(Ly)
L
=
122.7614
26.9152
= 4.561in.
Becausethedistancey
cg
islessthan thehalf-depth of 5.0 in., theneutral axis
iscloser to thecompression angeand, therefore, themaximum stressoccurs
in thetension ange. Themaximum compressivestresscan becomputed as
follows:
f = 50
_
4.561
10 4.561
_
= 41.93 ksi
Sincetheabovecomputed stressislessthan theassumed value, another trial is
required.
b. Second approximation. Assumingthat
f = 40.70 ksi
= 2.682 > 0.673
b = 4.934 in.
Distancefrom
Effectivelength L top ber y Ly Ly
2
Element (in.) (in.) (in.
2
) (in.
3
)
1 2.0950 9.9475 20.8400 207.3059
2 0.7536 9.8604 7.4308 73.2707
3 18.8300 5.0000 94.1500 470.7500
4 0.7536 0.1396 0.1052 0.0147
5 4.9340 0.0525 0.2590 0.0136
Total 27.3662 122.7850 751.3549
y
cg
=
122.7850
27.3662
= 4.487in.
f =
_
4.487
10 4.487
_
= 40.69 ksi
Sincetheabovecomputed stressiscloseto theassumed value, it isO.K.
C. Check theeffectivenessof theweb. UsetheAISI Specication to check theeffec-
tivenessof theweb element. FromFigure7.23,
f
1
= 50(4.1945/5.513) = 38.04 ksi (compression)
f
2
= 50(5.2205/5.513) = 47.35 ksi (tension)
= f
2
/f
1
= 1.245. UsingEquation 7.11,
k = 4 + 2(1 )
3
+ 2(1 )
= 4 + 2(2.245)
3
+ 2(2.245) = 31.12
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
h/t = 9.415/0.105 = 89.67 < 200 O.K.
=
1.052

31.12
(89.67)
_
38.04
29,500
= 0.607 < 0.673
b
e
= h = 9.415 in.
b
1
= b
e
/(3 ) = 2.218 in.
Since < 0.236,
b
2
= b
e
/2 = 4.7075 in.
b
1
+ b
2
= 6.9255 in.
Becausethecomputed valueof (b
1
+ b
2
) isgreater than thecompression portion
of theweb (4.1945in.), theweb element isfully effective.
FIGURE7.23: Effectivelengthsand stressdistribution using fully effectivewebs. (From Yu, W.W.
1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
D. Moment of inertia and section modulus. The moment of inertia based on line
elementsis
2I

3
= 2
_
1
12
_
(9.415)
3
= 139.0944
(Ly
2
) = 751.3549
I

z
= 2I

3
+ (Ly
2
) = 890.4493 in.
3
(L)(y
cg
)
2
= 27.3662(4.487)
2
= 550.9683 in.
3
I

x
= I

z
(L)(y
cg
)
2
= 339.4810 in.
3
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Theactual moment of inertiais
I
x
= I

x
t = (339.4810)(0.105) = 35.646 in.
4
Thesection modulusrelativeto theextremetension ber is
S
x
= 35.646/5.513 = 6.466 in.
3
2. Nominal Moments. Thenominal moment for section strength is
M
n
= S
e
F
y
= S
x
F
y
= (6.466)(50) = 323.30 in.-kips
Once the nominal moment is computed, the design moments for the ASD and LRFD
methodscan bedetermined asillustrated in Example7.2.
Accordingto ProcedureII of theAISI Specication, thenominal moment, M
n
, isthemaximum
bendingcapacity of thebeamby consideringtheinelasticreservestrength through partial plastica-
tion of thecross-section asshown in Figure7.24. Theinelasticstressdistribution in thecross-section
FIGURE 7.24: Stress distribution for maximum moment (inelastic reserve strength). (From Yu,
W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
depends on the maximum strain in the compression ange, which is limited by the Specication
for the given width-to-thickness ratio of the compression ange. On the basis of the maximum
compression strain allowed in theSpecication, theneutral axiscan belocated byEquation 7.18and
thenominal moment, M
n
, can bedetermined by usingEquation 7.19:
_
dA = 0 (7.18)
_
ydA = M (7.19)
where isthestressin thecross-section. For additional information, seeYu [ 49] .
Lateral BucklingStrength
Thenominal lateral bucklingstrength of unbraced segmentsof singly-, doubly-, and point- sym-
metricsectionssubjected to lateral buckling, M
n
, can bedetermined asfollows:
M
n
= S
c
M
c
S
f
(7.20)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
where
S
f
= elasticsection modulusof thefull unreduced section for theextremecompression ber
S
c
= elasticsection modulusof theeffectivesection calculated at astressM
c
/S
f
in theextreme
compression ber
M
c
= critical moment for singly-, doubly-, and point-symmetricsectionscalculated asfollows:
1. For M
e
2.78M
y
:
M
c
= M
y
(7.21)
2. For 2.78M
y
> M
e
> 0.56M
y
:
M
c
=
10
9
M
y
_
1
10M
y
36M
e
_
(7.22)
3. For M
e
0.56M
y
:
M
c
= M
e
(7.23)
where
M
y
= moment causinginitial yield at theextremecompression ber of thefull section
= S
f
F
y
M
e
= elasticcritical moment calculated accordingto (a) or (b) below:
(a) For singly-, doubly-, and point-symmetricsections:
M
e
= C
b
r
0
A

ey

t
for bendingabout thesymmetryaxis. For singly-symmetricsections, x-axis
is the axis of symmetry oriented such that the shear center has a negative x-coordinate.
For point-symmetric sections, use0.5 M
e
. Alternatively, M
e
can becalculated using the
equation for doubly-symmetricI-sectionsor point-symmetricsectionsgiven in (b)
M
e
= C
s
A
ex
[j +C
s
_
j
2
+ r
2
0
(
t
/
ex
)]/C
T F
for bendingabout thecentroidal axisperpendic-
ular to thesymmetry axisfor singly-symmetricsectionsonly
C
s
= +1for moment causingcompression on theshear center sideof thecentroid
C
s
= 1for moment causingtension on theshear center sideof thecentroid

ex
=
2
E/(K
x
L
x
/r
x
)
2

ey
=
2
E/(K
y
L
y
/r
y
)
2

t
= [GJ +
2
EC
w
/(K
t
L
t
)
2
]/Ar
2
0
A = full cross-sectional area
C
b
= 12.5M
max
/(2.5M
max
+ 3M
A
+ 4M
B
+ 3M
C
) (7.24)
In Equation 7.24,
M
max
= absolutevalueof maximummoment in theunbraced segment
M
A
= absolutevalueof moment at quarter point of unbraced segment
M
B
= absolutevalueof moment at centerlineof unbraced segment
M
C
= absolutevalueof moment at three-quarter point of unbraced segment
C
b
ispermittedtobeconservativelytaken asunityfor all cases. For cantileversor overhangswhere
thefreeend isunbraced, C
b
shall betaken asunity. For memberssubject tocombined axial load and
bendingmoment, C
b
shall betaken asunity.
E = modulusof elasticity
C
T F
= 0.6 0.4(M
1
/M
2
)
where
M
1
isthesmaller and M
2
thelarger bending moment at theendsof theunbraced length in the
planeof bending, andwhereM
1
/M
2
, theratioof endmoments, ispositivewhenM
1
andM
2
havethe
samesign (reversecurvaturebending) and negativewhen they areof oppositesign (singlecurvature
bending). When thebendingmoment at any point within an unbraced length islarger than that at
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
both endsof thislength, and for memberssubject to combined compressiveaxial load and bending
moment, C
T F
shall betaken asunity.
r
0
= Polar radiusof gyration of thecross-section about theshear center
=
_
r
2
x
+ r
2
y
+ x
2
0
r
x
, r
y
= radii of gyration of thecross-section about thecentroidal principal axes
G = shear modulus
K
x
, K
y
, K
t
= effectivelength factorsfor bendingabout thex- and y-axes, and for twisting
L
x
, L
y
, L
t
= unbracedlengthof compressionmember for bendingabout thex- andy-axes, and
for twisting
x
0
= distancefromtheshear center to thecentroid alongtheprincipal x-axis, taken as
negative
J = St. Venant torsion constant of thecross-section
C
w
= torsional warpingconstant of thecross-section
j = [
_
A
x
3
dA +
_
A
xy
2
dA]/(2I
y
) x
0
(b) For I- or Z-sectionsbent about thecentroidal axisperpendicular to theweb (x-axis):
In lieu of (a), thefollowingequationsmay beused to evaluateM
e
:
M
e
=
2
EC
b
dI
yc
/L
2
for doubly-symmetricI-sections (7.25)
M
e
=
2
EC
b
dI
yc
/(2L
2
) for point-symmetricZ-sections (7.26)
In Equations7.25and 7.26,
d = depth of section
E = modulusof elasticity
I
yc
= moment of inertia of the compression portion of a section about the gravity axis of the
entiresection parallel to theweb, usingthefull unreduced section
L = unbraced length of themember
EXAMPLE7.4:
Determinethenominal moment for lateral bucklingstrength for theI-beamused in Example7.2.
Assumethat thebeamisbraced laterally at both endsand midspan. UseF
y
= 50ksi.
Solution
1. Calculation of Sectional Properties
Based on thedimensionsgiven in Example7.2(Figures7.19and 7.20), themoment of inertia, I
x
,
and thesection modulus, S
f
, of thefull section can becomputed asshown in thefollowingtable.
Distancefrom
AreaA mid-depth y Ay
2
Element (in.
2
) (in.) (in.
4
)
Flanges 4(1.6775)(0.135) = 0.9059 3.9325 14.0093
Corners 4(0.05407) = 0.2163 3.8436 3.1955
Webs 2(7.355)(0.135) = 1.9859 0 0
Total 3.1081 17.2048
2I
web
= 2(1/12)(0.135)(7.355)
3
= 8.9522
I
x
= 26.1570in.
4
S
f
= I
x
/(8/2) = 6.54in.
3
Thevalueof I
yc
can becomputed asshown below.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Distance
AreaA fromy axis, x Ax
2
Element (in.
2
) (in.) (in.
4
)
Flanges 4(1.6775)(0.135) = 0.9059 1.1613 1.2217
Corners 4(0.05407) = 0.2163 0.1564 0.0053
Webs 2(7.355)(0.135) = 1.9859 0.0675 0.0090
Total 3.1081 1.2360
I
anges
= 4(1/12)0.135(1.6775)
3
= 0.2124
I
y
= 1.4484in.
4
I
yc
= I
y
/2= 0.724in.
4
Considering thelateral supportsat both endsand midspan, and themoment diagram shown in
Figure7.25, thevalueof C
b
for thesegment AB or BC is1.30 according to Equation 7.24. Using
FIGURE7.25: Example7.4. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,
NewYork. With permission.)
Equation 7.25,
M
e
=
2
EC
b
dI
yc
L
2
=
2
(29,500)(1.30)
(8)(0.724)
(5 12)
2
= 608.96 in.-kips
M
y
= S
f
F
y
= (6.54)(50) = 327.0 in.-kips
0.56M
y
= 183.12 in.-kips
2.78M
y
= 909.06 in.-kips
Since2.78M
y
> M
e
> 0.56M
y
, fromEquation 7.22,
M
c
=
10
9
M
y
_
1
10M
y
36M
e
_
=
10
9
(327.0)
_
1
10(327.0)
36(608.96)
_
= 309.14 in.-kips
Based on Equation 7.20, thenominal moment for lateral bucklingstrength is
M
n
= S
c
M
c
S
f
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
in which S
c
istheelasticsection modulusof theeffectivesection calculated at acompressivestressof
f = M
c
/S
f
= 309.14/6.54 = 47.27 ksi. By usingthesameprocedureillustrated in Example7.2,
S
c
= 6.295in.
3
. Therefore, thenominal moment for lateral bucklingstrength is
M
n
= (6.295)
_
309.14
6.54
_
= 297.6 in.-kips
For channelsor Z-sectionshavingthetensionangethrough-fastenedtodeckor sheathingwiththe
compression angelaterallyunbraced and loaded in aplaneparallel totheweb, thenominal exural
strength isdetermined by M
n
= RS
e
F
y
, whereR isareduction factor [ 7] . A similar approach is
used for beamshavingoneangefastened to astandingseamroof system.
UnusuallyWideBeamFlangesandShort SpanBeams
Whenbeamangesareunusuallywide, special considerationshouldbegiventothepossibleeffects
of shear lagand angecurling. Shear lagdependson thetypeof loadingand thespan-to-width ratio
andisindependent of thethickness. Flangecurlingisindependent of span lengthbut dependson the
thicknessand width of theange, thedepth of thesection, and thebendingstressesin both tension
and compression anges.
In order to consider the shear lag effects, the effective widths of both tension and compression
angesshould beused accordingto theAISI Specication.
When astraight beam with unusually wideand thin angesissubject to bending, theportion of
the ange most remote from the web tends to deect toward the neutral axis due to the effect of
longitudinal curvatureof thebeamandtheappliedbendingstressesin both anges. For thepurpose
of controlling theexcessiveangecurling, theAISI Specication providesan equation to limit the
angewidth.
Shear Strength
Theshear strength of beamwebsisgovernedbyeither yieldingor bucklingof thewebelement,
depending on thedepth-to-thicknessratio, h/t , and themechanical propertiesof steel. For beam
webshaving small h/t ratios, thenominal shear strength isgoverned by shear yielding. When the
h/t ratio islarge, thenominal shear strength iscontrolled by elastic shear buckling. For beam webs
havingmoderateh/t ratios, theshear strength isbased on inelasticshear buckling.
For thedesign of beam webs, theAISI Specication providesthefollowing equationsfor deter-
miningthenominal shear strength:
For h/t 0.96
_
Ek
v
/F
y
:
V
n
= 0.60F
y
ht (7.27)
For 0.96
_
Ek
v
/F
y
< h/t 1.415
_
Ek
v
/F
y
:
V
n
= 0.64t
2
_
k
v
F
y
E (7.28)
For h/t > 1.415
_
Ek
v
/F
y
:
V
n
=
2
Ek
v
t
3
/[12(1
2
)h] = 0.905Ek
v
t
3
/h (7.29)
where
V
n
= nominal shear strength of beam
h = depth of theat portion of theweb measured alongtheplaneof theweb
t = web thickness
k
v
= shear bucklingcoefcient determined asfollows:
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
1. For unreinforced webs, k
v
= 5.34
2. For beamwebswith transversestiffenerssatisfyingtheAISI requirements
when a/h 1.0:
k
v
= 4.00 +
5.34
(a/h)
2
when a/h > 1.0:
k
v
= 5.34 +
4.00
(a/h)
2
where
a = theshear panel length for unreinforced web element
= theclear distancebetween transversestiffenersfor reinforced web elements
For aweb consistingof two or moresheets, each sheet should beconsidered asaseparateelement
carryingitsshareof theshear force.
CombinedBendingandShear
For continuousbeamsand cantilever beams, high bending stressesoften combinewith high
shear stresses at the supports. Such beam webs must be safeguarded against buckling due to the
combination of bendingand shear stresses. Based on theAISI Specication, themoment and shear
should satisfy theinteraction equationslisted in Table7.3.
TABLE7.3 Interaction EquationsUsed for Combined Bendingand Shear
ASD LRFD
Beamswith unreinforced
webs
_
M
Maxo
_
2
+
_
V
Va
_
2
1.0
_
Mu

b
Mnxo
_
2
+
_
Vu
vVn
_
2
1.0
(7.30) (7.32)
Beams with transverse
web stiffeners
M M
a
and V V
a
M
u

b
M
n
and V
u

v
V
n
0.6
_
M
Maxo
_
+
_
V
Va
_
1.3 0.6
_
Mu

b
Mnxo
_
+
_
Vu
vVn
_
1.3
(7.31) (7.33)
M = bendingmoment
M
a
= allowablemoment when bendingaloneexists
M
axo
= allowablemoment about thecentroidal x-axisdetermined in accordancewith thespec-
ication excludingtheconsideration of lateral buckling
V = unfactored shear force
V
a
= allowableshear forcewhen shear aloneexists

b
= resistancefactor for bending

v
= resistancefactor for shear
M
n
= nominal exural strength when bendingaloneexists
M
nxo
= nominal exural strength about the centroidal x-axis determined in accordance with
thespecication excludingtheconsideration of lateral buckling
M
u
= required exural strength
V
n
= nominal shear strength when shear aloneexists
V
u
= required shear strength
WebCrippling
For cold-formed steel beams, transversestiffenersarenot frequently used for beamwebs. The
webs may cripple due to the high local intensity of the load or reaction as shown in Figure 7.26.
Becausethetheoretical analysisof web cripplingisrather complex dueto theinvolvement of many
factors, thepresent AISI design equationsarebased on extensiveexperimental investigationsunder
four loading conditions: (1) end one-ange(EOF) loading, (2) interior one-ange(IOF) loading,
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE7.26: Web cripplingof cold-formed steel beams.
(3) endtwo-ange(ETF) loading, and(4) interior two-ange(ITF) loading[ 29, 46, 50] . Theloading
conditionsused for thetestsareillustrated in Figure7.27.
FIGURE7.27: Loadingconditionsfor webcripplingtests. (a) EOFloading. (b) IOFloading. (c) ETF
loading. (d) ITFloading. (FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons, New
York. With permission.)
The nominal web crippling strength for a given loading condition can be determined from the
AISI equations[ 7] on thebasisof thethicknessof web element, design yield stress, thebend radius-
to-thicknessratio, thedepth-to-thicknessratio, thebearinglength-to-thicknessratio, and theangle
between theplaneof theweb and theplaneof thebearing surface. Tables 7.4a and Table7.4b list
theequationsfor determiningthenominal web cripplingstrengthsof one- and two-angeloading
conditions, respectively.
CombinedBendingandWebCrippling
For combined bending and web crippling, thedesign of beam webs should bebased on the
interaction equations provided in the AISI Specication [ 7] . These equations are presented in
Table7.5.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Table7.4a Nominal Web CripplingStrength for One-FlangeLoading, per Web, P
n
Shapeshaving Shapeshaving I-Sectionsor
singlewebs singlewebs similar sections
Stiffened or Stiffened,
partially partially stiffened,
stiffened Unstiffened and unstiffened
anges anges anges
End reaction t
2
kC
3
C
4
C

[331 0.61(h/t )] t
2
kC
3
C
4
C

[217 0.28(h/t )] t
2
F
y
C
6
(10.0 + 1.25

N/t )
opposingloads [1 + 0.01(N/t )]C
9
a
[1 + 0.01(N/t )]C
9
a,b
spaced > 1.5h
Interior reactions t
2
kC
1
C
2
C

[538 0.74(h/t )] t
2
kC
1
C
2
C

[538 0.74(h/t )] t
2
F
y
C
5
(0.88 + 0.12m)
opposingloads [1 + 0.007(N/t )]C
9
c
[1 + 0.007(N/t )]C
9
c
(15.0 + 3.25

N/t )
spaced > 1.5h
a
When F
y
66.5 ksi (459MPa), thevalueof KC
3
shall betaken as1.34.
b
When N/t > 60, thefactor [1 + 0.01(N/t )] may beincreased to [0.71 + 0.015(N/t )]
c
When N/t > 60, thefactor [1 + 0.007(N/t )] may beincreased to [0.75 + 0.011(N/t )]
C
1
= (1.22 0.22k)
C
2
= (1.06 0.06R/t ) 1.0
C
3
= (1.33 0.33k)
C
4
= (1.15 0.15R/t ) 1.0 but not lessthan 0.50
C
5
= (1.49 0.53k) 0.6
C
6
= 1 + (h/t )/750 when h/t 150
= 1.20, when h/t > 150
C
9
= 1.0for U.S. customary units, kipsand in.
= 6.9for SI units, N and mm
C

= 0.7 + 0.3(/90)
2
F
y
= design yield stressof theweb
h = depth of theat portion of theweb measured alongtheplaneof theweb
k = 894F
y
/E
m = t /0.075, when t isin in.
m = t /1.91, when t isin mm
t = web thickness
N = actual length of bearing
R = insidebend radius
= anglebetween theplaneof theweb and theplaneof thebearingsurface 45

, but not morethan 90

Table7.4b Nominal Web CripplingStrength for Two-FlangeLoading, per Web, P


n
Shapeshaving Shapeshaving I-Sectionsor
singlewebs singlewebs similar sections
Stiffened or Stiffened,
partially partially stiffened,
stiffened Unstiffened and unstiffened
anges anges anges
End reaction t
2
kC
3
C
4
C

[244 0.57(h/t )] t
2
kC
3
C
4
C

[244 0.57(h/t )] t
2
F
y
C
8
(0.64 + 0.31m)
opposingloads [1 + 0.01(N/t )]C
9
a
[1 + 0.01(N/t )]C
9
a
(10.0 + 1.25

N/t )
spaced 1.5h
Interior reaction t
2
kC
1
C
2
C

[771 2.26(h/t )] t
2
kC
1
C
2
C

[771 2.26(h/t )] t
2
F
y
C
7
(0.82 + 0.15m)
opposingloads [1 + 0.0013(N/t )]C
9
[1 + 0.0013(N/t )]C
9
(15.0 + 3.25

N/t )
spaced 1.5h
a
When F
y
66.5 ksi (459MPa), thevalueof KC
3
shall betaken as1.34.
C
7
= 1/k, when h/t 66.5
= [1.10 (h/t )/665]/k, when h/t > 66.5
C
8
= [0.98 (h/t )/865]/k
C
1
, C
2
, C
3
, C
4
, C
9
, C

, F
y
, h, k, m, t, N, R, and aredened in Table7.4a.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
TABLE7.5 Interaction Equationsfor Combined Bendingand Web Crippling
ASD LRFD
Shapes having single unrein-
forced webs
1.2
_
P
Pa
_
+
_
M
Maxo
_
1.5 1.07
_
Pu
wPn
_
+
_
Mu

b
Mnxo
_
1.42
(7.34) (7.37)
Shapeshavingmultipleunrein-
forced webssuch
1.1
_
P
Pa
_
+
_
M
Maxo
_
1.5 0.82
_
Pu
wPn
_
+
_
Mu

b
Mnxo
_
1.32
asI-sections (7.35) (7.38)
Support point of two nested Z-
shapes
M
Mno
+
P
Pn
1.0
Mu
Mno
+
Pu
Pn
1.68
(7.36) (7.39)
Note: TheAISI Specication includessomeexception clauses, under which theeffect of combined bending
and web cripplingneed not bechecked.
P = concentrated load or reaction in thepresenceof bendingmoment
P
a
= allowableconcentrated load or reaction in theabsenceof bendingmoment
P
n
= nominal web crippling strength for concentrated load or reaction in the absence of bending
moment (for Equations7.34, 7.35, 7.37, and 7.38)
P
n
= nominal web cripplingstrength assumingsingleweb interior one-angeloadingfor thenested
Z-sections, i.e., sumof thetwo websevaluated individually (for Equations7.36and 7.39)
P
u
= required strength for theconcentrated load or reaction in thepresenceof bendingmoment
M = applied bendingmoment at, or immediatelyadjacent to, thepoint of application of theconcen-
trated load or reaction
M
axo
= allowablemoment about thecentroidal x-axisdetermined in accordancewith thespecication
excludingtheconsideration of lateral buckling
M
no
= nominal exural strength for thenested Z-sections, i.e., thesum of thetwo sectionsevaluated
individually, excludinglateral buckling
M
nxo
= nominal exural strength about thecentroidal x-axisdetermined in accordancewith thespeci-
cation excludingtheconsideration of lateral buckling
M
u
= requiredexural strength at, or immediatelyadjacent to, thepoint of application of theconcen-
trated load or reaction P
u
= resistancefactor = 0.9

b
= resistancefactor for bending

w
= resistancefactor for web crippling
BracingRequirements
In cold-formed steel design, bracesshould bedesigned to restrain lateral bendingor twisting
of a loaded beam and to avoid local crippling at the points of attachment. When channels and
Z-shaped sectionsareused asbeamsand loaded in theplaneof theweb, theAISI Specication [ 7]
providesdesign requirementsto restrain twisting of thebeam under thefollowing two conditions:
(1) the top ange is connected to deck or sheathing material in such a manner as to effectively
restrain lateral deection of theconnected ange, and (2) neither angeisconnected to sheathing.
In general, bracesshould bedesigned to satisfy thestrength and stiffnessrequirements. For beams
using symmetrical crosssections, such asI-beams, theAISI Specication doesnot providespecic
requirements for braces. However, the braces may be designed for a capacity of 2% of the force
resisted by thecompression portion of thebeam. Thisisa frequently used ruleof thumb but isa
conservativeapproach, asproven by arigorousanalysis.
7.6.5 ConcentricallyLoadedCompressionMembers
Axially loaded cold-formed steel compression members should be designed for the following
limit states: (1) yielding, (2) overall column buckling (exural buckling, torsional buckling, or
torsional-exural buckling), and (3) local buckling of individual elements. The governing failure
modedependson theconguration of thecross-section, thicknessof material, unbraced length, and
end restraint.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Yielding
Averyshort, compact column under axial load mayfail byyielding. For thiscase, thenominal
axial strength istheyield load, i.e.,
P
n
= P
y
= AF
y
(7.40)
whereA isthefull cross-sectional areaof thecolumn and F
y
istheyield point of steel.
Overall ColumnBuckling
Overall column bucklingmay beoneof thefollowingthreetypes:
1. Flexural buckling bendingabout aprincipal axis. Theelasticexural bucklingstressis
F
e
=

2
E
(KL/r)
2
(7.41)
where
E = modulusof elasticity
K = effectivelength factor for exural buckling(Figure7.28)
L = unbraced length of member for exural buckling
r = radiusof gyration of thefull section
FIGURE7.28: Effectivelength factor K for concentrically loaded compression members.
2. Torsional buckling twistingabout shear center. Theelastictorsional bucklingstressis
F
e
=
1
Ar
2
0
_
GJ +

2
EC
w
(K
t
L
t
)
2
_
(7.42)
where
A = full cross-sectional area
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
C
w
= torsional warpingconstant of thecross-section
G = shear modulus
J = St. Venant torsion constant of thecross-section
K
t
= effectivelength factor for twisting
L
t
= unbraced length of member for twisting
r
0
= polar radiusof gyration of thecross-section about shear center
3. Torsional-exural bucklingbendingandtwistingsimultaneously. Theelastictorsional-exural
bucklingstressis
F
e
= [(
ex
+
t
)
_
(
ex
+
t
)
2
4
ex

t
]/2 (7.43)
where
= 1(x
0
/r
0
)
2

ex
=
2
E/(K
x
L
x
/r
x
)
2

t
= thesameasEquation 7.42
x
0
= distancefromshear center to thecentroid alongtheprincipal x-axis
For doubly-symmetric and point-symmetric shapes (Figure 7.29), the overall column buckling
can beeither exural typeor torsional type. However, for singly-symmetricshapes(Figure7.30), the
overall column bucklingcan beeither exural bucklingor torsional-exural buckling.
FIGURE7.29: Doubly-symmetricshapes.
FIGURE 7.30: Singly-symmetric shapes. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John
Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
For overall column buckling, thenominal axial strength isdetermined by Equation 7.44:
P
n
= A
e
F
n
(7.44)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
where
A
e
= effectiveareadetermined for thestressF
n
F
n
= nominal bucklingstressdetermined asfollows:
For
c
1.5:
F
n
= (0.658

2
c
)F
y
(7.45)
For
c
> 1.5:
F
n
=
_
0.877

2
c
_
F
y
(7.46)
Theuseof theeffectivearea A
e
in Equation 7.44 isto reect theeffect of local buckling on the
reduction of column strength. In Equations7.45and 7.46,

c
=
_
F
y
/F
e
in which F
e
istheleast of elastic exural buckling stress(Equation 7.41), torsional buckling stress
(Equation 7.42), and torsional-exural bucklingstress(Equation 7.43), whichever isapplicable.
For thedesign of compression members, theslendernessratio should not exceed 200, except that
duringconstruction, KL/r preferably should not exceed 300.
For nonsymmetricshapeswhosecross-sectionsdonot haveanysymmetry, either about an axisor
about apoint, theelastictorsional-exural bucklingstressshould bedetermined by rational analysis
or by tests. SeeAISI Design Manual [ 8] .
In addition to the above design provisions for the design of axially loaded columns, the AISI
Specication also provides design criteria for compression members having one ange through-
fastened to deck or sheathing.
EXAMPLE7.5:
Determinetheallowableaxial load for thesquaretubular column shown in Figure7.31. Assume
that F
y
= 40 ksi, K
x
L
x
= K
y
L
y
= 10 ft, and thedead-to-liveload ratio is1/5. UsetheASD and
LRFD methods.
FIGURE7.31: Example7.5. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley & Sons,
NewYork. With permission.)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Solution
(A) ASD Method
Since the square tube is a doubly-symmetric closed section, it will not be subject to torsional-
exural buckling. It can bedesigned for exural buckling.
1. Sectional Propertiesof Full Section
w = 8.00 2(R + t ) = 7.415 in.
A = 4(7.415 0.105 + 0.0396) = 3.273 in.
2
I
x
= I
y
= 2(0.105)[(1/12)(7.415)
3
+ 7.415(4 0.105/2)
2
] + 4(0.0396)(4.0 0.1373)
2
= 33.763 in.
4
r
x
= r
y
=
_
I
x
/A =
_
33.763/3.273 = 3.212 in.
2. Nominal Buckling Stress, F
n
. According to Equation 7.41, theelastic exural buckling
stress, F
e
, iscomputed asfollows:
KL
r
=
10 12
3.212
= 37.36 < 200 O.K.
F
e
=

2
E
(KL/r)
2
=

2
(29500)
(37.36)
2
= 208.597 ksi

c
=
_
F
y
F
e
=
_
40
208.597
= 0.438 < 1.5
F
n
= (0.658

2
c
)F
y
= (0.658
0.438
2
)40 = 36.914 ksi
3. Effective Area, A
e
. Because the given square tube is composed of four stiffened ele-
ments, theeffectivewidth of stiffenedelementssubjectedtouniformcompression can be
computed fromEquations7.4through 7.7by usingk = 4.0:
w/t = 7.415/0.105 = 70.619
=
1.052

k
_
w
t
_
_
F
n
E
= 1.052/

4(70.619)
_
36.914/29,500 = 1.314
Since > 0.673, fromEquation 7.5,
b =
w
where
= (1 0.22/)/ = (1 0.22/1.314)/1.314 = 0.634
Therefore, b = (0.634)(7.415) = 4.701 in.
Theeffectiveareais
A
e
= 3.273 4(7.415 4.701)(0.105) = 2.133 in.
2
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
4. Nominal and AllowableLoads. UsingEquation 7.44, thenominal load is
P
n
= A
e
F
n
= (2.133)(36.914) = 78.738 kips
Theallowableload is
P
a
= P
n
/
c
= 78.738/1.80 = 43.74 kips
(B) LRFD Method
In Item (A) above, thenominal axial load, P
n
, wascomputed to be78.738 kips. Thedesign axial
load for theLRFD method is

c
P
n
= 0.85(78.738) = 66.93 kips.
Based on theload combination of dead and liveloads, therequired axial load is
P
u
= 1.2P
D
+ 1.6P
L
= 1.2P
D
+ 1.6(5P
D
) = 9.2P
D
where
P
D
= axial load dueto dead load
P
L
= axial load dueto liveload
By usingP
u
=
c
P
n
, thevaluesof P
D
and P
L
arecomputed asfollows:
P
D
= 66.93/9.2 = 7.28 kips
P
L
= 5P
D
= 36.40 kips
Therefore, theallowableaxial load is
P
a
= P
D
+ P
L
= 43.68 kips
It can be seen that the allowable axial loads determined by the ASD and LRFD methods are
practically thesame.
7.6.6 CombinedAxial LoadandBending
TheAISI Specication providesinteraction equationsfor combined axial load and bending.
CombinedTensileAxial LoadandBending
For combined tensileaxial load and bending, therequired strengthsshould satisfy theinterac-
tion equationspresented in Table7.6. Theseequationsareto prevent yieldingof thetension ange
and to prevent failureof thecompression angeof themember.
CombinedCompressiveAxial LoadandBending
Cold-formed steel membersunder combined compressiveaxial load and bendingareusually
referred to as beam-columns. Such members are often found in framed structures, trusses, and
exterior wall studs. For thedesign of thesemembers, therequired strengthsshould satisfy theAISI
interaction equationspresented in Table7.7.
7.6.7 Cylindrical Tubular Members
Thin-walled cylindrical tubular members are economical sections for compression and torsional
members because of their large ratio of radius of gyration to area, the same radius of gyration in
all directions, and thelargetorsional rigidity. TheAISI design provisionsarelimited to theratio of
outsidediameter-to-wall thickness, D/t , not greater than 0.441E/F
y
.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
TABLE7.6 Interaction Equationsfor Combined TensileAxial Load and Bending
ASD LRFD
Check tension ange

b
Mx
M
nxt
+

b
My
M
nyt
+

t
T
Tn
1.0
Mux

b
M
nxt
+
Muy

b
M
nyt
+
Tu

t
Tn
1.0
(7.47) (7.49)
Check compression ange

b
Mx
Mnx
+

b
My
Mny
+

t
T
Tn
1.0
Mux

b
Mnx
+
Muy

b
Mny

Tu

t
Tn
1.0
(7.48) (7.50)
M
nx
, M
ny
= nominal exural strengthsabout thecentroidal x- and y-axes
M
nxt
, M
nyt
= S
f t
F
y
M
ux
, M
uy
= required exural strengthswith respect to thecentroidal axes
M
x
, M
y
= required momentswith respect to thecentroidal axesof thesection
S
f t
= section modulusof thefull section for theextremetension ber about theappropriateaxis
T = required tensileaxial load
T
n
= nominal tensileaxial strength
T
u
= required axial strength

b
= resistancefactor for bending

t
= resistancefactor for tension

b
= safety factor for bending

t
= safety factor for tension
TABLE7.7 Interaction Equationsfor Combined CompressiveAxial
Load and Bending
ASD LRFD
when
c
P/P
n
0.15, when P
u
/
c
P
n
0.15,
cP
Pn
+

b
Mx
Mnx
+

b
My
Mny
1.0
Pu
cPn
+
Mux

b
Mnx
+
Muy

b
Mny
1.0
(7.51) (7.54)
when
c
P/P
n
> 0.15, when P
u
/
c
P
n
> 0.15,
cP
Pn
+

b
CmxMx
Mnxx
+

b
CmyMy
Mnyy
1.0
Pu
cPn
+
CmxMux

b
Mnxx
+
CmyMuy

b
Mnyy
1.0
(7.52) (7.55)
cP
Pno
+

b
Mx
Mnx
+

b
My
Mny
1.0
Pu
cPno
+
Mux

b
Mnx
+
Muy

b
Mny
1.0
(7.53) (7.56)
M
x
, M
y
= required momentswith respect to thecentroidal axesof theeffective
section determined for therequired axial strength alone
M
nx
, M
ny
= nominal exural strengthsabout thecentroidal axes
M
ux
, M
uy
= required exural strengthswith respect to thecentroidal axesof the
effectivesection determined for therequired axial strength alone
P = required axial load
P
n
= nominal axial strength determinedin accordancewith Equation 7.44
P
no
= nominal axial strengthdeterminedinaccordancewithEquation7.44,
for F
n
= F
y
P
u
= required axial strength

x
= 1
c
P/P
EX
(for Equation 7.52)

y
= 1
c
P/P
EY
(for Equation 7.52)

x
= 1 P
u
/P
EX
(for Equation 7.55)

y
= 1 P
u
/P
EY
(for Equation 7.55)
P
EX
=
2
EI
x
/(K
x
L
x
)
2
P
EY
=
2
EI
y
/(K
y
L
y
)
2

b
= safety factor for bending

c
= safety factor for concentrically loaded compression
C
mx
, C
my
= coefcientswhosevalueshall betaken asfollows:
1. For compression membersin framessubject tojoint translation (sidesway) C
m
= 0.85
2. For restrained compression members in frames braced against joint translation and
not subject totransverseloadingbetween their supportsin theplaneof bendingC
m
=
0.6 0.4(M
1
/M
2
), whereM
1
/M
2
istheratio of thesmaller to thelarger moment at
theendsof that portion of themember under consideration which isunbraced in the
planeof bending. M
1
/M
2
ispositivewhen themember isbent in reversecurvature
and negativewhen it isbent in singlecurvature
3. For compression membersin framesbraced against joint translation in theplaneof
loadingand subject totransverseloadingbetween their supports, thevalueof C
m
may
be determined by rational analysis. However, in lieu of such analysis, the following
valuesmay beused: (a) for memberswhoseendsarerestrained, C
m
= 0.85; (b) for
memberswhoseendsareunrestrained, C
m
= 1.0
I
x
, I
y
, L
x
, L
y
, K
x
, and K
y
weredened previously.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
BendingStrength
For cylindrical tubular memberssubjected to bending, thenominal exural strengthsareas
followsaccordingto theD/t ratio:
1. For D/t 0.070E/F
y
:
M
n
= 1.25F
y
S
f
(7.57)
2. For 0.070E/F
y
< D/t 0.319E/F
y
:
M
n
= [0.970 + 0.020(E/F
y
)/(D/t )]F
y
S
f
(7.58)
3. For 0.319E/F
y
< D/t 0.441E/F
y
:
M
n
= [0.328E/(D/t )]S
f
(7.59)
where
S
f
= elasticsection modulusof thefull, unreduced cross-section
Other symbolsweredened previously.
CompressiveStrength
When cylindrical tubesareused asconcentrically loaded compression members, thenominal
axial strength is determined by Equation 7.44, except that (1) the elastic buckling stress, F
e
, is
determined for exural bucklingby usingEquation 7.41 and (2) theeffectivearea, A
e
, iscalculated
by Equation 7.60.
A
e
= [1 (1 R
2
)(1 A
0
/A)]A (7.60)
where
R =
_
F
y
/2F
e
A
0
= {0.037/[(DF
y
)/(t E)] + 0.667}A A
A = areaof theunreduced cross-section
In theaboveequations, thevalueA
0
isthereduced areadueto theeffect of local buckling[ 8, 49] .
7.7 ConnectionsandJoints
Welds, bolts, screws, rivets, andother special devicessuchasmetal stitchingandadhesivesaregenerally
used for cold-formed steel connections. TheAISI Specication containsonly thedesign provisions
for welded connections, bolted connections, and screw connections. These design equations are
based primarily on theexperimental dataobtained fromextensivetest programs.
7.7.1 WeldedConnections
Weldsused for cold-formed steel construction may beclassied asarc welds(or fusion welds) and
resistancewelds. Arcweldingisusuallyusedfor connectingcold-formedsteel memberstoeachother
aswell asconnectingsuch thin membersto heavy, hot-rolled steel framingmembers. It isused for
groovewelds, arc spot welds, arc seam welds, llet welds, and aregroovewelds. TheAISI design
provisionsfor welded connectionsareapplicableonly for cold-formed steel structural members, in
which thethicknessof thethinnest connected part is0.18 in. (4.57 mm) or less. Otherwise, when
thethicknessof connected partsisthicker than 0.18 in. (4.57 mm), thewelded connection should
bedesignedaccordingtotheAISCSpecications[ 1, 2] . Additional design information on structural
weldingof sheet steelscan also befound in theAWSCode[ 16] .
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Arc Welds
According to the AISI Specication, the nominal strengths of arc welds can be determined
fromtheequationsgiven in Table7.8. Thedesign strengthscan then becomputedbyusingthesafety
factor or resistancefactor provided in Table7.1.
TABLE7.8 Nominal Strength Equationsfor ArcWelds
Typeof weld Typeof strength Nominal strength P
n
(kips)
Groove Tension or compression Lt
e
F
y
welds Shear strength of weld Lt
e
(0.6F
xx
)
(Figure7.32) Shear strength of connected part Lt
e
(F
y
/

3)
Arcspot Shear strength
welds Strength of weld 0.589d
2
e
F
xx
(Figure7.33) Strength of connected part
1. d
a
/t 0.815

E/F
u
2.20t d
a
F
u
2. 0.815

E/F
u
< (d
a
/t ) < 1.397

E/F
u
0.28[1 + (5.59

E/F
u
)/(d
a
/t )]t d
a
F
u
3. d
a
/t 1.397

E/F
u
1.40t d
a
F
u
Shear strength of connected part
based on end distance eF
u
t
Tensilestrength
Strength of weld 0.785d
2
e
F
xx
Strength of connected part
1.F
u
/E < 0.00187 [6.59 3150(F
u
/E)](t d
a
F
u
)
1.46t d
a
F
u
2. F
u
/E 0.00187 0.70t d
a
F
u
Arcseam Shear strength [d
2
e
/4 + Ld
e
]0.75F
xx
welds Strength of connected part 2.5t F
u
(0.25L + 0.96d
a
)
(Figure7.34)
Fillet welds Shear strength of weld 0.75t
w
LF
xx
(Figure7.35) (for t > 0.15in.)
Strength of connected part
1. Longitudinal loading
L/t < 25: [ 1(0.01L/t )]t LF
u
L/t 25: 0.75t LF
u
2. Transverseloading t LF
u
Flaregroovewelds Shear strength of weld 0.75t
w
LF
xx
(Figure7.36) (for t > 0.15in.)
Strength of connected part
1. Transverseloading 0.833t LF
u
2. Longitudinal loading
For t t
w
< 2t or if lip height < L 0.75t LF
u
For t
w
2t and lip height L 1.50t LF
u
d = visiblediameter of outer surfaceof arcspot weld
d
a
= averagediameter of thearcspot weld at mid-thicknessof t
d
a
= (d t ) for singlesheet
d
a
= (d2t ) for multiplesheets
d
e
= effectivediameter of fused areaat planeof maximumshear transfer
d
e
= 0.7d 1.5t 0.55d
e = distancemeasured in thelineof forcefromthecenterlineof aweld tothenearest edgeof an adjacent
weld or to theend of theconnected part toward which theforceisdirected
F
u
= tensilestrength of theconnected part
F
y
= yield point of steel
F
xx
= ller metal strength designation in AWSelectrodeclassication
L = length of weld
P
n
= nominal strength of weld
t = thicknessof connected sheet
t
w
= effectivethroat dimension for grooveweld, seeAISI specication
t
w
= effectivethroat = 0.707w
1
or 0.707w
2
, whichever issmaller
w
1
= legof weld
w
2
= legof weld
SeeAISI Specication for additional design information.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
ResistanceWelds
The nominal shear strengths of resistance welds are provided in the AISI Specication [ 7]
accordingto thethicknessof thethinnest outsidesheet. They areapplicablefor all structural grades
of low-carbon steel, uncoated or galvanized with 0.9oz/ft
2
of sheet or less, and mediumcarbon and
low-alloy steels.
7.7.2 BoltedConnections
Dueto thethinness of theconnected parts, thedesign of bolted connections in cold-formed steel
construction is somewhat different from that in hot-rolled heavy construction. The AISI design
provisionsareapplicableonly to cold-formed membersor elementslessthan 3/16in. (4.76mm) in
thickness. For materialsnot lessthan 3/16in. (4.76mm), thebolted connection should bedesigned
in accordancewith theAISCSpecications[ 1, 2] .
In the AISI Specication, ve types of bolts (A307, A325, A354, A449, and A490) are used for
connectionsin cold-formed steel construction, in which A449 and A354 boltsshould beused asan
equivalent of A325and A490bolts, respectively, whenever boltswith smaller than 1/2-in. diameters
arerequired.
On thebasis of thefailuremodes occurring in thetests of bolted connections, theAISI criteria
deal with threemajor design considerationsfor theconnected parts: (1) longitudinal shear failure,
(2) tensilefailure, and (3) bearingfailure. Thenominal strength equationsaregiven in Table7.9.
TABLE7.9 Nominal Strength Equationsfor Bolted Connections
Typeof strength Nominal strength, P
n
Shear strength based on spacingand edge t eF
u
distance
Tensilestrength
1. With washersunder bolt head and nuts (1 0.9r + 3rd/s)F
u
A
n
F
u
A
n
2. No washersor only onewasher under (1r+ 2.5rd/s)F
u
A
n
F
u
A
n
bolt head and nuts
Note: Thetensilestrength computed above
should not exceed A
n
F
y
.
Bearingstrength
1. With washersunder bolt head and nut
Insidesheet of doubleshear connection
F
u
/F
y
1.08 3.33F
u
dt
F
u
/F
y
< 1.08 3.00F
u
dt
Singleshear and outsidesheetsof doubleshear 3.00F
u
dt
connection
2. Without washersunder bolt head and nut
or with only onewasher
Insidesheet of doubleshear connection 3.00F
u
dt
Singleshear and outsidesheetsof doubleshear 2.22F
u
dt
connection
A
n
= net areaof theconnected part
d = diameter of bolt
e = distancemeasured in thelineof forcefrom thecenter of bolt to thenearest edgeof
an adjacent holeor to theend of theconnected part
F
u
= tensilestrength of theconnected part
F
y
= specied yield point of steel
r = forcetransmittedbythebolt or boltsat thesection considered, dividedbythetension
forcein themember at that section. If r islessthan 0.2, it may betaken equal to zero
s = spacingof boltsperpendicular to lineof force
t = thicknessof thinnest connected part
In addition, design strength equationsareprovided for shear and tension in bolts. Accordingly,
theAISI nominal strength for shear and tension in boltscan bedetermined asfollows:
P
n
= A
b
F
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
where
A
b
= grosscross-sectional areaof bolt
F = nominal shear or tensilestressgiven in Table7.10.
For boltssubjected to thecombination of shear and tension, thereduced nominal tension stressis
given in Table7.11.
TABLE7.10 Nominal Tensileand Shear Stressesfor Bolts
Nominal tensile Nominal shear
Description of bolts stressF
nt
, ksi stressF
nv
, ksi
A307Bolts, GradeA, 1/4in. d < 1/2in. 40.5 24.0
A307Bolts, GradeA, d 1/2in. 45.0 27.0
A325Bolts, when threadsarenot excluded fromshear planes 90.0 54.0
A325Bolts, when threadsareexcluded fromshear planes 90.0 72.0
A354 GradeBD Bolts, 1/4 in. d < 1/2 in., when threadsarenot excluded
fromshear planes
101.0 59.0
A354 GradeBD Bolts, 1/4 in. d < 1/2 in. when threadsareexcluded from
shear planes
101.0 90.0
A449 Bolts, 1/4 in. d < 1/2 in., when threadsarenot excluded from shear
planes
81.0 47.0
A449Bolts, 1/4in. d <1/2in., when threadsareexcludedfromshear planes 81.0 72.0
A 490Bolts, when threadsarenot excluded fromshear planes 112.5 67.5
A490Bolts, when threadsareexcluded fromshear planes 112.5 90.0
TABLE7.11 Nominal Tension Stresses, F

nt
(ksi), for BoltsSubjected
to theCombination of Shear and Tension
(A) ASD Method
Threadsnot excluded Threadsexcluded
Description of bolts fromshear planes fromshear planes
A325Bolts 110 3.6f
v
90 110 2.8f
v
90
A354GradeBD Bolts 122 3.6f
v
101 122 2.8f
v
101
A449Bolts 100 3.6f
v
81 100 2.8f
v
81
A490Bolts 136 3.6f
v
112.5 136 2.8f
v
112.5
A307Bolts, GradeA
When 1/4in. d < 1/2in. 52 4f
v
40.5 52 4f
v
40.5
When d 1/2in. 58.5 4f
v
45 58.5 4f
v
45
(B) LRFD Method
A325Bolts 113 2.4f
v
90 113 1.9f
v
90
A354GradeBD Bolts 127 2.4f
v
101 127 1.9f
v
101
A449Bolts 101 2.4f
v
81 101 1.9f
v
81
A490Bolts 141 2.4f
v
112.5 141 1.9f
v
112.5
A307Bolts, GradeA
When 1/4in. d < 1/2in. 47 2.4f
v
40.5 47 2.4f
v
40.5
When d 1/2in. 52 2.4f
v
45 52 2.4f
v
45
d = diameter of bolt
f
v
= shear stressbased on grosscross-sectional areaof bolt
7.7.3 ScrewConnections
Screwscan providearapid and effectivemeansto fasten sheet metal sidingand roongto framing
membersand to connect individual sidingand roongpanels. Design equationsarepresently given
intheAISI Specicationfor determiningthenominal shear strengthandthenominal tensilestrength
of connected parts and screws. Thesedesign requirements should beused for self-tapping screws
with diameterslarger than or equal to 0.08in. (2.03mm) but not exceeding1/4in. (6.35mm). The
screwcan bethread-formingor thread-cutting, with or without drillingpoint. Thespacingbetween
thecentersof screwsandthedistancefromthecenter of ascrewtotheedgeof anypart inthedirection
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
TABLE7.12 Nominal Strength Equationsfor Screws
Typeof strength Nominal strength
Shear strength
1. Connection shear
For t
2
/t
1
1.0: a. P
ns
= 4.2(t
3
2
d)
1/2
F
u2
usesmallest of threeconsiderations b. P
ns
= 2.7t
1
dF
u1
c. P
ns
= 2.7t
2
dF
u2
For t
2
/t
1
2.5: a. P
ns
= 2.7t
1
dF
u1
usesmaller of two considerations b. P
ns
= 2.7t
2
dF
u2
For 1.0< t
2
/t
1
< 2.5:
uselinear interpolation
2. Shear in screws 1.25P
ns
Tensilestrength
1. Connection tension
Pull-out strength P
not
= 0.85t
c
dF
u2
Pull-over strength P
nov
= 1.5t
1
d
w
F
u1
2. Tension in screws P
nt
1.25
(lesser of P
not
and P
nov
d = diameter of screw
d
w
= larger of thescrew head diameter or thewasher diameter, and
should betaken not larger than 1/2in. (12.7mm)
F
u1
= tensilestrength of member in contact with thescrewhead
F
u2
= tensilestrength of member not in contact with thescrewhead
P
ns
= nominal shear strength per screw
P
nt
= nominal tension strength per screw
P
not
= nominal pull-out strength per screw
P
nov
= nominal pull-over strength per screw
t
1
= thicknessof member in contact with thescrewhead
t
2
= thicknessof member not in contact with thescrewhead
of theforceshould not belessthan threetimesthediameter.
AccordingtotheAISI Specication, thenominal strengthper screwisdeterminedfromTable7.12.
SeeFigures7.37and 7.38for t
1
, t
2
, F
u1
, and F
u2
.
For theconvenienceof designers, thefollowing tablegivesthecorrelation between thecommon
number designation and thenominal diameter for screws.
Number Nominal diameter, d
designation (in.)
0 0.060
1 0.073
2 0.086
3 0.099
4 0.112
5 0.125
6 0.138
7 0.151
8 0.164
10 0.190
12 0.216
1/4 0.250
FIGURE7.32: Groovewelds.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE7.33: Arcspot weld singlethicknessof sheet.
FIGURE7.34: Arcseamweld.
FIGURE7.35: Fillet welds.
In addition to thedesign requirementsdiscussed above, theAISI Specication also includessome
provisionsfor spacingof connectorswhen two channelsareconnected to forman I-section or when
compression elementsarejoined to other partsof built-up membersby intermittent connections.
7.8 Structural SystemsandAssemblies
In thepast, cold-formed steel componentshavebeen used in different structural systemsand assem-
bliessuchasmetal buildings, shear diaphragms, shell roof structures, wall studassemblies, residential
construction, and compositeconstruction.
7.8.1 Metal Buildings
Standardized metal buildings have been widely used in industrial, commercial, and agricultural
applications. This type of metal building has also been used for community facilities because it
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE7.36: Flaregroovewelds.
can provide attractive appearance, fast construction, low maintenance, easy extension, and lower
long-termcost.
Ingeneral, metal buildingsaremadeof weldedrigidframeswithcold-formedsteel sectionsusedfor
purlins, girts, roofs, andwalls. IntheU.S., thedesignof standardizedmetal buildingsisoftenbasedon
theLowRiseBuildingSystemspublishedbytheMetal BuildingManufacturersAssociation[ 33] . This
document containsdesign practices, commentary, common industry practices, guidespecications,
andnomenclaturefor metal buildingsystems. Inother countries, manydesignconceptsandbuilding
systemshavebeen developed.
7.8.2 Shear Diaphragms
In building construction, it has been a common practice to provide a separate bracing system to
resist horizontal loadsdueto wind load or earthquake. However, steel oor and roof panels, with or
without concretell, arecapableof resisting horizontal loadsin addition to thebeam strength for
gravity loadsif they areadequately interconnected to each other and to thesupporting frame. For
thesamereason, wall panelscan providenot only enclosuresurfacesand support normal loads, but
they can also providediaphragmaction in their own planes.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE7.37: Screwconnection for t
2
/t
1
1.0.
FIGURE7.38: Screwconnection for t
2
/t
1
2.5.
Thestructural performanceof adiaphragmconstructioncanbeevaluatedbyeither calculationsor
tests. Several analytical proceduresexist, and aresummarized in theliterature[ 3, 18, 22, 32] . Tested
performancecan bemeasured by theproceduresof theStandard Method for Static Load Testingof
Framed Floor, Roof and Wall Diaphragm Construction for Buildings, ASTM E455 [ 13] . A general
discussion of structural diaphragmbehavior isgiven by Yu [49] .
Shear diaphragms should be designed for both strength and stiffness. After the nominal shear
strength isestablished by calculationsor tests, thedesign strength can bedetermined on thebasis
of thesafety factor or resistancefactor given in theSpecication. Six casesareclassied in theAISI
Specicationfor thedesignof shear diaphragmsaccordingtothetypeof failuremode, connection, and
loading. Becausethequality of mechanical connectorsiseasier to control than welded connections,
arelatively smaller safety factor or larger resistancefactor isused for mechanical connections. Asfar
astheloadingisconcerned, thesafety factorsfor earthquakeareslightly larger than thosefor wind
dueto theductility demandsrequired by seismicloading.
7.8.3 Shell Roof Structures
Shell roof structuressuchasfolded-plateandhyperbolicparaboloidroofshavebeen usedin building
construction for churches, auditoriums, gymnasiums, schools, restaurants, ofce buildings, and
airplanehangars. Thisisbecausetheeffectiveuseof steel panelsin roof construction isnot only to
providean economical structurebut also to makethebuildingarchitecturally attractiveand exible
for future extension. The design methods used in engineering practice are mainly based on the
successful investigation of shear diaphragmsand thestructural research on shell roof structures.
A folded-plateroof structureconsistsof threemajor components. They are(1) steel roof panels,
(2) fold linemembersat ridgesand valleys, and (3) end frameor end wallsasshown in Figure7.39.
Steel roof panelscan bedesigned assimply supported slabsin thetransversedirection between fold
lines. Thereaction of thepanelsisthen applied to fold linesasalineloading, which can beresolved
into two componentsparallel to thetwo adjacent plates. Theseload componentsarecarried by an
inclined deep girder spanned between end framesor end walls. Thesedeep girdersconsist of fold
linemembersasangesand steel panelsasaweb element. Thelongitudinal angeforcein fold line
memberscan beobtainedbydividingthebendingmoment of thedeepgirder byitsdepth. Theshear
force is resisted by the diaphragm action of the steel roof panels. In addition to the strength, the
deection characteristicsof thefolded-plateroof should also beinvestigated, particularly for long-
span structures. In thepast, it hasbeen found that amethod similar to theWilliot diaphragm for
determiningtrussdeectionscan also beused for theprediction of thedeection of asteel folded-
plate roof. The in-plane deection of each plate should be computed as a sum of the deections
dueto exure, shear, and seam slip, considering theplatetemporarily separated from theadjacent
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE7.39: Folded-platestructure. (FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design, John Wiley
& Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
plates. Thetruedisplacement of thefold linecan then bedetermined analytically or graphically by a
Williot diagram. Theabovediscussion dealswith asimplied method. Thenite-element method
can provideamoredetailed analysisfor varioustypesof loading, support, and material.
Thehyperbolicparaboloid roof hasalso gained popularity dueto theeconomical useof materials
and itsappearance. Thistypeof roof can bebuilt easily with either single- or double-layer standard
steel roof deck panelsbecausehyperbolicparaboloid hasstraight linegenerators. Figure7.40shows
four common typesof hyperbolic paraboloid roofswhich may bemodied or varied in other ways
to achieveastrikingappearance. Themethod of analysisdependson thecurvatureof theshell used
FIGURE 7.40: Types of hyperbolic paraboloid roofs. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-Formed Steel
Design, John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
for theroof. If theuniformly loaded shell isdeep, themembranetheory may beused. For thecase
of a shallow shell or a deep shell subjected to unsymmetrical loading, the nite-element method
will provideaccurateresults. Using themembranetheory, thepanel shear for a uniformly loaded
hyperbolic paraboloid roof can bedetermined by wab/2h, in which w istheapplied load per unit
surface area, a and b are horizontal projections, and h is the amount of corner depression of the
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
surface. Thispanel shear forceshouldbecarriedbytension andcompression framingmembers. For
additional design information, seeYu [ 49] .
7.8.4 Wall StudAssemblies
Cold-formed steel I-, C-, Z-, or box-type studs are widely used in walls with their webs placed
perpendicular to thewall surface. Thewallsmay bemadeof different materials, such asber board,
lignocellulosic board, plywood, or gypsum board. If thewall material isstrongenough and thereis
adequateattachment provided between wall material and studsfor lateral support of thestuds, then
thewall material can contributeto thestructural economy by increasing theusablestrength of the
studssubstantially.
TheAISI Specication providestherequirementsfor twotypesof studdesign. Therst typeisAll
Steel Design, in whichthewall studisdesignedasan individual compression member neglectingthe
structural contribution of theattached sheathing. Thesecond typeisSheathingBraced Design, in
which consideration isgiven to thebracingaction of thesheathingmaterial dueto theshear rigidity
andtherotational restraint providedbythesheathing. Bothsolidandperforatedwebsarepermitted.
Thesubsequent discussion dealswith thesheathingbraced design of wall studs.
Wall StudsinCompression
TheAISI designprovisionsareusedtoprevent threepossiblemodesof failure. Therst requirement
isfor column bucklingbetween fastenersin theplaneof thewall (Figure7.41). For thiscase, thelimit
statemay beeither (1) exural buckling, (2) torsional buckling, or (3) torsional-exural buckling
depending on the geometric conguration of the cross-section and the spacing of fasteners. The
nominal compressivestrength isbased on thestud itself without considering any interaction with
thesheathingmaterial.
FIGURE7.41: Bucklingof studsbetween fasteners. (FromYu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design,
John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Thesecond requirement isfor overall column bucklingof wall studsbraced by shear diaphragms
on both anges(Figure7.42). For thiscase, theAISI Specication providesequationsfor calculating
thecritical stressesin order todeterminethenominal axial strength byconsideringtheshear rigidity
of thesheathingmaterial. TheselengthyequationscanbefoundinSectionD4of theSpecication[ 7] .
FIGURE7.42: Overall column bucklingof studs. (From Yu, W.W. 1991. Cold-FormedSteel Design,
John Wiley & Sons, NewYork. With permission.)
Thethirdrequirement istoprevent shear failureof thesheathingbylimitingtheshear strainwithin
thepermissiblevaluefor agiven sheathingmaterial.
Wall StudsinBending
Thenominal exural strengthof wall studsisdeterminedbythenominal section strengthbyusing
theAll Steel Design approach and neglectingthestructural contribution of theattached sheathing
material.
Wall StudswithCombinedAxial LoadandBending
TheAISI interaction equationspresented in Table7.7arealsoapplicabletowall studssubjected to
combined axial load and bendingwith theexception that thenominal exural strength beevaluated
by excludinglateral bucklingconsiderations.
7.8.5 Residential Construction
Duringrecent years, cold-formed steel membershavebeen increasinglyused in residential construc-
tion asroof trusses, wall framing, and oor systems(Figure7.43). Becauseof thelack of standard
sectionsand design tables, prescriptivestandardshaverecently been developed by theNational As-
sociation of Home Builders (NAHB) Research Center and the Housing and Urban Development
(HUD). Thesectional propertiesand load-span design tablesfor aselected group of C-sectionsare
calculated in accordancewith theAISI Specication [ 9] .
For thedesign of cold-formed steel trussesand shear wallsusing steel studs, design guideshave
been published by theAmerican Iron and Steel Institute[ 6, 9] .
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
FIGURE7.43: Steel houseusingcold-formed membersfor walls, joists, and trusses.
7.8.6 CompositeConstruction
Cold-formed steel deckshavebeen used successfully in compositeroof and oor construction. For
thistypeof application, thesteel deck performsthedual roleof servingasaformfor thewet concrete
duringconstruction and aspositivereinforcementsfor theslab duringservice.
Asfar asthedesign method for thecompositeslab isconcerned, many designshavebeen based
on theSDI Specication for compositesteel oor deck [ 42] . Thisdocument containsrequirements
and recommendations on materials, design, connections, and construction practice. Since 1984,
theAmerican Society of Civil Engineers has published a standard specication for thedesign and
construction of compositeslabs[ 11] .
When thecompositeconstruction iscomposed of steel beamsor girderswith cold-formed steel
deck, thedesign should bebased on theAISCSpecication [ 1, 2] .
7.9 DeningTerms
ASD (allowablestressdesign): Amethodof proportioningstructural componentssuchthat the
allowablestress, allowableforce, or allowablemoment isnot exceededwhen thestructure
issubjected to all appropriatecombinationsof nominal loads.
Beam-column: Astructural member subjected to combined compressiveaxial load and bend-
ing.
Bucklingload: Theloadat whichacompressedelement, member, or frameassumesadeected
position.
Cold-formed steel members: Shapes that are manufactured by press-braking blanks sheared
from sheets, cut lengthsof coilsor plates, or by roll formingcold- or hot-rolled coilsor
sheets.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Compositeslab: Aslabinwhichtheload-carryingcapacityisprovidedbythecompositeaction
of concreteand steel deck (asreinforcement).
Compression members: Structural members whose primary function is to carry concentric
loadsalongtheir longitudinal axes.
Design strength: R
n
/ for ASD or R
n
for LRFD (force, moment, asappropriate), provided
by thestructural component.
Effectivedesign width: Reduced at width of an element dueto local bucklingfor design pur-
poses. Thereduced width istermed theeffectivewidth or effectivedesign width.
Effectivelength: Theequivalent length KL used in design equations.
Flexural members(beams): Structural memberswhoseprimaryfunction istocarrytransverse
loadsand/or moments.
Flat-width-to-thicknessratio: Theat width of an element measured alongitsplane, divided
by itsthickness.
Limit state: A condition at which a structure or component becomes unsafe (strength limit
state) or no longer useful for itsintended function (serviceability limit state).
Load factor: A factor that accounts for unavoidable deviations of the actual load from the
nominal load.
Local buckling: Bucklingof elementsonly within asection, wherethelinejunctionsbetween
elementsremain straight and anglesbetween elementsdo not change.
LRFD (load and resistancefactor design): A method of proportioningstructural components
such that no applicable limit state is exceeded when the structure is subjected to all
appropriateload combinations.
Multiple-stiffened elements: An element that isstiffened between webs, or between aweb and
astiffened edge, by meansof intermediatestiffenersthat areparallel to thedirection of
stress. A sub-element is the portion between adjacent stiffeners or between web and
intermediatestiffener or between edgeand intermediatestiffener.
Nominal loads: Theloadsspecied by theapplicablecodenot includingload factors.
Nominal strength: Thecapacity of a structureor component to resist theeffects of loads, as
determined by computations using specied material strengths and dimensions with
equationsderived from accepted principlesof structural mechanicsor by testsof scaled
models, allowingfor modelingeffects, and differencesbetween laboratory and eld con-
ditions.
Point-symmetricsection: A point-symmetric section is a section symmetrical about a point
(centroid) such asaZ-section havingequal anges.
Required strength: Load effect (force, moment, asappropriate) actingon thestructural com-
ponent determined by structural analysisfrom thefactored loadsfor LRFD or nominal
loadsfor ASD (usingmost appropriatecritical load combinations).
Resistancefactor: Afactor that accountsfor unavoidabledeviationsof theactual strengthfrom
thenominal value.
Safety factor: A ratio of thestress(or strength) at incipient failureto thecomputed stress(or
strength) at design load (or serviceload).
Stiffened or partially stiffened compression elements: A stiffened or partially stiffened com-
pression element isaat compression element with both edgesparallel to thedirection
of stressstiffened either by aweb, ange, stiffeninglip, intermediatestiffener, or thelike.
Stress: Stressasused in thischapter meansforceper unit areaand isexpressed in ksi (kipsper
squareinch) for U.S. customary unitsor MPafor SI units.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC
Thickness: Thethicknessof anyelement or section should bethebasesteel thickness, exclusive
of coatings.
Torsional-exural buckling: Amodeof bucklinginwhichcompressionmemberscanbendand
twist simultaneously without changein cross-sectional shape.
Unstiffened compression elements: A at compression element which isstiffened at only one
edgeparallel to thedirection of stress.
Yield point: Yield point as used in this chapter means either yield point or yield strength of
steel.
References
[ 1] American Instituteof Steel Construction. 1989. Specicationfor Structural Steel Buildings
AllowableStressDesignandPlasticDesign, Chicago, IL.
[ 2] American Instituteof Steel Construction. 1993. LoadandResistanceFactor DesignSpecica-
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[ 3] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1967. Designof Light-GageSteel Diaphragms, NewYork.
[ 4] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1983. Handbookof Steel DrainageandHighwayConstruc-
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[ 5] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1996. AutomotiveSteel DesignManual, Washington, D.C.
[ 6] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1995. DesignGuidefor Cold-FormedSteel Trusses. Publi-
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[ 7] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1996. Specication for theDesign of Cold-Formed Steel
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[ 8] AmericanIronandSteel Institute. 1996. Cold-FormedSteel DesignManual, Washington, D.C.
[ 9] American Iron and Steel Institute. 1996. Residential Steel FramingManual for Architects,
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[ 10] American Society of Civil Engineers. 1978. Designof Steel TransmissionPoleStructures, New
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[ 11] American Society of Civil Engineers. 1984. Specicationfor theDesignandConstructionof
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[ 12] American Societyof Civil Engineers. 1991. Specicationfor theDesignof Cold-FormedStain-
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[ 13] American Society for Testingand Materials. 1993. StandardMethodfor StaticLoadTestingof
FramedFloor, Roof andWall DiaphragmConstructionfor Buildings, ASTM E455, Philadel-
phia, PA.
[ 14] Architectural Institute of Japan. 1985. Recommendationsfor theDesign andFabrication of
Light Weight Steel Structures, Japan.
[ 15] Association of theWall and Ceiling IndustriesInternational and Metal Lath/Steel Framing
Association. 1979. Steel FramingSystemsManual, Chicago, IL.
[ 16] AmericanWeldingSociety. 1989. Structural WeldingCodeSheetSteel,AWSD1.3-89, Miami,
FL.
[ 17] British StandardsInstitution. 1987. BritishStandard: Structural Useof SteelworkinBuilding.
Part 5. Codeof Practicefor Designof Cold-FormedSections, BS5950: Part 5: 1987.
[ 18] Bryan, E.R. andDavies, J.M. 1981. Steel DiaphragmRoofDecksADesignGuideWithTables
for EngineersandArchitects, GranadaPublishing, NewYork.
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c 1999by CRCPressLLC
[ 20] Centre Technique Industriel de la Construction Metallique. 1978. Recommendationspourle
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[ 21] Czechoslovak StateStandard. 1987. DesignofLightGaugeCold-FormedProlesinSteel Struc-
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[ 22] Department of Army. 1985. SeismicDesignfor Buildings, U.S. Army Technical Manual 5-809-
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[ 23] DIN 18807. 1987. TrapezproleimHochbau (Trapezoidal Proled Sheeting in Building).
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[ 36] Rhodes, J. 1991. Designof Cold-FormedSteel Structures, Elsevier Publishing, NewYork.
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[ 45] von Karman, T., Sechler, E.E., and Donnell, L.H. 1932. TheStrength of Thin Platesin Com-
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[ 47] Winter, G. 1947. Strength of Thin Steel Compression Flanges, Trans. ASCE, Vol. 112.
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Further Reading
GuidetoStabilityDesignCriteriafor Metal Structures, edited by T.V. Galambos, presentsgeneral
information, interpretation, new ideas, and research results on a full range of structural stability
concerns. It waspublished by John Wiley & Sonsin 1988.
Cold-FormedSteel inTall Buildings, edited by W.W. Yu, R. Baehre, and T. Toma, providesreaders
with information needed for thedesign and construction of tall buildings, usingcold-formed steel
for structural membersand/or architectural components. It waspublishedbyMcGraw-Hill in 1993.
Thin-Walled Structures, edited by J. Rhodes and K.P. Chong, is an international journal which
publishespaperson theory, experiment, design, etc. related to cold-formed steel sections, plateand
shell structures, andothers. It waspublishedbyElsevier AppliedScience. Aspecial issueof theJournal
on Cold-Formed Steel Structureswasedited by J. Rhodesand W.W. Yu, Guest Editor, and published
in 1993.
Proceedingsof theInternational SpecialtyConferenceonCold-FormedSteel Structures, edited by
W.W. Yu, J.H. Senne, andR.A. LaBoube, hasbeenpublishedbytheUniversityof Missouri-Rollasince
1971. Thispublicationcontainstechnical paperspresentedat theInternational SpecialtyConferences
on Cold-Formed Steel Structures.
Cold-FormedSteel Structures, byJ. RhodesandN.E. Shanmugan, in TheCivil EngineeringHand-
book(W.F. Chen, Editor-in-Chief ), presentsdiscussionsof cold-formedsteel sections, local buckling
of plateelements, and thedesign of cold-formed steel membersand connections. It waspublished
by CRCPressin 1995.
c 1999by CRCPressLLC