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CO. sent on application. AERO FABRICS In SILK and the finest Lowest Possible SAMPLES FREE. owing to the remarkable and effective springing arrangement. in stock. Prices. AEROPLANES (Entirely British Manufacture) BUILT TO Prices from According to Size of ORDER to AT THE SHORTEST NOTICE. BIRMINGHAM.. 250 600 Planes and Power of Engines used- Monoplanesownor Biplanes constructed to customers' DESIGNED designs.ADVERTISEMENTS. BIRMINGHAM AERO 667. Moseley St. or our SPECIALLY ALBATROSS Monoplanes which are noted for their great stability and increased safety. yd. Cotton produced. PHOTO and particulars of this and other details.. owing to the low position of the engine and Aviator. From 2/- at the sq. The liability to damage the machine on alighting is reduced to a minimum. . Both sides proofed.
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C. "Modern Engines and Power Generators" " " " Electrical Installations.'' and numerous scientific articles tnu Electrical Distribution by Alternating Currents papers. Chancery Lane. WITH OVER SIXTY ILLUSTRATIONS AND DRAWINGS.. and Transformers. Measurements. \V. CO. THEIR PRINCIPLES. MANCHKSTKK all Hooksellers. and with but upon a strictly scientific new Formula. LONDON. ~2~>. Popularly basis. . SAN FltA. . Rules. JOHN S. treated. and Principles." "'Photographi and Optical Electric Lamps.*^iuuual Engineer. . RANKIN KENNEDY. LIMITED. Market And Street.NfciiSCO. Marine Propellers and Internal Combustion Engines. AUTHOR OK OAL.Flying Machines: PRACTICE AND DESIGN. 1909. THE TECHNICAL PUBLISHING 55 and 56. PRELL Civil & t. CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING.
.. obtained " a quotation which displays the chaotic state of the art at this date. on by modifying the values chosen until is a reasonable agreement . are an aeroplane machine . locomotive. and an attempt has been made to lay down machine's the numerical values of the elements of the aeroplane design and construction. and its natural and fundamental principles. say a steamship. v/. The total weight of it is to be used. or aeroplane. " and no more to : The only way and then follow commence is to start by guessing."x_. and progress is delayed until this work is done. a leading article in a leading journal devoted to flight. dynamos and motors 30 years and worked by designers ^Q working pretty much as directed in the above quotation. speed. But no machine devised by man is incapable of reduction to orderly principles and values.~ In setting out to design any machine. gives the following instructions. . and purpose cpgiven which or assumed. Well. sold. and coming to the subject of setting about to design a machine. such as total for ^"weight. before the principles and numerical values are known. Quite recently. Machines were made. THIS small work is offered as a general review of the flying machine problems. This has not hitherto been done in such a way as to enable a designer to proceed in a methodical manner. some data is given some values within the bounds of reason and possibility.n FOREWORDS. All new departures in mechanical invention are in this Men succeed in making a practicable machine stage at first. % it was the same with electric ago. discussing aeroplane designs.
All of which the helicoptere claims. it should be Speed should be fixed as high as possible but high resistance begins to appear 80 or 90 miles per hour above 50 miles an hour. it is an easy matter to proceed by the principles herein given to make . The based air at firstly author's theory of the aeroplane. out the essential elements of any aeroplane. fails to There is ample scope from the copyists. yet may offer another solution of the problems of flight. although they may look unpromising in a rough drawing only suggestive of a design. and be capable of soarhovering ing. be anything desired over four or rive hundredweight. FOREWORDS. ." and straight flight.X. . more for the purpose of showing the impracticability of large lifting screws to be employed if it is to rise straight up. as distinguished The structural construction of machines is rather beyond the scope of this work. but perform. is upon the fact that an aeroplane moving through with which an incline to its line of flight deflects the air downwards it comes in contact with a velocity Rate equal to . speeds. it would require a volume itself. should come down in safety in any event " " " of an accidental kind. as herein given. may all has less fuel-carrying capacity. There are other machines which. The examples given of the calculations are only typical other weights. and triangles of planes may be substituted to meet different cases coming before a designer. The helicoptere has been considered fully. and rapidly increases. is The machine which now wanted must rise straight up from land or sea anywhere. power per pound weight. for the real inventor. it A smaller machine takes more depends on power. But other propellers than screws may get over the difficulty. hence some attention has been given to them. but it is routine work with which all draughtsmen and designers are familiar. due to the lifting propeller difficulty. requires a larger angle of plane. With the weight and speed factors agreed upon.
mination of these fundamentals. the aeroplane triangle need not in any Monoplanes are perhaps best for small one-man machines up to 700 Ibs. and the plane the hypothenuse. as given in the theory herein. lift. who may essay the design RANKIN KENNEDY. seems from theoretical considerations that the base of the triangle of the planes should bear a proportion lift and the number of superposed planes. However. lift multiplied to by 32-2 and Thirdly. the area swept is proportional the weight of air deflected. December. 1909. All the other dimensions naturally follow upon the deter- any machine. to the total it a biplane or triplane construction is necessary. to 800 Ibs. on foot of air . Glasgow. with a 6 ft. is then found by dividing the area swept by the forward speed per second.FOREWORDS its xi. total lift. the weight of air deflected at the velocity rate is proportional to the required divided by the velocity rate. of exceed 6 6 in. The base case AC ft. divided by the velocity rate by the perpendicular of the triangle of the plane by the weight of a cubic and finally the total span of all the planes. The theory may be somewhat imperfectly illustrated. set forth and but the author believes for those it will be found a reliable and helpful working basis of aeroplanes. in different cases. the base being the line of flight. 600 Ibs. triangle base. For the sake of simple explanation 6 to i has been taken one example as ratio of base to perpendicular of triangle of the plane it may be anything between 4 to I and 10 to I in . . forward speed divided by the ratio of the base to the perpendicular of the triangle of the plane. For heavier machines up to 1. Secondly. Consulting Aeronautical Engineer.
CHAPTER Practical Flying Machines 50 CHAPTER IV. Miscellaneous Appliances 96 CHAPTER VII. Materials for Construction of Flying Machines 108 CHAPTER VIII. PAGE I CHAPTER Principles of Flying Machines II. GAL. Starting up Aeroplanes 88 CHAPTER VI.w Civil & Mechanical Engineer* SAN FRANCISCO. CONTENTS. Possible Flying Machines 71 CHAPTER V. Wind. 4 III. and Atmosphere 130 CHAPTER X. Xotes on Air Pressures. Examples of Calculations 149 153 Conversion Tables . CHAPTER Introductory I. Dirigible Balloons 122 CHAPTER IX. Practical Engineering of Plying Machines 142 -.
i8ft. should read "88ft.ERRATUM." . Page 64. bottom line.
29 32 Aeroplanes Lifting Effect of Air on the Back of a Plane 34.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.' Starting 85 90 91 Weiss' Inclined Starting Pylon Portable Rope Haulage Starting Device 93 . 35 36 37 38 Air Jet Experiments The Helicoptere Fan Blower ' Rotary Aeroplanes Air Propellers Langley's Flying Machine. Flying Machine Monoplane 63 Rankin Kennedy Biplane One Frame of Horatio Phillips' Multiplane Machine Tandem Aeroplane Multiple Screw Helicoptere 65 73 76 77 Twin Screw Helicoptere Diagram Diagram Wright of of 79 81 Propeller Winged Aeroplane Aeroplane and Fish-tailed Machine Pylon 82 Dirigible Floating Flying Bros. Deflected Air Stream 7 8 Aeroplane Deflecting Air Hargreaves' Flapping Wing Machine 25. 24 Hargreaves' Wings 26 27 Wenham's Flying Machine Fish-tail Propeller 28. 1906 Farman's Biplane 53 57 59 Wright Bleriot Bros'. 1896 44 45 51 Santos-Dumont's Flying Machine. PAGE.
Bros.XVI. Dirigible Balloon British Dirigible III. PAGE.' Gliding Wright Machine 97 98 101 Roe's Glider Planes Kennedy's Parachute Tandem Box Kite Single Box Kite Giffard Balloon..A. 127 128 1909 129 135 137 The Anemometer The Statascope . 1852 105 106 124 Zeppelin Dirigible Balloon.S. 1908 125 " French Dirigible Balloon " Republique " Baldwin " U. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
as they are. and others. it may seem Yoisin. Civil & f . Mechanical flight is no exception to this rule. PRELL FLYING MACHINES. it required much inventive genius and practical skill to supply the necessary inventions to put his theories into successful operation in a practical flying machine. CHAPTER THE I. had all to be solved. receiving. INTRODUCTORY. While these problems could be foreseen and considered. the close attention of capable engineers. not the in his early days. Professor L.angley. despite the many difficulties he had to contend with. . subject of mechanical flight has of late sprung into a position of considerable interest to mechanical engineers. turning round a and landing. and practically demonstrated the correctness of his theories. their solution was almost impossible without experiments with an actual corner. steering. flight by a machine containing its own motive power has been accomplished with a considerable degree of success. long years ago. and governing the vertical height of the machine. clearly expounded the theory of the aeroplane. The problems of balancing.>chanical Engineer. Actual In all new inventions their progress at first is impeded by many erroneous theories. starting it up to a soaring velocity.S. and misinterpretation of results of experiments. least the lack of a suitable motor Although Brothers. as a matter of fact. a small step from Langley to Wright yet. and the problems connected with the design and construction of flying machines are better understood.
keen intellect examining into it. Mechanical flight is in that stage where anything is possible. longer flights will be easier accomplished and more experience gained. is by no means to be accepted as the correct thing to be. and the possibilities of discovery and invention are almost unlimited. In the present stage of the art and science of mechanical flight no one can pronounce adversely upon any proposition made upon a basis of scientific laws and facts the subject . and the real new departure is often so ridiculously simple (after it has been demonstrated) that one wonders how it escaped notice so long. we have enough accumulated reliable knowledge on the general laws and data connected with the subject. only in its Elderly engineers can remember a time when great records were made on the old ordinary bicycle. This is one instance of many which could be quoted to show that the thing that is. difficult problems will be reduced and further progress made. is primitive stages. The present type of machine is by no means the last and final design. at present. very often is inspired by an invention of some simple nature which makes a vast change for the better. On the other hand. to enable one to check the propositions and schemes brought forward by sanguine inventors who have no idea the conviction that it A . and further improvements are made. with can be improved upon. making three or four times the at the number of revolutions while the driver pedalled same speed as before. so that many of the. or at least long before it was really introduced. As time goes on. which was then considered a marvel. with its direct-driven front wheel of six feet diameter.2 flying FLYING MACHINES machine of sufficient : power and size to carry the ex- perimenter. It took some years for the bicycle engineers to discover that a simple chain gear would give even greater speeds with a much smaller driving wheel. one wondered why such an apparently simple and well-known device as a multiplying gear had not been applied at first. When the safety geared bicycle appeared.
" although Continental flight is properly called " " but floating along on writers always call it soaring " motionless wings is not soaring. in^which the bird settles down to a steady forward speed with regular wing beats. as to 3 to set out a design. practically. It may be as well to refer to the nomenclature of aeronautics briefly. ." soaring The words applied to various acts in connection with flying or flight are not always used in the same sense by different The various kinds of flight observed in birds can be writers. suddenly Then we have seen hawks hovering . loss. for long periods. " " that is. balance is not difficult to obtain. like a lark or an eagle. without flapping them. as seen in birds and insects. or calculate its dimensions." " " The word soaring essentially implies moving up and up on the wing. and carefully make plans and calculations. and so on. horse power. Flight or flying means moving through the air in any direction from place to place. The questions of equilibrium and balancing are not treated in this book to any extent. to great heights. with " Hoverwings outstretched. and That the subject is not a difficult one to master may be found from the contents of succeeding chapters. although. become still. " for or naval of valuable is a military phase flight purposes. imitated. weight. and the same distinguishing names given them. as if fixed in the air above a spot on earth." for they mostly use " " " when mean they gliding. save himself and others trouble it how would. These words will be used throughout in the sense indicated above. If the inventor could master the elementary science of the subject. These problems are of a higher order than an elementary book can include. " gliding. ing Finally. Bees also hover over flowers. we have ordinary flying or flight. have all seen birds floating along with outstretched We This kind of wings. in many cases. " " The abuse of the word soaring by foreign and some home writers would lead one to believe that they had " no word equivalent to gliding.PRACTICE AND DESIGX.
and the reaction floats the bird in the air. Thus if by means of a wing.4 FLYING MACHINES : CHAPTER II. namely. a screw. A vessel of light oil or spirit sealed up may be forced under has weight and exerts pressure offers water. for the water displaced is heavier than the vessel and its contents. proving that the when in motion. THE PRINCIPLES OF FLYING MACHINES. gun when a charge is fired is a familiar example of this law. The common fan blower shows that it takes power to set air in motion. is balanced by an equal force tending to drive the implement upwards. WE air air are all aware of the force resistance to of the wind. whatever it may be. Flying machines heavier than displace act the volume of air they upon a different principle. the force which is exerted by the implement. a plane or a fan. driving the air down. reaction is always equal and opposite to action (the law which holds good whenever a mutual action occurs between two bodies). The balloonist takes advantage of the weight of the air by filling the balloon with a gas of less weight per cubic foot than air. say downwards. so that the balloon and its contents are. A paddle wheel on a steamship throws the water astern The recoil of a . and that any body driven through it. So also is the flight of a rocket. of less weight than the mass of air it displaces. air is acted upon and set in motion. but if properly dimensioned it will rise up 'through the water. The flapping wings of a bird drive the air down with a force equal to the bird's weight. as a whole. while some of the air acted upon by the wings is driven astern with a force reacting on the bird in the opposite direction and driving it ahead. the force of burning gases ejected downwards reacts upon the rocket and carries it upwards.
Nature herself is limited by this fact.. so does an air or a screw propeller. and velocity thrust or lift in per second. is velocity V. or other body. we shall use 32 but when accurate calculations are called for. Taking the weight in feet pounds per second. hence so that if a propeller or wing drives 20 Ibs. it gives a lift or thrust equal to 40 Ibs. Throughout this book. we have the fundamental principle of mechanical and is Now which bodies or machines act upon this principle. and divided by g. of air per second at a velocity of 64 ft. This results in the necessity for using very large propellers. the of the reaction is by the velocity V and dividing by 32-2. Here. Thus we may simply write T. weight This number. multiplied by ft. the thrust. 32-2. 10 to 12 Probably the small birds are the square feet in area.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. is equal to the weight of the body moved by the implement. or whatever else is to be employed to apply the force. is used to reduce the thrust to pounds. per second. 5 with a force which reacts and drives the vessel ahead. and need not be investigated in this place. per second. say 20 Ibs. 32. The thrust experienced by whatever implement we use to propel the water or air. the reader should use the whole number. say 64 equal to weight W. for simplicity. then. . flight. or planes. and have an enormous span of wing surface. The largest birds known weigh only about 30 Ibs. air has a very small weight compared with water. W found by multiplying the 32-2. all flying 800 times heavier. multiplied by the velocity given to the air or water. and one consequence of this is that the implement must act upon an enormous quantity (cubic feet) of air to get any great weight of it into motion. for no large flying birds exist. . This number is represented by a small (g).
or by jumping from a height into the air. a body in air. can be caught upon a level plane. their wings cannot get a full stroke : they prefer to rise from a rock or eminence.6 survival of the FLYING MACHINES fittest. There in air we why propellers or planes working large in area. FIG. men. . There is little . so that the great bulk to be acted upon must always be considered. as their legs being short. i. for instance. like : earth for means of existence. Kite. and lifting. for birds. have to come to and larger birds would have great earth. as we shall see further on when consider the question of the horse power required to do the is another reason must be work of flying. difficulty in moving near the Eagles. small in size we have nothing hope that the flying machine will ever be to work upon but this air of small weight.
or is : 7 jet of air flowing is this if a stream. and it w ould deflect the air r downwards and be itself pressed upwards. A fig. it exerts upon the plane or body in a definite direction. is to be used for lifting itself and additional weights. common upon this principle. And driven forward against the if air. otherwise we could not be sure whether the plane purpose. Deflected Air Stream. another principle of flight current. The plane being fixed. and a pressure deviated or turned aside by any plane or body. whether it is a kite or an aeroplane. and the aeroplane machine alike depend Fig 2 shows an inclined plane and a wind blowing in the direction of the arrow. FIG. is obtained from curved surfaces as in it a curved plane driven against the air deflecting downwards and being itself pressed upwards. fig. we must be able to find out how to calculate this lift for any given plane. or with any velocity meets. the wind when it strikes it will be deflected downwards and the plane pressed upwards. Again. the plane were movable. The kite.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. better effect 3. Now it must be evident that if a curved or flat plane. i. 2. is too small or unnecessarily large for its .
in order to understand the designs of various study the few elementary principles upon of The fundamental principle which they are constructed. along A The the line of motion or line of flight B. and inclined to the line of motion the air is deflected downwards and reacts . A lift of equal value is experienced by an inclined plane whether the the air. shown by the Fig. i in length. Referring to of fig. of air 2 moves and shows an inclined plane against which a current is deflected downwards. and the dimensions of the plane are the same. an inclined plane At is. P. lift or thrust. and shown we can calculate out the effect in pounds. 4. a line P Q dropped vertically say. to necessary. the velocity. air moves against the plane or the plane against provided the angle of inclination.8 It is FLYING MACHINES '. Fig. FIG. resulting in a lift vertical arrow. in common . inclination of the plane. say 6 ft. 3 shows a plane moving through air. as shown by the vertical arrow. ft. A C is A B. upwards. 3. flying machines. Aeroplane Deflecting Air. action and reaction we have already referred to.
= i. which is called the hypothenuse. to or tan which we may use to find the find the value of sin We of . for angle a. travelled.. . which means that travellanguage. The common formulae given in engineering works for the lift on an inclined plane driven through the air at an angle inclined to the line of flight is to take into account the weight lifting power of air per cubic foot.e. The speed forward of the plane in . The angle <>. of the triangle its line of flight. 4. \\ PQ L. in 6 ft. have only to look up a table of sines. is 9 one or one in six. and if we divide this perpendicular P. Triangle of Aeroplane. Practical planes vary in inclination from i deg. P Q.INE or FLIGHT FIG. 0-08 lb. etc.get a by the side A number called the sine of the angle a. called the perpendicular. i.PRACTICE AND DESIGN.. to 14 deg. ling up the plane a body would be raised I ft. formed by the sides P A and A Q. In the example where PO . the angle which the plane makes six to with is The third side. the surface area of the planes in feet represented by F. is called the angle of the plane. then 0-166 is sin a. we . the plane.
t^ O Q H' c^ CO "") t^ O^ N 1 lOOc' ^ C4 *O C SCO 00 OOCO*OOOOC M N N OCOOC >-i S^M? <%i 8888 88! I^tt-i M o ^. o "*t~ co MooOOco OOr-iooC M o\ c^o ^ o N o o C> IOOO C^ * M 1-1 IH < ONO . o'oc' 1/1 M CTI >o f-i co t^ V> >O 'J. O co_ Thoc^ cq c'oo O goo^^ * M C O ~O f.I LYING MACHINES I Q ooc oc oo oo oo'oo co'oo oc oo co*o <n 10 "-> N o M ro oo o' ir."* 1-1 O^OO t^O * O^OO^t" CcqiOt^O c oc Tj-t^cocot^ iCC^Oi^oC r^.C^ CO co "ICC O MOO M H N 04 CO c d o c o ftfll N M_ * M co a t~> o iO .
required to drive the plane forward at the 60 ft. we are given that Then T or _ 0-08 x F x S2 X 32 sin 2 .PRACTICE AND DESIGN. T. . the thrust of the inclination to obtain the lift . squared represented by S found by multiplying all these together ly Then the lift L. multiplied in the ratio the plane is six to one. per second. 100 square feet. T __ 0-08 x F x S2 X 32 - sin a We can cancel 32 out by dividing o o8 by I. a of the plane by dividing the ^= T L 35_ 20-25 = 6 6 to j . although they have been generally accepted as correct up till now. and vS 60 ft. feet per second is II 2 . theoretically. per second. Then above case T would be found as 0-15 T = 0-0025 X IQo X 60 x 60 X lift X 0-15 = 20-25. These formulae are not correct for aeroplanes. to find the thrust. . . while its dimensions may be altered or it may. gives a Ibs. on a plane whose angle From this we can also deduce sin of 135 Ibs. it. Then we get the L. without alteration. and get a.1 T in the = 0-0025 X F x vS 2 sin 2 . lift = 0*0025 x I0 X 60 x 60 X O" 15 = 135 Ibs. The surface F of a plane may remain constant. or J^2^25 135 is if Using an inclined plane. = 0-0025 x F x S2 x sin Suppose sin a and F = = 0-15. which shows that a thrust of 20-25 has a sine equal to 0-15. the lift will be six times the thrust.
has S also as one of its factors. should be used in calculations. Triangle of Plane. from actual experience that the 2 X 12 will lift far more driven broadside on than the 2 similarly driven. The author prefers to somewhat modify the formulae. S X V. The span / of . is we have horizontal speed S is the aeroplane. speed squared). It would be quite as rational to take or. say. so that A. so that the doubtful factor of surface area of planes is eliminated. rather. and then be F is the same in both. = is its length transversely to its line of the other factor. The lift of the aeroplane is due primarily to the mass of air deflected downwards by it. irrational the surface of the blades of a marine screw propeller as the factor in calculating the thrust as to take the surface of an . 2 X 12. For these reasons F is not used in the author's formulae for 6x4 X and power. with which the area swept over by the aeroplane in its the forward flight in square feet per second only one factor in that quantity. to deal. but we know altered to 4 ft. the area swept by the /. plane. especially for practical designs. mass of air W. the velocity of the air deflected by the plane downwards. and the 12 plane driven end on would scarcely lift any at all. and V its lift velocity. in preference to surface F and S 2 (the forward FIG. is The important area A. when the plane has a forward speed S. In the first case it might be a plane of 24 square feet area. 5. Hence. at a velocity V. X 6 ft. that flight.12 FLYING MACHINES : be driven end on or broadside on.
seems best for machines. or elevators. or hypothenuse. and gives an incline of about 6 to i a perpendicular B C of i. If we consider the plane as the hypothenuse of a triangle. working forward speeds of 40 miles per hour or thereabout this .PRACTICE AND DESIGN. we take the area of the disc swept by the blades as the is base of a column of water acted upon by the blades. 6. fig. by FIG. But for engineering reasons it is obvious an angle must be selected for the builders to work to. taking a c. An angle of about at in air. 6. as they generally are. There a maximum pressure exerted by the blades per square foot of their area beyond which there is no increase of thrust. It is necessary in practice to build the aeroplanes to some angle of a definite value. by altering the angle of the keel of the machine to the line of means of vertical steering planes. that is a base A C of 6. The sloping line. there is a limit to the lift per square foot of plane area. the planes are curved. as in then we take the dimensions from a b. being the aeroplane joining the perpendicular and base. flight. and the line of flight is taken as the floor level. the base may be taken as the plane's width. of the plane to the line of flight can be varied. Similarly with aeroplanes. : If fig. a b. 5. 13 case In the marine aeroplane as the factor in a flying machine. The angles and planes may be geometrically drawn. from which the In actual flight the angle angle of the plane can be measured. b c. Curved Planes. . a c. and the lengths of the base and perpendiculars measured by scales. 9 deg. or some other datum line is taken. b c in feet.
) Forward speed per second in feet. b c. = Weight of air deflected by the aeroplane per second downwards in pounds. fully loaded. for purposes of calculation. s the planes added together. as above defined. w = Weight of machine in pounds. all = Span = length of V = Velocity imparted planes. or a to perpendicular of 6 to i. '=1 W=w ratio of X V 32 or = V A. B C. A plane inclined at 6 to i.L. =. whether small or large planes are used. as shown the BC = diagrams. should . is taken about 9 deg. cab. base The angle of the plane. Area swept by machine per second. 0-08. to the air deflected downwards by = Superficial area of planes..) The perpendicular of the triangle of the plane ^ Base of the triangle of the plane. a b . y _ the perpendicular a b the hypothenuse.14 FLYING MACHINES : Let the following symbols be employed for the values of the various dimensions. triangle of the plane. (See fig. a c the base Perpendicular = v?_ the lift of machine. = A= W I. For curved planes a c. the three sides of the b c . or plane. square feet. in if drawn \ in straight lines. R = Resistance to the machine flying through air.ift / of machine. A C = Base A B = Hypothenuse S Perpendicular (plane) in feet length. 6.
and is equally applicable to monoplanes.. then b c or (the speed S multiplied by the tangent) V=S X V. Upon these principles the author bases his working hypoIt takes into account every factor. or 66 per cent only.. total surface of planes . per second. suppose a c = 4 ft. is and if S the speed of the planes forward per second. 4 deflected aeroplane calculations.. and " " of the planes takes care of The aspect multiplanes. theses for aeroplanes. b c in feet . = 9 in. as a tangent. is the important factor. j = -66. then to. Tan In all a =-.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. in the foregoing case. . would be by (2) V= a_c_ = 5-3 = 11-3 ft.75 = I 8 75 .. or -75 ft. V. . that also follows naturally will without any calculation For simplicity. plane is but in practice the lift of a 6 to i only 4 to i. consider s. and a c 4 ft. then tangent a equals . biplanes. the velocity of the air downwards by the planes. a b. it is assumed that the student the lengths of a c draw b c out the planes accurately to a fairly large scale and measure . if b c = 9 in. b a if c (2A) ft. giving an efficiency for planes of losses . multiply the thrust of the propeller into a neglecting all lift 15 six times greater. the speed S was 60 per second. be . is the inclination of the plane or. and need not be considered at all neither need we itself.
the weight of the air acted upon per second. This weight is equal to ' W = V x A x 0-08 X wherein 0-08 is BC .. . . of air per second deflected by the plane. feet. we must find W. then span and a speed of 60 4800 square A= BC is 4 x 20 X 60 = the height of the perpendicular in ft. . We have found w=WV S . mW = 3242x11-3 = II45lbs . besides In order to calculate the of a plane. = V x A X B C X 0-08 B C can be For the formula measured easily on a scale drawing of any plane. from (i). W . W = 11-3 x 4800 X 0-75 X 0-08 = 3242 V and Ibs. we must determine upon two factors the speed forward S and weight w to be sustained in the air. Suppose four planes of 20 per second. . per second. per second. the speed in feet per second A= I x ft S. or V 2 x A x BC x -0025. multiplied by S. V. the span. . (4) ft. (3) taken as the weight of i cubic foot of air. and the lift. g = 32... feet. ..l6 FLYING MACHINES (2A) : and by V == S X = 60 X ' 1875 lift = 11-3 ft. W = VxAxBCx 0-08. t W .. which was assumed as 0-75 Now . w V x A x BC x 32 0-08 x V . In setting out to design an aeroplane. The area A swept by an aeroplane is equal to /. This we do according to my system by first finding the area A swept over by the planes at the speed S. . which we have given as 60 ft..
and the tangent these = 6. incline of six to one. and also theoretically examining the problem. One cubic foot of air we take to weigh 0-08 Ib. triangle of which the plane is the hypothenuse. we take to be six to one. in order to illustrate the methods of calculation. their weight w is about 1.200 Ibs. taking six as the base as the perpendicular. in some practical man-carrying aeroplanes. . as in fig. and leave it to the designer to keep the weight below that figure. The important area in square feet we require .PRACTICE AND DESIGN. per second for the present purposes. ft. at present. We assume this speed to be 60 ft. We can. to find is not the area of the surface of the planes.200 Ibs. per second. total. From of the air deflected we may proceed to determine the velocity V downwards by the aeroplane at its assumed speed forward. We have obtained the necessary values of the factors in the design for constructional purposes S = 60 10 ft. A C. is B C = i. B C = i ft. the base of the triangle. and calculate the velocity V from or (2A). assume from the fact that w as 1. to be lifted. and the cubic feet multiplied by 0-08 gives the pounds weight of air moved at a velocity by V V per second. and the perpendicular = 0-166. the value of is (2) For an and one V BC = -5 = 6 10 ft. V= per second. 17 The from best inclination of the plane from experience. but the area which for that area multiplied the planes sweep over in one second gives the total cubic feet of air acted upon by the planes per second. the ratio of the base to the perpendicular of the Therefore. 6.
or multiplane. We now . . by fundamental formulae is W. the lift. The only things reduced are B C and A C. the amount of all the spans added together. say 2 planes each 40 If ft. is hence L.. the ratio of B C to Suppose BC AC A and at 60 ft. / X S equals the area A swept 10 in one second. gin. is required to support w 1. planes may velocity V must first be. = 00 If 60 = 80 ft. of dimensions C is still the and 0-75 ft. the weight of air to be accelerated Hence. six to one 10 ft. we take feet. 6 shows the triangle referred to above. of air accelerated to 10 ft.200 Ibs.200 Ibs.. biplane. long. W. must be still the same. or 0-125 ft. from (3).l8 FRYING MACHINES : A lift L of 1. or total span of the planes on a machine of this weight and speed. span. W V x B C x 0-08 We know S = 60. V is still same. respectively. the weight of air acted upon. per second. the ratio of base to perpendicular and the impressed upon the air at a normal forward speed be ascertained. the length of the planes /. 1.ft. in air. of the plane. and. The aeroplane machine may be constructed as a monoBut whatever the number of plane. planes. per second speed. say. it is preferred to have a large number of small i^in. Now. proceed to find the first requisite dimension of the aeroplane that is. .. then the base of the triangle of the plane as the width we have a sustaining area of 6 x 80 480 = square Fig. hence / 3840 x i X 0-08 4800 sq.200 Ibs. per second.
A= / = 2nd. .- . A. each 16 ft. which act as vertical rudders and will have small a good margin of lifting effect is lifting efficiency. . W= V = ii x A x B C x 0-08 X 2240 X 1-2 x 0-08 . but it appears to be about 6 to 1-2. = . 32-2 lifted weight was 715 Ibs. ? varies inversely as B C is A 384 10 X and S = 0-125 X 0-08 o = 38400 square ft. hence Ibs.. of air. I. 40 X S X 56 . . Applying Bleriot's this formulae to say 40 planes. an actual machine. per second... The difference no doubt due to the small planes at the after end of the machine.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. . the is allowed. (4) 2240 square feet area swept. long. The is ratio of base to perpendicular of the triangle of plane not given. . . . we are the particulars obtainable all may take monoplane which flew across the English Channel. . . IQ But the area swept..840 increased or decreased. I/ift (or total weight of machine) = 715 Ibs. . = (3) 2365 Ibs. 1st. V= = 56 6 1-2 56X2-_2 6 = Ilft p e r second. 3. 56 ft. 3rd. : The following vSpeed vSpan (total of S = planes) / = 40 ft. per second. 60 ft. and As given above.--.
and Chatley as follows multiply by the speed in miles per hour. and weight the air. or a multiplicity of small planes. What we are concerned about at present is the fundamental principles. of two portions is compounded the 'power to sustain the weight in the air. The power required same as that required A flying up an incline. has not been practically demonstrated. multiply by the speed in feet per second. experience or opinion of designers. practice they are curved. the rule is to divide the or weight by four. H. which should be mastered by all interested in aeronautical subjects. machine is virtually climbing up a hill all the time. the power to force the whole machine through first.2oolbs. we have ' Hp It is 1200x40 4 X 375 = 33. the speed is in feet per second. POWER REQUIRED FOR AEROPLANES TO SUPPORT THEM IN THE AlR. Herbert Divide the lift or weight by four. and divide by 550 If lift 59 ft. In Hitherto. and.2O FLYING MACHINES : Whether it is better to use two or three or four large planes. we have assumed the planes to be flat. Dearly lift is founded upon the assumption that the four times the thrust. secondly.. The first is much the to push a motor-car or bicycle : i. while no great success with multiplanes. and divide the result by 375. but we know that the biplane and monoplane machine have flown with some has followed the trials success. 59 =32> 4 x 550 per second being equal to a speed of 40 miles per hour. A rule for finding horse power required is given by Mr.Suppose the speed is 40 miles per hour.= I200X .P. and just what the curve should for a time it will be left to the be is not practically settled . The horse power required by aeroplanes is variously calculated.
besides sustaining the weight of the aeroplane. = " = Q 6 .(5) .P.. and are merely nominal... 16 H.840 Ibs.P. or. - S = X 40. Now.PRACTICE AND DESIGN 21 If a machine has a higher ratio of lift to thrust. per second 3. we have R the resistance to overcome at S the forward speed . and \V and g. the horse power formulae.. the horse power expended in supporting the weight. then. 2 X 550 . the downward showing an efficiency of only = -66 for the planes. 550 . (6) 550 R= 150. or 66 per cent efficiency. then I5 4 = ii H. 10 ft.P.3840 x io x io 2 X 32 X 550 H p But the efficiency.P. in other words. the actual power required will be in the ratio of as H. the horse power for this is H. to propel it through the air hence.. it will he seen from above that the horse power required is less. If =R X S .. continually expended in overcoming gravity H. and the fact that in practice a machine with a plane inclined at one in six lifts only four times the thrust. to find the actual horse power W= V= . friction But the correct way to calculate -the power the machine afloat is for maintaining velocity impressed upon the air by the planes as formerly found. if the lift is only four times the thrust with planes inclined at six to one. These powers do not include losses by slip of propeller nor of driving gear. .P. to take V. for lifting.. is only 0-66. In our former example.= WXV = ' 2g X 550 TI . for driving ahead. besides the we have .
but we cannot hope for aerial locomotion ever to be so economical as land or water locomotion. These may amount to 20 per nor friction in transmission. 30 minutes or 15 minutes. besides the frictional resistances.P. . say. In flying machines 12^ per cent has been found for the Wright machine.P. but quite near enough for comparisons. in good condition and working over three-quarters of full load. for lift 27 H. in all. be confidently expected. is to measure the petrol consumed by the engine in full flight for. on steam railways it is about i per cent. xo-knot tramp steamer o-i per cent. R TJ . and this 27 H. that is 44 pints per hour. in pints. we have virtually to .22 FLYING MACHINES : to be added to the 16 H. takes one pint of petrol per horse power per hour. estimate. for the total horse power. P xs+4S A 2 l>7\ "550 An empirical formula for resistance is R= and horse power S2 :5 xxBCx / '0024 X sin . This high coefficient in flying machines is due to the fact that.P. however. In motor cars with pneumatic tyres it is 2 per cent. = cent at least hence the brake horse power at lowest estimate By putting (5) and (6) together 34. does not include the power lost in the propeller slip. for R_ S X X BC X 550 '0024 X sin Practically as good a test as any. Higher efficiencies may.P. 13 \ per cent for the Voisin machine. a fast ocean liner 0-7 per cent. In land locomotion we express the resistance as a percentage of the whole weight moved. the horse power of the It is a rough engine would then be approximately 44 H. and a very simple one for an actual estimate of engine horse power. Suppose on a run of 15 minutes the consumption was ii pints. An engine on an average. the formula would be about we get.
P. the results claimed can only be given as approximations to the facts. X 550 X II X II 2 X 32 X 550 efficiency.P.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. leaving 8 H. is n therefore a necessary loss. machines are At the present moment the actual performance of flying is difficult to ascertain.P. nearly. for lifting. be reduced. and no records of any independent tests have been published. resistance. for driving.P. Somewhat wild statements made by inventors and builders. so far as engine power and efficiencies are concerned. The total horse power is said to be 25. as found above. and nothing is required to be expended in power for sustaining the weight. The horse power From our found of the Bleriot machine is given as 25. P. Such as they are. The H.P.P.P. per second. previous calculations of this machine we have W = 2365 Now from Ibs. T.. for lifting. by any contrivance. . = ^ = 12 H.. less 12 H. (6) R =HP X 550 80 Ibs. giving 20 H. and with 66 per cent H. We from can now ascertain the resistance R of this machine H. travel 23 up an incline . we get 2365 - o TT =8 H. = M550 - . and cannot except by a balloon. from which we deduct 20 per cent losses by friction and transmission. in the air the time in supporting the weight in the other cases the weight is borne by the land all or water. of air and V= n ft.. nearly.
The wings he employed were not exactly like bird wings. neglected. by wing machines. operating them by steam or compressed air directly by a piston and cylinder. 7. Cams or cranks employed to flap the wings must fail. if we employ a cylinder and piston to flap the wings. due to the continual stopping and starting. . and try to flap it up and down like a wing. hold out a flat board. and that it flapping wing.et anyone stops and starts again with great rapidity. for the enormous strains thrown upon them at reversal of stroke. recognised these points in his early designs for flapping wing machines. and thereby store up energy to be expended again in starting the return FIG. advantage can be taken of the momentum of the wings to compress the motive fluid in the cylinders. in most flapping " practice in steam engine design. however. stroke. of Sydney. However. like L. providing what is called cushioning This simple mechanical device has been. due to the fact that the wing reverses its motion at the end of every stroke. Mr. Hargreaves' Flapping Wing " Machine.24 FLYING MACHINES : WINGED OR The only examples FISH-TAIL FLYING MACHINES. cannot be balanced without some cushioning device. it will be found very trying work. lyawrence Hargreaves. of this class of all machine are small models. New South Wales. and their great frequency. introduces large unbalanced forces. as is the common in the cylinders. A other to-and-fro movements. a yard long.
carried on rods which vibrate through an arc of a circle in a plane at right angles to the body of the machine. wings. diagrammatic plan of the machine and its wings is in fig. are supposed to be hinged at H H. they were rather like 25 aeroplanes. carrying . per square inch. And in this respect we could calculate out the thrust proif duced with any given stroke and frequency angle of the planes. FIG. 7 shows one of his machines driven by compressed air. Now we may consider the wings. The wings fig. 8. Fig. 4 ft. Ib. so that they swing round on the rods and present the incline face to the air in the first figure the wings are travelling outwards. in which the thick arrow represents A shown and in .PRACTICE AND DESIGN. we knew the . long. showing the wings in the forward stroke. carried in the long tube which forms the backbone of the machine it is 2 in. and vice versa in the second figure. hence they naturally feathered to right and left as the stroke was made up or down. diameter. having an up-and-down motion. and hence are inclined inwards. . 8. 144 cubic inches of compressed air 230 The are flexible in fact they were of paper on the model. 9 showing them in the back stroke. the line of flight. Hargreaves' Wings.
of a in machine designed and built by the late Mr. the wings acting as propellers only. In the Hargreaves' model the planes are end on. remains to be seen.26 FLYING MACHINES : Suppose a body B (fig. 9) with two radial rods capable vibrating on hinges hh. through. H. flexible wings of thin springing material would be better. and the motion of the wings at the reversal of the stroke must be in a plane at right angles to the rods. . Wenhani. Hargreaves' Wings. F. Whether it is possible to construct such wings mechanically light enough and strong enough for an actual flying machine is a problem to be solved by some inventor perhaps instead The motion . 9. 10. and wings H H. of hinged wings. FIG. say. and flap round on the reversal out . which shows the plan and elevation . of WW to the of the rods must be in a plane at right angles body B. and springs or stops fitted to the wings so that they swing over to a determined angle at each reversal of the rods' vibration. we will have in effect a Hargreaves' set of wings. and of the plane 2. They the design would. one-third of attached also by hinges the circle each.128 square inches. beyond the outer ends of the planes. Such a machine would require supporting aeroplanes. In the Hargreaves' model the area of the wings was 216 square inches. we now know. which an aeroplane with six planes is fitted with these wings the wings are in front. be better broadside on becoming more like fig.
As a propeller it may be imitated by a flexible wing d on a vertical pin R. the wing or tail. and the Hargraves' wings in their is action. they were known as the Macintosh propellers. the fish tail. principle . 10. like most others relating to flight. wing flaps over to position c Thus by working the lever to and fro rapidly. The tail moves in a horizontal plane in some fishes. and approached the form of a disc pressing There bird's back against the water by its spring force. Wenham's Flying Machine. however. with power applied at P. is entirely eclipsed by the screw-propelled FIG. aeroplane. crum E. The student and inventor. no doubt a good deal of resemblance between the wing. of these wings is more like that of the fish-tail a fish tail is a flexible propeller vibrated in a propeller Marine propellers were tried on the same horizontal plane. acting as an inclined plane. but as the speed increased. fig. which is When the lever L is moved a plan view of a lever for working the tail. the wing d assumes an angle direction of dotted arrow b the and when it moves in . The subject of winged machines. at this date. ii. should be acquainted with all the types and their peculiarities. The blades were flexible and of coarse pitch when moving slowly. they were bent back and the pitch of the blades became finer.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. 27 The action . . in direction of arrow a around ful.
More than likely if ever the winged machine is made of large size for practical use it will be operated on the principles indicated by these diagrams. it is part of a no doubt if they come into use they will parabolic curve receive a more expressive cognomen.28 FLYING MACHINES : sends the fluid astern at the race. Fish-tail Propeller. MS= t - y x . arc of swing. FIG. the motions of the rod being at right angles to the motions of the wing. (8) 1-44 . There inventor is who a considerable field of investigation open to the takes up the question of aerial propulsion by these wings vibrating on a swinging rod. The mean speed M S is found by dividing the length y of the arc in feet by the time t of the swing in seconds. from zero starting during the swing. not one to be driven at a high And the speed is not constant . and the reaction of this fluid sends the fish ahead.... CALCULATIONS FOR FISH-TAIL OR WING PROPELLER. from the curved shape they assume when made of flexible material. But the curve is not a trochoid curve at all. ii. They have been called trochoidal propellers. In the fish-tail propeller the motions of the lever and wing are in the same plane. . and by the square root of 2 ( ^2 1-44). The speed . fish-tail propeller is that is its drawback...... Its speed is that of a pendulum it reaches a maximum when in the middle of the and then comes to zero again.
2 12). take the case of a ft. hinged to a lever L on a pivot P swinging through an arc of 10 ft. and fish-tail propeller B. different speeds or frequency of beats. 29 Suppose and y then t =i =5 second per swing ft. making five t A swings per second. 12.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. then MS= 5 ft. length of the swing..3 feet per second. the. . X f ee p er seconcj thus calculate for 1-44 can practically 7 per second. 3 in. broad. 7 ft. Fish-tail Propeller We may span and (fig. MS I X 1- = 3-47 _ 5. We FIG. or if the time of one swing was 0-5 seconds. or = 0-2 second per swing.
..per second. that BC AC Then the velocity = T = 2 '^ air V impressed on the would be V-MSx|^ 35 . if A B. tail is I 7'5 ft. the tail. and MS we have ft. H - .*"-the tail to the 5 as 35 swing in Ibs.= .... in this case. say per second..30 FLYING MACHINES I Then MS= 2 - - x 1-44- From fig. and B C I ft. X 17-5 XIX = 343 Ibs. Ibs.. 12. . _ 1750 + 550 1640 = 3390 550 6 2 . 2-25 ft. then 50 X 35 H.P. from (3) 0-08 0-08 X M S. then AC would be 2ft.= where 50 (II> R is the resistance of t'.. and the thrust would be = 343X17-5 32 lbs The horse power would be IS H.P. '5 equal to the span I multiplied = A= = air / Then the weight W of W = AxVxBCx = 245 7 X 35 = 2 45 square feet. is is. (9) X The area A swept by the by the mean speed M S. moved would be. .
7 and 10 . . is given in order to show as how to make the and not an actual example of planes at work. on a large hence the weight of the more As with the screw air propeller the larger W the moved. This thrust gives about 30 Ibs. as wing or fish-tail propellers.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. Some writers carefully consider . by Wenham and by Hargreaves. In the present stage of aeronautical progress. economical of power it is. The with flapping propellers. thrust per horse does not allow for inefficiency of the tail Ibs. they might prove of considerable value calculations given may guide the experimenter. In the same way the flapping wing machine propeller can be calculated these were used as shown in figs. of very thin flexible steel or other metal . and the smaller V its velocity. This example calculations. is This well understood. be folly to make it a copy of a bird's wing. fish and the bird do very well The bird's wing at its outer end and outer posterior edge acts as the propeller its stiffer part next the body forms part of the supporting surfaces. but they forget that its peculiar shape and form is due to a large extent to the fact that it is designed In a to fold up snugly and fit close to the sides of the bird. its general formation as pointing the way to man in his investigations. All propellers working in a fluid give a higher efficiency the smaller the velocity of the slip V and the greater the cubic feet of fluid accelerated. or frictional or other losses. not designed to fold against a body. nothing practicable can be neglected without risking failure to find something of value. Made scale. a type of propeller not hitherto In fact the principles of made much its of nor action have not been before now brought into arithmetical calculations. it would To sum up the power question. mechanical wing. 31 which with 190 power.
secondly. P. as it also has slip. We may now with actual aeroplanes to find what relation obtains between weight lifted and the total span of the planes and the total . to which is to be added the slip of the aerofor planes. and in head resistance of aeroplane and its contents. The helicoptere flying machine has one great slip. The aeroplane has attracted the undivided attentions of aeronauts for a quarter of a century. the sustaining propellers accelerating the downward column of air it has also to provide without the screw advancing upwards . FIG. which to be equal we found under the conditions stated at page loss between It has also two frictional losses to ii H. and discover consider the practical results of experience new inventions. The fish-tail propeller makes no difference in these respects.32 FLYING MACHINES : In the aeroplane we have two slips first. the slip at the aeroplane. power overcoming the head resistances. the slip at the screw propeller. and. engine and propeller. it seems it to much greater utility. 13 Aeroplanes. and now that it has at last actually flown not possible to carry long the field of and carried two or more men. and before and scientific operations will again be left to the investigator inventor to strike out fresh lines.
The monoplane has only one plane. But it depends. as can easily be seen from our calculations. or whether we adopt large or small planes. The following tables gives numbers for consideration : 33 some useful TABLE I. that whether we use monoplanes. Some aeroplanes have three decks of planes. The biplane is a machine with two superposed planes. and some have multiplanes. surface of the planes. we must get in the necessary plane span. . triplanes.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. biplanes. TABLE II. or multiplanes. and are called triplanes.
Lifting Effect of Air on Back of Plane. Considering the air which is FIG. is of aeroplanes are curved. Form of Aeroplane. The best form the fluid surfaces. and by experiments given a demonstration which goes to prove that a current or t stream deflected on a convex surface causes a lifting on the . The biplane. which can be stiffened by ties and struts. it would be imagined that of loss this deflection would be a source of power. and are. deflected upwards. the form shown in fig. see fig. The prove superior. of less stability. so that gradually deflected downwards on the sustaining In practice. hitherto. Jose Weiss has studied this point. The biplane and triplane form a girder construction readily. Multiplanes become too high and heavy. but practice shows apparently that it is not so. therefore.34 FLYING MACHINES : It will be difficult to get a monoplane of sufficient span for heavy lifts. 15. 14 is said to The blunt end is the forward end. 14. has given the best results. stream lines are shown. together with a strong construction. Mr. 13. FIG.
and by blowing a stream of air by mouth parallel to the table the curved part will be sucked upwards. He states that anyone can try the experiment by bending a sheet of note paper. 16. 16. as shown in fig. the Referring to : Mr. A somewhat similar action can be shown by an old experiment. fig. as it flows expands and becomes pheric pressure. surface of 20 square inches will support nearly half a pound is curved blade sucked up. Weiss states that if the current of air has a velocity of 80 ft. My own idea of the action is that the upward and slanting motion of the deflected stream creates a partial vacuum on the convex back of the blade. a convex. in this way. 17. If a stream of air is blown along parallel to the board. and the water flows up. 35 fig.PRACTICE AND DESIGN back. less in lateral pressure out radially at considerable velocity. 18. much in the same way as by blowing a current of air across the mouth of a vertical pipe dipping into water creates a partial vacuum in the pipe. see fig. 15. fasten it to table at a. and has a hook on which it may be weighted. per second. The air. Take a cotton reel and a card. than the atmos- . a curved sheet D is hinged at C to a board B. hold the reel a short distance above a card blow down the central hole and the card will be sucked up. Experiment showing Lifting Effect of Air on Back of Plane. FIG.
. stops is so great that all forward velocity is lost before landing. both for for But the starting up and landing. Air-jet Experiment. Air-jet Experiment. while travelling itself at a high forward velocity. and considerable wide space. continuous high forward velocity necessity is a considerable drawback. when the engine is stopped by design or accident. 17. only from such low heights.30 FLYING MACHINES : It is doubtful if ever a more efficient lifting instrument than a well-designed curved aeroplane can be devised. so that quite a small thrust forward can sustain a large weight. Landing can be safely effected FIG. that the machine has still some forward If the height at which the engine velocity when it alights. FIG. all control and stability is lost. 18. The secret of its high efficiency lies in the fact that it can deflect such a huge mass of fluid at a low velocity. It necessitates a preliminary starting up to speed.
one right handed. Screw propellers on a vertical shaft were early proposed in a type of machine called a helicoptere for this purpose. one of the screws mounted on a hollow shaft C. But rotating planes need not be helical at all." and it is working under the most disIt may support a weight in advantageous conditions. Helicoptere. of power like an aeroplane. generally two. directions. the other screw mounted upon a central shaft C 1 They are driven by bevel wheels or other device in opposite . be said at once that no screw propeller can possibly air with anything approaching economy A screw working in a fluid. 37 These are inherent defects in the system. so as to balance each other. 19 A is is an outline of such a machine as usually proposed. The makers of air blowers long ago found that out. For these reasons hopes were entertained that by rotating the planes instead of driving them straight along the line of flight. the other left handed. Fig. " which is all slip. and devised more . that a lift could be maintained economically. gives velocity to the fluid. without advancing through it.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. and apparently nothing has yet been suggested as to any remedies. and B is FIG. 19.
= 17-4 Ibs. second (V).H. with an expenditure of 5 B. or a blower of It is requires to not like a screw propeller driving into the feed with a high velocity in an axial direction. 20 may be taken as an illustration of a common type suck in its feed. six revolutions per second (not to go into fractions). Here we have 80 Ibs. Thouof air-blower.H.38 - FLYING MACHINES : suitable blades for seizing upon the air and impelling air.. Fig. or. of air ( W) accelerated to 35 ft. with rotating planes properly shaped. per . and by the fundamental formula the thrust T is =3 32 a thrust or lift of 87 Ibs. 1. it forward.000 cubic feet of air per second.P.P. their efficient action much . A lifting rotating blade. runs at 340 revolutions per minute. per horse power. per second. . at an acceleration of 35 ft. for 5 B. blower of their efficiency. say. a 6 ft. curved In all these efficient air-blowers the blades are axially aft to a blades working greater extent than is done in any in water. At that speed it propels. Fan Blower or accelerates. At any rate. sands of this type are in practical use every day proof From a list before me. 2O.
PRACTICE AND DESIGN. as the speed of air sent astern by a propeller . V its velocity. And by transposition we get To sustain a pound weight in air. per second V to be imparted to the fluid per second by the less or more and still get but we could make W the same thrust T. by a requires a thrust T of a propeller should be when T find what value V = i Ib. THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SCREW PROPELLER AND HELICOPTERE.. and g 32. Hence we can = I and W = I we get propeller. These principles are the same as those of the aeroplane. 39 upon the many air explodes the idea of the air disturbance by blades in a small diameter having any detrimental effect. evidently V= as the speed propeller. Thus.H. ?-- then we would get in this case V= in air. The blades are more like sails or aeroplanes curved at the tips to take advantage of the centrifugal force due to the If rotating planes or whirling of the air with the blades.P. of air at about 16 ft velocity per second with 2 B. blades are to be used for lifting purposes. expended. they must not be helical. In another way this air-blower is instructive it : At three revolutions per second delivers 40 Ibs. T X 3? = 32 ft. The propelling or lifting thrust T is T _ WV g where W is the weight of air moved. if W=4 Ibs. per second to sustain I Ib. X -3 2 = 8 ft.
weight equal to. and hence W = 16 *2 pound weight not a fixed quantity. Now let support 1. For instance. which must never be overlooked or neglected. . that we may increase T by or or both. V= x 2 W ='i. per second . In the first case the weight lifted would be 34 Ibs. = hence = T | i. per second.40 FLYING MACHINES : The energy or work done is in sustaining the I Ib. and in the third 550 Ibs."we get = 4 foot-lbs. is to say. and V= 2 ft. = 4 X X 8 (15) 64 For the same thrust the work required in the is latter case That in air four times that required in the former case. then FP = T6 - X 2 =i foot-lb. but an increase of either increasing more power in proportion to the square of V. per horse power. One foot-pound of 64 energy per second would of weight against gravity. Ibs. x_3 2 j6 foot-lbs. W = 4. and that is.000 us consider the size of a propeller required to 16 ft. from which it will be seen that there is in theory no fixed limit to the weight lifted per horse power expended on a propeller. lift i Ib. while directly proportional to W V V demands it is only W. per second. per second. in the second 137 Ibs. Hence a very important fact. per horse power. per second. It is (13) . in the second case T= FP V= 8 8. in air with a value of V = First find the weight W of air required.. the energy required to lift a by a propeller is if V and W. per second. 32. in the first case T= FP and i. in foot-lbs. but depends on Ibs.
which. in their work. are practically working against a fixed body. or 22 ft. diameter. at 16 ft. These worked-out examples of calculations show clearly the limits to sizes of propellers for lifting they. and the cubic = 32. nearly 44 for the lifting propeller. In the first case the horse power expended on the air (3) would be from WXV = --X 2 14-5 horse power 2g 550 and in the second case 29 H. If ft. hence a j r per second. the airship at a constant level above the earth. . 25000 cubic feet. the horse power at the engine would probably be double or more to make up for To consider now the propulsion of the helicoptere airship. per second. As propellers they are only sustaining weight. to X 32 = IOOQ lbg of air 32 feet. would be required. i.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. g = 32..e. equals an area of ---7- = < .P. V were increased to 32 loop ft. in diameter. is simply depenis The horse powers calculated by these formulae . W = I000 X 32 = 2000 ibs O _ . 4! We have T = 1000. its In the foregoing we have simply considered support against . V = 16. 1560 square feet giving a propeller of great size.500. 12. the actual horse power at the propeller blades frictional losses. f 16 The cubic feet in this weight would be = and this. per second. divided by the velocity equals 390 square feet area of propeller. W would be equal second. and their efficiency dent upon the value of V.
and aeroplanes. If the screw advances cubic foot. however. w ( s + v)v. 32 The area of the propeller is . and we have no experience to guide us to actual values and experiments in tow rope resistance are required to ascer. The S+-V 2 Now and T = -08 x A (S_+ V) V ( } R equals the same. if the weight of air per W. and accelerates the air entering it by a further velocity V. The thrust T is. A=3 2XRorT 08 (S + V) V V and S are in feet per second. It. (I6) we have is to overcome the resistance if R of the properly shaped. T= In propulsion air only. . FLYING MACHINES ' gravity. increases as the square of S the velocity of the efficiency of the propeller is and that small the airship is ship. because it then acts upon a much larger volume of air. screws. owing to the small weight of air per A screw works to great advantages when it has a forward motion through the air. and seen that propellers for that purpose must of necessity be large.= S + 550 W -Y' (5) The resistance of air to a surface depends upon its shape. and A is the sectional area of the current of air entering the screw. is g) The horse power required from R x H. the volume acted upon is equal to A (S + second = V). with a velocity S.P. tain values for resistance at various speeds and with different shapes as a means of checking statements made regarding the performance of engines.42 .
sweeps over 50 X 80 4000 square feet per second. span. thrust. aeroplane with 80 ft. diameter from tip to tip. total horse power required. then 25 X 0-7 17-5 H. and to revolve them at 50 ft. The helicoptere depends entirely for its success upon the ability of its constructor to manufacture large enough screw expended propellers for lifting. to get 80 ft. at the driving and the propeller efficiency is 07. per horse power. span (total). first. and this overcoming the whole resistance. then T hence thrust = in 250 = ii Ibs. per second. per second. or a mean diameter of 16 ft. = consider the screw blades simply as rotating planes. actually thrusting the machine through the air. 43 As to be provided in the aeroplane so in the helicoptere. implies using a circumference at the mean radius of 50 ft.. and 22 ft. per second at their mean radius If we with moderate revolution. one per second. 2 2^550' through the air horizontally equal t<.P. when S is the forward T = If ^5 S = 50 ft. If it is stated that the engine is 25 H.P. total T= is 17-5 x n= 192-5 Ibs. T equals.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. length. . of 6-6 ft. 55o' and these added give the propeller. the area swept by the screw blades must An approach that swept over by an aeroplane per second. = The thrust per horse power speed.. and use 12 of them.. power for lifting two powers have ~ and power for thrusting WV R.S. say. flying at 50 ft. In a helicoptere.
On a vertical shaft this device would. FIG. mounted upon arms on a hub. and do not affect the motion of the plane. as shown in these in a straight line moving plane are left behind. but it it is supposed. give a greater has not come into use. FIG. which goes forward into undisturbed air. 2OA. the air is churned up and the power expended in useless churning and turbulent movements of the air. : it will be seen to be simply Fig.44 FLYING MACHINES . 21. so that it may be driven by power. . But when the planes are in rotation 21 . and the result is. create eddy currents in the air. lift than screw blades. Aeroplanes Rotary. Air Disturbance by Moving Plane. that instead of a clean cut downwards. the eddy currents produced at the back by one blade come in front of the other. 20A represents this idea four sets of aeroplanes of the box kite type. The planes fig.
FIG. 23. 13. 45 To some extent the same arguments and explanations apply to screw propellers in air. say. It appears at present the propeller for lifting the helicoptere has not been invented or designed.000 to 50. per second. It must be of immense diameter and pitch to move 40. n FIG.000 to 16.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. 32 THE PROPELLING SCREW. Air Propeller. diameter. Double Air Propellers. and drive the air down at three times the velocity it is driven down by the aeroplane. have been found to answer The form is usually . requires an enormous diameter of screw. 22. ft. and that even when there are two or more employed.000 cubic feet of air downwards per second at a low rate.666 cube feet per second at a velocity of. Bven if we allow of a low efficiency. Wooden screw very well up to propellers 12 ft.
apart. the slices would represent a twoIt slice was early found that of bladed screw. as at S in fig. as in fig. a flat strip is wound on edge on the cylinder. and with three strips a three-bladed screw. 23. . one behind the other. makes a onethreaded screw two strings. a three-threaded screw. One string. threaded screw and three strings. In this way it is possible to act upon a greater mass of air with efficiency than by broad blades. " length of the blade " is equal to the length of the of screw blade is equal to the length of the cylinder occupied by one complete turn of the thread. we have an archimedian screw. The pitch Avhen propelling ahead is called the front or driving face .46 FLYING MACHINES : that shown in fig. instead of strings. Length of Screw Blade. make make a two120 deg. A piece cut out. starting at opposite ends of a . wound spirally round a cylinder. 22. wound . 24. narrow blades being used. diameter. equidistant on a cylinder. If. and so The slice on. as shown in fig. from a to 6. 24. Sometimes double or treble propellers are used. The face of blades which press against the air cut off. for propeller purposes only a small the complete thread was necessary. and brazed thereto. starting wound on a cylinder. 24. if two strips were wound on. would represent a one-bladed screw . FIG. with a space between.
the area of the blades. . Walker and Patrick J. The the other edge is the trailing edge. per second V may be only 20 advance V should be ft. Tests There is room for improvement in air propellers. Messrs. for even in water it is seldom obtained. The efficiency is variously given from 50 to 70 per cent. on an accurate basis and a fairly large scale are necessary. 39 _ 20 ioo = 33 per cent best.. " " forward blade which cuts the air when driving ahead is the edge tips. disc area is the area of the circle swept by the blade surface is " " The blade projected the sum of boss not included. A slip that is.. Alexander experimented with five different screws in air. N but then the 30 ft.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. revolutions per second. hence slip. W. inversely as the number of revolutions. and the energy expended as the cube of the revolutions . " 47 the back of the blade. It is not at all likely that the higher figure of efficiency is correct. If P = mean N S = pitch in feet. speed of machine forward." The edge of the the other side. and that the driving force varied. I0 = apparent slip per cent P = 10 ft. The projected blade area plane. For propelling purposes in air probably two blades are with curved front faces. ~~P N~~ If X 3. . A . G. the forward advance V of the screw is less than the pitch multiplied by the revolutions. work tabular statement of results is here set out. and found that the driving force or thrust varies as the square of the revolutions. is the same upon an athwart ship screw turned in a solid nut advances the length of the pitch P for every complete revolution R but in air there is . with respect to the done.
& ALEXANDER. G.I. 4. The inner ends of blades have little lifting force. Walker. . W..E.48 FLYING MACHINES : TABLE (WALKER III. against 212 at 12^ deg. U.) These tests were made by Mr.D. The following table (IV. for 5 and I No. as was to respectively.S.) is given in a discussion of airship by Calvin M.. Professor of Mathematics in Washington University.C. Woodward.A. under the same conditions as those of a lifting screw that is. A.. as shown by be expected. while. TESTS OF SCREW PROPELLERS IN AIR. the propellers rotated in a fixed plane.L.. I.M. or propellers simply supporting a weight in air. . increasing the pitch gave [260 at 21 deg. It gives valuable estimates of the power required for lifting propellers propellers.
while lifting^oo Ibs. increasing FOR PROPELLER DRIVING THROUGH THE AIR AT SPEED S.P. power for increased Ibs. HORSE POWER TABLE. the propeller of 5 radius lifting 100 takes (5-8 H.. lift we require only four times the horse power. moving S miles per hour. 49 Showing the proportion lift. takes 46-4 H. TABLE V..PRACTICE AND DESIGN. . determined by experiment or calculated.P. eight times the power for four times the lift.. i. But if we double the Ib. P means the resistance of still air to the motion of an air-ship. clearly showing the necessity for larger propellers for radius for the 400 lift.e. of increased ft.
revolution per second. The early workers in this field of investigation experimented " gliders.50 FLYING MACHINES : general formula for the pitch of a propeller in air according to the same authority. On a helicoptere the quantity P X is all slip CHAPTER Although we have III. many possible modifications in the construction of flying machines. thrust. and before. The is = = S = X= Y radius of propeller. fired his imagination \vhen it gave him the clue to the solution of the problem of flight. screw in practice should advance at the rate of its pitch multiplied by the revolutions per second. The same idea fascinated hundreds his time. Professor Langley was undoubtedly the pioneer of the aeroplane type of machines. only one type has been evolved sufficiently for to accomplish actual flights of over a fewhours' duration. but working in air or water it slips. a simple contrivance by which a small thrust or pull along a horizontal path is converted into a large upward thrust. of others since. T forward speed of screw. as it does in a solid On an airship as nut. PRACTICAL FLYING MACHINES. The mechanical transformer effect of the inclined plane." arrangements of planes largely with models called and weights which when launched from a height in the air . a propeller the slip is A a percentage.
.PRACTICE AND DESIGN.
inclined path, inclined a few_ degrees to the
The only prime movers in these days available were the heavy steam boilers and engines. Sir Hiram Maxim's aeroplane machine was driven by what was then the lightest motor known, a very high-speed high-pressure steam engine of essentially, Maxim's flying machine was the special design
The first recorded free as the present day machines. flights of brief duration in Europe were made bv Santos-
a petrol-driven engine and screw propeller aeroplane machine. Farman followed with much longer flights in public with a machine built by Voisins. The Messrs.
Wright Brothers, in America, had built an aeroplane machine and obtained successful flights at early dates, but made no
public exhibitions. Professor L,angley, the pioneer of the aeroplane,
machine which actually flew by mechanical power. design was not much different from present day machines,
is shown in fig. The frames were
built of steel tubes
rods, the planes
were of varnished canvas. There are two pairs of wings or planes, one pair behind the other, and the two screw pro-
between the pairs of planes. It was a small model, with an engine and boiler developing from i to ij H. P. total weight of total weight, engine and boiler, 6 Ibs. The boiler machine, 30 Ibs. span, 13 ft. length 16 ft. could run the engine for two minutes, the two propellers going On May 6th, 1896, this machine, at 1,200 revs, per minute.
in the presence of Prof. Graham Bell, of telephone fame, and Langley, flew a mile and a half. This was the first time
machine actually accomplished flight by mechanical power. The U.S. American Government granted 10,000 to carry the invention into practice on a large scale, esteeming it of great value in warfare. There was difficulty in procuring an engine of small weight up till 1901, by which time a speciallyconstructed one of 50 B.H.P. was built, and the large aeroplane
PRACTICE AND DESIGN.
machine similar to the small one, but weighing altogether 830 Ibs. with 1,000 square feet of plane surface, was finished. This machine met with disaster at every attempt at flight. Unforeseen weaknesses developed in parts engine ignition
troubles and instability at starting, and steering difficulties There was no all followed in various attempts to fly it.
inherent defect in the design the failures were due to faults in the details, such as would naturally occur in a first attempt
on a large
just within reach of
The money was
and he died shortly
He advanced the science and art of mechanical flight very much, both practically and in writings. He was the first to point out that aeroplanes would require a starting-up device and that it would take great power to raise them direct from
November, 1906, with a petrol driven
aeroplane machine, accomplished a short flight successfully, and so is probably the first man carried on a mechanically He accomplished a flight of 200 ft. propelled flying machine.
from the ground, and secured the Archdeacon
biplane, with vertical partitions between
The machine was a
the upper and lower planes, and had a long box tail in front of the driving platform. An Antoinette motor with eight
used, giving 50 H.P.,
and driving an
diameter, having two blades. The speed of the engine was 1,500 revs, per minute. The span of the wings was 39 ft. 4 in., and the total lifting surface
860 square feet. operator was*352
The weight of the machine without the The engine weighed only 3-16 Ibs. per horse power. It made 24! miles per hour, with the propeller running at approximately 1,000 revs, per minute. At this
it rose in the air and flew. Fig. 26 shows a drawing of machine like Langley's it is not now of much interest. Farman's flights made upon the Voisin machine were still
who thereupon awarded to Mr. and flights of 363 metres. till then held by M. of 220 metres at the rate of 42-3 kilometres (25-8 miles) per hour. problem himself to the far more difficult and curves in the air. and showed that the machine was under fair control. And here. Farman the Archdeacon Challenge Cup. and succeeded in describing a double curve resembling an S) he failed in the end through of describing turns . just a year previously. Farman won the Deutsch. finally. and resulted in short flights of from 30 to 80 metres being attained. per hour) were made successively in the presence of the Aviation Committee of the Aero Club de France. These flights were all made in a straight line at a height varying between three and six metres. 350 metres. or 33-7 miles. took place on the parade ground at Issy. after several further . Voisin. he started by running up to lifting speed along a level ground.Archdeacon 2. was reduced in size. Hereupon several minor alterations were made in the aeroplane the centre of . The first trials of the aeroplane.000 prize for a 1. It also was a biplane machine. like Santos-Dumont. During the following month experiments were A flight of 285 metres was accomplished. constructed by MM. Santos-Dumont with his performance. effect of improving the and. near Paris. continued daily. and had a It took a good deal of power to start it up. 55 more interesting. gravity was shifted higher up. box tail. In the course of the next fortnight Mr. for. These alterations had the desired general stability of the machine . at Billancourt. the large petrol tank was moved to the top of the upper sustaining-surface the cellular tail .000 metres flight on this machine. and. Farman devoted the imperfect balance of his machine.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. 403 metres. and its arrangement altered front double-surface steering plane was replaced one. although he obtained a fair measure of success (he accomplished almost one kilometre in a circle. and the by a single . 771 metres (at a speed of 54-3 kilometres.
the Deutsch- Archdeacon prize was
won without difficulty
some 1,500 metres being actually covered
This was an aeroplane with two superposed surfaces, each
surface being 33 ft. long by 6-5 ft. broad the vertical distances between the surfaces being 5 ft. A single plane situated in
and controlled by a lever, effects up and down steering a^large cellular tail situated 14$ ft. behind the main surfaces, and slightly lower, controls right and left steering. The " " Antoinette motor is fixed, with 50 H.P. eight-cylinder
the operator's seat, between the two main surfaces, and drives a propeller 6-9 ft. in diameter with a 3-6 ft. pitch, situated
immediately to the rear of the main surfaces and between
them and the
tail. The total carrying surface is 560 square the weight of the whole machine, including the operator, 1,100 Ibs.
The aeroplane is mounted on four wheels, two under the main body, and two small ones supporting the tail. An important point in the manipulation of the machine is that Mr. Farman, when sufficient speed has been attained on the
ground (some 50 yards appear to suffice for this), rises into the air, not by moving his front rudder, but simply through the air pressure under the planes. This undoubtedly simplifies the subsequent manipulation of the steering plane, and
consequently makes for increased stability. " Mr. Henry Farman's biplane No. 3," fig. 27, is fitted with a much more elaborate under-chassis than previous machines.
Not only does it now possess a set of four wheels under the main plane, but it also includes a pair of skis which are mounted
between each pair of wheels, as seen in the and skis alike rise with the machine when
Inspection pair of small wheels are fitted to protect the tail. of the figure will show that the inner wheels of the front
An interesting detail is the
rear edges of the
quartette are smaller in diameter than those on the outside. hinged flaps attached to the extreme
when set in position,
PRACTICE AND DESIGN.
lie in the stream lines of the main planes, so that by them up or down, as the case may be, the machine can be righted and steered. In his latest experiments Farman has abandoned the vertical rudder which formerly occupied
a position inside the
abandoned the steering wheel in favour of the simple bicycle handle control, and with the absence of any boat -like car, he is left quite free of any entanglement in
the event of an accident.
has often been suggested that
front of a horiin
by no means wise for an aviator to sit in zontal steering column when learning to fly;
view of the
frequency with which bodily damage has been caused by this
member in motor car accidents. The flier is fitted with a 50 H.P. Vivinus
engine driving a two-bladed wooden propeller of 7 ft. 6 in. diameter. The span of the two main planes is 35 ft. each, and the overall
length of the machine is 42 Into his new biplane
which are 26
broad, are not connected by vertical surfaces, but each is supported on a steel shaft running within the plane its entire
length, and round about this shaft the plane can be pivoted to any angle. The machine has a box-kite tail and a front The elevator, the total lifting surface being 355 square feet.
wooden propeller is driven by a 45 H.P. Gnome rotary The total weight is some 800 Ibs. The Wright machine, fig. 28, has made the best performances
machine. Unlike the Voisin, but has in front large controlling, or heightgoverning, planes, on a rigging which carries them a considerable distance in front of the main planes. This gives them considerable leverage in lifting the machine up or down. It has also a vertical steering plane carried a distance behind,
It is a biplane
also for leverage purposes. It was designed to carry two persons of 175 Ibs. each in weight, with fuel, for 125 miles.
distance between the
PRACTICE AND DESIGN 59 .
There are two wooden propellers 8 ft. in " Aeronautics.60 FLYING MACHINES : main The width of the plane is 6-5 ft. When the machine is hauled out these are drawn out to the full distance and The machine fastened in position. rudder of two superposed main surfaces. per minute." a very good description of the starting and manipulation of this flyer. 14 min. has made better records remaining in the air for more than an hour and a half with a . which was designed by the Wright Brothers. and weighs about 800 Ibs.P. is placed in front of the main surfaces. long and 3 ft. On September I2th. 20 sec. as already stated. A about 15 and i ft. wide. the extremities . Since that date Wilbur Wright. which are designed to run at about 400 revs per minute. a few days before the accident which wrecked the machine. and we quote from that journal.400 revs. The motor. the governing aeroplanes being telescoped into the frame. wide. at 1. Behind the main planes is a vertical rudder formed of two surfaces trussed together about 5^ ft. in diameter. and total planes. surface 500 square feet also. at L. in the following " : is housed in a large shed. A monorail and heavy falling weight are used in starting. Two cart wheels are lashed to the underframe.. are operated by three levers. Major Baden-Powell has given. We will refer to the starting device for this machine under that heading later on. France. The Wright machine has attained an estimated maximum speed of about 40 miles per hour. of the planes can be warped into a less or greater plane angle when rounding curves. and the mechanism controlling the warping of the main surfaces.e on one occasion Mans. The machine is supported on two runners. 1908. a record flight of i hr. passenger. It develops about 25 H. has four cylinders and is water-cooled. Virginia. was made at Fort Meyer. so that the machine may be trundled to the . The auxiliary surfaces. long horizontal ft.
centre of it the machine rail rests.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. and places one's feet on a small A string is found crossing just in front of bar in front. it is about 100 . Wright gives directions that this must take his seat. A small roller on the fore planes also rests on the to support these planes. supported by wooden long altogether A little trolley is placed on the wheel track and carefully centred under the lower plane this trolley is simply a piece posts " . 61 This rail is strips of iron ft. not be touched. starting rail. or the latter is attached to a motor car. which moves 6ff and draws up the weights. and led from the bottom of the tower to the track. heavy weight. " The end of the rope having been passed round a pulley attached to the far end of the rail is led back and attached by a ring to a hook on the aeroplane. of is wood with a roller at each end. " together. the removed to keep the machine is supported by a A few yards behind the rear end of the starting pylon. run for some minutes while he carefully watches it and examines all parts to see that everything is correct. is hooked on and drawn up to the top by a long rope passing round the pulley. The latter is temporarily anchored to the track by a loop of wire held by a small lever catch. rail is One end ' light trestle.' consisting of four upright beams braced of the lower aeroplane ft. A The engines are now started by two men turning the Mr. " Then the cart wheels are upright. 25 " high. weighing 220 Ib. each. Across the laid a stout beam like a railway sleeper on this . one's chest. and Mr. " This operation is done either by a number of men hauling on the rope. consisting of about six large discs of iron. Wright generally lets the motor propellers together. with a large pulley slung at the top. " Then comes the exciting moment for the passenger to Having clambered in among various rods and wires one struggles into the little seat arranged on the front edge of the lower plane. It is a simple contrivance for cutting off .
In one trip the passenger's cap was blown off and caught in one of the wire stays behind. and caps pulled well down to prevent being blown off. quite smoothly) " . Although the chains transmitting the power to the propellers are closed in tubes for most of their length. but one is apt to forget that the same applies to When the The ascent must be very gradual. the planes come into operation. Wright himself put up his hand to adjust his cap while in mid-air. as a swirl of wind catches if it does it make a slight undulation like a boat rising to a . the lever is pulled back. to get up a sufficient speed to enable the aeroplane to rise If the speed is not quite sufficient the machine in the air. coats are buttoned. From experience with bicycles and low-powered motors we can all realise how greatly a slight upward gradient detracts from the speed and calls for extra power. off the track. but then it gradually mounts and steadily proceeds on its journey. which might have an awkward result. Once Mr. immediately stops the engine. it. of course.62 FLYING MACHINES : In the event of any the ignition and stopping the engine. and the machine landed unexpectedly (though. but when about half the length of the rail has been traversed. The machine is off It bounds forward and travels rapidly along the rail. " Then the driver bends down and releases the catch which holds the anchoring wire. pressing against the string. All being ready. accident the body will probably be thrown forward and. machine leaves the track it glides so close to the ground that one often doubts if it is really started in the air. and the whole machine rises. it seems possible that a cap might fall foul of them and be drawn into the gearing. track. The fore planes are meanwhile pressed down to prevent the machine lifting prematurely. soon falls to the ground. and accidentally touched the string. almost imper! The object of the starting device is ceptibly. exactly as So steady and regular is the motion that it appears were progressing along on an invisible elevated Only just now and again. the flyer.
PRACTICE AND DESIGN .
. the machine showed a high speed over 43 miles per hour maximum being attained. One of the most interesting features of the machine (fig. " The run is to the ground. be expected. with both hands grasping the levers. carries a which rudder are is monoplane tail with movable tips a clearly shown in the figure . and a smash is result. The small monoplane " Bleriot XI. and the machine lands on completed. like a ship. if it has no way for " on it. driver. 29) is the small area of the main supporting The weight. but his movements are so slight as to be almost imperceptible. at such a height that the machine loses this forward speed it lands. The machine is brought down close It skims along only a foot or so above the Then the ignition is cut off. It embodies the idea of adjusting the angle of the upper plane of a biplane. motor." constructed and exhibited by Louis Bleriot. before . biplanes ft. the The aeroplane depends upon cannot be steered its motion " stability. its skids. watches every move.P. screw The design shown in fig. big wave. the propellers stop." This forward motion at landing is an essential feature in If they are stopped the safe downcoming of all aeroplanes. The four-bladed tractor small vertical fixed As might is driven by a 3-cylinder 25-H. and demonstrated that the stability of the machine was perfect. has a 25 H. Wright. The small triangular vertical plane above the main surface is not now used. The machine for steering. all control of it is lost. made its first trial flight over a distance of sortie 300 yards. 30 is one by the author. instead of tilting up the whole machine. Further flights were made at Issy. and. gliding for some distance along the ground. is 715 Ibs. including the surface.P. immediately to the rear of the tail surface. engine and two 18 diameter screw . The machine is similar to the other in other respects.64 FLYING MACHINES : Mr. this has a span of 28ft. sandy plain.
PRACTICE AND DESIGN. .
in order to steer the machine up or down. The lower main plane is fixed in construction to the correct angle to the keel. In soaring. giving the machine stability. and so plane. and supports the engine. and afterwards this angle is carefully adjusted by a lever and cords or wires. the also is and without rolling. fixed at a slightly greater it maintain the machine on a fairly even normal speed. the driver. In the Wright Brothers' aeroplane. a main central section and two They are all three movable independently around a and by means of ropes or wires they can be set at tips are interconnected various angles. With this construction it is possible to keel. and other weights. FLYING MACHINES : The span is 38 ft. this is the keel . plane in front is carried well out beyond the main planes. The main section can be given a more or clination to the keel. to accommodate The governing plane to start with is angle to the keel than the lower main plane. but when the machine is in flight the keel to which the machine has been built is not always level. to line of . when flying at line of flight is inclined upwards. and the width 6 ft. 6 in. but it is still possible to imagine an invisible keel to which the angle of the planes were originally set.. so that as the angle of the one is decreased the angle of the other is correspondingly increased in order to prevent rolling over in rounding a curved path. tips. The two by one wire and a lever.ike the Wright machine. This keel may not exist on the machine. the planes The L. movable vertically by the driver. In the construction of an aeroplane the is the level of the line of flight. by manipulating the governing brought about. ft. apart.. These tilt the whole machine so that the planes increase or decrease angle . it has no tail. less angle of into varying velocities. floor of the shop and the angles and measure- ments are taken from that or a datum line thereon. horizontal governing planes are employed. The upper plane consists of three sections.66 propellers. shaft.
fig. flight. . At A the machine by the engineer. c the keel of the machine. Alteration of Angle by Tilting of Machine. by outrigged planes in front or behind. at . The centre of pressure shifts with alterations in forward speed. the angle with the keel is still the same. an even keel B the keel and is A the aeroplane is flying on the keel and line of flight are parallel. at will " centre of Much has been said and written about the . 31. But in practice we are not concerned about. can thus alter the lift but it is done by tilting up or down the whole structure. 31. and is represented in the plans and drawings as the line of flight. At line of flight are at an angle. on aeroplanes. and a Referring to the diagrams. mostly centre of pressure and gravity nonsense. although the FIG. The aeronaut. 67 While building A C is the level line on the floor from which the angles and other dimensions are measured. flight. flying with the plajie at the angle designed it is At B at a greater angle to line of flight. the " " " " centre of gravity " or the " aeroplanes. the outrigger machine pressure and gravity of the whole maintain elevating and depressing planes enable the driver tp the two centres in equilibrium by tilting the whole machine . AC is the line of Now in fig. 31. lower figure. What we have to deal with of the centre of pressure is the centre of " to a greater or lesser angle to the line of flight.PRACTICE AND DESIGN.
so that the aeronaut can readily trim his planes to and for an even keel parallel to the angle. without much departure from line of flight. and so pivots. of course. serving a double purpose as planes and as structural elements. The method of the future will be to mount the planes on it is is a crude device. and adjustable in most machines. any desired any purpose. and nothing could be simpler than to make the planes fixed parts of the structure. Naturally. or small planes on the extremities are varied in their angle to the line of flight. In the Wright Brothers' aeroplane a rope and pulley system is employed. or shafts. will be made independent of the structure. thus throwing the outer tips up. .68 FLYING MACHINES : For lateral balancing the planes are altered in angle at their outer extremities. simplicity is everything. This can be counteracted by lessening the angle of the planes near the outer tip. But as advances are made from the primitive stages there can be no doubt that the planes. whereby the planes can be altered in their angle by bending them forcibly at their outer extremities. In a biplane machine the lower plane may be part of the structure.. pivots. but the upper planes shafts. as the sails of a ship are. and may be movable on hinges. which can be rotated through a small angle. The outer tips of the planes going at a higher speed than the inner tips of the planes have more lift. done to resist the tendency to turn over in rounding a curved course. and into the keel This is It creasing the angle of the planes near their inner tips. but the bodily tilting of the whole machine in order to increase or decrease the angle of the planes. or their angle to the keel altered at the will of the aeronaut. seems successful enough to bend them into the desired angle . and its keel always parallel to the line of flight. The height-governing planes and the steering planes are already independent of the structure. at any rate some of them. in the first machines.
framework. The early motor cars were ridiculously designed by amateurs. before proceeding with the construction. with propeller and the elevating control planes in front. trained designers of structures and machines. put into practice. up till quite recently. An inventor may conceive a good idea and have some it notions as to carrying into practice . in. for they are all all pretty much At present date the designers follow the same general plan. 69 Having obtained the dimensions of the planes. are necessary before any general rules and guides to the con- structional arrangements can be made of much value. All this is left is to the designer. we next proceed to the disposition of them.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. and trained engineers entrusted with their design. and so on. but practicable plans can be made only by skilled. The biplane. a conamount of interest has been aroused in the subject. and skill comes it is From there is evident the designs shown by successful aeroplane machines. In Britain the attempts at mechanical flight were. that with the present system of aeroplanes not much hope alike. experience. for improvement. and the general arrangement of the machinery. but when they were taken up commercially. restricted to a weight limit. hence we have no at present. and arrives at close estimates of dimensions and weights. But some radical improvement in the principles of flying machines. and a starting device to save engine power and weight. talent. they very soon became models of good design. this where genius. treated with indifference or contempt. distinguishing their machines from others by trifling details of construction. distinctive British flying machines to refer to Now siderable that actual practical flight has been attained. all Aeronautical clubs and societies are being formed over . seems to be at this moment the best practice. Much time and money is saved the experimenter who draws up a well-calculated set of plans. and training.
especially if they are approved by an independent competent expert. is a great restriction to their usefulness. necessity for either a long run or a starting device. a Government committee has been appointed to do something or other. with a wellreasoned description and scale drawings of a proposed machine. to raise them to the flying speed.70 FLYING MACHINES : Britain. At present they are they cannot work in anything but light breezes. like the Wright Brothers' pile driver. two weekly and one monthly journal are devoted to flight. The They pile cannot get a long run everywhere. they must keep down near enough " before they fair become useful machines. nor can they carry a driver about. These. due to the dangers in case of engine stoppage. The real progress is left to the private speculator and inventor. . There are probably about 40 or 50 aeroplanes in the world all bearing a strong family likeness to the original Langley All the recent ones brought out. and that is to finance the inventors. always have a good chance of financial support. They are not high flyers. The great thing at this juncture is for the engineer working at the problems to master the science of the subject and the principles. and everything possible is done except the one thing needful to make progress in the art and science of aeronautics. with the exception of the monoplanes. are copies of the Wright or Voisin machines. Experiments on a small scale are not expensive if properly planned with a definite object in view. There is a vast amount of work to be done on aeroplanes now. so far as they are known to date. " weather machines . with some unimportant detail modifications. conferences are held by crowds of nobodies. to earth to land with " way " on. These and there is many other difficulties and disabilities show that considerable demand for further ingenuity and inventive ability. . and will therefore be exceedingly slow in this country.
in. . Horatio Phillips on a larger scale and with engine power. Recently. kept in parallel planes the of the same fabric . with a base-board to support the body of the driver recumbent position this was supported by a thin steel . long by 15 2 ft. that is. broad. Wenham and Horatio Phillips. The general design of the machine will be apparent from The page 27. The uppermost surface and the system kept vertical was stretched by a by staycords taken from a bowsprit carried out in front. e e. H. The main spar a a had attached to it panels in a bb. CHAPTER IV. M. with six tiers of planes. wide. with binding bands of thin iron. Wenham It was a proposed a machine and built a model.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. " " . 10. in a frame looking like a Venetian window blind. Wenham's machine had a framework of thin planks. The same idea was worked out by Mr. IN Britain at an early date the flying machine attracted the attention of several men of high inventive skill. and very likely more engineers of high abilities will now be attracted towards the to solution of the problems still The the remaining. 16 ft. The two wing turned on spindles just propellers above the aviator's back they were drawn up by light . tie-band lath /. to mention only two. SOME POSSIBLE FLYING MACHINES. machine consists of six superposed aeroplanes of brown . front edges of the aeroplanes being stiffened by bands of crinoline steel. F. the lifting apparatus was a multiplane machine frame carrying a great number of small planes. a plan and a rear elevation. by vertical divisions. holland. fig. 7! publicity given aeroplane experiments has directed attention to the subject. Maurice Carron has made a model on this system with 72 small planes.
72 FLYING MACHINES I springs and pulled down by cords running over pulleys and fastened to the ends of a cross-piece worked by the feet. pneumatic two other smaller wheels to keep the . It was a gas engine and hot-air engine combined. is tyred wheels there are supported by two 28 in. had to do with one of Wenham's engines. The propellers were made of fabric. This charge maintained the combustion and raised a pressure of the gases which drove the piston up by expansion. it may be remarked that Wenham was a The author. The general dimensions of the machine is about 10 ft. In my last machine I used four frames of sustainers. high and about 19 ft. he would have succeeded there and then . In parenthesis. the weight . There is little doubt that. delivering a charge of air to the producer every stroke. led to turn his attention to devising an efficient light engine. actually made by Wenham. in diameter. provided Wenham had motive and this power. the aeroplanes cnimpling. the front one of which is shown in fig. more than 30 gifted inventor. As to Mr. and the experiments were elastic ribs. and in so doing to construct the first light gas engine. but the structure proved too weak. The upper part of the cylinder was an air pump. remarkably and had a gas producer where the fuel was consumed. longer stroke on one side would steer the machine to right A or left. broad. 32. The The body of the machine propeller is 7 ft. so that never repeated. consists of a triangular girder with lattice bracing of steel ribbon. Trials of this machine were running against the wind. stretched by an up-and-down motion would produce The machine was started by the aviator a forward impulse. years ago. The Wenham machine had the same kind of wing propellers him afterwards employed by Hargreaves. built about 1871. Phillips' machine. a quotation from a letter of his will give an idea of its design and performance "In : previous machines I used only one frame of sustainers. but found the longitudinal stability defective.
P. thick. . 32. being in front. The propeller in front and is driven by an eight-cylinder diagonal aircooled engine.H. One Frame of Horatio Phillips' Multiplane Machine. at 1.PRACTICE AND DESIGN.200 revs. giving from 20 to 22 B. and per minute. first the thing to the The propeller. its fourth crankshaft. FIG. This engine was made several years ago. 73 machine upright when resting on the ground. wide and in. is always come to grief one blade gets broken off. and the unbalanced weight cripples of the other blade generally in. propeller shaft and crank. ii in. are On . has seei long and rough service it is now being fitted with is . with 2 The planes spaces between them.
the velocity of which will depend upon the speed at which the blades are moved. Horatio Phillips did good work in investigating planes their curves. 19 . the weight = was 2| Ibs. and did considerable damage to the engine. . of one-eighth of an inch. and wooden planes are preferable to canvas planes in any It is a design worthy of case if the weight can be kept down. off the ground the boundary of A The machine is provided with low post was fixed in the centre of the field. on 140 square feet In a test. given. carried per square foot machine was 360 Ibs. Mr. and carried 3 Ibs. it by steel wires 200 ft. a load of 56 foot of plane.74 this occasion I FLYING MACHINES 1 used a very large amount of supporting surface. they are made of wood. and The span of the blades is 19 ft. . On whether there is is not clearly any reduction of horse power per ton lifted The design is more rigid however. and strongly held the view that the planes should be wooden. looking to the results of biplanes and monoplanes. the severe jolting broke the crankshaft in two places. in which it flew 1. by 8 ft. When these blades are propelled a horizontal direction they are really moving through a current of air. When was started in a dead calm and as soon as it was fairly the field was nearly reached. attempt to run the machine round the circle.. without any canvas or cloth about them. total size of each frame. per square 416 Ibs. in order that the machine should not have to run far on rough ground before it rising. . ft. the whole.. and fixed in The total weight of this Ibs. the machine was ready for trial at first the jolting was terrific. in a steel frame. long. in the light of recent experience. in depth sustaining and lifting surface equals Each blade has a maximum thickness 140 square feet area. . The concave side is hollowed to a depth of one-sixteenth of an inch. Thus ended the and the machine tethered to On the first trials. there does not seem to be much greater lift per square foot with these multiplanes than with the simpler biplanes . a vertical rudder. It would be better study.000 ft.
aeroplanes in The sizes of aeroplanes for two men are now bordering on the unmanageable. of planes in. feet. exact form of blade is imperative. and for the same reasons. it cannot be said that the multiplane machine has had an exhaustive investigation. = 912. B C = 0-04 V A : BC -.. but as high as 2. forming a train of aeroplanes. it will be necessary to put the driver and a guard and all the power on one plane. Instead of building tiers of small blades. at 3 the area of the blades would be = 912 Ibs. without power.000 ft. Phillips experimentally found the best form of blade for these multiplane machines. not flowing at speeds under 100 ft. somewhat after the manner of fig. but on large machines it does not seem to make much difference mathematically exact in curve form or not. the two planes being rigidly fixed together by cradle feet. broad with a perpenbetween each blade clear. . to use a 75 number in. - 32 Mr. the size of kites soon become unmanageable. X 0-25 = 228 square Ibs. would 684 Calculated out by the formulae / we get . whether the planes are In steam turbines. with proper design. it may reveal valuable properties at present unthought of. Hence. A= which. per second.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. More than two planes may be so fitted together.o8 = 6881bs. However. per second and more. lift per square foot. V = 10. but it is not so important in dealing with the low velocities of fluids in connection with aeroplanes. Tried on a large scale. it is up a Venetian blind arrangement of more likely to be necessary to put tandem in the way Major-General Baden-Powell put up tandem kites. 33. and the passengers on another plane. would = ft. dicular of / and 3 912 about 3 in. vS = L = 60. where the velocity of the fluid is enormously greater.
76 FLYING MACHINES : The aeroplanes are rather farther apart than their width. The starting up of such large planes. A rectangular framework resting on the cradle feet carries the planes. so that the one does not blanket the other. like the starting . which are fastened to the frame and stayed thereto.
even though it should take twice the power to work it.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. FIG. must be made at specially appointed places where means for starting are provided. the cause of all It was a very stiff Langley's disasters. problem still to be overcome. and stands in the way. . 77 of all other aeroplanes. Multiple Screw Helicoptere. difficulties Hence a machine which would have no starting or landing would be preferable. The helicoptere would have no starting or landing troubles. 34. Due to this starting difficult}7 the success of the aeroplane cannot be achieved at present as a useful machine.
We have already. Fig. screws. decidedly greater lift than helical blades. as in planes. the propeller simply rotate upon a fixed shaft on ball bearings In this way a rope speed of 3. angle of blades the same also. or six propellers. 35 has two lifting propellers running in opposite directions. a design tried by the author with two 6-ft. with blades same as aeroplanes. the rope passing round both . They were not really screw blades. not the least of which the immense screw propellers necessary to lift the weight with any reasonable expenditure of power. There are no details of any flying helicopteres to enable us But to make an illustration of an actual machine which has flown II. in the air..78 FLYING MACHINES : is it has inherent difficulties of its own. Made of large size. say with 80 ft. 35 a design by Mumford of a six-screwed machine. transmitting the power with a large rope velocity and a small pull. 34 is is and fig. Despite the large diameter required it is not beyond the power of the inventive mind to conceive a rotating structure which would solve the difficulty. and the pull reduced to less than may n per horse power transmitted. and of large diameter. The work need not be done by one propeller it may be divided between two. . Transmitting the power to the propellers by a propeller shaft is bad practice. is great. The machine shown in fig. they may be regarded simply as aeroplanes moving in a circle.000 ft. four. of leading edges. per minute or more Ibs. may be obtained. one half left hand and the other half right handed. but planes adjusted at an angle giving a constant inclination of the blades to the line These gave a most of flight of six to one. in Chapter discussed the principles of the screw propeller. for the torque on a shaft carrying such large planes being small. the number of revolutions per second A rope drive is always better. A rope rim fastened directly to the planes.
PRACTICE AND DESIGN 79 .
6 in. however. pitch (an extraordinarily long pitch). Hargreaves concluded that the two propellers. shows this proposition on tail and height-governing the wings are shown on levers vibrated by crank and connecting rods from a shaft driven by the engine. to 12 deg. were about He gives a table of results equally powerful and efficient. to 6.8o FLYING MACHINES : rims and round the driving pulle}r on the engine. and a fine angle of blade from 9 deg. with steering plane . A diagram. Chapter II. the machine as Wenham. The screw was 28 TABLE VI. a three-decker plane. HARGREAVES' RESULTS OF TRIALS BETWEEN A SCREW BLADED PROPELLER AND A FLEXIBLE WINGED PROPELLER. also by Lawrence 36. the aeroplane effect in multiplying the thrust into lift is obtained. With large propellers at high peripheral speeds. wide at the outer tip.000 ft. at the inner end. 7 ft.. These diagrams are suggestive only. propeller in. machine. Another possible direction projected by of invention is . the screw. and are given to show that there are directions open for much original work by inventors with the necessary means.000 ft. two blades 6 in. per minute. or trochoidal plane. 6 in. so called. 5. . of going on with the experiments on a scale large enough for a man-carrying machine prohibited It may be regarded as a possible flying further progress. of his tests between two propellers of following dimensions : diameter. shown in Hargreaves. and the flapping wing. The expense. long. fig. 3 in.
cushioning. there is is 81 Chapter II. 37. Others show a scientific knowledge. moving oppositely fig. Diagram of Winged Aeroplane. by their designers of the most elementary knowledge of the subject. Finally. utter ignorance scientific The problems still to be practically solved in the construction of machines are the most difficult the mind and hand of man have ever tackled. which have been patented or proposed machines displaying FIG. and all the science and art available . Besides these. there are hundreds of impossible machines. 36. a plane swung to and fro on the end of a long lever by means of connecting rods from an engine shaft.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. momentum effect on the body of the aeroplane and a cylinder could be used with a piston in order to conserve the energy at the reversal by compressing air for to annul the . but a complete absence of any knowledge or skill in machine designing. It the fish-tail propeller referred to. Two such propellers would be used. page 29.
that is. well-known. In flight we have a number of entirely new . problems. FIG. requiring the creation of new devices real invention and real discoveries. 37. they invented an auxiliary stationary power in the form of a falling weight. Diagram of Aeroplane and Fish-tail Propeller. the Wright Brothers having found that the power required for a few seconds to start the machine was far greater than that required for flight. well-proved mechanical appliances. As an instance of this. The evolution of the motor car was child's play compared with that of the flying machine the motor car is merely an assemblage of old.82 is FLYING MACHINES : required to be brought to bear upon them by anyone attempting the design of a new machine. bination of old and well-known appliances. . not merely the com.
only get a lift of 4 Ibs. would produce a lift of 100 Ibs. However good their plans were.to the work of Sir George Cayley. the flexure of the plane tips curve and for balancing was a real for invention. in these matters . Professor They have Langley. and became well acquainted with their properties and powers. and their works left behind them are of value to this day. very primitive. They studied and experimented with planes. not being foreseen Immediately we see these devices we are astonished at their but man is not far seeing. but we may refer the -reader. At present. from another are mostly whimsical. they had no motor but the steam engine and boiler. with a thrust of at this date the motive power. The merits of the aeroplane as a means of multiplying the thrust of a screw propelling it. which acts efficiently to give can to easily be imagined. steer round a a Again. Maxim. if they had invented an auxiliary starter. 83 them the additional power What a difference it would have required for the send off. by Wright Brothers. I lb. We cannot we have found men of the past take up the historical part of the subject here. made on the results of L. and not much in advance of Langley. up to 10 times or more. which the great had not. and aeroplane designs are taken in hand Present-day designs are by skilled structural engineers. An examination of the aeroplanes offered to the public reveals a great lack of originality and scientific knowledge The slight variations which distinguish one make of design.. we but this will improve as time goes on. and other early machines. was early It was beyond all doubt that perceived by scientific men. new thing a new purpose. . and Sir Hiram Maxim. Lillienthal.angley. and Phillips. if the forward speed w ere r high enough this theoretically. a thrust of 10 Ibs'.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. the best intellects are working in a feeble light. Horatio Phillips. and their exact purpose not very apparent. left their mark on aeronautical science.
It would be interesting to obtain results of a comparative test of a monoplane and biplane of same surface area. each. invention and skill. of the The fundamental principle is that the air should not be suddenly struck by a flat surface. for the planes are of pressure does not shift to the and they can be made more rigid.. biplane A C = 1-5 and B C o 25 ft. span 10 ft. to some extent be guided subject by the hydraulic turbine curves. talent must be engaged on the work. The lift should be the same. As to the general design of aeroplanes. or the most . of course. biplanes. so that the centre same extent as in wide planes . from zero to a downward Much experimental work requires to be done upon this we can. it. and designing. so that they retain their shape better at high speeds and pressures. two spans 10 ft. but should be gradually accelerated as the plane traverses velocity. combined with the means to carry it through. artisans. and multiWithin limits the multiplane should have greater very narrow. . Many people set out to build a flying machine without the least idea of employing skilled designers. if the narrow plane is as good as the wide one. as already explained. A C = 3 and B C 0-5 ft. . but for improvements and progress. at same speed. done in the best style. by which they have raised the efficiency immensely principles of reaction by a proper application on curved surfaces. hibitions. between monoplanes. - suitable materials. The results are to be seen in the ex- and in the illustrations of them in aeronautical It would pay better in the end to have everything papers. The advantages of the curved plane are exactly those well known to water turbine engineers.. vSmaller planes might be tested on Lord Rayleigh's method of balancing on a rotary spindle. from the plans and drawings down to the smallest piece of rope.84 FLYING MACHINES ! Theory is very useful. stability. experience alone can finally decide planes.
we require investigation. Pa g e 35) produces a lift by creating a partial vacuum. Here.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. Jose Weiss that a current of air passing over the back of a curved plane (see figs. . 15 and 16. again. It has been shown by M.
through 90 deg. elementary principle in the flow and pressure of fluids teaches us that if a stream of fluid flowing with a velocity V. But it is a question still open whether in a large-sized machine the results would be better with a large number of small blades properly curved for back lift to give better results than a curve of other shape. A FLUID REACTION FLYING An MACHINE. the force in the cup will be equal to -L/ or driving T DX2XAXV g 2 or If the L stream of = 4 A P.. Horatio Phillips' own complete machine do not show any Phillips' advantage. lift experiments go to show that they do give a greater under the conditions of his tests. ft. and a density D. is by area twice L = 2 AP equal to twice the pressure multiplied and if a jet or stream is turned ..86 FLYING MACHINES : The main give a lift maximum (back question. The results given for Mr. 39 by a cup-shaped bucket. the force of reaction due to turning the jet or stream is P through 90 deg. conical in the centre. and had a velocity. air shown in the sectional area. as shown in diagram lift fig. in due to a difference of . if = DAY g 2 the pressure producing the velocity V. and a sectional area of A value of which for water in square feet. is whether blades curved to of lifting effect on their backs give a total plus front) than other blades of different shape. diagram were 50 sq. it will exert a pressure in the original direction of the stream or jet equal to L or in other words. the is 62-5 and for air 0-08. the weight a cubic foot meets with a curved blade and is turned aside through an angle of 90 deg. however.
said large current of air being twice deflected through an angle of 90 deg. whose blades are in the crown of the cup. by a centrifugal fan in accordance with the aforesaid principles. first by being projected on the apex of a cone. with the fan blades in the crown thereof. the horizontal of the the momentum into a pressure. it with a force of 87 would Ibs. fan .. The current into of air is thereby deflected through 90 . fig. The umbrella surface and cone are one structure. intended to replace the dirigible balloon that is to say. it may do all the dirigible balloon can do. of 5 Ibs. is designed to support the weight of the flying machine and its contents in the air by the reaction of a large current of air set in motion FIG. and secondly by being projected against a cup or umbrellashaped surface. A stream of air caused by a difference of pressure set up by a fan. lifting blades by this deflection mass of air is destroyed and converted the machine upwards. per square foot. lift the cup ^ On these = 4x50x5 = the 1000 has principles author designed a flying machine. and a casing fixed beneath the fan wheel guides the large current of air flowing vertically upwards against the apex of the central cone. Reaction of Fluid Jet.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. 38. pressure P. and that without the huge gas bags and expenditure on gas. deg. 39.
is destroyed. crew. and becomes a pressure upwards. and its casing. with roller or ball bearings. and fan casing and cone. from the are the devices proposed by inventors to obtain lifting inertia of the air.88 FLYING MACHINES : The current of air having received an impelling force in the fan. or pin. is all act as retarding surfaces the air. also reciprocating flapping wings but we could act upon the it air with very rapidly moving wings. when the machine descending through The principles made use of in this flying machine are the same as those employed in the Pelton water-wheel bucket. and is deflected downwards its momentum . parachutes reciprocating aeroplanes hitherto with no encouraging results. The fan is cased partly by the umbrella surface above. lifting the machine upwards. STARTING UP AEROPLANES. The fan is carried upon a sleeve with radial arms. The umbrella surface. Nearly all of them neglect the fact that the air must not be moved with any great velocity. and a separate screw propeller is applied to drive the machine horizontally through the air. and other contents are carried upon a platform suspended from the umbrella and cone structure. and is driven preferably by rope gearing. running upon a central pivot. and take advantage of the elasticity of or other device. CHAPTER MANY force V. strikes against the downward turned inside of the umbrella surface. Probably. The engine. would be compressed. so that . and the guiding entrance below. as in if Feathering paddles have been proposed. sound waves. and that the lift must be obtained by moving a great weight of air per second.
but as yet they appear to have met with no success. must be imparted by some means. which starts the machine along rails and accelerates speed by pulling on a rope passed over pulleys. Farman experiments and Santos-Dumont tests the machine was accelerated by running along a level plane by its own power driving the screws. so that it gathers speed in running down the incline and rises from the Messrs. the flying machine must be of gigantic dimensions. so that the rails could be run round a circle on rollers on the outer end. So long as flight depends upon moving a huge mass of air at a slow velocity for sustaining the weights. it to Starting appliances require much attention. birds' flight is humming based on this compression by the wings. The-foot pounds of work required to accelerate a body from rest to a given velocity V is equal to half the weight of the body multiplied by In the V 2 . with the aeroplane on. employ a falling weight. and expansion principle of the air and all of them are at present engaged upon aeroplanes. All aeroplane machines have a minimum forward velocity below which they cannot rise from the ground. Experimenters prefer to take the line of least resistance to their researches. smaller machines would result. ready for It the start. the pylon for starting. There are other systems of operation possible. The rail is a fixture apart from the pylon. The density of air is so little in value that the weight must be obtained by acting upon a huge mass of it under the planes. pivoted at the pylon end.PRACTICE AND DESIGNS the air instead of Insects and its 89 > weight. In others the machine is mounted on a carriage on rails at an incline. would obviously be better to build the pylon on the end of an inclined rail. and no doubt some more efficient and portable affairs will be invented. very few with any definite aim or object in view further than making short flights. and the rail is shown in fig. and this velocity. carriages. The Wright Brothers' machine. 40. plus a little more. . Wright Bros.
go FLYING MACHINES : .
41 It is gives rigid a the general lines of this launching way.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. M. 9! The start could then be made always against the wind. safely a short prolongation. it is steadied by four rollers running on placed on the ground. structure made of light steel joists and . and by means of a very simple system of ropes and pulleys. The cradle is dispensed with and the aeroplane is run down the floor on its own wheels. resting on a pivot rail a circular FIG. Jose Weiss has invented an inclined plane starting machine which presents some advantages for fixed stations from which aeroplanes are intended to start from and return to. 41. kept away from the ground by a balance This prolongation is there merely to land the machine on the ground if no start is obtained. The floor runs from that platform and has at its lower end. and whilst it is being hauled up. Weiss' Starting Inclined Pla weight. At the top is a small platform reached by means of a ladder. The aeroplane to be launched is brought to the foot of the ways and hauled up backwards by means of a windlass. The initial thrust (if any is required) is obtained by a weight made up of movable cast-iron discs. Fig. and hinged on to it. the impelling rope is attached to . which is the most favourable direction.
should be a It enables a plane to start in a much shorter distance of run. either by a falling weight or by running the .. on to the drum. provided a portable starting apparatus which can be used almost anywhere with wheeled or skated aeroplanes. passage from standstill to flight speed. in order to regularly accelerate the rope pull. The machine is capable of turning round on a circular rail. auxiliary starting device consists of a rope The author's drum which can be clutched to the engine flywheel. a rope to be wound up by the engine. peg the loop slips off and the rope is all wound on the drum. " The very first condition required viz. But the engines require more power than that used with the pylon or inclined plane starters. is Thus Properly. Jose Weiss' paper to the Royal Aeronautical Society the starting-up problem is so well treated that we may quote some of it here. The falling weights and pulleys and ropes for giving the initial impulse are not shown. 42. for raising an aeroplane. as shown in fig. thereby hauling and accelerating the flying machine up to the speed at which it lifts from the ground when the machine comes over the . In M. as shown in the plan. No aeroplane can ever be raised (that is in calm air) until the full number of foot-pounds its . so made is that as soon as the least is produced the machine released automatically and the start is effected. The engine is then started and the clutch gradually put in to drive the rope drum. so that the incline may always face the wind. When a start has to be made the rope is unwound from the drum and looped over the peg or post at a distance of 30 or 40 yards or thereby.92 it FLYING MACHINES I by means lift of a special catch. and a ladder is provided for reaching the top platform. have been expended and it matters little how this is brought about. and a peg or post driven into the ground. the rope drum when worked by the petrol engine " " fusee drum. is purely a question of foot-pounds.
93 .PRACTICE AND DESIGN.
. is 60 ft. and the speed. . 6-4 1. x 3. i. lbs 64 Taking. machine.-lbs. and supplying the work left for the engine is reduced to viz. If.-lbs. in exactly the same manner as a cyclist. the Wright machine was placed on a light trolley fitted with good bicycle wheels. for instance. motor to yield an actual efficiency of no more than two-thirds. rail. who could get up a pace of 25 miles an hour on an asphalte track in a few seconds. The principle is only theoretical . falling 30. the time required for developing the above 56. although quite capable of doing so on a good surface. and if that trolley was running on asphalte. then.iooox6o' = 2g 6 ft . Let us say the machine weighs.. and the machine. roughly. per second. the falling weight and the rail could quite well be dispensed with. 20 ft.250 ft.P. 5 sees. and we have for W. the 24 H.0 = falling which gives 16 for time = x 550 ft. ft. having ample power to fly. but depending only on required to So that a well-made engine for raising itself. = . would leave the ground after a run of about 70 yards. > and the space covered weight.ooolb..250 By using the 192 ft. and " for space 3 X 30 90 This allows nothing for frictional loss or air resistance and still Wilbur Wright manages all right with his 70 ft.94 FLYING MACHINES : machine down an inclined plane. could not reach a speed of ten on a ploughed field if he were to try the whole day..000 26.P. ft. . might be utterly hopeless on a bad one... or 16 H. as taken from the published records. does not include the additional number of foot-pounds overcome the its friction on the ground. or simply by the mere it power " of the engine. in calm air.-lbs is 16 562 5 o_ x 550 =6 4Secs .500 Ibs.
consequently. the author's auxiliary rope and drum starter would enable the machine with the large coarsepitch slow-speed propellers to gain sufficient velocity to bring the screws up to their efficient speed. and. . the screws . must have a high rotary velocity. large. long-pitched propellers with low rotary speed which give comparatively little thrust at standstill. but become highly efficient as soon as the machine is under way. The advantage of the inclined rail and carriage. and does cause. small diameter propellers. on the other hand. the shortness of the rail must cause. in order to overcome the initial resistance. 95 showing that the figures for a start without the falling weights are well on the right side. Do we want The question which presents itself is this a machine capable of rising unassisted from any rough surface ? The Voisin type is of this class. but a reduced one in flight hence a considerable waste of power. This involves direct coupling. Or : a lighter of rising machine requiring a minimum of power. the low-power type. by gearing down. we can use. an occasional mis-start. the high-power type.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. "It is very clear that there would be no need for launching appliances of any sort if we had for the start a perfectly smooth and hard surface on which the necessary speed could be reached with a minimum of frictional loss. giving a great thrust at the start. In the total absence of wind. In reference to this point. of the greatest drawbacks of the first class of machine is that. but capable from a perfect surface only ? The Brothers Wright second class. they require flyer belongs to this One a great stationary thrust which can only be obtained by a short pitch screw at high rotary speed. or the falling . the starting ground be such as to cause very little resistance. however. If. To start up a machine to sufficient velocity on rough ground requires more power of the engines than is aftenvards required and to get sufficient thrust from to propel the aeroplane a screw or screws stationary or advancing slowly.
and its gliding Then more elaborate models may be made with An authority on gliders. are interesting and instructive. so that they must always return to a place where these are available. therefore. be used in machines to be up by extraneous means. Set at proper angle and properly ballasted large away down a sloping path to the ground. The machine which can start up under its own power it in respect of starting. is a horizontal plane which can be tilted up or down at different angles to the line .. clear space for CHAPTER VI. loaded at the front edge with a few strips of lead foil it. can be carried about with the aeroplane. shows the importance of a governing plane that. slow-speed weight for starting. they fly . preferable requires a wide. started Smaller engines can. as 1 1 in. stability. V. enough to carry a man. in a paper to the Aeronautical Society. Manchester's simple single in fig. A. a for experiments on steering and balancing drawing of the Wright Bros. The small gliders are useful in teaching lessons upon balancing. glider. by bent over observed.g6 FLYING MACHINES is : that large. 44. without any power but that due to their own weight falling from a height. EXPERIMENTS with small planes. plane. Mr. a thin sheet of mica. can be used for sport. 43. can be launched from a height. is. about 9 in. coarse-pitch. Roe." as these small living planes are called. No one's aeronautical education is complete without a course " of experiments with gliders. Gliders. and their position. screw propellers can be used. more than one plane. therefore. nor a running carriage on rails. MISCELLANEOUS APPLIANCES. but the initial run. But neither a falling weight apparatus. and also see fig. angles of planes. shown Beginning with Mr.
owing to the two planes not being in the same straight line or being improperly If the left side dips the whole will circle to the balanced. there will be a tendency for it to glide. owing to the air pressure forcing upwards the front plane and. Wright Bros. It is repeated until the ground is to this horizontal adjustable plane in front . but sooner or later one side will dip downwards. a slightly the forward In order to counteract this lifting-up the whole glider. 43. of flight. Roe. but on fixing an elevating plane fore or aft. the momentum of the weight from tumbling over. The result is the speed is accelerated. the glider once again takes an series of undulating glides upward is course. on the front edge keeping it According to Mr. A. the centre of gravity is brought more forward until a suitable position can be determined. the front plane is fixed with FIG. maintaining its flight by giving it an initial start forward. and the whole reached. V. when it will If be found to make a straight glide at a definite speed. tendency. if a single aeroplane be released in the air it will simply fall anyhow to the ground. 97 with single plane weighted on the front edge.' Gliding Machine upward angle relatively to the main planes. 45. the centre of gravity is not brought 'sufficiently forward the glider will take an upward course. consequently. the speed being thereby reduced until the pressure on the forward plane is not sufficient to keep it up.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. movement is quickly checked. left and gradually it is fall in towards the centre of the circumIf ference describing. as in fig.
98 or behind the is FLYING MACHINES : main planes that the success ways of steering the of the aeroplane mostly due. plane is naturally flat. as in the. Lanchester Plane. FIG. be turned up at the posterior edge. then twist the machine out of If the its line of flight. pressing the tail downwards act as a supporting surface. causing eddies when used for steering. 44. but the plane requires to FIG. horizontal plane be fitted at the rear the centre of gravity still remains forward. but they have their disadvantages. one fore and one Side puffs of wind do not aft. A. . . case of the forward plane. be used for this purpose. but contrary. The disadvantage of this type is that the air acts on the upper surface consequently. V. giving the glider an upward tendency. lateral steering planes should be double. Roe's Glider Planes. and if forward a side puff also a vertical is apt to blow the machine from its course vertical planes fore or aft may . it does not . coupled to act in unison.There are several machine laterally . 45.
per square and dropped head downwards (not thrown) from a height of /ft.. or M. per square foot. . Many small designs for gliders are now to be had. by which time it will have assumed a horizontal position. A question that will naturally be asked " ? " is : How is a sudden diving tendency to be avoided The planes can be so arranged that this will be impossible. and adding or substracting Ib. from which they may be made cheaply. .a model rail with a system of cords and pulleys and a falling weight. and for even speeds the pressure per square foot appears to remain constant on various-sized and positioned horizontal planes. in advance of the starting point. from the starting point. It is as well for the. this point being the least possible uplifting angle.. it will be found to swerve down within about 3ft. of the tip-to-tip measurement fore tip-to-tip and about 2 the width steering plane. Jose Weiss. the weight so as to keep the average of then some very interesting experiments may be tried. 99 : The proportions of a satisfactory glider are as follows Width of main aeroplane. By constructing the main aeroplane so as to take varioussized elevating horizontal planes. and finally landing 20 ft. Of course. the rubber cords being fixed at one end and the propeller at the . these are approximate and can be aeroplane.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. so long as the machine retains its rigidity. for the horizontal elevating plane is so set that it cannot be turned beyond a certain point. experimenter to provide a model starting appliance on the system of the Wright Bros. For small models the only motive power is twisted rubber cords. and aft measurement being about the tip-to-tip of main . the larger the steering plane the nearer it may come to the main aeroplane. On foot experimenting with a glider weighted to Ib. Most of the rubber motors are poorly designed. varied. A good method of testing their respective merits is to drop the model head downwards from a certain point and note which combination gives the best results. For instance. skimming along.
of all motors. they have so few impulses that a models for actual . of course. and to save the weight of the batteries by con- FIG. to take it in hand. to 80 Ibs. Top of Parachute. on a small scale. They. long. per horse power. according to power required. and the thicker the rubber the more power is required to wind It has it up. and clamped to the rubber cords in the middle position. in small size. After a course of experiments in gliders. There is room for a small four-cylinder engine of extremely light a maker weight for aeronautical experiments. with and without power. a great end pull comes propeller end bearing. with a blade upon each half. The longer the rubber the longer the screw will run at one winding. It would pay . flight on a scale sufficiently large to carry these engines are of little a petrol engine may be made use with single cylinders. The propeller should be made with the boss in two halves. 45A. diameter. There should be seven rubber cords of pure para rubber. more power for driving. FLYING MACHINES : upon the When it is wound up. to 12 in. and from 10 in. run to 56 Ibs. and also on screw and other propellers. been suggested by some people to use electro-motors for trials. tricity necting the motor by flexible wire to a fixed source of elecbut even then the electro-motor is the heaviest . giving. causing enormous friction. very heavy flywheel is necessary. measured on the total twisted parts. to f in.IOO other end. These should be from in.
46. fig. for it is governed by If the velocity of the air escaping through this opening. 45A. a disc of canvas or cotton fabric with a large hole in the centre . when arched out. ropes passed over retarded. and about 30 upon the size ft. The sustain the weight whose fall disc diameter to carry one man it is to be is 40 ft. Kennedy's Parachute. It is a very large affair .PRACTICE AND DESIGN. 101 While on the subject of miscellaneous devices we may con- sider the parachute. The rate of fall depends of the hole in the centre. the opening is too small the air will escape round the outer .
fig. By this means the escaping air reacts on the small parachute and adds largely to the retardation. giving about 3 square feet per pound weight of parachute and load. that is about 3 ft. The piston is. 47. see fig. about 500 square feet area. so that it displaces 500 cubic feet of air through the central hole.102 FLYING MACHINES : if edges and cause the parachute to oscillate dangerously too large the fall is not sufficiently retarded. at the very least some allow 4 square when . FIG. The writer has improved the parachute by enlarging the opening and attaching a second small parachute over the opening. the area being calculated from the diameter arched. . so that a large volume of the air escapes round the edges. area of parachute to I Ib. besides what escapes the orifice. and having a hole in its centre regulating the now of the air from the under to the upper side of the piston. or orifice. weight of load. A parachute without a central orifice tends to turn upside down. The action of the parachute may be best explained by considering it as a piston falling through a cylinder of air. Diagram of Parachute. for every foot of its fall. and oscillates violently as the air acts unequally on . 46. Perhaps a third division would still more retard the fall. But the parachute has no cylinder. 47. and its area could be calculated for the piston in the cylinder. The orifice can be adjusted to get any velocity of fall desired. The three is ratio of surface to weight to be carried is about as to one. say. feet per pound.
and 33 ft. 225 Ibs. area should have an orifice ft. where it should escape at a velocity due to the pressure and its volume. as it requires a frame. 4 square feet per pound carried. 45. parachute. giving 855 square feet area they carry. but mechanically is difficult to construct on a large scale. when descending. . The French naval parachutes are 40 ft. parachute with about 600 ft. when a second small parachute may be added above the orifice. IO3 the edges but with a central opening the air flows along the curved surface from the edge to the orifice. to 6 ft. is a more stable form. diameter. per second. Bicusped Parachute. The A from 4 follow current of air in a properly dimensioned parachute should the dotted lines shown in fig.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. or even larger. diameter when flat. The velocity of fall of a parachute may be from 4 ft. nearly .. 48. . An inverted FIG. to 5 ft. like an umbrella (fig. 48) turned outside in. with their own weight and a man.
The box FIG. to raise a man or instruments of observation to certain heights.IO4 FLYING MACHINES KITES. and experiments can be made at small cost on reduced models of proposed aeroplanes by constructing them of light materials and flying them in the wind it is only necessary to use an anemometer . for which purpose they can be guided by a bridle and reins. and to study the effect of wind streams on different forms and structures of aeroplanes. They may be used to drag a raft or boat on water. many interesting and valuable results can be obtained by kites regarding aeroplanes. to get the average velocity of the wind and measure the pull on the string to get data for calculations. was the germ from which the aeroplane sprung it illustrates the effect of the air stream upon flat planes. They kite are useful. : These are not thereto. Tandem Box Kite. . two strings attached to right and left side by these its direction can be . 49. and for military purposes but closely related have been made to carry a man for observation purposes. strictly flying machines. Undoubtedly. . They can be used to send the end of a line ashore from the wrecked ship. Kites may be put to more uses than they have been in the past. Kites have been designed for life saving from wrecks on the coast by different inventors.
Kites above 70 square feet in area become clumsy and difficult to strengthen when more area is required they are . two or more being attached to one string. as show n in 51 in section. 49. is fig. planes. directed at least 15 deg. when their resemblance to the common biplane complete. the arrows representing the air streams. . 52. IO5 the direction of the wind. as shown. bridle is attached. for the string. from the land it can be dropped the side strings. either in series order or parallel order. 50 showing how the sides two oblong boxes joined wooden bars. and when over by slacking It is off one of up The box kite as shown in is by far the best form. They are made up in various other forms . showing the air stream and bridle and They can be made with curved top and bottom string. 50. usually made fig. section is shown in fig. made multiple.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. two cylinders are sometimes used. consisting of at the corners by four light of light fabric or paper. single box may be used with oblique sides. r A fig. FIG. the box sides being A A act as aeroplanes and deflect the wind. Section of Tandem Box Kite.
These large kites. This kite is the same in construction as the Hargreaves box kite. area.io6 FLYING MACHINES It is. 51. in handling large kites a wire is used instead a tinned-steel wire wound upon a winch. in the light of aeroplane results. wound up parallel with . the wire may always be paid out or the wind blowing at any time. and the winch should turn upon a central pivot or turntable. Single Box Kite. but large enough to carry a man inside. Man-lifting kites require about the same area as an aeroplane if flat. with the occupant in the first one. so that of string Of course. much better to use a large size of box kite on the Marvin systems. however. Other two may be attached in series to get the necessary lift. or of the Baden-Powell type. who used kites about 120 square feet in square feet total. would be perhaps better made up of two or three biplanes in series. and in series giving 480 FIG. and with lines attached so that he could adjust the angle of the planes to the direction of the wind.
and instructive pastime.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. pleasant. the snap-shot being worked electrically FIG. In fine weather. and fly them himself. in open country. By two kite on a . or on the links by the sea. 52. Kite experiments on a smaller scale are interesting and In fact. Simple Plane Kites. 107 instructive. kite flying is a healthy. wires insulated from each other an electric lamp can be used to send signals at night to a long distance. Photographs may be taken by cameras attached to kites. through two fine wires in the string. Meterological instruments can be sent up on kites to discover the barometric and thermal conditions at greater heights. the young aeronaut should begin the practical part of his studies with kites of his own construction.
but in very small quantities. Metals cannot enter to any extent into the construction. of machine and . Aluminium alloys and magnalium all light metals are used to some small extent. load. and planes which give the greatest lift per horse power is the best machine. hence metal cannot be that the material . hence weight tance in all flying machines. and can sustain 1. which means and skilled design and calculation. in the air. Some writers imagine that weight will not matter is much in future machines. so that the combination of engines. it is a still greater necessity to see is used to the best advantage. of first impor- and high careful Besides the necessity for material of small specific gravity tensile strength. the - - = 48 Ibs. per horse power. suppose the Ib.. One horse power can Suppose a machine itself without load or driver weighs 600 Ib. MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF AEROPLANES AND OTHER FLYING MACHINES. screws. but that entirely an erroneous view. the other Half of this power half to sustain the is employed to carry the machine in this case.200 25 H.P. that screw propellers must be of large size when working in air. is horse power with the sustaining coefficient is full load of 1. NATURALLY flying all materials employed in the construction of machines must combine a minimum of weight with a maximum of strength. further. Steel wire and thin sheet steel is used for strengthening. We have shown in Chapter II. per Ib. is Unlike other modes of locomotion the power has to provide the support against gravity. we get a lift coefficient of I Ib. lift just so much weight and no more.200 Ib.108 FRYING MACHINES : CHAPTER VII.
and is textile materials materials with which the boat builder better acquainted than the engineer. FEET.000 LINEAT. but this is due. used in their construction. Poplar is woods are given gravity Ibs. POUNDS PER When only. its specific 0-4 when foot. bamboo work requires skill and knowledge. in all probaTo make joints in bility. The weight of steel wire is given in Table VII. TABLE WEIGHT OF WIRE ix VII. just as in working Bamboo other materials.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. steel wire is used it ought to be tinned. use of We are therefore driven to the wood of different kinds. fully seasoned. 1. . bamboo. Fine tinned as steel for binding steel wire is practically same weight and strength ferrule. and seems to be condemned as unreliable. has been tried in many flying machines. is in not given in the list . to want of skill in working it. canes. and (dry) weighs about 41 per cubic and has about the same strength as ash. and has the advantage that when used it purposes can be soft soldered into a solid of various useful Weight and strength Table VIII.
wrought. cast. and then the outside wound with up solid. Properly used it is a useful material for struts and frames. It can be readily melted. welded. and soldered. This effectually strengthens the weak points in bamboo the ends. where it The wire binding should be finally soldered is apt to split. bamboo. Of all the aluminium alloys magnalium is the most useful. milled. All ends of bamboo wood plugs after carefully rods should be plugged with glued removing the inner skin of the of the end should be carefully a tinned steel binding wire.no FLYING MACHINES : TABLE VIII. pressed. It consists of an alloy of magnesium and aluminium. . Specific gravity about 2-5. WEIGHT AND STRENGTHS OF VARIOUS WOODS.
PRACTICE AND DESIGN. .
been argued by some authorities that
A light planes should be used, but they are too heavy. wooden framework of finest material, and well fitted together by skilled workmen, and upon a design from the best technical
talent in structural construction, has nothing objectionable about it. The surfaces can then be formed of light waterproof
textile materials laid on.
other suggestions for materials to form surfaces some were made by Mr. G. Crossland
Taylor, in a paper read to an International Congress in Chicago,
In this paper he proposes wire gauzes, among them one of aluminium wire, which he explains is very expensive and could not be woven in England, at that date, over 3 ft. Wire of this description, it is stated, can be obtained wide. 007 in. diameter, and the finished web weighs from i to 4
per square foot, according to the thickness and mesh. varnished with linseed varnish containing a sicative,
the pores are closed, and the surface sheds water for an indefinite period. Very fine phosphor bronze web, such
used for dynamo brushes, can be obtained weighing
per square foot, and the same material less so as to be proportionally lighter would possibly
Iron wire gauze, weighing 3 ozs. per square be suitable. can be obtained, and could be woven in a suitable mesh Aluminium gauze could be at i| ozs. per square foot.
obtained as light as 0-6 of an ounce per square foot, which, of an ounce when varnished, would not weigh more than
With aluminium wire at 255. per pound, per square foot. a hand-woven web, 3 ft. wide, would cost about 2s. per foot.
The varnish would
cost about 155. per gallon,
and would add
from 15 to 30 per cent to the weight of the web itself. In addition to wire web, he mentions other materials as being worth experimenting with, and makes the following remarks about them
PRACTICE AND DESIGN.
by 3 in., When 0-28 in. per square foot. thick, the weight would be reduced to 0-174 Ib. per square If of good quality, this material stands the weather foot.
Vulcanised fibre -035
It is tough and strong, can be moulded, and may be bent to shape in hot water. It will hold screws well, and will also take a thread.
A sheet of 18 standard wire gauge weighs per square foot. It is very useful for model work, can be bent or moulded in boiling water, and keeps
shape well when cold. Celluloid This has the same qualities as ebonite in It can be obtained in respect to moulding in hot water. sheets ^V of an inch thick, measuring 26 in. by 20 in., and In course of time this material costing 45. gd. per pound.
to the wet during
Brown paper Canvas-backed packing paper, about 24 standard wire gauge, has a weight of f of an ounce per The canvas is of the lightest description, square foot.
useful for experimental work, as
not separate unless wet, and the material is very it does not easily tear. " Oiled canvas, linen, &c. The weight runs from if oz. to
per square foot. weather and high winds.
per yard, and is very bad weather. Proof silk Weighs -34 of an ounce per square foot, and can be obtained in rolls about 5 ft. wide at about 2^d. per
of its durability in
square foot. " Proof cotton sheeting can also be obtained, but
ENGINE FOR FLYING MACHINES.
The only engine
machines at present
machine purposes, of course, weight
flying of great importance
must be reduced
value, but at the
not to be forgotten that
reliability is of
importance, and that in reducing weight strength of structure may be sacrificed. For motor cars and motor boats small
and there seems
the petrol motor, which has had so much time, skill, and money spent upon it, and which has been made in thousands,
has reached a point of perfection where there is little room On the whole, nothing better than the improvement. four-cycle four-stroke petrol engine has been brought out
with four, six, and eight cylinders, V arrangement, has been used by most of the pioneers on flying machines
of the present day. The flights hitherto
made have been of such brief duration we cannot know much about engine performances in
know, however, that engine failure in the air serious accident than on land or water
almost certainly sure to be disastrous. Absolute freedom from failure is not of course to be looked
any mechanism, but we may
in well-tried types of best design made by experienced firms, with the best appliances and in large numbers. No doubt, if there were a demand for large numbers of engines, especially
designed and built for a minimum weight per horse power, would be forthcoming, but it is doubtful if the design would differ much from the best motor car practice.
in its scope,
This work does not include engine construction and design which is a special art and science. We can only
give a brief indication of
some proposed special designs for Those readers who wish to study
specially will find information easily in other special
the leading motor car engine makers offer engines
for the purpose, modifications of their standard designs. The list below refers to the more noticeable engines differing
which only require a small amount of power. Ripault specially constructed with a water-jacket instead of aircooling. crank chamber. of rod. The crankshaft is vertical. having the cylinders arranged in pairs and in an horizontal position. Miesse aeromotor 8-cylinder radial engine. which is. are situated in the cylinder head are each operated by a separate cam ring. feeds through the hollow crankshaft to the crank chamber. which pheric valve in the piston head. conring structed of steel.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. A special feature of the construction is the use of combined inlet and exhaust valves. both which are operated mechanically and by the same tappet cam mechanism being so arranged that the stroke of the tappet rod differs for the inlet and the exhaust. which very light. in order to ensure sustained output without over: is heating during experimental work. provided with are employed. . Gnome rotary engine. which is otherwise of the orthodox four-cylinder : Green aeromotor expansion sliding joints. to each of : which the four connecting-rods of the cylinders occupying that plane are connected. vertical type. In one type the crankshaft is stationary. and has two cranks. in better performance 115 and smaller weight does not appear to be authoritatively decided. of course. and in other flight experiments.. and many other original details have been embodied into the design of this engine. and mounted in a special manner on a steel which is faced with steel plates on both sides to form a The carburetter. has an aluminum crank chamber. stationary and external. Copper water-jackets.single-cylinder engine developing i^ H. the Small. This little engine. and is designed for use on models. The International rotary motor Rotary engine with opposed rotary cylinders in all sizes the cylinders are in the same plane. and in : .P. from which the moisture enters the next working cylinder during its suction stroke through an atmosThe exhaust valves. with seven rotating cylinders.
Another class of rotary engine has a rotating piston or in a crescent-shaped cylinder but none of these rotary engines . The engine employed by M. and when that difficulty is overcome. The chief difficulty with true rotary internal-combustion engines is to get compression before ignition. of the and when it does come it will solve a great many problems of flight. these two engines are not within the rotary engine class as understood by mechanical engineers. cam some have sliding shutters. and it is placed tranversely to the axis of the crankshaft. and a port on each cylinder at the end of the outstroke of the piston for the release of the first hot blast of exhaust gases. special feature of the engine from a constructional point of view consists in the mechanical operation of the inlet and exhaust valves by means of a set of skew for each cylinder. so that it rotates in the opposite direction. which has no cranks connecting rods. In any rotary motor the cycles must occur much more rapidly then there is the cooling question. pistons. but from all accounts There are it seems to have the great merit of simplicity. . rapid ignition. They are rotary cylinder engines. all air cooled. turbine. The remaining exhaust in the cylinder is pushed out of a mechanically -opened valve in the cylinder head. we may yet have the internal-combustion . than in piston engines But for all that. Bleriot in his monoplane has not been very minutely described. so that the skew gear pinion which it carries can run in contact with the skew A gear-driven There is a cam shafts. Properly classified. have been worked by internal combustion with any success. the next one. and are certainly unique among internal-combustion engines The true rotary engine is the fluid -pressure turbine. and thus reduces the speed of each member by 50 per cent. three cylinders on one crank. or cylinders.n6 FLYING MACHINES : another carries a flywheel. crops up. cam shaft gear wheel on the latter member.
however. 117 The writer. however. the mechanically opened one the auxiliary. for there are several old patents for the two exhausts. fig. was latterly removed " " free open port into a altogether. was to prevent re-entry of the exhaust through port P at end of the suction stroke. Fig 53 shows the general arrangement. The valve at the end of the piston " stroke has been called the auxiliary valve. . but it is apparently too small in amount to have any effect. or exhaust pipe. that working without the valve had no appreciable effect on the A small amount of exhaust may be drawn suction stroke. 53- The valve C in uncovered port P. it is the other way ports. about. but I found that all of them had a valve in both and so had my first experimental engine. In fact. It was found. The port uncovered by the piston is the main exhaust. and worked with a The idea of the valve C in port P silencer.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. 53. in at the end of the suction stroke. FIG. made several engines of The idea of the two exhaust ports was not this same type. in the years 1904-5." and the ordinary valve the main valve. new even then.
n8 The improvements free FLYING MACHINES : in the air-cooled cylinder made by the exhaust at the end of the working stroke are very con- FIG. siderable. for the instant release of the exhaust carries off heat which would otherwise go through the cylinder walls. 54. .
but helical. K the exhaust. The cooling ribs are not circumferential. so that the cooling air circulates around the cylinder as it flows from The expansion chamber e silences to M. which drew down a current of air through the cylinder jacket M. No. like screw threads. The valve G in the head for the auxiliary exhaust is small. This FIG. 55. In this engine the blast of the exhaust from the uncovered port P. which finally escapes by pipe F. The engine which was finally patented. is shown in diagrammatic figure 54 in section. escaping from nozzle C.390 (1905). 1 19 The mechanically-opened valve in the head opens after the lower port. air enters by a hood on the top of the cylinder K. or _L .PRACTICE AND DESIGN. not having for much gas to deal with. created a suction in nozzle d. 22. and to save in size and weight it should be a V-type two-cylinder. exhaust have fallen very much. Now for aerial motors this system seems to a meet the demand simple four-stroke air-cooled engine. in fact just after the piston begins its in-stroke by that time the temperature and pressure of the remaining .
The connecting rod ends B are held to the crank pin by A C is a bush to keep rings A concentric when taking up slack. from each other. or three and 24 B. This. two. together with the release of the exhaust top and bottom. . and the two side cylinders deg. and on an aeroplane going 30 to 40 miles per hour. and consequently B C. and F. the perpendicular. by removing d. great secret of air cooling for its is plenty of air and plenty of room movement. The middle cylinder 1 20 is vertical. ENGINE POWER AND WEIGHT OF MACHINE. The engine may of course be operated without the blast split ring . enables the engine to run as safely over as long periods as a water-cooled engine.H. turning the mouth of the hood forward. It is intended to make the cylinders. engines one. the lower exhaust passing freely through of the exhaust K orifice C. with pistons working on one crank. 55 is a diagrammatic section. But in proportion as we in- crease the angle of the planes and reduce their span and area. uniforrnly bathing the cylinder from top to bottom. sufficient air would blow down through the jacket to keep it cool.P. the square feet area of the planes can be reduced. For a three cylinder design fig. . 16. The spiral or helical radiators can be cast with the cylinder The their effect is to cool the cylinder uniformly all round. It can be deduced from the principles given in Chapter II. All the small aeroplane machines made are produced by this means. while the helical ribs distribute the air current all over the cylinder. The simple exhaust blast-air ejector on the lower port aids greatly in obtaining a plentiful current of air. that by increasing the angle of the plane. giving 8. The reduction of cranks is of great importance.I2O FLYING MACHINES : three cylinders. e.
weight. CHAPTER THE VIII. instead of an angle of 6 to i. then it must displace more than two tons of air in order to displaces is float. area surface about 180 square feet.. would be multiplied into i. This displacement must evidently less be effected by a substance of cubic foot. If. It floats because the air equal to or greater in weight than its own If a balloon and its appendages weigh two tons. an engine of 30 H. dirigible balloon is a flying machine in which the weight of the machine is supported by a balloon. engine. with a surface of 96 square feet the span is (it is said) It has flown at 30 miles per hour for six miles with 18 ft. the 121 power required to operate them also increases.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. total spans about 38 feet.P. a lift for the thrust i. This larger machine does 40 miles per hour with a 22 H. is less and it must displace these two tons while its own weight than two tons. of total load carried. The principles of the balloon are well it known. it is a question of big powered engines of small weight per horse power. DIRIGIBLE BALLOONS. but the power required would be doubled. weight than the air per .P. The Bleriot machine weighs 715 Ibs. we employ 3 to i. There all is no mystery about making small machines . And larger machines show a saving in power per ton mile . The Santos-Dumont . of only 3 to instead of 6 to latest machine weighs only 490 Ibs. the planes might be reduced in span by one-half.
divided by the pressure calculated at the height the balloon P 1 is to rise to. while the air Ibs.. is given by the general formula W coal gas = = power for . i lb. The pressure on the earth's surface shown by barometer P. with gas of a lifting power I. displaced weighs 2 1-8 Ibs. i lb. Ordinary balloons are spherical. FLYING MACHINES therefore. The volume of these irregular shapes can be calculated by working out the In all areas at many of the sections. of air. Thirty-six cubic feet of hydrogen displace 36 cubic feet but the hydrogen weighs only 0-2 lb.122 It is. giving a margin for lift of 2 0-2- = It is safe to take as the lifting hydrogen The weight which a balloon of volume V can raise. per 16 cubic feet per 24 cubic feet. GASES. dirigibles the balloon is calculated to support the . I. important to know the weight of gases. but dirigible balloons are usually egg-shaped with the blunt end in front. as that form presents the least surface. to a given height. or fish-shaped. The fish shape presents least resistance to going ahead.. is the lifting power of the gas. : The following table shows the weights of a few X..
voyage of a balloon there is a surplus of gas provided. the the pump then gas contracts and falls in pressure slightly . and this may be done by employing a smaller balloon called a balloonet inside the larger one. Thus. out ballast. and so keeps the balloon with a taut skin. changes of temperature must be compensated for gas rapidly and largely expands or contracts under a fewTo allow of this expansion degrees change of temperature. forces air into the balloonet. Then if the temperature falls. this slack moves about and increases the swinging and rolling.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. It is therefore better to use a full balloon to start with. Again. and if the balloon sways about or rolls. the sand is thrown overboard to lighten the ship it then rises and may rise too high. by throwing off ballast and gas. . but the straining and wear and tear of a voyage starts leakages. in order to compensate for loss of gas . If the balloon balanced by ballast. The envelope of a balloon not filled up has a considerable amount of slack. and its pressure slightly . generally bags of sand. and thus finds room for expansion. This method not entirely satisfactory. Leakage of gas also occurs the balloon may be gas-tight to start with. the balloon filled is is made by the gas. and not entirely room for expansion. this is a At the beginning of the serious difficulty with balloons. the height of the balloon may be regulated by a method which entails loss of gas. due to the gas hence if the temperature rises the gas expands. This pump can maintain a pressure equal to that on the balloon inside. . in rising. increasing. and shows any reluctance . and filled with air under pressure maintained by a small pump driven by the engine of the airship. in which case gas must be allowed to escape to bring it downwards. squeezes the air out of the balloonet. leaving larger than necessary. 123 whole of balloon and machinery and a considerable amount of ballast. These have to be counterbalanced by throwing .
diameter. form of a sail fixed at the after end of the rod between it and the balloon was provided for steering. perhaps 10 Ibs. the balloon off tries to rise. 56. 20 ft. Again. below this. Henry was designed and steam ejector fame. volume. Length. 144 70. from which ft. was suspended a rod 65 Hull of fabric covered with netting. The car carried the engine and boiler and supported the M propeller P. The built first practicable dirigible balloon Giffard.124 FLYING MACHINES : An automatic method of regulating the height of the balloon trail has been employed. ft. If it the ground. balloon. 1852. . and that should try to fall. 56). in 1852 FIG. long and 20 ft. which was mounted between the car and the Only a rudder R in the Stability and Manoeuvring Planes. now. the rope between it and the ground shortens.650 cubic feet. which uses a car and trailing on the ground. lessens in weight. it lift the weight of this trailing rope soon checks its upward progress. weight of it may must on the ground. out. of by Mr. rope depending from the When trail the rope is full If. (greatest) . (fig. . Hull. 40 ft. Giffard Balloon. and suspended from it was the car. below the balloon. and so checks the downward movement.
coke fired chimney bent downwards and draught produced by blast. Motor. . 3 H. 125 . steam Propeller. 6 in. One.P.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. boiler . diameter. Steam engine and boiler. two-bladed. n ft. mounted above car between car and the balloon.
June. Motors. Length. one set on each side. and are attached to the Balloon Corps of the army for use in warfare. each . modern dirigible balloons are designed on similar lines to the Giffard. . There are two vertical planes K K fixed at the after end. is a small cabin in the centre of the keel communicating with each car. 57).100 Two Daimler. fixed forward.. and two similar sets for the same purpose are fixed aft. With the exception of the rigid hull type of balloon. There are two sets of Stability and Manoeuvring Planes. 460. is mounted a double movable vertical plane D for steering. First ascent. Attached to the bottom framework or keel are two cars 26 ft. diameter. 3 in. The airships. Designed and constructed by ''Zeppelin IV. volume. by 6 ft. one on each side of the hull above the car. Count Zeppelin. and right at the end of the hull a large rudder R is placed also for steering. ft. 6 in. near the after ends." (fig. planes. . 1. They belong to the Govern- ments of the country under which they are named. framing covered with rubber fabric. no HP. Kach motor drives two There propellers P. Weight of Ballast. Average five miles per hour per hour greatest velocity. Rigid aluminium hull. holding each a small balloon. . Kach car contains a benzine motor. GERMANY. four superposed horizontal planes S for vertical steering. total horse power. 43 Ib. At the after end there are also two sets (one on each side) of two large superposed Between these two large horizontal stability planes T T.126 FLYING MACHINES . as following are the chief modern dirigible balloons. : attained seven miles Speed. containing 17 compartments. one at the top and one at the bottom Hull.000 cubic feet. 220. or they are now called. 450 ft. 1908.
trail ropes. 70 ft by 20 ft. Hull. 200 Ibs. of the keel. Ibs. . Henri Julliot. (greatest) . 1.050 square feet area.700 cubic feet. 200 ft. passengers (four) and sand ballast. 7 ft. Continental. diameter Propellers. petrol. with a rudder R. 127 . French Republic Dirigible.." with a rigid keel. Balloon car. 58). volume. One large plane K. lutions per minute. 135 square feet. FRANCE. c .950 Weights . instruments. First ascent. 130. .000 cubic feet. .. 820. .steering. B.ebaudy to the designs of M. one on each side below K steering . Balloonet. from which the car is suspended. one on each side of the car. 6 in.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. 660 Ibs. 58. Four. &c. and contains the motor and P. carries the two propellers FIG. for. L. rear tail T and a secondary tail S. 5.. by 5 ft. three-bladed aluminium. diameter.. . June. 35 Length. 220 Ibs. Constructed by " MM. ft. 80 Ibs.. motor. 8. 23. water. . " " Republique (fig. and two in a similar position above the after car. divided into three com- partments. Total weight. hour greatest velocity. one on each side of the Revohull. Hull of rubber fabric. The car is 19 ft.910 Ibs. part Stability and Manoeuvring Planes. 1908. 800 Ibs. attained 33 miles per Average 25 miles per hour Speed. two placed above the forward car. Two planes and above the car for vertical W. 6 in. 1.
August. for emptying. and right at the forward end is the suspended by single cords. Hull. ballast r T extending across .S.128 Valves. 850. 1908. propeller P. Two sets of two superStability and Manoeuvring Planes. made of a framework of spruce trussed with steel wires.A Baldwin Dirigible. Designed to carry a weight of 450 Ibs. posed horizontal planes S are placed forward of the motor. Revolutions per minute. .000 cubic feet. Baldwin. Four-cylinder Panhard. steel. S.P. besides weight of car. A horizontal stability plane the centre of the rudder on each side. for vertical steering. (greatest) volume. two-bladed. 20 ft. ft. The propellers are carried one on each side of the car.. two automatic and two automatic valves in Motor. 59 U. AMERICA. Speed. 1908. motor. comprising 100 Ibs. &c. First ascent. The car is 70 ft. one set on each'side of the car. UNITED STATES. (fig. " Baldwin Thomas Designed and constructed 59). 96 20. Propellers. balloonet. covered with netting from which the car FIG. Two. Rudder R for steering. long. Average 26 miles per hour. Length. diameter. The motor E is situated forward. and tw o passengers. 70 H. . " by Captain with indiais Hull of fabric consisting of two layers of silk rubber between. 8 ft. FLYING MACHINES : One hand valve on top or hand valves ^underneath. diameter.
Four-cylinder 175 Curtis. Motor." (fig. 30 H. The motors are carried: envelope.500. 1 29 3. feet. fixed by a special method along the meridian of the balloon on each side. attached to a series of silk loop . GREAT BRITAIN.P. 10 ft. Balloonet. for vertical steering. Average 17 miles per hour. forward end of the car. car is made of a framework silk and is covered with a are fixed to the bottom of the car for landing. one on each side. British Dirigible III. 1909. First ascent. Designed and constructed by Dirigible III. carried at the Propeller.E. Revolutions per minute. 1. The of hickory and steel tubing. two-bladed. weighing with One.. at the after end of the car. South Farnborough. . Skids. and the propeller P is mounted above the motors between the car and the balloon. radiator.000 cubic Ibs. 60). per hour greatest velocity. Large balanced rudder R still further aft for steering. Attained 20 miles. 1909. in the forward end of the car. R. Speed.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. FIG. Two horizontal planes S r Stability and Manoeuvring Planes. Balloon section. The car is 5 suspended by steel cables. Hull of goldbeaters' skin. diameter.. " May... 60.
130 FLYING MACHINES tail. prefers a head wind if not too strong both of them are helpless The aeroplane. would require to travel faster than the . 26 length. mounted above car between car and balloon. and atmospheric conditions. Total horse power. three-cylinder Buchet. a problem which will likely be left over until the less difficult ones are solved. A is the atmospheric air. SOME NOTES ON AIR PRESSURES. ribbed in the direction Hull. (greatest) . Two. facts. Motors. Speed. two-bladed. AND ATMOSPHERE. she would require to fly 50 miles an hour to keep afloat in a 2O-mile wind abaft. Propeller. in a side wind of any appreciable velocity. lines. ft. ft. volume. All aerial machines are at the mercy of high winds. especially those of balloon type. and of one the vertical on the top. The balloon shows a decided preference wind to keep afloat. If her floating velocity were 30 miles an hour. diameter.200 cubic feet. . Balloonet. diameter. WIND. One of the problems for future solution will be to make the flying machine reasonably safe in high winds. while the aeroplane . 16. THE is flying machine's element of some knowledge necessary. One. 84 ft. each. for going with the wind.000 cubic feet. 8 H. Ten CHAPTER IX. on the contrary. . with a wind abaft.P. : Rear stream consisting of all two horizontal fins. 6 miles per hour. 21. 4. and data few notes are given in this concluding chapter.machine.
Throughout. of course. Storms of wind. as indicated by the barometer. varying both in strength and direction in the course of a few seconds A vane or weathercock shows the direction of the wind A flag shows its inconstancy by its continual fluttering . . The inconsistency of the wind is due to the varying conditions. and represents loss of power which increases with the pressure. At different places it is not of the same pressure " " hence we have wind which is air moving under a difference . the change of Air currents do not flow steadily like seasons and clouds water currents. flowing steadily like a water stream. and to it. The pressure of the atmosphere varies. One of the chief difficulties the flying machine has to face is the wind pressure. would entirely stop flying machinery. or against the wind. in order to steer the machine across . and shows that high pressures would entail losses from compression. tends to move along with it thing we can look to. The machine is immersed in the air and the only and. The difference in temperature can be measured by a thermometer.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. of course. a mass of moving aii portions become compressed and other parts expanded the compressed parts then expand and the expanded parts contract. This is due to the elasticity and compressibility of the air. 131 WIND. The difference A flag in a stream. This has a bearing on air propellers. of pressure. is employ sails or planes to help to guide the motive power on board. and this internal motion accounts for the fact that the wind blows by fits and starts or in gusts. is principally due to heating by the sun and cooling by radiation and convection. does not flutter. and might destroy any machine exposed to them. This compressibility of air also accounts for the fact that the air issuing from a fan or air blower is warmer than the air entering.
It is to 50 ft. and also its velocity in order to steer the machine. a knowledge of the in direction absolutely necessary. compass. clear that to navigate a different affair but some special apparatus. up to a wind velocity of 25 second. At first it is of taking flight in not likely machines will be brought out capable any weather. Then. but at present we have no suggestion as to how . moderate. to enable him to feel his way when neither the sun. is which the wind blowing is either automatically or by hand. not difficult to do with a balloon.132 FLYING MACHINES velocities : The various of the wind and corresponding pressures are given in Table XI. or stkrs are visible. except what may be called ft. and astronomical knowledge. the buoyancy of the machine must be capable of regulation. per machine in the air is a totally from navigation on the surface of land or The navigator in the air must not only have a reliable sea. moon. again. Under such circumstances. sextant. charts. TABLE XI. say.
on the surface of the earth the whole of the heat cases. tions the behaviour of the wind must be considered. and is These winds are changed into a land breeze after sunset. and hence. as the superincumbent air becomes more heated than that upon the sea. 133 we which a heavier-than-air machine air varies in density. The sea breeze commences after sunrise. The heated air rises. more levels. are to adjust the level at is to fly on long journeys. being rarefied. in most air in The contact with the surface is heated by contact. falling through the air without heating it. and the machine on a voyage vary in weight. only perceived at a slight distance from the shores. and that above the surface by the dark. are due to the difference of temperatures on In clear atmospheres a great deal of the sun's heat passes and is. absorbed. increases to three o'clock in the afternoon. during the day from the sea towards the land. but in a contrary direction. at lower The winds the face of the earth. due to loss of fuel and provisions. and during the night from the land to the sea. During the night the land cools more rapidly than the sea. in consequence of its lower specific heat and greater conductivity. raising the surface temperature. The land and sea breeze is a wind which blows on the seacoast. decreases towards evening. it ascends and is replaced by a current of colder and denser air flowing from the sea towards the land. all probability flight will be kept to as low a level as possible The will for safety. This goes on producing an upper current or currents. and to increase of weight when wetted by rain. and a lower current of cold air inwards. long wave rays radiated from the surface. and air from the side flows in to take its place. and hence the same phenomenon is produced. For during the day the land becomes more heated than the sea. They . of warm air. especially as the winds are not so strong Only for military reasons high flight is In all these operanecessary. so that some sort In of governor will be necessary to keep up to a safe level. outward. to keep clear of shot and shell.PRACTICE AND DESIGN.
which are also far known as the trade winds? . These winds. the velocity of the surface of the earth at the point from which it started is less than the velocity of the surface of the earth at the point at which it has now arrived hence the currents acquire. in reference to the . simoom. equator. Greenland.are uninterruptedly observed regions. and its place is The supplied by the colder air from the north or south. These winds blow towards the continents in summer. and in a contrary direction in winter. The air above the equator being gradually heated. from the land in equatorial blowing from the north-east to the south-west in the northern hemisphere.134 FLYING MACHINES : and are regular in the tropics. Ascending and descending air currents are. of latitude. and descent is slow and in large volume. and from the south-east to the north-west in the southern hemisphere. that the velocity which this colder air has derived from the rotation of the earth namely. direction of the wind. The ascent necessary. but less so in our climates traces of them are seen as far north as the coasts of . in Regular winds are those which blow all the year through a virtually constant direction. but we do not observe them readily. is modified by this fact. the monsoon. and goes on conbreeze . The simoom is a hot wind that blows over the deserts of Asia and Africa at a very high temperature. They prevail on the') two sides of the equator as far as 30 deg. is given to winds which blow for six months in one direction and for six months in another. however. and the land and sea The name monsoon examples of this class. and they blow in the same direction as the apparent motion of the sun that is. the constant direction which constitutes the trade winds. it raises sand in the atmosphere and carries it with it. of course. . from east to west. rises as the sun passes round from "east to west. same Periodical winds are those which blow regularly in the direction at the same seasons and at the same hours of the day are .
or 0-00492 x v the angle of incidence is P 0-002288 x . Anemometer. A velocity useful instrument. 135 tinually. the anemometer. and is well-known wind this . . velocity in feet per second. per hour . let P v = V= Hence and if pressure in pounds per square foot.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. where the density is greatest and the difference of temperature is also greatest. 61. for measuring is that shown in fig. To find the force of the wind. then sin d>. = velocity in miles P = 0-002288 x V 2 . = V2 x FIG. but the winds come from regions of high pressure to the regions of low pressure horizontally at greater velocity near the surface. 2 = <. one has a separate registering train which has undoubted advantages. 61.
its a small wheel. it is and connected to a permanently A barograph or statoscope indicates the height above the sea level the common aneroid barometer is so used. by means of a gearing. electric contact. in this case registering apparatus fixed in the air current to be measured. contained in a hermetically sealed reservoir. which is placed in a box thickly surrounded by wool so as to prevent the disturbing influence of change of temperature during any experiments. .136 FLYING MACHINES is : The instrument composed of an extremely light aluminium vane. in fact. after a run of ten seconds. the meter is started by pressing the knob with one finger. therefore allowing an entirely free passage of the air through the vane. In the watch-case of revolutions of is a meter which totalises the number measuring. the meter This instrument has the advantage over those in which is placed at the centre of the vane of not producing any air waves. This instrument A may be provided with an . such as we wish to observe when It is difficult to estimate whether in the air at great heights. stopped by again pressing the . an air barometer from which the normal pressure With (15 Ibs.. correcting table gives the exact velocity. are used to indicate the rise or fall. the balloon cr flying machine is rising or falling. the anemometer. Much more sensitive instruments are made which indicate slight changes in elevation. Statoscopes The statoscope (somewhat like the consists of a series of very sensitive boxes vacuum chambers of aneroids). available for measuring heights up to 10. When same knob the velocity per second is then averaged. per square inch) of the atmosphere is excluded. which rotates under the influence of extremely small currents of air.000 ft. and. and is . the spindle of which is long enough to transmit motion to a meter contained in a watch-case held in the hand. this instrument a change of yoVffth f an mcn of the barometer or is represented by a motion of the needle of 0-025 in. It is. This vane drives.
if the instrument is raised 3 ft. Probably some invention can be devised or discovered whereby the statoscope will actuate a governor. -Statoscope. which is a very good electrical come naturally become charged electrically when they between the earth and charged clouds. and anything thrown out of the machine. Flying machines floating in insulator. ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY. They are in an electric field of force. This is one of the many problems for solution in connection with mechanical flight. 62 shows the instrument with spring suspension. automatically regulating the level at which it is desired to fly the flying machine. FIG. Fig. . 137 25 times as great consequently. such as water. or exhaust gases. the indicating pen traverses an angular space of nearly a tenth of an inch. air. will carry off a charge of . sand. 62.PRACTICE AND DESIGN.
AIR AND THE ATMOSPHERE. Sparks are always about balloons. or 27. The specific heat of air at constant pressure is 0-2377. by a column air of measured by a column water 0-1925 in. per square foot At the . that such a charge of high potential would have any effect on passengers. very nearly 0-2 The weight of a cubic foot of The exact volume and weight has been taken as 0-08 temperatures is given in Table XII. one atmosphere of pressure equals 14 Ibs. leaving the machine charged with the other kind of electric charge. when letting off gas in descending. upon Connecting the various parts of the balloon and the valve with fine copper wires would likely divert the sparks from the discharge valve. or in coming near to another machine. roughly. Sparks and discharges would take place only landing. And even in a strong field. or by a column of water 2-3 ft. and is due to a column of air of uniform density equal to that at sea level and 5! miles high. especially at the valve on the top. or by a column of mercury at 62 deg. a mechanical mixture of the gases oxygen and . or 2. per square inch. high.138 FLYING MACHINES : one kind. Fah. These may ignite the gas. A of pressure of i Ib. Air compared with water at 60 deg. high. high. per square inch is high. ordinary temperature. and such an accident has been recorded. 2-04 in. measured by a column of air 1. the electric glow from points will carry off a charge It is not likely into the air. has a volume 800 times that of water. Fah. high Ib. per square inch. per square foot is air 13-13 ft. A pressure a column 33 ft. or in. Air is Water equals i.801 ft.116 Ibs.891 ft. sea level the pressure of the atmosphere has a mean value of 14-17 Ibs. leaving the machine charged. The water barometer has of i Ib. at at different constant volume 0-168. high of uniform density. if nothing is thrown out.
The theoretical horse power of a fan blower may be found by the following rule H p = Q x 5-2 h : 33000 where Q cubic feet of air per minute 5-2 constant h of water gauge or if we call the pressure P. Fah.. The quantity as the velocity. Barometer in inches x 0-4908 = pressure in pounds per its square inch. The volume of i Ib.. at one mile 12-02. and volume varies inversely as the pressure. = L8 550 . at 32 deg. H. = inches HJ>: 33000 or. pounds per cubic feet is _ 1-3253 459-2 + B ' x T where B = height of barometer. from equal openings varies One gallon of air = 277-27 cubic inches = r? r lb. Air expands of I T = temperature Fahrenheit. At a quarter of a mile above the sea level it has a pressure of 14-02 Ibs. and so on. is 12-387 cubic feet at any other temperature and barometric pressure its weight in 21 parts O and 79 parts N . : 139 by volume. One ounce of water.P. pressure per square inch of air discharged is equal to 1-729 in. and 1-3253 = weight in pounds o deg. then . and at half a mile 13-33. if Q is given per second. Fah. of 459-2 cubic feet of air at 491-2 its volume for every increase of I deg. 23 parts O nitrogen and 77 parts N by weight. at three-quarters of a mile 12-66.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. = if oz.
In estimating approximately the flow of gases through orifice it is usual to make the same hypothesis as that adopted in rinding the height of the homogeneous atmosphere,
that the gas is incompressible and behaves as a liquid. the pressure of air siipport i in. of water. One inch
of water will balance 64-4 ft
This fact will be easily
deg. Fah. is deg. F. is 62-425 Ibs. per cubic foot. Suppose the air to be contained in a vessel
Or we may say that the density of air at 32 -08 Ib. per cubic foot, and that of water at 39-4
a vessel B.
the difference of pressures in
A and to flow into A and B, as
Then the velocity v measured by a water gauge, be x inches. of issue is approximately given by the formula
about ^^j-th the density of water or might term the levity of the air is 800
If z = levity, air, or its levity half that of atmospheric air. h the height of the water barometer, and p the pressure in atmospheres in a vessel of air, the velocity of efflux from an orifice would be equal to
pressure would be one atmosphere above the external pressure, and its density twice that of the external
2 cubic feet of air to be
the levity would be z 33, and' p 400, h phere above external pressure, then
J 400 X
deal with pounds per square foot, hence
64 v/ x
pressure would be
s / o'j-925
PRACTICE AND DESIGN.
by the other formula,
i Ib. per
square foot being ^ T r ^th of an atmosphere
VOLUME AND WEIGHT OF AIR AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES.
For our worked-out examples
density always at 800 times less than water, or 0-08 Ib. per cubic foot but for greater accuracy in actual calculations,,
the real values as given above.
THE PRACTICAL ENGINEERING OF FLYING MACHINES.
who would become
a proficient, practical aeronautical engineer, capable of designing and dimensioning a flying machine, must, like all other members of the engineering
have a good foundation knowledge
of the sciences
geometry, mathematics, applied and theoretical mechanics, machine construction and drawing, with some special knowledge of the design of structures of great strength and small weight, and of materials of small specific gravity pretty
much that sort of knowledge of these things required by an expert sailing yacht designer. Most of the sciences are easily acquired now in technical schools, and an apprenticeship, if not available in an actual flying machine factory, could be profitably put in at either a yacht builders', a coach body builders', or some other works where the manufacture is much the same as in making flying
knowledge of the manual labour in fashioning the them together, bending and shaping into required forms, and of the working nature of the materials, the tools required, and how to use them, can only be acquired by actual experience, and such knowledge is of great value to the designing and managing engineer. At present the author would choose for flying machine work educated men from the yacht building or coach body building trades for building the hull, planes, and frames of a machine very little of the iron or metal trades' skilled
necessary for these members of the design. While the aeronautical engineer should have sufficient
of the petrol engine to
and to locate and remedy
slight faults, it
but leaves a great deal of was predicted room for further advances. at present. only to be mastered by deep study and long experience by those who intend to devote themselves as specialists to screw propellers. or upon the inclined plane principle. of more importance to the aeronautical engineer to be well grounded in the sciences and arts more particularly related to the subject of aeronautics than to confine his researches to existing types of machines. It is. so that the engineer has all the experience of the marine engineer to draw upon on the question of the screw propeller. It may be said that there need be no difference between the air screw propeller and the water screw propeller. There is no experience to draw upon of any value with these. carried into practice in a machine of a very different design and construction from those we now know of. who have years of experience as specialists in these engines and their manufacture. There are only the flapping wing and fish-tail propellers remaining to be tried in practice.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. or commercial use must either be upon a new principle. They await the attentions of engineers who are bold enough and clever enough to leave the ranks of the camp followers. not necessary he should be able to design and construct The engines for flying machines will be better made and cheaper to buy from special manufacturers. and the method of applying that principle as shown in the various designs seems. The results so far have fully confirmed all that of the aeroplane. 143 petrol engines. The screw propeller is also a member of the machine about which the aeronautical engineer should know something of its elementary principles. naval. therefore. . and strike out on a campaign of their own and become pioneers. The inclined plane principle is the only successful one upon which the machines of to-day are based. Its design and construation is a difficult art and science. The flying machine which is to be of any military. the only method.
4. within a small space. Therefore we speeds.. to make- the machine of some utility. These and other problems are obviously yet to be solved in aeroplanes. With the screw propeller we have is seen that the thrust T of an advancing propeller equal to T= w s+v ( ) v 32 With very high speeds. the lift of the planes. the thrust of the propeller.. This can be seen if we work out the spans. and be well informed also as to what was done in the past. he should keep well informed of all that is being done now. their lengths. They would have to be less in breadth. mail. a high velocity forward increases. longer. Passenger. Fuel-carrying capacity for long journeys. Stability in high winds and gusty winds. Safety of descent when engine stops at high altitudes. are increased and L. Both propellers and aeroplanes would work to greater advantage if the planes were driven forward at double the speed they are now capable of doing. In a fluid of such small specific gravity as air. and I. 6. A method of starting up from rest. and of a smaller angle. two or four large aeroplanes would not be satisfactory. special station. aeroplane machines the only direction for . the efficiency of both the screw propeller and the planes. for T. or military carrying capacity. with fixed starting appliances. Coming down and landing safely on any chosen spot. At the same Many ancient. per second. 3. propositions brought forward as new are quite and many good suggestions are buried in old speci- fications of patents.. 5. The aeroplane type of machine presents the following problems for solution : 1. And with arrive at multiplane machines for high. by high speed ahead.144 FLYINQ MACHINES : time. and without a 2. say over 120 ft.
flying quicker. it is said. One horse power hour takes (roughly) one pint of fuel petrol. greater dimensions. for 3. head winds. weighing about 200 Ibs. Theif chief difficulty at present is lack of lifting power. but if he takes 200 Ibs..P. it may be said that at present a journey would be limited by the fuel it could be done upon. he will require 2. and and their enormous are maintenance. at present.000 miles.. or leeway. But other means of solving the problem are bound to be found. without taking any margin of supply for accidents. Nothing equals an inclined plane " " " for multiplying a small thrust into a large lift. and so do the planes. On the question of fuel. or say 30 gallons. lies in higher speeds. in stability and economy of power for driving. The engine will then require 25 pints per hour. an aeroplane of slightly and under better control than any yet produced. As to other possible types of machines. but the really interesting facts are carefully suppressed. and for 300 . they. It would be very interesting to know how much fuel was consumed in some of the long distance flights Any amount of useless information is published which have recently been recorded. A Wright machine takes 25 H. say 30 miles per hour. As expense L for dirigible balloons. 145 improvement in carrying power. of fuel for 300 miles. . The power required to lift the machine against gravity does not increase with higher speeds. their fragility in their in first cost. and. about these performances. He more will require reliability.P. and many of the journalistic accounts are contradictory and erroneous. and carries one passenger and driver average speed. A Farman machine has 50 H.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. would cover the ground in less time. pints of fuel in miles at 30 miles an hour it would run 10 hours. offer other difficult problems." so far as we can at present see. taking 250 all.000 Ibs. while the screw acts with greater efficiency. May be so . One enthusiastic aeroplane driver has announced he can fly across the Atlantic.
but also considering how slow they can move when they desire to do so. 200 Ibs.146 prohibitive for FLYING MACHINES experimentalists. however. to 350 Ibs. is obtained. with comparatively slow wing beats. The rapid multiplication of experimental aeroplane machines. only considering the higher velocities. cannot satisfactorily explain. Many inventors have wrestled with the problems of wing propellers. yet there is something about the example wing propulsion which mechanics. yet to be solved. is becoming an object amusement and watering fast of attraction at places. . but none have penetrated to the secret of its power. From all the investigations on the subject it can be gathered that there are very small losses in this wing propeller and the velocities attained by birds. practical and theoretical. : with the exception of wealthy belligerent governments. and no doubt that will be their first sphere of is Meanwhile. . and the machine open-air places of bitions. machines is an important question in the near future. and the prize-hunting exhibitions of them. to A 50 Ibs. with j^two large propellers at moderate other machines with one smaller revolutions. is astonishing not . and a lift of from 40 Ibs. with the machines of to-day the single screw propeller is doing very well for machines of the carrying of flying The propulsion thrust of from capacities for which they are designed. there high abilities. per horse power at forward speeds of about 35 to 40 miles per hour. The most economical drive is that of the Wright machine. and the evolution of a useful flying machine is evidence that engineers of and well equipped for tackling the problems probably not far off. them making tempting offers to aeroplaners to many of make exhiusefulness. 450 per minute propeller waste a considerable amount of power in slip. are taking a more rational and sober interest in the subject. has aroused a good deal of popular enthusiasm and interest . Some imagine the arrangement of overlapping feathers is the key . Although for it is futile to discuss bird flight as an man to follow.
There is matter for As time goes on investigation in the propulsion problems. takes some considerable force to move it suddenly out of its line of flight. An notjprevent rolling or arrow shot from a bow is a case in . fro " " stern sculling " sculler and progress is made in other details. and the speed it can go at. This means mechanical complications. but under the conditions on a horizontal shaft they have very little effect with the shaft they tend to keep the machine on an even keel but the effect is not great even in that direction. With only one oar a good can propel the boat almost as easily with the one oar as another rowing with two oars. and four used. The peripheral speeds of screw propellers is already pretty near the outside limit. and weighing about half a ton.P. It is more than likely that the wings used by Wenham action . to the discovery of its 147 but nature negatives that supposition by employing wings of membrane-like leather in the bat's wing. Some but they do not propose to use gyroscopes for balancing understand the gyroscope. fore aft. and by Hargreaves are tail it must exert great powers. To have any balancing effect. moved to and by a man who. . feathers the blade " is it is called. at the same time. The only approximation to the fish-tail propeller in practice the oar used over the stern of a small boat. aeronautical engineers will run up against the propeller limitations. calculated at as much as 250 H. . so that for higher thrusts than those now required propellers must be multiplied. A mass moving at 60 feet per second. to prevent the violent swinging of the flywheel The high forward speed of an aeroplane has more is frame. The fishpropeller is of the same order. and two. really rudimentary bird wings. and it must be heavy and continuously driven at a high speed. Some inventors imagine the rotating screws act as gyros. steadying effect than any gyroscopic effect. and hung in gimbals to which a powerful brake (or dash pot) applied. three. copes in balancing an aeroplane. but even this effect does pitching motions.PRACTICE AND DESIGN. and from the weight and dimensions of a full grown whale.
but something more than a short flight at high velocity with two or three men aboard desirable. . with flying machines failure is fatal. Balancing will. it. but The safety of than air . a long body.. not by applying the gyroscope directly by its own force to but by using the gyroscope of small motion powerful levers to pull up the machine whenever it tends to roll or pitch. while a gyroscope to have any effect would. hence the mechanical engineering of a flying machine is of far more importance than that of these may have a motor car. for a large flying machine. be made automatic by a gyroscope. if applied direct. and the feathers at the end high velocity its it set to guide it straight with its takes considerable force to deviate it from course. on whichever side it was necessary. is desirable. it High speeds is are no doubt also but at present high speed or nothing with aeroplanes. all power-driven flying machines heavier depends entirely upon the reliability of the prime mover and the mechanism. a small gyroscope could open and shut a small valve on a cylinder and piston admitting compressed air or gases under pressure. For instance. or a locomotive failures and breakdowns without serious consequences. . easiest solution of the problem of mere flight. no doubt. thereby moving the piston with enough power to warp the Wright Brothers' planes. and besides taking a large power conof balancing. we may hope for a flying machine on a different The aeroplane is the principle than that of the aeroplane. size to set in do the work tinuously driving Finally. a steamship. it has a : heavy head.148 point. The whole affair would not weigh 20 Ibs. weigh over 200 Ibs. FLYING MACHINES lyike the aeroplane. or to operate the balancing planes on other machines.
as we 4 to i would be as great an incline could use without too great a loss. which is sacrificed to obtain small sizes. 32 W would = W^? A / . for a small surfaces. the thrust for lift alone would be T= I2 0-6 ^ = ft. plane of. x '24 = 2O'9 Ibs. if on the plane were perfect. 149 EXAMPLES OF ARITHMETICAL CALCULATIONS ON FLYING MACHINE DESIGN. but as it has an efficiency of probably 0-6. of interest to of aeroplane design some readers to give three examples by calculation on the theory given in Chapter 44 ft. In such small machines the inclination of the plane is First.5<*X = X I4M lbs> would would = = - W - I454 -08 V BC __ X -08 = ii IIOOS q. A C may be 6 ft. BC~ 6 The thrust of the screw would be 1-5. total lift 500 Ibs. 1-5 ^ = IIO - 25 ft. V would = 4^ = ii 2 per second. It may be II. 206 Ibs. speed per second. The head resistance equals R= R = 44 S2 / X 44 X i '5 BC X -003 sin '003 . say. AEROPLANES. ft. .. necessarily great in order to get sufficient lift from the small This entails waste of power.PRACTICE AND DESIGN.
lift to take a medium-sized aeroplane. P. H r = 25 550 x 0-66 . ft.= the v 0-6 = minimum power necessary. 0'66 for machines Thrust or lift = 6 IOO = x 0-66 250 Ibs. each The horse power can be found in same way as previous example.. machine propeller and engine comhence brake horse power 30 brake horse power. Now i. H. BC with an incline of 6 to i = I ft.P. per second.. but the efficiency will be higher over 800 Ibs.150 FLYING MACHINES : Total horse power without losses equals The efficiency of a small is bined not more than 0-6. but will give a biplane of 33 plane.ooo Ibs. as before' w== 1000x32 10 A= / _ 10 3200 I X X '08 = 4000 60 = 66 f too long for a monoplane. we R= B 6o 2 / BC -0026 0-166 - = 100 Ibs. hence the constant '0026 instead of -003 II. lift. AC= and 6 ft. total speed 60 ft. R is make also less in proportion for larger machines.
per second. and R is less in proportion as the weight is increased. say total lift 2. The lifting thrust will be nearly 2400 6 x = 666 lbs less 0-6 R R can be calculated as before.. and the sine of the angle of the plane. a triplane. and a constant which is less as the weight of the machine is increased. = 666+_i 9 o 550 is X 72 = IIQ principle of The resistance formula worked out on the the resistance being as the square of the speed and directly as the front area of planes. AC 6ft. speed 72ft. as the formulae for R is calculated to provide for ample margin of power. If 'now we take a large machine and a higher speed ahead..P. BC i ft.400 Ibs. 15! These powers are high. but in the absence of any more accurate means of estimating the resistance it may be used as giving results practically correct.H. "0024 0-166 = 190 . and allows for losses..PRACTICE AND DESIGN. so that the constant 0024 in this case.x 92 x i X 2 / -0024 X x sin a . B. may be R = S X X BC X R = j2. It is entirely empirical. 6 12 A= 12 _ 6400 I X X __ = 6666 *08 ft say three spans of 31 ft. but a large machine has in proportion to its weight. . each.
power as an exercise. still use Knglish weights and measures. 454 44 t A manageable length or span of planes would have been about.152 FLYING MACHINES if : Probably machines were made of two or three tons lift the constant would become about -0015. nearly . The big machine at high velocity is the machine of the future. while there is a tendency in A table describing flying machines to use the metric system. and total lift of 7. say. if calculated out on the above principles. -. with its 350 H. but the idea of the large machine with plenty of power was correct.P. A C should have been 6-6 ft.. ten planes of 46 ft. for conversion of one into the other is here given. The student can calculate out the horse Ordinary British workmen. with a 6 to I incline.. Sir Hiram Maxim's machine.222. What the speed was to be we do not know. 20000. and = 20000 w= 7 ooox_32 ii A = I . which would make V = n. . and many others. but it might be 44 ft.000 Ibs. per second. each. comes out very different in "dimensions than those given from the actual machine.
Kilograms x 2-2046 = pounds. Metres x 3-281 = feet. Millimetres -". Centimetres x "155 == square inches.PRACTICE AND DESIGN 153 CONVERSION TABLE. Watts Cheval vapeur Centigrade x x J'8) '9863 + 32 = horse power. -h 27-7 = pounds per Joule x *7373 = foot pounds. = gallons (231 cubic inches). Kilometres x 247-1 = acres. Hectares x 2*471 = acres. Kilograms per square millimetres X 1422*3 = pounds per square inch. = gallons (231 cubic inches).1102-3 = tons (2. -f. Centimetres -*. U.746 = horse power. Litres 28*316 = cubic feet. Kilograms per square cent. Grammes per cubic cent. Grammes (water) 29*57 = fluid ounces. Metres x 1-094 = yards. Litres x 61*022 = cubic inches. Caloric x 3-968 = B.16-383 = cubic inches. = degrees Fahrenheit. Metres = 39*37 inches.000 pounds).2-54 = inches. Kilometres x 3280-7 = feet. square inches. T. Grammes ~ 28-35 = ounces avoirdupois. Litres X '2642 3-78 Litres -f- -*- -*- cubic inch. Metres x 10-764 = square feet. Square Square Square Square Square Square Millimetres X "0155 Millimetres 4.6-451 = square inches. Millimetres x '03937 inches. Kilo-watts X 1*34 = horse power. Kilograms -*.645-1 = square inches. Metre per second = 3-28 feet per second.25-4 = inches. Kilometres x '621 = miles. x 14-223 = pounds per square inch. Grammes x 15-432 = grains. = Centimetres x '3937 = inches. . Centimetres -*. Cubic Metres x 35*315 = cubic feet. Kilograms x 35-3 = ounces avoirdupois. Cubic Metres x 1*308 = cubic yards. Cubic Centimetres -f. Cubic Metres x 264*2 = gallons (231 cubic inches).
FLYING MACHINES Ci' t>. t~ : ") '<*- "-. CC O O> O O-'I^vC " rr<s M ~". (s rn C ?) o oo Ov r< \C O'^'O O^<N\C w M O\ N . X c* PJ c i- en cr> ^f >o i- t~> oo' >o oc' c" ex" C - i dc <C 000 ^^^o^^k?^lE "I t^ ^. b>< 5 e* oc N b ve O O V N "-. -t \o POVOC oo t- t^ VC ci "".
' Hargreaves Single . Wing 29 149 i 22 no. Use of Wood in no 154 153 112 Conversion Tables. 121 129.. in Flying Machines Box Kites . " " Crossland on Materials for the Surfaces of Aeroplanes ... Tandem Monoplane 122 109 33 57 65. '. Relating to 1 44 76 33 138 .. at Various Temperatures.. 106 105 63. 132 115 115 23. Pressures. Bamboo... Notes on Propellers 30 45 Volume and Weight of. Table Aluminium Alloys in Aeroplane Construction American Dirigible Balloons 141 no. Coal Gas. Metres to Feet Metric Units to English Units . Design of Gyroscopes for Balancing Power Required to Support Principles of Results of Practical Experience with 102 7. Aluminium Alloys Materials for . in 108 . Use Biplanes . . Green Miesse .. .. Farman's Rankin Kennedy .13 31 Rotary Tandem Useful Numbers Air and the Atmosphere . 64.. in Anemometer Atmospheric Electricity . Regulating the Height of of.. I/if ting Power of Construction of Aeroplanes.. .INDEX. Examples of . Aeroplanes.. 149 148 20 8. Pressure 128 135 137 138 128 121 Baldwin Dirigible Balloon Balloons. .. .. Bleriot's British Dirigible Balloon Calculations for or Fish-tail Propeller on Flying Machine Design. 109. PAGE Action of Parachutes Aerial Navigation Aeromotor.. 66 104 106 10. Dirigible .
. 24 Roe on 98 96 115 1 1 . Calculations for 29 4-5 113. Miesse . Ripault Single Cylinder Experiments with Kites Small Planes . Mechanical Fundamental Principles of Flying Machines. 52 Helicoptere Langley's Practical Engineering of Practical Principles of Propulsion of 142 50 4 Santos-Dumont Wenham's Winged or . Dirigible . Flapping Wing Machine Helicoptere Flying Machines Multiple Screw . Roe's Gliders. Lifting Power of . 129 127 126 124 125.. Table of Weights of German Dirigible Balloons Giffard's Dirigible Balloon Glider Planes. . Power and Weight of Machine Engines for Flying Machines Gnome Rotary Green Aeromotor International Rotary Motor 1 1 3. 85 32. 145 53 89 27 24 Wright Brothers' 64 127 103 122 1 26 1 French Dirigible Balloons Naval Parachutes Gases. International Rotary Motor ..5 Gnome Rotary Engine Green Aeromotor Gyroscopes for Balancing Aeroplanes Hargreayes' Box Kite . 7 8 39 122 Hydrogen. 120 Flight... 96 -7 Farman's Biplane Fish-tail or Wing Propeller. Engines for Floating. Principles of theScrew Propeller and 148 1 06 24 37 32 > 77.156 Dirigible Balloons INDEX.. PAGE American British 121 128 French German Giffard's Zeppelin Electricity. . Starting Appliances for Fish-tailed 58. 1 26 137 120 120 115 115 115 115 115 107 Atmospheric Engine. 37 51..
. Lanchester's Simple Single Plane Langley's Flying Machine Lifting Effect of Air on Planes Power of Coal Gas . Table of Weights of 1 1 1 Use of... 108 112 I Mechanical Flight Metres to Feet....INDEX. . Propellers 48 Magnalium . A . Phillips' Multiple Screw. Conversion Table Metric Units to English Units.. . 71. Conversion Table Miesse Aeromotor 154 153 115 33. .. 78 78 10 Natural Sines. Table Principles of Flying Machines of the Helicoptere and Screw Propeller . 64 70. Air Lifting 45 48 Propelling Screw Propulsion of Flying Machines 46 145 65. 114 75 92 20- 143 50- 132 4 39^ Propellers. Aerial Parachutes Action of . 97 34 122 122 51. 132 101 102 103. . Kennedy's Parachute Kites 157 PAGE 101 104 Baden-Powell Type Experiments with 106 107 106- Box Tandem Box Uses of Box Single Hargreaves" Box Simple Plane loj IO 5> io& 105 104 96. Crossland on .. Flying Machines Pressures and Velocities of Wind. Tube. Helicoptere Mumford's Six-screwed Helicoptere 63.. Monoplanes Bleriot's Multiplane Machine. " Rankin Kennedy Biplane Regulating the Weight of Balloons Results of Practical Experience with Aeroplanes Ripault Single Cylinder Engine 66 123 31 115 . Table of Navigation. French Naval Petrol Engines for Aeroplanes Phillips' Multiplane Machine Portable Rope Haulage Starting Device Power Required to Support Aeroplanes Practical Engineering of Flying Machines . 52 Hydrogen Sheets.. and Wire.. 75 77. in Aeroplanes no106- Man-lifting Kites Materials for the Construction of Aeroplanes Surfaces of Aeroplanes.
.. . . . in Aeroplanes 134 134 132 24 .. Wright's Starting Pylon Wood. . 97 90 . Table of Weights and Strengths Use of.UN 2 6 1998 SHLF EEK LOAN JA* SBLF 2 WEEK LOAN "Winged or i<isn-T: . 64 96. Table of Weights of Various Machine Brothers' Flying Wright Glider . 25 109 58. Hargreaves' . . no 109 Zeppelin Dirigible Balloon 125. 126 . of Kinds Wire.. ... Wings..
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