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Daisy So FDA

Human Resource Management 1


Foundation Degree in Accounting & Finance

Subject: Human Resource Management
Tutor: Chris StaIIord
Title: Motorpro
Submission Date: W/C 14/03/2005
Name: Daisy So
Daisy So FDA
Human Resource Management 2
4390398

How training contributes to the achievement oI business objectives 3


Programmes involved in training and development 4
For the job 4
For the individual 5
Training Methods 6
On-the-job training 6
OII-the-job training 6
Evaluation and monitoring oI training 7
Possible training/personal development plan Ior employee 8
On-the-job training 8
OII-the-job training 8
ReIerence 10
Bibliography 11

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Human Resource Management 3
How training contributes to the achievement of business objectives

In order Ior the organisation to beneIit Irom successIul training, there must be a
planned and systematic approach to eIIect management oI training. R Harrison
(1989:48) deIined systematic approach as ".in order to determine as precisely as
possible what are the minimum resources the organisation should invest for the
development of its workforce, an accurate assessment should be made of known
and agreed training needs at all levels. A training plan can then be formulated
which can guide the organisation in its investment of resources, in the operation of
training and development, and in their evaluation. "

A plan Ior training and development can guide top management to make the
Iollowing decisions:

N Decision about the investment oI resources through time.
N Decision about the agreed corporate goals and strategy Ior employee
development.
N Decision about the key roles necessary to ensure eIIective implementation oI
strategy.

Within the individual manager`s department, there should be the same agreement on
what overall needs exist, however they may be deIined and over whatever time length
they are to be met. The manager can then put Iorward a reasoned case Ior the
resources to meet those needs.

L Mullins (2002:694) cited that "1he purpose of training is to improve knowledge
and skills, and to change attitudes. I t is one of the most important potential
motivators. 1his can lead to many possible benefits for both individuals and the
organisation." L Mullins (2002) suggested that training can make an impact on the
organisation:

N Increase the conIident, motivation and commitment oI staII.
N Provide recognition, enhanced responsibility and the possibility oI increased
pay and promotion.
N Give a Ieeling oI personal satisIaction and achieve, and broaden opportunities
Ior career progression.
N Help to improve the availability and quality oI staII.

ThereIore we can see that training is an essential element oI improving organisational
perIormance. The intention oI training is to generate a greater measure oI positive
commitment, a reduction oI workplace alienation and enhanced quality oI output.

D Torrington 09 , (2002) suggested that objectives should give employees a clear
idea oI perIormance expectations and enable them to Iocus on the priorities when they
have to make choices about what they do. PerIormance expectations need to be
understood and where possible to involve a contribution Irom the employees.
PerIormance oI individual contributions toward the organisational objectives thereIore
any organisation should provide training to ensure their staII is capable or perIorm
well in their job.
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Human Resource Management 4

When business strategy is being Iormulated, the organisation should consider how to
develop existing employees, rather than necessarily recruiting talented new people.
Not only can training contribute to the organisation`s ability to achieve its objectives,
but it can transIorm the lives and prospects oI the individuals who beneIit Irom it.
Many prospective employees will judge whether to work Ior an organisation partly on
the opportunities Ior advancement it aIIords them. A signiIicant proportion oI those
opportunities are provided by training and development.

Programmes involved in training and development
Training needs to be assessed, Ior training to be eIIective it is necessary to understand
not only the training needs oI the individual and the group, but also how their needs
Iit the overall organisational objectives. R Harrison (1992:263) deIined job training
analysis as "1ob training analysis is the process of identifying the purpose of a job
and its component parts, and specifying what must be learnt in order for there to be
effective work performance." There are many diIIerent types oI analysis which need
to carry out beIore identiIying the training and development needs. Mainly we need
to look at the needs Ior the job itselI and Ior the individual. It includes a variety oI
analysis which is closely related and produces accurate inIormation.

For the job
N Job description All employees have job description, they are usually
hired to take on speciIic tasks within the organisation, but they may have
to take on other responsibilities in times oI emergency to enhance
organisational eIIiciency. ThereIore job descriptions are necessary in
order to give employees a sense oI purpose, and to enable their immediate
supervisor to appraise their perIormance, but a culture must inIluence that
enables employees to deal with problems that may be outside their work
duties.
N Job analysis - L Mullins (2002) suggested that job analysis is the central to
a planned and systematic approach. Job analysis includes a variety oI
research such as the job descriptions and perIormance objectives. It is a
very useIul method oI evaluating job Iunctions and is oIten used to
measure the levels oI skill necessary to do a job, primarily Ior the purpose
oI creating a pay structure.
N Interviews - A well structured interview can be carried out with the
employees to review his/her duties and Iunctions. Alternatively, the
supervisor or the manager can be interviewed to Iind out whether current
employees need training to reach the organisational objectives.
N PerIormance objectives Quality oI work/production will increase by
setting perIormance objectives. Assessment can take place as to whether
current employees need training to reach these objectives.
N Analysis oI competences - Competence is concerned with job standards
and output. This provides inIormation on whether current job holder is
competence on his/her job.
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Human Resource Management 5
For the individual
N Personal speciIication This is an analysis used to identiIy skills and
competence requirements.
N Personal proIile - Such inIormation can be obtained Irom organisational
records, including original application Iorm and other database. Personal
proIile is useIul Ior training needs analysis, it includes inIormation on
employees` career aspirations, which may well be oI signiIicance in
creating training initiatives.
N IdentiIying oI shortages/training gaps - I Beardwell 09, (2004) suggested
that the most thorough was oI analysing individual strengths and
weaknesses are assessment centre techniques. It includes in-depth
interviews and re-interviews, psychometric tests, team perIormance
simulation exercises and other techniques, a detailed proIile oI employees
can be constructed, which is useIul Ior analysing training needs. Global
review is another wide ranging method oI training needs analysis. These
are usually undertaken when dramatic changes are planned within an
organisation.
N Setting objectives - Objectives need to be set at a realistic and achievable
level. One oI the biggest problems with appraisal on the basis oI meeting
objectives is that Iactors beyond the employee`s control may make the
objectives more diIIicult than anticipated, or even impossible.
N Appraisal Appraisal system needs to be in place. It measures a variety oI
things, such as personality, behaviour, perIormance or achievement oI
goals. It can be used to improve current perIormance, provide Ieedback,
increase motivation, identiIy training needs, identiIy potential, let
individuals know what is expected oI them, Iocus on career development,
award salary increases and solve job problems. I Beardwell 09 , (2004)
suggested that a good appraisal can reveal much about the strengths and
weaknesses oI individuals in terms oI their perIormance. Appraisal
indicates areas where training and development programmes could
improve perIormance which is vital to both the individual and the
organisation. D Torrington 09 , (2002) cited that an eIIective appraisal
system should have clear perIormance criteria/rating instrument; good
working relationships with the supervisor and the appraiser should have
suIIicient inIormation on the manager`s actual perIormance. Appraisal
should not, in any circumstances, give a negative Ieedback Irom the
appraiser. II objectives are not achieved, the appraiser should look Ior the
rooI oI the problem rather than placing blame on the appraisee.
N 360 degree Ieedback The concept oI 360 degree Ieedback is to collect
Ieedback and inIormation Irom diIIerent groups within a work situation,
groups includes colleagues, subordinates, supervisors and customers. L
Mullin (2002) cited that the idea is to provide a broader appraisal covering
good working relationship, teamwork, leadership, decision-making and
quality oI service provided.
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Human Resource Management 6
Training Methods
A careIul use oI training methods can be a very cost eIIective investment.
There are a number oI ways in which skills can be developed. Not all oI them
involve Iormal training as this could be expensive and time consuming. It is
impossible to cover in depth Ior all variety oI approaches but we will look into
the main types oI methods which is commonly use by many organisations.
On-the-job training
N Coaching is the most common approach, the experienced staII helps
trainees to develop by giving them the opportunity to perIorm an
increasing range oI task and by helping them to learn Irom their
experiences.
N Mentoring is another method which an experience staII takes charge oI the
training oI a new employee.
N Job rotation encouraging members oI a team to be able to work
proIiciently in each other`s jobs, thus creating greater Ilexibility and skills
within the team as a whole. Job rotation also helps is to appreciate just
how diIIicult some jobs really are. The organisation can also be beneIited
by not recruiting additional staII Ior sickness and holiday coverage.
N Special assignments/projects increasing the skills base oI individuals by
arranging supervised project work in preparation Ior greater
responsibilities.
Off-the-job training
N Action learning a group oI individuals who work on their own chosen
problems, but share advice and approaches to solving each other`s
problems. This type oI training can be invaluable. Each person in turn
describes to the group a work dilemma, which is causing upset in their
department. The dilemma then becomes the group`s problem, and each
person in the group works together in an attempt to Iind a solution.
Because the person who initiated the problem is so close to it (and cannot
thereIore Iind a way around it) the solution oIIered by the group might be
simple, but eIIective.
N Perception oI course a means oI conveying knowledge and skills to
groups oI individuals through trainers (either Irom within the organisation
or Irom external providers).
N Interactive video where the trainee, rather than passively watching, will be
required to respond at various points. Depending upon the response the
video will Iollow diIIerent sequences.
N Case study includes role-play and discussion.
N Simulations using state-oI-the-art soItware.
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Human Resource Management 7
Evaluation and monitoring of training
Evaluation and monitoring are essential to the success oI any training and
development programme. They validate oI the outcomes by comparing actual against
intended results and analysis oI inIormation vital to Iuture planning. Regular
monitoring will be needed Ior intensive programme, with a Iinal evaluation carried
out by some neutral party against its original purpose and objectives. With a less
intensive training, the methods and timing oI monitoring progress and results can be
established according to need and to resources available.

R Harrison (1989) suggested that there are Iour sets oI Iactors that should be
evaluated:
N Context this is the context within which the training event has taken place.
i.e. How accurately needs were initially diagnosed? Why this particular kind
oI learning was decided on as a solution? Examination oI the organisational
culture and structure is an important part oI context evaluation.
N Inputs this is the input to the training event. The resources those were
available Ior the training, and those that were actually used. Also the training
structure and culture, content, media and methods and the Iinal cost oI the
training. The most important is the people who went through the training in
terms oI whether that membership and selection oI the trainees was valid.
N Reactions this is the reactions to the training event by the various parties
involved in it, especially in relation to the reactions that it was originally
intended it should achieve.
N Outcomes this is the outcomes oI the training. The eIIects oI that training by
reIerence to the objectives set Ior it and the outcomes it has actually achieved.

There are many methods oI evaluation, I Beardwell 09 ,(2004) suggested the
Iollowing:
N Questionnaires This is also known as the Ieedback Iorm, which trainees
complete on the Iinal day by answering relevant questions regarding the
knowledge aIter the course.
N Tests or examinations These are Iound more common in Iormal courses
which provide certiIicate.
N Projects This is also part oI the training, but they can also provide valuable
inIormation Ior instructors.
N Structured exercise / case studies Trainees can apply theories to practice.
N Tutor reports It is important to value the opinion oI the tutor/trainer as they
give a valuable assessment Irom a diIIerent perspective.
N Interviews oI trainees This is usually carry out aIter the course is completed,
it can be done by Iormally/inIormally, or by telephone.
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Human Resource Management 8
Possible training/personal development plan for employee
In my opinion, I think the employee who works in the administrative department
should be sent on a training course and possibly a personal development programme.
BeIore we can identiIy what training needs to be provided, we need to look into the
employee`s job description. From the inIormation available, in my opinion the
employee`s job title would be Administrative Assistant and his/her duties includes the
Iollowing:
N 3
N Photocopying
N Producing and sending letters
N Entering inIormation on to computer systems
N Telephone answering
N Provide general administrative support

We may use the on-the-job training and oII-the-job training methods to provide
training and personal development to this job holder.
On-the-job training
Coaching is the most common method oI training. Since the administrative
department deals with all the paperwork involved with the running oI the
company, it will be a good idea Ior the employee to understand more about
how each department operates. The employee can be coached by senior staII
in each department, this will give the trainee an opportunity to learn diIIerent
skills and this can make the job more interesting.

The supervisor can also provide coaching to the trainee Ior some management
skills, the supervisor (trainer) can also dedicates special assignment Ior the
trainee and keep the process monitor at all time. This will not only create a
sense oI motivation, but it also beneIit the organisation in Iuture when there
are management roles available.
Off-the-job training
From the job description, we can see the current job holder use a great deal oI
the computer systems. There are many courses run by local college or
soItware companies which provide training on the computer programmes,
such as RSA Computer Literacy and InIormation Technology, which will help
users to gain more knowledge regards word processing. Companies such as
Learn Direct and ICS also have many courses available in diIIerent
levels/subjects, these courses can be home study or by instructor at the
organisation.

Training plan Ior the employee is on the next page and it is planned Ior the
next twelve months Ior both on-the-job and oII-the-job training.
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Human Resource Management 9
Start Date Training Location Completion Date
01/04/05

01/04/05

01/05/05

01/11/05

10/12/05

20/12/05

01/01/06
RSA Computer Literacy and InIormation Technology Level 1 (Evening Class)

Interview trainee to Iind out which department he/she is interested in working

Coaching with supervisor in department which were agreed with trainee (3 hours/week)

Coaching with Admin supervisor Ior management skills

Special assignment by Admin supervisor

Feedback Irom supervisor Ior special assignment

Register with Learn Direct or ICS Ior distant learning
Local College

-

Various Dept

Admin Dept

Admin Dept

Admin Dept

Home
01/11/05

01/04/05

On-going

08/11/05

17/12/05

20/12/05

01/09/06
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Human Resource Management 10
#010703.0

Beardwell I 09, (2004), Human Resource Management A Contemporary Approach, 4
th

edition, Pearson Education Ltd, Harlow

Harrison R (1992), Management Studies 2 - Employee Development, 3
rd
edition, The
Cromwell Press, Wiltshire

Harrison R (1989), Training and Development, 2
nd
edition, LR Printing Service Ltd, West
Sussex

Mullins L (2002), Management and Organisational Behaviour, 6
th
edition, Pearson
Education Ltd, Harlow

Torrington D 09 , (2002), Human Resource Management, 5
th
edition, Pearson Education
Ltd, Harlow

Daisy So FDA
Human Resource Management 11
Bibliography

Beardwell I 09, (2004), Human Resource Management A Contemporary Approach, 4
th

edition, Pearson Education Ltd, Harlow

Garratt T (1997), The EIIective Delivery oI Training Using NLP, Kogan Page Ltd, London

Harrison R (1992), Management Studies 2 - Employee Development, 3
rd
edition, The
Cromwell Press, Wiltshire

Harrison R (1998), People and Organisation - Employee Development, 2
nd
edition, The
Cromwell Press, Wiltshire

Harrison R (1989), Training and Development, 2
nd
edition, LR Printing Service Ltd, West
Sussex

Mullins L (2002), Management and Organisational Behaviour, 6
th
edition, Pearson
Education Ltd, Harlow

Pettinger R (2002), Introduction to Management, 3
rd
edition, Palgrave, Hampshire

Torrington D 09 , (2002), Human Resource Management, 5
th
edition, Pearson Education
Ltd, Harlow