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Casting Processes

Foundry (sand) Casting Investment Casting Directional solidification and single crystal pulling Permanent mold casting (eg. ingots) Die Casting Squeeze casting Centrifugal casting Rapid solidification processes (strip casting, spray for powder metallurgy, etc.) Continuous Casting
ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Foundry Casting

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Foundry (sand) casting is:


one of the oldest manufacturing processes 6th largest U.S. industry Advantages
Easy to produce complex shapes Inexpensive (especially for small quantities) Only way to produce brittle alloy parts

Disadvantages
Energy intensive Pollution control problems Defects
ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Inclusion-related defects in foundry casting filling

Bubble trail micro-graphs

J. Campbell & M. Jolly, Univ. Birmingham, UK


ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Schematic of bubbles and bubble trails during mold filling


Down-sprue

Mold cavity runner


J. Campbell & M. Jolly, Univ. Birmingham, UK
ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Oxide-inclusion stringers coating dendrites

SEM image of oxide stringer from a collapsed bubble-trail tube


ME 550 Lecture 1

M. Jolly, Univ. Birmingham, UK

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Oxide-inclusion stringers coating dendrites


eggs under tissue paper

M. Jolly, Univ. Birmingham, UK


ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Die Casting

ASM Casting Handbook, 2009

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Die Casting
Heat transfer controlled by: - Interface resistance (mainly) -mold & casting too)

Advantages:
High-pressure die casting Fast, economic production (>400 parts / hour) Very low cost per part More sound than foundry Thin sections possible
Counter-gravity lowpressure die casting

Disadvantages:

ASM Casting Handbook, 2009 ME 550 Lecture 1

Small size (porosity problems for larger parts) High capital cost (for dies): large numbers only Nonferous only (low temperature)

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Centrifugal Casting

Advantages:
OK for ferrous alloys Sound, fine grain size, low porosity
Products: eg. roll, cast-iron pipe
ASM Casting Handbook, 2009

Disadvantages:
Radially symmetric parts only Macrosegregation expensive
ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Investment Casting
lost wax process 2. Dip in ceramic slurry

1. Wax pattern
Radiation Heating

3. Heat
(sinter ceramic and melt wax)
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4. Pour metal

5. Shake out Finished casting

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Investment Casting
Often cast wax patterns for producing clusters of several patterns at once) Applications: small, precision parts, eg. Jewelry, dental work, air foils, etc. Advantages
Intricate shapes, thin walls, no parting line Good dimensional tolerance, good surface finish Low startup cost

Disadvantages
Small parts only (slow heat transfer) Small quantities (pattern used only once)

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Single Crystal Turbine Blades: enable more efficient jet engines

Conventional (fine grain)

Directional solidification
columnar grains Single crystal

Insert ceramic cores for inner spaces Laser drill holes Air flow through blade creates boundary layer so blade surface stays cooler than the surrounding gases
ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Why directional solidification?


Engines operate more efficiently at high temperature materials limitation ( ) Low temperature TH < 0.3 =
Grain boundaries tangle dislocations Increase strength with fine grains

High temperature TH > 0.5


Grain boundaries have higher creep Increase strength by avoiding grain boundaries

Ceramics would be good blade material if lowtemperature fracture resistance was better
ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Investment casting & directional solidification


Superalloy Melt Induction Heating Coils Pouring Basin

Radiation Heating Ceramic Shell (Mold) Furnace Hot Zone

Turbine Blades Grain Selector Radiation Cooling Water Cooled Chill Block

Radiation Baffle

Furnace Cold Zone

Slow Withdrawal

Directional solidification
Yu et al, 1990
ME 550 Lecture 1

avoid grain boundaries to achieve high-temperature creep resistance and strength Must avoid nucleation of new grains Avoid cold liquid Cool very slowly, maintain steep 1-D temperature Gradient across mushy zone Baffle keeps top zone hot and bottom cool, and high G

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Grain Defects in Single-Crystal Castings (eg. turbine blades)

High / low angle grain boundary

Secondary grain originated from grain selector


ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Single-crystal defects

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Microstructure of single-crystal Ni superalloy (from turbine blade)


Note: Grain defect: Different angle of primary dendrite arms

Top view
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Side view

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Directional Solidification Research


Vertical zone-melting process -to study directional solidification (dendrite growth, etc.) Also called: floating zone or Bridgeman process

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

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G/R maps to predict solidification structure

consisting of alternating plates of 2 different types


R=
ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Kurz & Fischer Fig. 4.18


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G/R maps to avoid crystal defects

ME 550 Lecture 1

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Freckle Formation - study

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Ma et al

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Freckle Formation map (measured)


CMSX-4 nickel superalloy Tliq = 1375 oC

planar

cellular

Cellular/dendritic

dendritic

20mm x 180mm rod samples


equiaxed

Elements content, wt % Cr Co Mo Al Ti Ta Hf Re Ni 6.5 9.0 0.6 5.6 1.0 6.5 0.1 3.0 matrix

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Single Crystal Growing


Eg. Single crystal growing of Si and GaAs for semi-conductors Zone refining (purification) 1-D directional solidification processes:
Bridgman process Czochralski process

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

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Czochralski process
Solidify onto an existing seed crystal pull very slowly out of melt to avoid:
Dislocations (from thermal stress)

Stabilize melt flow with electromagnetic force; rotating crystal Product: Si or Ga-As semiconductors

Wikipedia, 2012 ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Melt spinning
Inert atmosphere (He or Ar)

Fine powder

plasma

Extremely high cooling rates > 106 oC/s Nonequilibrium conditions and microstrucctures Large undercooling; amorphous metal Product: rapidly quenched powder Also achcieved by: spray atomization

Spinning disk

Purpose: Wide range of unique properties and new alloys: Eg. high-Si dissolved in Fe for transformers Avoids segregation

Squeeze and sinter powder to net shape in furnace under pressure: Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) powder metallurgy
ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

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Strip Casting:
Rapid Solidification of Thin Metal Strip

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Rapid Solidification Processes

From P. Steen, Cornell

Single-wheel melt spinning (strip casting)


Strip thickness variations, microstructure
ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

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Other Rapid Solidification Processes Liquid metal droplet spraying


(eg. OSPREY)

3-D Laser deposition


(like rapid prototyping for metal)

Rheocasting (slush casting) Welding


(soldering, brazing, liquid-metal arc welding, laser welding, etc)

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Semi-solid casting processes


Rheocasting Thixocasting Thixomolding (Mg) Often a raw-material for squeeze casting Expensive Very sound, no macrosegregation

ASM Casting Handbook, 2009

High-quality die-cast parts made from semi-solid


ME 550 Lecture 1

Microstructure of part formed from semi-solid

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

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Continuous Casting Process


Steel

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Steel continuous casting mold

ME 550 Lecture 1

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

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Continuous casting sub-mold

Courtesy Kawasaki Steel


ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Flux Rim copper mold Resolidified Flux Oscillation Mark Contact Resistances Air Gap

Submerged Entry Nozzle Flux Powder Liquid Flux


entrainment nozzle port

Defects in Con. Casting


Surface defects from: - Level fluctuations - Meniscus freezing - Poor flux infiltration Internal defects from: - Inclusions - Flux entrainment Cracks from: - Thermal stress - Bulging, etc. - Metallurgical embrittlement

argon bubbles

jet

Molten Steel Pool

Solidifying Steel Shell

Nozzle Support Roll Water Nozzle Spray Inclusion particles and bubbles

Ferrostatic Pressure Bulging

C L

Roll Roll Contact

Longitudinal Section through Slab Caster


ME 550 Lecture 1
(not to scale)
B.G. Thomas

2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

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Thin slab caster

ME 550 Lecture 1

Courtesy of SMS 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

Continuous Casting of Steel


Physical Water Model and Computer Simulation
5.2 Thin Slab Caster (Armco Mansfield)

R. OMalley (Armco, Inc), D. Creech and B.G. Thomas (Univ. of Illinois) ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

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Choose a casting process for each product.


a) cast iron engine blocks for tractors b) 5 large aluminum ashtrays c) 500,000 aluminum ashtrays d) a gold wedding ring with intricate detail. e) a life-size bronze statue of the President f) a single crystal turbine blade (airfoil) g) many stainless steel sheets for stamping and forming into car mufflers h) 5 steel crank shafts i) 500,000 steel crank shafts j) steel rails (for railroad tracks)
ME 550 Lecture 1 2005 Brian G. Thomas, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, All Rights Reserved.

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