You are on page 1of 64

History of Architecture UNIT 2

Evolution of the Hindu temple


(Development of the Indo-Aryan & Dravidian style)

The Indian temples in general are divided into three categories based on their geographical location and peculiar features: 1. Northern Indian temples branded as Nagara style of Architecture 2. the temples of Deccan belong to the Vesara style 3. the Dravida style found in South India.

North Indian Negara Style

South Indian Dravida Style

Combined Vesara Style

Jagati Jagati is a term used refer to a raised surface, platform or terrace upon which the temple is placed Antarala Antarala is a small antichamber or foyer between the garbhagriha (shrine) and the mandapa, more typical of north Indian temples Mandapa Mandapa ( in Hindi/Sanskrit, also spelled mantapa or mandapam) is a term to refer to Column|pillared outdoor hall or Pavilion (structure)|pavilion for public rituals

Symmetrical architecture on a jagati at Somanathapura

Open mandapa at Amritapura

Nagara architecture
Nagara temples have two distinct features: in the planning and in the elevation. In plan, the temple is a square with a number of graduated projections in the middle of each side giving a cruciform shape with a number of re-entrant angles on each side.

North Indian temples The innermost heart of the temple is the sanctum where the deity (usually of fixed stone) is present, followed by a large hall for lay worshipers to stand in and obtain "darshan" or divine audience. There may or may not be many more surrounding corridors, halls etc. However there will be space for devotees to go around the temple in clock wise fashion circumambulation as a mark of respect. In North Indian temples, the tallest towers are built over the sanctum sanctorum. The plan of a typical North Indian temple. South Indian temples are more complex, and are usually surrounded by a number of concentric walls each with a number of elaborate gateways (gopurams).

North Indian Temple Structure - Nagara Style

In the North Indian style, the shrine is a square at the centre, but there are projections on the outside leading to cruciform shape. When there is one projection on each side, it is called triratha, 2 projections - pancharatha, 3 projections - saptharatha, 4 projections - navaratha. These projections occur throughout the height of the structure. This style is found mostly in Orissa, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

triratha in plan.

Lingaraja Temple.

In elevation, a Sikhara, i.e., tower gradually inclines inwards in a convex curve. The projections in the plan are also carried upwards to the top of the Sikhara and, thus, there is strong emphasis on vertical lines in elevation, called Rekha Sikhara.

The temples of Orissa are the ones that can be described as the typical Nagara style. In this style, the structure consists of two buildings, the main shrine taller and an adjoining shorter mandapa. The main difference between the two is the shape of the sikhara. In the main shrine, a bell shaped structure adds to the height. In all Hindu temples, there is the kalasa at the top and the ayudha or emblem of the presiding deity.

Some of the temples of this style are : The Parasurameswara temple at Bhuvaneshwar Brahmesvara temple in Bhuvaneshwar Lingaraja temple Anantha Vasudeva temple Rajarani temple Sun temple at Konarak Jagannath temple at Puri

If a temple is dedicated to the god iva, the figure of the bull Nandi, the gods mount, invariably faces the sanctum, and, if dedicated to the god Vishnu, standards (dhvaja-stambha) may be set up in front of the temple.

Nandi, the sacred bull, is the mount of the god Shiva and represents strength, faith, and constancy in belief.

TEMPLES FOR VAHANAS:

All these three temples -of Siva, Brahma and Vishnu - face the east. Now, there are three smaller temples for their vahanas (vehicles/mounts) too. Each Vahana temple is on the east of the main God's temple and they face the main temple. Thus, there is a Nandi temple which is opposite the Siva temple, a Hansa (swan) temple which is opposite the Brahma temple and a Garuda temple which is opposite of the Vishnu temple. The following siteplan will clarify the locations.

Nagara

Refers to art in the regions of Bengal, Orissa, NE, and NC, Delhi and Gujarat region. Used stone such as Chlorite, sandstone and white marble. Temple emphasis is primarily on vertically; horizontality is suppressed. High base emphasis the vertically of the whole. The porch and congregational halls are called mandapa, which in the South Indian style was clearly separated with the tower over the shrine. Sikhara is the tallest structure, symbolizing the center of the universe; often rose around 24-30 meters (79-98 ft) some reached over 60 m (196 ft). Amalaka is a capstone.

North Indian Styles


Nagara style From Himalayas to the Deccan Shikhara beehive shaped Capotas and gavakas amalaka Shrine is square at center Bell-shaped structure on main shrine

Lingaraja Temple

Jagannath Temple

Rajarani Temple

1 Rekha Deula
Mastaka
Beki Tripati Amalaka shila Khapuri kalasha

Typical Orissan Temple Element 2 Pidha Deula


Mastaka
Beki Ayadha Amalaka shila kalasha

Natya Mandap
Mastaka
Beki Ayadha Amalaka shila kalasha

Bhoga Mandap
Miniature Pidha Deula with out Brushava and having a decorated Entry Gate

Gandi
Bhumi Amalaka Ratha (on plan) Paga (on elevation)

Gandi
Para Ghara Ghanta kalasha Dopicha simhas

1
Bada
Pillered Hall

Bada
Pabhaga (foot), lower Jangha Bandhana (bond), Upper Jangha Baranda

Bada
Triratha/ pancharatha

Other Elements in Temple Complex


Anand Bazar Koili Vaikuntha Ponds Niladri Vihar Snana Bedhi

Pitha
15 Pabhaga (foot), Jangha Baranda

Pitha
Pabhaga (foot), Jangha Baranda

Pitha
Pabhaga (foot), Jangha Baranda

Source: Deheja, V. (1979). Early Stone Temples of Orissa. New Delhi: Vikash Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

Gupta Period

Gupta Empire

Gupta Empire

This period is called the Golden Age of India and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture. Chandra Gupta I, Samudra Gupta the Great, and Chandra Gupta II the Great were the most notable rulers of the Gupta dynasty.

Tigawa Temple, Gupta Period

Tigawa Temple, Gupta Period

Tigawa Temple, Gupta Period

The Dasavatar Temple (late Gupta period, 500's)

The Dasavatar Temple (late Gupta period, 500's)

Vishnu reclining on Shesha

A closer view of the entry-way

The five Pandava brothers, and Draupadi; they stand below the reclining Vishnu

Vishnu reclining, in its setting in Raha Paga

The Gajendra moksha panel

The Nar-Narayan tapasya panel

Above the doorway, at the center of the lintel

Above the doorway, on the left of the lintel-- the goddess Ganga

Above the doorway, on the right of the lintel-- the goddess Yamuna

Chalukyan Period

Ladh Khan Temple, Chalukyan Period

Ladh Khan Temple, Chalukyan Period

1. The temple consists of a shrine (garba griha) with mandapa in front of it. 2. The mukha mandapa is situated in front of the sanctum and consists of a set of 12 carved pillars. 3. The sabha mandapa leads to the maha mandapa and the pillars are arranged to form two concentric squares. 4. The walls have floral patterns on them and the windows have lattice work done in the northern style. 5. Facing the sanctum, a second smaller sanctum is situated above the center of the hall whose outer walls have many carved images.

Ladh Khan Temple, Chalukyan Period

Ladh Khan Temple, Chalukyan Period

Measurement Techniques through threads

A Rectangle in a proportion of 1:2

The proportion of 1:2 in an Ad Quadratum

The proportion of 1:3 in an Ad Triangulum A Rectangle in a proportion of 1:3

Durga Temple, Aihole

Papanatha Temple, Pattadakal (c. 740 AD)

1. Dedicated to Mukteswara according to inscriptions, this modest temple seems to have been completed around 740 A.D. 2. There seems to have been a change of intention during the course of construction of this temple as can be known from its too narrow circumambulatory path whose floor slabs conceal the external moulding of the garbhagriha walls and the buttress like projections of the north and south garbhagriha-walls into the ardha-mandapa, both of which are unusual features.

Papanatha Temple, Pattadakal (c. 740 AD)

3. Facing the east, this temple has on plan a sanctum (garbhagriha) surrounded by a circumambulatory path (pradakshinapatha) with devakoshtha pavilions in its three walls, an ardha-mandpa, a sabha-mandapa and an entrance porch (mukhamandapa) provided with kakshasana. Curiously, there is no Nandi-mandapa but an ornate image of Nandi is housed in the eastern half of the sabha-mandapa. 4. The temple is built on a plinth of five mouldings, embellished with animal motifs, floral designs and kudus. The wall surfaces are relieved with niches (devakoshthas) housing Saiva and Vaishnava deities and depicting episodes from the Ramayana. 5. These niches are topped by various designs of chaitya-arch motifs and interspersed with perforated windows. The three devakoshtha pavilions house images of Siva in different forms. A characteristic feature of the temple is its well-developed rekha-nagara (northern) sikhara with an elaborately carved Chaitya-arch enshrining Nataraja on the frontage of the sukanasa. The amalaka and kalasa are, however, missing. 6. Introduction of narrative panels depicting the episodes from the Ramayana on the outer wall surfaces is another noteworthy feature of the temple.

Papanatha Temple, Pattadakal (c. 740 AD)

Papanatha Temple, Pattadakal (c. 740 AD)

Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal (c. 740 AD) 1. The twin Virupaksha and Mallikarjuna temples represent the pinnacle of Chalukya temple architecture. Based on the Kailasanatha Temple in Kanchipuram, the two temples were built by Rani Trilokyamahadevi to commemorate the victory of her husband, King Vikramaditya II, over the Pallava rulers of Tamilnadu. 2. Now the Virupaksha Temple is the only functioning shrine in the sprawling temple complex. 3. Both these identical temples feature exquisitely carved pillars and ceilings decorated with a profusion of friezes from the epics. 4. The Virupaksha temple was influenced by the architecture of the Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram. 5. The Virupaksha temple later served as a model for the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna I (757 783 A.D.) to carve out the great Kailasa at Ellora.

6. The Virupaksha is a large complex consisting of a tall vimana with axial mandapas and peripheral sub-shrines round the court, enclosed by a wall with gopura-entrances in front and behind, all designed and completed at one time. 7. There is an antarala at Virupaksha Temple with two small shrines dedicated to Ganesha and Mahishamardini facing each other. 8. A sabha-mandapa with entrance porches on the east, north and south and a separate Nandimandapa in front is commendably beautiful. The complex is enclosed by high prakara walls. 9. Against the inner faces of these walls there were small shrines (originally 32) dedicated to the subsidiary deities (parivaradevatas) of which only a few are extant now. The enclosure has been provided with ornate entrance gates (pratolis) on both east and west. 10. The interior of Virupaksha temple is embellished with elegant carvings and aesthetically modeled sculptures. 11. Episodes from the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavata and Kiratarjuniya are depicted on the pillars of the sabha- mandapa.

Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal (c. 740 AD)

Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal (c. 740 AD)

Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal (c. 740 AD)

Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal (c. 740 AD)

Virupaksha Temple, Pattadakal (c. 740 AD)

Kasivisweshwara Temple in front of Mallikarjuna Temple, Pattadakal, mid 8th century AD

Jaina Temple, Pattadakal, c. 9th century AD

Chandrashekhara Temple, Pattadakal, (c. 750 AD)

Galaganatha Temple, Pattadakal, (c. 750 AD)

Galaganatha Temple, Pattadakal, (c. 750 AD)

Thank You
Presented By

Partha Sarathi Mishra


Asst. Prof. Lovely Professional University B Arch (ABIT-PMCA) M Arch (IIT Roorkee) email:- partha.16897@gmail.com