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V. Hnizdo1 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 Kirk T. McDonald Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (November 29, 2011; updated April 5, 2013)

1

Problem

Discuss the ﬁelds of a moving point electric dipole, and characterize these ﬁelds in terms of multipole moments. It suﬃces to consider uniform motion with velocity v small compared to the speed c of light in vacuum.

2

Solution

This note is an elaboration of [1]. The relativistic transformations of densities P and M of electric and magnetic dipole moments (also called polarization and magnetization densities, respectively) were ﬁrst discussed by Lorentz [2], who noted that they follow the same transformations as do the magnetic and electric ﬁelds B = H + 4π M and E = D − 4π P, respectively, P = γ P0 + v × M0 − (γ − 1)(ˆ v · P0 )ˆ v, c M = γ M0 − v × P0 − (γ − 1)(ˆ v · M0 )ˆ v, (1) c

where the inertial rest frame moves with velocity v with respect to the (inertial) lab frame of the polarization densities, and γ = 1/ 1 − v 2/c2 . Considerations of the ﬁelds moving electric dipoles perhaps ﬁrst arose in the context of ˇ Cerenkov radiation when the dipole velocity v exceeds the speed of light c/n in a medium of index of refraction n [3]. Later discussions by Frank of his pioneering work are given in [4, 5]. As noted by Frank [5], specialization of eq. (1) to point electric and magnetic dipole moments p and m, and to low velocities, leads to the forms2 v v v v m0 ≈ m + × p, (2) p ≈ p0 + × m0, m ≈ m0 − × p0 , p0 ≈ p − × m, c c c c where p0 and m0 and the moments in the rest frame of the point particle, while p and m are the moments when the particle has velocity v in the lab frame. However, the ﬁelds associated with an electric and/or magnetic dipole moving at low velocity are not simply the instantaneous ﬁelds of the moments p and m, which leads to ambiguities in interpretations of the ﬁelds as due to moments.3

This note was written by the author in his private capacity. No oﬃcial support or endorsement by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention is intended or should be inferred. 2 Ref. [5] recounts a past controversy that these transformations might involve the index n if the magnetic dipole were not equivalent to an Amp` erian current loop. 3 The relation that p ≈ v/c × m0 when p0 = 0 appears in eq. (13) of [6], which was inspired by sec. 600 of [7]. See also [8]. That a moving current leads to an apparent charge separation was noted in [9].

1

1

we note a past misunderstanding regarding eq. 29]. Furthermore. t = 0) = cr cr vi r v ρ0 (r .5 2. the (quasistatic) scalar potential is p0 · r . ∇ · J = −∂ρ/∂t − (v · ∇)ρ = −dρ/dt. we should recall that the origin of the ﬁrst equality in (3) is a multipole expansion of the (quasistatic) vector potential of a current distribution. The (quasistatic) vector potential has the expansion 1 r Ji (r .22 and 11. in which the potentials are the same in the Coulomb and Lorenz gauges.2 The Fields of a Moving Electric Dipole The literature on calculations of the ﬁelds of a moving. ∂ρ (4) ∇·J=− . sec. 25. 14. 26. However. that is at the origin at time t = 0 with velocity v. 20. t = 0) = r3 as the charge distribution has only a dipole moment at this time. We work in the quasistatic approximation. 19. such that ∇ · J = 0. 2. 24. III of [10] it is claimed that the magnetic moment of a point electric dipole p0 which moves with velocity v can be calculated according to 1 v v 1 r × J dVol = r × ρ0 v dVol = − × ρ0r dVol = − × p0 . That form depends on the current density J having zero divergence. 2.6 of [11]. Here.4 The charge density of a moving electric dipole is time dependent. (3) m= 2c 2c 2c 2c which diﬀers from eq. 18. See. 5. we consider only the low-velocity limit of an electric dipole.Before deducing the ﬁelds. (6) cr3 4 5 For moving media. 23. 6. 17. including [12. ∂t where ρ is the electric charge density.2. for example. of strength p0 in its rest frame. (5) V (r. (3) to be valid. Most of these works emphasize the radiation ﬁelds of an ultrarelativistic dipole. point electric dipole is very extensive. support for this result appears to be given in probs. t = 0) dVol + 3 · r Ji (r .6 of [11]. t = 0) dVol + · · · = cr cr vir · p0 = . 28. Then. 27. t = 0) dVol + 3 · r ρ0 (r . (2) by a factor of 2. 4.1 Multipole Expansions of the Potentials Following the spirit of [10]. In general. 2 . 22.21.1 and 5.27 of [11]. 15. t = 0) dVol + · · · Ai(r. when the moving electric dipole is that the origin. (2). 21. and secs. and we cannot expect the analysis of eq. 6. Thanks to Grigory Vekstein for pointing this out. 13.1 Fisher’s Claim In sec. we consider multipole expansions of the scalar potential V and the vector potential A at time t = 0.

That Jackson was aware of both decompositions (7) and (10) is indicated in a letter of Mar.4. but this will be conﬁrmed in sec. = 2cr3 2 As = (p0 · r)v + (r · v)p0 . cr3 (9) It is something of a convention to say that Am is the vector potential of the magnetic moment of the moving electric dipole in that the term Ap is also a vector potential with 1/r2 dependence as associated with dipole potentials.22 of [11]. each compelling in its way. 6 3 .21 and 6. ρ0(r) dVol = 0.2 Fields and Potentials via Lorentz Transformations Before going further. A(r. For example. 2cr3 (11) (p0 · r)v (p0 · r)v − (r · v)p0 (p0 · r)v + (r · v)p0 = + = Aa + As .where ρ0 is the electric charge distribution of the electric dipole in its rest frame. 20.2. 3 cr c r cr3 (7) which is the vector potential expected from eq. The decomposition A = Am + Ap is of possible mathematical convenience but has no well-deﬁned physical signiﬁcance. 2. cr3 2cr3 2cr3 (10) are the antisymmetric and symmetric combinations of the terms (p0 · r)v/2cr3 and (r · v)p0 /2cr3 . it is useful to note the most direct method of obtaining the potentials and ﬁelds of a moving electric dipole is via a Lorentz transformation from its rest frame. 11.2. It is perhaps not evident that all higher-order terms vanish in eq. which has velocity v with v c with respect to the lab frame. but should not be construed as implying that the magnetic moment of the moving electric dipole is Am /2. 1990 on this theme [30]. 2. Nonetheless.J. and somewhat indirectly in prob.28 of [11]. ρ0(r) r dVol = p0 .6 It would seem most correct simply to say that 1/r2 term in the vector potential of the moving electric dipole is (p0 · r)v/cr3 without supposing this to be the sum of two eﬀects of diﬀerent physical character.H. Then. The decomposition (10) is advocated in probs. t = 0) = where Am = m×r (p0 · r)v − (r · v)p0 = 3 r cr3 with m=− v × p0 . we could also write A= where Aa = (p0 · r)v − (r · v)p0 1 Am . V. we can be led to the decompositions (7) and (10) by other arguments.2.2. as considered in secs. and J = ρ0v is the current density of the moving electric dipole in the lab frame.2. and Ap = (r · v)p0 .D. just as the decomposition (7) does not imply that the magnetic moment of the moving electric dipole is Am . thanks J.3 and 2. (2) for a moving electric dipole moment (with no intrinsic magnetic moment). for a copy of this letter. 6. c (8) v r (r · v)p0 (p0 · r)v = − × p0 × 3 + ≡ Am + Ap . (6). 2.

2. p0 · r p0 · r ≈ . E = 3(p0 · r )r p0 4π − 3 − p0 δ3 r . (17) Then. v 3(p0 · r)r p0 4π ˆ )ˆ × B − (γ − 1)(E · v v≈E = − 3 − p0 δ 3r.e . the multipole expansion (7) of the vector potential A at order 1/r2 is actually the “exact” result in the low-velocity approximation. V = γ (V + A · v/c) ≈ V = 3 r r3 (p0 · r)v .10 of [11]. assumed to be at the origin.3 and 2. 4 . A) to the lab frame at time t = 0 yield. r 3 A = 0. 5 r r 3 B = 0. While the ﬁelds E and B can now be calculated from the potentials according to E = −∇V − 1 ∂A . r ≈ r.4.3 Potentials Deduced from Lab-Frame Charge and Current Densities In its rest-frame the point electric dipole p0 (located at the origin) has polarization density P = p0 δ 3r . Ba and Bs will be displayed in secs. 2. are V = p0 · r .2. Bp. The Lorentz transformation of the 4-vectors (ct.2. where γ = 1/ 1 − v 2/c2 ≈ 1. r = γ (r − v t ) ≈ r . The associated charge density is ρ = −∇ · P = −p0 · ∇ δ 3 r . (16) it is more straightforward to deduce the ﬁelds E and B as the Lorentz transforms of the ﬁelds in the rest frame of the electric dipole. c ∂t B = ∇ × A.. 11. for example. (12) where quantities in the rest frame are denoted with the superscript . (13) (14) (15) Hence. i .2. = − 3 − (19) 5 c r r 3 E = γ E − where the partial ﬁelds Bm . sec. (18) 5 c r r 3 v v v ˆ )ˆ v ≈ ×E ≈ ×E B = γ B + × E − (γ − 1)(B · v c c c v 3(p0 · r)r p0 4π × p0 δ3 r ≡ Bm + Bp ≡ Ba + Bs .7 at time t = 0 when r ≈ r. 7 (20) (21) See.The potentials in the rest frame of the electric dipole. A = γ (A + V v/c) ≈ cr3 r⊥ = r⊥ . for v c. r) and (V.

3 3 3 r cr cr3 |r − r | 1 c The electric ﬁeld D = E + 4π P has zero divergence. and M = m δ 3 r.In the lab frame the charge density is ρ = γρ ≈ ρ ≈ −p0 · ∇δ3 r = −∇ · P. (24) noting that the operator ∇ does not act on the constant vectors p0 and v. (27) (26) Then the sum of the polarization currents (25) and (26) equals the “convection” current (24). (2). and Am (r) = J m (r ) ∇ × m δ 3r ∇ δ 3r (29) dVol = dVol = −m × dVol |r − r | |r − r | |r − r | m×r (v × p0 ) × r (p0 · r)v − (r · v)p0 (r − r ) δ 3 r = m× dVol = =− = . 3 c cr3 |r − r | (v · ∇ ) δ 3 r dVol |r − r | (28) as previously found in eq. in view of eq. using the convention that m = −v/c × p0 of eq. (9). dt (25) Likewise.” Jp = −(v · ∇)p0 δ3 r ≡ −(v · ∇)P = − dP . 8 5 . the current density Jm can be thought of as a “magnetic-polarization current. noting that r ≈ r and ∇ = ∇ in the low-velocity approximation. The (quasistatic) vector potentials associated with the polarization currents (25) and (26) when the electric dipole is at the origin in the lab frame are Ap (r) = 1 1 (v · ∇ )p0 δ3 r p0 J p (r ) dVol = − dVol = − c |r − r | c |r − r | c 3 p0 [v · (r − r )] δ r (r · v)p0 = dVol = . (23) (22) at the instant when the dipole is at the origin.8 When the dipole is moving with a velocity v in the lab frame it has current density J = = = ≡ γρ v ≈ ρ v = −v(p0 · ∇)δ3 r −(v · ∇)p0 δ 3 (r) − v(∇ · p0 δ3 r) + (v · ∇)p0 δ3 r −(v · ∇)p0 δ 3 r − ∇ × (v × p0 δ 3 r) Jp + Jm . (22). where the lab-frame polarization density is P = p0 δ 3r.” Jm = −∇ × (v × p0 δ3 r) = c∇ × m δ3 r ≡ c∇ × M. ∇ · D = ∇ · E + 4π ∇ · P = 4πρ + 4π ∇ · P = 0. The current density Jp can be thought of as an “electric-polarization current.

However. (31) 5 3 cr cr cr5 3(p0 · r)r p0 v − 3 × c r5 r = Bm + Bp . 2. respectively.2. cr cr5 (v × p0 ) × r cr3 v × p0 v × p0 v × p0 v × p0 − ∇·r+r ∇· − (r · ∇ ) + ·∇ r 3 3 3 cr cr cr cr3 3v × p0 3[r · (v × p0 )]r 3v × p0 v × p0 − + + − cr3 cr5 cr3 cr3 3[(−v/c × p0) · r]r −v/c × p0 3(m · r)]r m − = − 3 r5 r3 r5 r (p0 · r)v − (r · v)p0 ∇× cr3 v v p0 p0 (p0 · r)∇ × 3 − 3 × ∇(p0 · r) − (v · r)∇ × 3 + 3 × ∇(v · r) cr cr cr cr 3(p0 · r)r × v v × p0 3(v · r)r × p0 p0 × v − + + − cr5 cr3 cr5 cr3 3(p0 · r)r 3(v · r)r p0 v v× − 3 − p0 × − 3 5 5 cr cr cr cr 3(p0 · r)r 2v × p0 3(v · r)r v× − − p0 × . (26) as “the” magnetic moment of the moving electric dipole. even though the quantities Ap and Bp also have the 1/r2 and 1/r3 dependence.22 of [11] encourage us to consider the situation when the electric dipole is not at the origin.4 Jackson’s Argument The preceding analyses have assumed for simplicity that the electric dipole is at the origin. Problems 6. expected for dipole potentials and ﬁelds.21 and 6. (8). alternative decompositions of the electric and magnetic lead to diﬀerent interpretations. One such decomposition is considered in the following section.as previously found in eq. The magnetic ﬁeld (19) can now be written as B= where Bm = 2Ba = ∇ × Am = −∇ × = = = = = = = = and Bp = ∇ × Ap = ∇ × (r · v)p0 p0 p0 = (r · v)∇ × 3 + ∇(r · v) × 3 3 cr cr cr p0 p0 v 3(r · v)r = −3(r · v)r × 5 + v × 3 = p0 × − 3 cr cr cr5 cr p0 3(r · v)r = v × 3 + p0 × . (30) (32) The consistency of this decomposition tends to reinforce the identiﬁcation of eq. 6 .

A(r.2-3 of [11]). The identiﬁcation of r × J/2c as a magnetization density seems justiﬁed if J has zero divergence. (33) In the present example of a moving electric dipole the current density has nonzero divergence. Turning to the argument implied in probs. but this technique is of use when considering a Taylor expansion of the retarded vector potential of a time-harmonic current distribution J(r. independent of the choice of origin.21 and 6. for example. Hence. However. As is well known (see. the electric dipole moment of a dipole charge distribution is independent of the choice of origin. Q = ρ dVol is. the electric quadrupole moment of a dipole charge distribution depends on the choice of origin. The electric dipole moment p = ρ r dVol is independent of the choice of origin if the total charge Q is zero (as for an electric dipole moment). The magnetic moment of a current density that obeys ∇ · J = 0 is independent of the choice of origin.If the dipole is at position r0 . it is suggested that the vector potential (15) be rewritten in the form (10) as the sum of antisymmetric and symmetric terms. secs. t = t − R/c)) e−iωt dVol ≈ J(r ) eikR dVol c R cr ei(kr−ωt) r·r ≈ J(r ) e−ik ˆ dVol cr ei(kr−ωt) ≈ J(r ) dVol − ik J(r )(ˆ r · r ) dVol + · · · . and the magnetic dipole moment (and higher magnetic moments) depend on the choice of origin. r+ = c M(r ) × ˆ 2 (35) where M(r) = r × J(r)/2c is the magnetization density associated with current density J. of course. which is not the case. t) = J(r) e−iωt. 6. It is noteworthy that [31] 7 . the multipole moments of charge and current densities depend on the choice of origin. The motivation here is not obvious in quasistatic examples. r·r) = J(r )(ˆ (ˆ r · r )J(r ) − (ˆ (ˆ r · r )J + (ˆ r · J(r ))r r · J(r ))r + 2 2 (r × J(r )) × ˆ r · r )J(r ) + (ˆ r (ˆ r · J(r ))r = + 2 2 r · J(r ))r (ˆ r · r )J(r ) + (ˆ . The total electric charge. the where R = |r − r | ≈ r − ˆ ﬁrst term corresponds to the vector potential of electric dipole radiation. most of the preceding results still hold with the substitutions r → r − r0 and r → |r − r0 |. at distances far from these currents. and the second term is the sum of the vector potentials of magnetic dipole radiation and electric quadrupole radiation. and we can write m= 1 c r × J dVol → 1 c (r − r0 ) × J dVol = m + r0 × c J dVol = m. cr (34) r · r . This reinforces the sense of previous sections that it is diﬃcult to identify “the” magnetic moment of a moving electric dipole.22 of [11]. in general. However. 9. t) = 1 J(r . in radiation problems. The separation of the second term into the two types of radiation is accomplished by considering its symmetric and antisymmetric parts. In such cases J dvol = 0.

we record that the magnetic ﬁeld associated with the symmetric part. For completeness. (p0 · r)v + (r · v)p0 Bs = ∇ × As = ∇ × 2cr3 v v p0 p0 = (p0 · r)∇ × − × ∇(p0 · r) + (v · r)∇ × − × ∇ (v · r ) 3 3 3 2cr 2cr 2cr 2cr3 3(p0 · r)r × v v × p0 3(v · r)r × p0 p0 × v − − − = − 2cr5 2cr3 2cr5 2r3 3(p0 · r)r 3(v · r)r (v · r)p0 + (p0 · r)v = v× + p0 × = −3 r × . It is instructive to consider ∇ × Bs . eq. ∇×B = 1 ∂E . c ∂t (37) tells us that the electric ﬁeld must include terms that vary as 1/r4 . However. of the vector potential (10) is. for which we note that ∇× r × (v · r)p0 (v · ˆ r) ˆ r × p0 =∇× 5 r r3 1 ∇ × [(v · ˆ r) ˆ r × p0] = ∇ 3 × (v · ˆ r) ˆ r × p0 + 3 r r 3 ∇ (v · ˆ r) × (ˆ r × p0) ∇ × (ˆ r × p0 ) = − 4 (v · ˆ r) ˆ r × (ˆ r × p0 ) + + (v · ˆ r) 3 r r r3 3 (v · ∇ ) ˆ r × (ˆ r × p0 ) (p0 · ∇) ˆ r − p0(∇ · ˆ r) = − 4 (v · ˆ r)[(p0 · ˆ r) ˆ r − p0 ] + + (v · ˆ r) 3 3 r r r ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 3(v · r)p0 − 3(v · r)(p0 · r) r = r4 [ v − (v · ˆ r) ˆ r] × (ˆ r × p0 ) p0 − (p0 · ˆ r) ˆ r] − 2p0 + + (v · ˆ r) 4 4 r r 3(v · ˆ r)p0 − 3(v · ˆ r)(p0 · ˆ r) ˆ r = r4 r − (v · ˆ r)(p0 · ˆ r) ˆ r (v · ˆ r)(p0 · ˆ r) ˆ r] (v · p0 ) ˆ r)p0 + (v · ˆ + − r4 r4 −5(v · ˆ r)(p0 · ˆ r) ˆ r + (v · p0 ) ˆ r + 2(v · ˆ r)p0 = . so the fourth Maxwell equation (for points away from the dipole itself). (37) should not be construed as implying that the changing electric quadrupole moment “creates” the magnetic ﬁeld. rather than for a current density J. which are associated with the (time-dependent) electric quadrupole moment. (36) 5 5 2cr 2cr 2cr5 When the moving dipole is at the origin the magnetic ﬁeld varies purely as 1/r3 . which deftly avoids the present ambiguities. As .(sec. 71) discusses both magnetic moments and radiation for a collection of point charges. (38) 4 r 8 . at time t = 0 when the moving electric dipole is at the origin.

Using eq. so that it is somewhat delicate to use the terminology “magnetic moment” in this example. 9 A = m0 × r . we ﬁnd that ∇ × Bs = 15(v · ˆ r)(p0 · ˆ r) ˆ r − 3(v · p0 ) ˆ r − 3(v · ˆ r)p0 − 3(p0 · ˆ r )v . we include a discussion of the case of a magnetic dipole m0 that has velocity v in the lab frame. 3 Moving Magnetic Dipole For completeness. (18) with r → r − r0. but this should not be interpreted as a causeand-eﬀect relation. E = p0 3[p0 · (r − r0)](r − r0 ) − 5 |r − r0 | |r − r0 |3 r) ˆ r − p0 15(r0 · ˆ r)(p0 · ˆ r) ˆ r − 3(r0 · p0 ) ˆ r − 3(r0 · ˆ r)p0 − 3(p0 · ˆ r)r0 3(p0 · ˆ = + + ··· 3 4 r r (41) = Edipole + Equadrupole + · · · . The potentials in the rest frame of magnetic dipole (where the magnetic moment is m0). so that eq. (36). (37) is satisﬁed for B = Ba + B s .21(c) of [11]. we obtain ∇× r)(p0 · ˆ r) ˆ r + 2(v · p0 ) ˆ r + 2(v · ˆ r)p0 + 2(p0 · ˆ r )v r × [(v · r)p0 + (p0 · r)v] −10(v · ˆ = . r 3 (43) One can show that ∇ × Ba = 0.(39) r5 r4 Then.9 ∇ × Bs = 1 ∂E 1 ∂ Equadrupole ≈ . 4 cr (40) As noted in prob. c ∂t c ∂t (42) This establishes a relation between the partial magnetic ﬁeld Bs and the electric quadrupole ﬁeld Equadrupole of the moving electric dipole. eq. when the moving dipole is at position r0 = vt its electric ﬁeld. (31) and using the identities (a · ∇) ˆ r = [a − (a · ˆ r) ˆ r]/r and (a · ∇)(b · ˆ r) = [a · b − (a · ˆ r)(b · ˆ r)]/r . has the multipole expansion with respect to the origin. 6. recalling eq. (38) with p0 and v interchanged. Thus. 9 . It remains that the magnetic ﬁeld of a moving electric dipole p0 at order 1/r3 is not exactly that of the “magnetic moment” −v/c × p0 . starting from the next to last form of eq. The electric dipole ﬁeld Edipole (in contrast to the ﬁeld E of the moving electric dipole) is constant in time (as is the electric dipole moment p ≈ p0 ). assuming the dipole to be at the origin. for r0 r. are V = 0.

is r0 = vt yield. ×B ≈− ×B=− × c c c R5 R 3(m0 · R)R m0 − 3. E = 0. in that we can say that the potentials of a magnetic dipole which moves with v c correspond to magnetic dipole moment m = m0 and electric dipole moment p= v × m0 . =− 3 5 c ∂t c ∂t R cR cR (52) 3(p · R)R p 3(v/c × m0 · R)R v/c × m0 − = − . and r ≈ r − r0 ≡ R. 5 r r (47) where Ep and Em can also be interpreted as the electric ﬁelds associated with the polarization and magnetization densities of the moving magnetic dipole. The Lorentz transformation of the 4-vector (V. 12. with Ep = −∇V = and10 Em = − 1 ∂A v 1 ∂ m0 × R 3(v · R)R = −m0 × − 3 .4 of [32] and in prob. (49). The ﬁelds (48). respectively. where γ = 1/ 1 − v 2/c2 ≈ 1. The lab-frame ﬁelds E and B are the Lorentz transforms of the ﬁelds in the rest frame of the magnetic dipole. c (46) with respect to its instantaneous position. A) to the lab frame at time t when the dipole is at position c. Then. (5) and (7) for a moving electric dipole. (32) and (31). R5 R3 R5 R3 (51) (50) (48) (49) B = 3(m0 · r )r m0 − 3. for v V = γ (V + A · v/c) ≈ m0 × R · v v/c × m0 · R = . of a moving electric dipole. 11. 10 . (18). B ≈ B = R5 R E ≈ − The electric ﬁeld can also be written as E = Ep + Em . and suﬀer from the ambiguity that the electric (magnetic) ﬁeld of 10 The form (52) was noted in prob.29 of [11]. (51) and (52) are the duals of the ﬁelds (19). R3 (44) (45) These potentials have a crisper interpretation than those of eqs. v v 3(m0 · R)R m0 v − 3 . 3 cR R3 m0 × R A = γ (A + V v/c) ≈ A = .where quantities in the rest frame are denoted with the superscript . respectively.

see [33]. Alte und Neue Fragen der Physik.princeton. Usph. http://puhep1. J. ∇ × Es = − (56) r as where the magnetic ﬁeld of the moving magnetic dipole at r0 can be expanded for r0 B = m0 3[m0 · (r − r0)](r − r0) − 5 |r − r0 | |r − r0 |3 3(m0 · ˆ r) ˆ r − m0 15(r0 · ˆ r)(m0 · ˆ r) ˆ r − 3(r0 · m0 ) ˆ r − 3(r0 · ˆ r)m0 − 3(m0 · ˆ r)r0 = + + ··· 3 4 r r (57) = Bdipole + Bquadrupole + · · · . Lorentz. Nauk USSR. http://puhep1. (54) permits us to consider that the electric dipole moment of the moving magnetic moment is v/c × m0/2. Sov. (46). then Ea = Ep 3[(v/c × m0/2) · r]r v/c × m0/2 − = 2 r5 r3 v m0 v 3(m0 · r)r m0 3(v · r)r = − × − + − . http://puhep1. References [1] V. Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation for electric and magnetic multipoles. 3 (1942). Magnetic dipole moment of a moving electric dipole. Phys. 11. Phys. Akad.pdf 11 .edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/frank_spu_27_772_84. 772 (1984).pdf [4] I. rather than that given in eq. For discussion of a moving magnetic dipole in an external electric ﬁeld. Am. Izv.pdf [2] H. Z. Frank.A. 1234 (1910). http://puhep1.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/frank_ian_6_3_42. E = Ea + Es .M.princeton. Hnizdo. If we decompose the electric ﬁeld of the moving magnetic dipole into antisymmetric and symmetric pieces (with respect to interchange of symbols m0 and v). 6. 80. 645 (2012).princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/hnizdo_ajp_80_645_12.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/lorentz_pz_11_1234_10.the moving magnetic (electric) dipole is not simply that of the electric (magnetic) moment of the moving dipole. so again we must exercise care in using the term “moment” to characterize a moving intrinsic moment. Frank. 27. × 2 cr5 cr3 2 cr5 cr3 (v · r)m0 + (m0 · r)v Es = 3 r × . Phys. 2cr5 1 ∂ Bquadrupole . Ser.M. The form of eq. Fiz.princeton. c ∂t (53) (54) (55) and ∇ × Ea = 0.pdf [3] I.

39. http://puhep1.pdf [10] G. 92 (1967).princeton.princeton. Phil. Hoadley and W. 1528 (1971). New York.F. Swann. Daw.pdf [12] J. J. Rev. Sov. 1892).edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/ward_prsla_279_562_64. On the moments of a magnetic dipole moving in a medium. 3rd ed. Mott. Ellis. The Electric Dipole Moment of a Moving Magnetic Dipole.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/ward_pcps_61_547_65. The electromagnetic ﬁelds of moving dipoles. Proc. Maxwell.pdf [11] J.pdf [13] G.pdf [14] G. Mott. 1262 (1965). The Fields of a Moving Electric Dipole.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/mott_pieee_55_92_67.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/ellis_jmp_7_1185_66. IEEE 55. Budde.N.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/mott_pieee_53_1262_65.princeton. 15. and charge and dipole ﬁelds. Soc. Camb. London A 279.pdf [15] H. Frank.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/barnett_pm_44_1112_22.B. Camb. Am. http://puhep1. 7. Daw. Ellis. Soc.princeton. Daw. 456 (1989). Phil. Mott. 61.princeton. Barnett.B. http://puhep1. 553 (1880).pdf [18] H. 3rd ed.pdf [9] E. 407 (1965).C.princeton.R. Soc. http://puhep1.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/maxwell_treatise_v2_92.N. 44.princeton. 1999). Jackson.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/mott_pieee_53_407_65.pdf [6] S.pdf 12 . Roy./ (Clarendon Press. Usph. Proc. Phys.B. http://puhep1. Math.R. 1112 (1922). Das Clausius’sche Gesetz und die Bewegung der Erde in Raume. 562 (1964). http://puhep1. Radiation from the Moving Electric Dipole. 10. Ward. Phys. 759 (1963). J.R. G. http://puhep1. Proc. Phys. IEEE 53. IEEE 53. http://puhep1.[5] I.R. Phys. 365 (1920).edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/jackson_ce3_pages. Proc.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/fisher_ajp_39_1528_71.P. http://puhep1.D. http://puhep1. Electric Fields due to the Motion of Constant Electromagnetic Systems. Hoadley and W.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/budde_ap_10_553_1880. On the integration of Maxwell’s equations.princeton. G. 59. The Near Fields of a Moving Electric Dipole. Mag. Proc. Phil. http://puhep1. Hoadley and W. Fisher. Proc. http://puhep1.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/ellis_pcps_59_759_63. Ward.R.princeton.pdf [17] J. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. 547 (1965). 1185 (1966).edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/frank_spu_32_456_89. (Wiley. Classical Electrodynamics.princeton. Unipolar Induction.pdf [16] H. Ann.pdf [7] J. The ﬁelds of an arbitrarily moving dipole.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/swann_pr_15_365_20. http://puhep1.J.princeton. G. Electromagnetic Fields of Moving Dipoles and Multipoles. 32.G. http://puhep1.pdf [8] W. Phys.princeton.M.

Proc. The Heaviside-Feynman expression for the ﬁelds of an accelerated dipole. http://puhep1. J. Monaghan.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/afanasiev_ps_61_704_00. 32. J. Phys. A 1.pdf [22] J.A. http://puhep1.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/power_prsla_457_2757_01. 1990). Mott.princeton. Phys. Roy. http://puhep1. Force and couple exerted on a moving electromagnetic dipole.J. Daw. J. Power and T.pdf [30] J. http://puhep1.pdf [23] D.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/heras_pl_a237_343_98. Radiation of a Receding Electric Dipole. Heras. E 58. 91 (1967). J. Phys. A 3. 5047 (1998). 4th ed.princeton.B. Konopinski. http://puhep1. Ellis. Lett.pdf [20] J. Stepanovksy. G.princeton.[19] H.pdf [31] L. Phys.pdf [25] J.R. Afanasiev and Yu P.pdf [29] G. Electromagnetic Fields of Electric. http://puhep1. http://puhep1. New approach to the classical radiation ﬁelds of moving dipoles. Electromagnetics 6.pdf [24] J. Hoadley and W. London A 457. Lifshitz. http://puhep1. Jackson. Roy.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/heras_pre_58_5047_98. J.princeton. Radiative Properties of a moving electric dipole. 1975).princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/shieber_electromagnetics_6_99_86. Letter to W. Soc.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/mott_jfi_283_91_67. http://puhep1.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/monaghan_jpa_1_112_68.princeton.princeton. Thurinamachandran. Smith. London A 457. Franklin Inst. Heras. 343 (1998).princeton.pdf [21] J. Rev. Schieber.J. Soc.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/heras_ajp_62_1109_94. Heras. Electromagnetic ﬁelds of a moving electric dipole. 1109 (1984). Proc.princeton. Radiation ﬁelds of a dipole in arbitrary motion.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/landau_cft_sec71.princeton. 28.pdf [28] E. 1981). Electromagnetic Fields and Relativistic Particles (McGraw-Hill.D.princeton. http://puhep1. http://puhep1.A. A 237. 695 (2011). http://puhep1.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/smith_ejp_32_695_11.R. Explicit expressions for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds of a moving magnetic dipole.S.princeton.A. The Fields of an Electric Dipole in Motion. 2779 (2001).pdf [32] E.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/power_prsla_457_2779_01. Scripta 61. Magnetic and Toroidal Dipoles Moving in Medium. http://puhep1. Am.M. Phys. 2757 (2001). (Pergamon. Thurinamachandran. 112 (1969).edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/jackson_032890. Visualizing special relativity: the ﬁeld of an electric dipole moving at relativistic speed. Landau and E. Phys. Phys. 62.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/ellis_jpa_3_251_70. 99 (1986). 704 (2000).pdf [27] E. 283.N.pdf [26] G.D. 251 (1970). http://puhep1.pdf 13 . Newcomb (Mar. Eur.princeton. The Classical Theory of Fields. Power and T.edu/~mcdonald/examples/EM/konopinski_prob12-3-4_81.

McDonald.T.[33] K.edu/~mcdonald/examples/mansuripur. http://puhep1.pdf 14 . Mansuripur’s Paradox (May 2.princeton. 2012).

Lorentz Transformations of Moving E , B Dipoles

Lorentz Transformations of Moving E , B Dipoles

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