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Activity 1 What Solutions Do You Find In Your Home?

Objectives After performing this activity, you should be able to: 1. describe the observable characteristics or properties of common solutions found at home or in stores; and 2. present the data gathered in table form to show the different properties of common solutions. You may make a table similar to the one below. Product or Solution Found at Home or in Stores Characteristics

You noticed that you did not see solid particles or liquid droplets in the samples of solutions. Most of the solutions, which are in liquid phase, are colorless. The solutions that you have observed consist of two components called the solvent and the solute. Generally, the component present in small amount is called the solute. The solute and the solvent dissolve in each other. Usually the solvent is the component present in greater amount. So in a sugar solution, sugar is the solute and water is the solvent.
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You observed in Activity 1 that a solution is not always a liquid; it can be solid, liquid, or gas. In addition, solutions may either be found in nature or are manufactured. Naturally Occurring Solutions Examples of solutions that occur naturally are natural bodies of water like the seas and ocean, blood plasma, air, and some mineral ores. Many materials in nature can be used efficiently only when these are in the form of solutions. For example, plants cannot absorb minerals from the soil unless these minerals are in solution. Components of food that you eat goes into solution during digestion. The nutrient particles in solution can pass through the digestive tract and dissolve in the blood. Seawater is a solution having a higher percentage of salt and minerals than other sources of water like ground water or rivers. Rainwater is a solution containing dissolved gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide. The water you drink contains dissolved minerals like sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium and dissolved gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide. Air is a mixture of gases. Dry air consists of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon, about 1% water vapor, 0.04% carbon dioxide and traces of argon, helium, neon, krypton, and xenon. Water vapor is present in different amounts depending on the location. Air above big bodies of water contains more water vapor than air above deserts. Humidity is a measure of the amount of water vapor in air. Useful solutions are found not only in nature; many solutions are made for a specific purpose. Manufactured/Processed Solutions Almost every household uses vinegar for cooking and cleaning purposes. Vinegar usually contains about 5% acetic acid in water. Some vinegar are clear homogeneous mixtures. Other kinds of vinegar are colloidal. Gasoline is a solution made up of different substances called hydrocarbons. It is important that gasoline contains no solid particles that may clog the vehicle engine.

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A metal alloy is a solid solution made up of two or more metals or non metals. For example, steel is an alloy of copper and tin. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Other examples of solutions that are processed include wine and liquor, brewed coffee and tea. In the next activity, you will predict what will happen when you mix a sample solid or liquid in a given volume of water. Investigate to find out if your predictions are correct. Explain your predictions using the evidence you have gathered from your investigation.

Activity 2 What are the properties of solutions? When you finish this activity you should be able to: 1. compare the evidence gathered with the predictions you made; and 2. describe the properties of solutions based on observations. Materials Needed:          6 cups water 6 pieces, spoons cheesecloth (katsa) or filter paper 2 tablespoons each of the following: sugar, salt, mongo seeds, powdered juice, cooking oil, vinegar 12 clear bottles or cups 2 pieces each, measuring spoons (½ tsp and 1tsp) 2 pieces each, measuring cups (½ cup and 1cup) 3 funnels or improvised funnel made from 500 mL plastic bottle 1 funnel rack

Procedure: 1. Predict which among the given samples will dissolve in water. Write your predictions in column 2 of Table 1. 2. Put one cup of water in each of the cups.

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3. Add ½ teaspoon of each of the six samples. Use the teaspoon to dissolve as much of each sample as possible. Use a different teaspoon for each of the cups. Q1. Describe the mixture that resulted after mixing. Write your answer in column 3. Q2. How many phases do you observe? Write your answer in column 4. Q3. Identify the solute in each of the mixtures. Write your answers in the blank: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Q4. What is the solvent in each of the mixtures? ______________________ Table 1. Data table for Activity 2 (1) Sample solid or liquid Sugar Salt Mongo seeds Powdered juice Cooking oil Vinegar (2) (3) Will Appearance dissolve in 1 cup water (yes or no) (4) Number of phases (5) Can be separated by filtration (yes or no) (6) Solution or not?

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3. Filter the mixture with filter paper using a setup similar to Figure 1.

Figure 1. A filtration setup. The funnel is supported on an iron ring and the filtrate is received in another container.*

* Philippines. Department of Education. (2004). Chemistry: Science and Technology textbook for 3rd year. (Revised ed.). Quezon City: Author.

Q4. In which mixture were you able to separate the components (solute and solvent) by filtration? Write your observations in column 5 of Table 1. Q5. Which of the samples are solutions? Write your answer in column 6.

In Activity 2, you found out that a solution is formed when a solute dissolves in a solvent to form a single phase that appears uniform throughout. A solution is clear. In a solution, the particles are too small that they cannot be seen by the unaided eye. The particles in solution are smaller than the pores of the filter paper or the cheesecloth and so these can pass through the filter. Each part of a solution retains its characteristic properties. When the sugar solution is filtered, the filtrate tastes sweet. The sweetness of sugar is present in any part of the sugar solution.

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Based on the results of Activity 2, there are common properties that solutions have.

Based on the two activities you have done, can you conclude that solutions have the following characteristics? 1. It is homogeneous. It is a mixture of one phase only. The components are so well mixed that all parts of the solution appear the same. Solutions have the same composition and properties throughout. 2. The solute cannot be separated from the solvent through filtration because these are so small that they pass through the filter paper or cheesecloth. 3. A solution is often clear and transparent.

There are other ways of identifying a solution. You will learn these methods in Grades 8 and 9. In Activity 3, you will find out how much solute can dissolve in a given amount of solvent and find out the type of solution based on whether there is excess solute or not. At higher grade levels, you will learn more of the detailed processes that happen when a solute dissolves in a solvent.

Activity 3 Can You Tell the Difference Between Solutions by the Way They Look?
After performing this activity you will be able to:
1. determine how much a solid solute dissolves in the same volume or

amount of water; and 2. find out patterns observed from a data table.

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Materials Needed       6 teaspoons sugar 2 cups of water 2 measuring cups (1cup capacity) 2 measuring spoons for the following: ½ tsp clear, transparent bottle stirrer

Procedure:
1. Put 20 mL of water in a small clear transparent bottle. Add ½ teaspoon

of sugar and stir until all the sugar dissolves.
2. To the sugar solution in step #1, add ½ teaspoon sugar, a small portion

at a time and stir the solution to dissolve the sugar. At this point, you have added 1 teaspoon sugar.
3. Add ½ teaspoon of sugar to the sugar solution in step #2 and stir the

solution. At this point, you have added one and ½ teaspoons of sugar.
4. Continue adding ½ teaspoon sugar to the same cup until the added

sugar no longer dissolves. Q1. How many teaspoons of sugar did you add to 1 cup of water until the sugar no longer dissolves? __________ NOTE: In this step, you will observe that there is already excess sugar which did not dissolve. Q2. What is the maximum amount of sugar that will completely dissolve in a cup of water? ____________

In this activity, you have observed that there is a maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a certain temperature. This is what is called the solubility of the solute. From your everyday experience, you observe that there is a limit to the amount of sugar you can dissolve in a given amount of water. Solubility changes with temperature. Your solutions in Activity 3 were at room

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temperature. How fast these solutions will dissolve in water may change if you either increase or decrease the temperature. The solution that contains the maximum amount of solute dissolved by a given amount of solvent is called a saturated solution. If you add more solute to the solvent, it will no longer dissolve. The solution has reached its saturation point. The presence of an excess solid which can no longer dissolve is an evidence that the solution is saturated.
1. Is there any container where all solids dissolved? Which container is

this? A solution is unsaturated when it contains less solute than the maximum amount it can dissolve at a given temperature. In Activity 3, it is difficult to conclude that the containers with all solids dissolved are unsaturated simply by observing them. Some of these may already hold the maximum amount of solute, which cannot be observed by the unaided eye. So, these are classified as saturated solutions. A more measurable way to find out the solubility of a solute is to determine the maximum amount that can be dissolved in 100 g of solvent at a specific temperature. There are available data from chemistry books that give the solubility of common solutes at particular temperatures. Figure 2 shows the solubility of table salt at 25oC.

Figure 2. At 25oC, a saturated solution of table salt has only 36.0 g (3 tablespoons) dissolved in 100 mL of water. Any additional table salt will no longer dissolve.

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Concentration of Solutions The concentration describes the relative amounts of solute and solvent in a given volume of solution. When there is a large amount of dissolved solute for a certain volume of solvent, the solution is concentrated. A dilute solution has a small amount of dissolved solute in comparison to the amount of solvent. You will be able to distinguish between concentrated and dilute solutions from a simple demonstration your teacher will perform. You will describe the concentrations of solutions qualitatively (by simply observing their appearance) and quantitatively (by comparing the number of drops per volume of water). From solutions drops/50 drops/50 Part 1 of the demonstration, you were able to describe the as having quantitative concentrations of 1 drop/50 mL and 10 mL. Qualitatively, you were able to distinguish the bottle with 10 mL more concentrated (darker) than the bottle with 1 drop/50 mL.

Now that you have distinguished dilute from concentrated solutions qualitatively and quantitatively from your teacher’s demonstration, you can express concentration in other ways such as: (1) percent by volume, which is the amount of solute in a given volume of solution expressed as grams solute per 100 millliter of solution (g/100 mL), and (2) percent by mass, which is the amount of solute in a given mass of solvent expressed as grams solute per 100 grams of solution. Labels of products sold often show the concentrations of solutes expressed as percent (%) by volume or mass. The alcohol used as a disinfectant is a solution of 70% ethyl or isopropyl alcohol, meaning 70 mL alcohol. There are also solutions sold as 40% ethyl or isopropyl alcohol. Vinegar is often labeled as “5% acidity,” which means that it contains 5 grams of acetic acid in 100 g of vinegar. The common antiseptic, agua oxinada is a 3% solution, that is 3 grams hydrogen peroxide in 100 mL water.

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The concentration of solid solutions, like gold jewelry, is expressed as karat. Pure gold is referred to as 24 karats. Jewelry that is said to be 18 karats contains 18 grams of gold for every 24 grams of the material, 6 grams consist of the other metal like copper or silver. This material has a concentration of 75% gold, that is, [18/24(100)]. A 14 karat (14K) gold contains 14 grams gold and 10 grams of another metal, making it 58.3% gold. The following sample problems show you that there is a way to know the exact ratio of solute to solvent, which specifies the concentration of a solution. Sample problem 1 How many mL of ethyl alcohol are present in a 50 mL bottle of rubbing alcohol? Calculation for sample problem 1 Since rubbing alcohol contains 70% ethyl alcohol, it means that 100 mL of rubbing alcohol contains 70 mL ethyl alcohol. So, the following calculations show that in 50 mL of rubbing alcohol, there is 35 mL ethyl alcohol. The water content is most likely more. There is no easy way to determine but it would be incorrect to say that it has 15 mL water.

50 mL rubbing alcohol x

70 mL ethyl alcohol = 35 mL ethyl alcohol 100 mL rubbing alcohol

All portions of a solution have the same concentration. The composition of one part is also the same as the composition of the other parts. But you can change the concentration of solutions. This means you can prepare different solutions of sugar in water of different concentrations (for example, 10%, 20%, or 30%). In the same way, you can prepare different solutions of salt in water. Sample problem 2 A one peso coin has a mass of 5.5 grams. How many grams of copper are in a one peso coin containing 75% copper by mass?
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Calculation for sample problem 2 75% by mass means 75 grams of copper in 100 grams of one peso coin. So, a 5.5 grams coin contains,
75 g copper x 5.5 g coin = 4.1 g copper 100 g coin

In activities 4 to 6, you will investigate some factors that affect how fast a solid solute dissolves in a given volume of water.

Factors Affecting How Fast Solid Solute Dissolves The Effect of Stirring Your teacher demonstrated the effect of stirring in mixing a solid in water. You observed that stirring makes the solid dissolve faster in the solvent. Were you able to explain why this is so? The Effect of Particle Size In Activity 4, you will investigate how the size of the solid being dissolved affects how fast it dissolves in water.

Activity 4 Size Matters!
1. Write a hypothesis in a testable form. Describe a test you could conduct to find out which dissolves faster: crystals of table salt or the same amount of crushed salt. 2. Identify variables (for example, amount of table salt) that you need to control in order to have a fair test. 3. Identify the dependent and independent variables.
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4. List all the materials you need, including the amount and ask these from your teacher. 5. Be sure to record your observations and tabulate them. Write everything you observed during the dissolving test. 6. What is your conclusion? Does the size of the solid being dissolved affect the how fast it mixes with water? 7. Does your conclusion support or reject your hypothesis? 8. Based on what you know about dissolving, try to explain your results.

To help you explain the process of dissolving, imagine that in a solution, the particles of the solute (table salt) and the solvent (water) are constantly moving. Water particles collide everywhere along the surface of the particles of table salt, especially on the corners and edges. Why do you think so? Can you now explain why smaller pieces of salt dissolve faster than larger ones? You may use an illustration or diagram in your explanation. The Effect of Temperature Activity 5 will let you investigate how fast coffee or powdered juice dissolves in cold and in hot water.

Activity 5 How Fast Does Coffee Dissolve in Hot Water? In Cold Water?
1. Discuss how your group mates how you will do your investigation. Write your hypothesis in a testable form. Describe a test you could conduct to find out how fast coffee dissolves in cold and in hot water. 2. Identify variables (for example, amount of amount of coffee) that you need to control in order to have a fair test.
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3. Identify the dependent and independent variables. 4. List all the materials you need, including the amount and ask these from your teacher. 5. Do your investigation using the proper measuring devices. Be sure to record your observations and tabulate them. Write everything you observed during the dissolving test. These observations are the evidence from which you can draw your conclusions. 6. Identify variables (for example, amount of amount of coffee or powdered juice) that you need to control in order to have a fair test. 7. Identify the dependent and independent variables. 8. List all the materials you need, including the amount and ask these from your teacher. 9. Do your investigation using the proper measuring devices. Be sure to record your observations and tabulate them. Write everything you observed during the dissolving test. These observations are the evidence from which you can draw your conclusions. 10. What is your conclusion? Does coffee dissolve faster in cold or in hot water? Use the observations and results you recorded to explain your answer. 11. Does your conclusion support or reject your hypothesis? Explain your results. 12. What is your conclusion? Does coffee dissolve faster in cold or in hot water? Use the observations and results you recorded to explain your answer. 13. Does your conclusion support or reject your hypothesis? Explain your results.

The Nature of Solute In Activity 6, you will find out if: (1) sugar dissolves faster in hot than in cold water, and (2) salt dissolves faster in hot than in cold water.

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Activity 6 Which Dissolves Faster in Hot and in Cold Water: Sugar or Salt?
1. Discuss with your group mates how you will do your investigation. 2. Write your hypothesis in a testable form. Describe a test you could conduct to find out answers to the given two questions above. 3. Identify variables (for example, amount of amount of coffee) that you need to control in order to have a fair test. 4. Identify the dependent and independent variables. 5. List all the materials you need, including the amount and ask these from your teacher. 6. Do your investigation using the proper measuring devices. Be sure to record your observations and tabulate them. Write everything you observed during the dissolving test. These observations are the evidence from which you can draw your conclusions. 7. What is your conclusion? Does coffee dissolve faster in cold or in hot water? Use the observations and results you recorded to explain your answer. 8. Does your conclusion support or reject your hypothesis? Explain your results. The following questions can guide you: a. Does sugar dissolve faster in hot water than in cold water? Explain your answer, based on your observations from the investigation. Does salt dissolve faster in hot than in cold water? Explain your answer, based on your observations from the investigation. Which is affected most by increasing the temperature of the water—how fast salt dissolves or how fast sugar dissolves? Explain your answer.

b. c.

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You learned from Activity 5 that in general, a solute dissolves faster in water when you increase the temperature. But the effect of temperature is not that simple. The type or nature of the solute will affect how fast it dissolves in water. You observed from Activity 6 that increasing the temperature either makes a solid dissolve faster or slower in water. For some solutes, increasing the temperature does not have any effect on how fast the solute dissolves. Now that you have completed the activities in this module, you have learned the properties of a solution, the ways of reporting its concentration, as well as the effects of stirring, particle size, temperature, and type of solute on how fast a solid dissolves in water. While learning about solutions, you also had the chance to gather information and gain new knowledge through the process of conducting science investigations. You also learned the importance of identifying the variables that had to be controlled in order to make a good plan for measuring and testing the variables you are concerned about. What you have started doing in these investigations is what scientists usually do when they seek answers to a scientific question or problem. In the next modules, you will be challenged to ask more questions about materials around you. You will try to explain answers to your hypothesis (your suggested explanation) after you have done your investigation.

References and Links Brady, J.E. & Senese, F. (2004). Chemistry: Matter and its changes, 4th edition. River Street Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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