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History of Architecture UNIT 3

Dravidian Style Temples


(Dravidian style-Rock cut architecture of Pallavas and Pandya)

DRAVIDIAN ARCHITECTURE
DRAVIDIAN STYLE

PALLAVA STYLE CHOLA STYLE

PANDYA STYLE

MADURA STYLE

VIJAYNAGAR STYLE

Masonry temples Shore temple at Mahabalipuram Introduction 1. The Shore Temple is a five-storeyed structural Hindu temple rather than rock-cut as are the other monuments at the site. 2. It is the earliest important structural temple in Southern India. 3. Its pyramidal structure is 60 ft high and sits on a 50 ft square platform. 4. There is a small temple in front which was the original porch. 5. It is made out of finely cut local granite. 6. The shore temple is also one of the most popular temples. 7. Recent excavations have revealed new structures here under the sand. Shrines 1. The temple is a combination of three shrines. 2. The main shrine is dedicated to Shiva as is the smaller second shrine. A small third shrine, between the two, is dedicated to a reclining Vishnu. 3. The two Shiva shrines are orthogonal in configuration. 4. The entrance is through a transverse barrel vault gopuram. 5. The two shikharas have a pyramidal outline, each individual tier is distinct with overhanging eaves that cast dark shadows. 6. The outer wall of the shrine to Vishnu and the inner side of the boundary wall are extensively sculptured and topped by large sculptures of Nandi. 7. The temple's outer walls are divided by plasters into bays, the lower part being carved into a series of roaring lions.

Masonry temples Shore temple at Mahabalipuram

Deities 1. The temple has a garbhagriha in which the deity, Sivalinga, is enshrined, and a small mandapa surrounded by a heavy outer wall with little space between for circumambulation. 2. At the rear are two shrines facing opposite directions. 3. The inner shrine dedicated to Ksatriyasimnesvara is reached through a passage while the other, dedicated to Vishnu, faces the outside. 4. The Durga is seated on her lion vahana. Significance 1. The Shore Temples configuration of the two Shiva shrines with the small Vishnu shrine in between illustrates an attempt to balance the different, competing religious requirements. Devastation 1. The temple was not destroyed during the 2004 Tsunami in the Indian Ocean, the tsunami struck the temple at 5 am but it was not devastated badly and the water came to its normal level after a few minutes. Now, recently the inscribed patterns on the walls are getting destroyed due to the air which blows there has a little amount of salt content.

Masonry temples Shore temple at Mahabalipuram

Shore temple at Mahabalipuram

Shore temple at Mahabalipuram

Shore temple at Mahabalipuram

Shore temple at Mahabalipuram

Shore temple at Mahabalipuram

Shore temple at Mahabalipuram

Kailasanathar temple at Kanchipuram


1. Kailasanathar Temple Kanchipuram is one of the ancient temples of Tamil Nadu. 2. Built by Rajasimha and his son Mahendra in 7th century, this temple site is dedicated to Lord Shiva. 3. The only temple that does not contain any signature art of Cholas or by Vijaynagar rulers. 4. This temple of Kanchipuram represents typical Dravidian style of architecture. 5. Kailasanathar Temple consists of large number of small shrines inside the temple dedicated to Shiva, Parvati and their sons. 6. There are total of 58 shrines situated around the main shrine. Inner walls of temple are adorns with fresco-style of painting. 7. A unique example of Dravidian style of architecture this temple is constructed mostly by sandstone. 8. Fragments of 8th century's mural art are still visible reminder of temple's architecture. 9. The walls and the vimaanam of this temple are filled with great art works in form of paintings and sculptures. 10. Perhaps the most beautiful temple in Kanchipuram, this temple is regarded more as an architectural wonder rather than as a holy place. 11. Kanchipuram's Kailasanathar Temple can be described as the successor of the rock temples at Mahabalipuram. 12. The bases of the pillars in Mahabalipuram temples have seated lions while the Kailasanathar temple has confident grimacing lions standing on their hind legs.

Kailasanathar temple at Kanchipuram

Kailasanathar temple at Kanchipuram

Kailasanathar temple at Kanchipuram

Kailasanathar temple at Kanchipuram

Kailasanathar temple at Kanchipuram

Kailasanathar temple at Kanchipuram

Brihadeeswara temple at Tanjore


1. Most of the people who worked for the constructions of the great monuments like Tajmahal and Red Fort are the prisoners in the jail only. But the Brihadeeswara temple in Tanjavur / Tanjore is an exception because; most of the people who helped for the construction of the temple are the Indians only that to the devotees who came voluntarily. 2. The raja of Chola, had made a statement and order that the names of the people those who helped in the construction of the temple are to be carved on the stones. 3. The names of those people can be seen on the carvings. People used to believe that the temple is been constructed hundred years back during the reign of Kariakla Chola. But one of the researchers had made a statement that the temple is constructed during the times of Raja Raja Chola. 4. The Cholas used to be the powerful kings during the tenth and the eleventh centuries. The devotional god for them is the Lord Shiva. 5. The Raja Raja Chola had expanded his kingdom starting from Tanjore in 985 AD to 1012. He ruled Kerala to Madurai besides Tanjore in the south of Kerala. 6. The result of this is the income is increased a lot. Then only he decided to establish one of the famous constructions in the Tanjore and that idea paved the way for the wonderful construction of the Bruhadeeswara temple. 7. The construction of the temple started in 1004 AD and completed on 1010.

Brihadeeswara temple at Tanjore


How Brihadeeswara temple constructed? 1. The length of the temple is 793 feet and the width is 393 feet and the height of the Gopuram (temple steeple) is 216 feet. 2. The whole construction of the temple is done by using the bricks and no cement, sand is been used in the construction. 3. The temple is a 13 storied building which looks very beautiful and attractive from the outside. For the shikhara (temple steeple) which is located at the top is been constructed with 80 tons of a single stone. 4. The total area of the gopuram (temple steeple) is 25.5 square feet. 5. A special bridge is been constructed from 7 Km away from the temple to place the stone at the top of the temple. 6. The sikharam (temple peak) appears as two parts and sections or the divisions from the far. 7. There are no forests or anything else in the surrounding of the temple. 8. It is also estimated that the temple is been constructed by carrying the stones which are far away from the temple which his around 150 km away from the temple.

Brihadeeswara temple at Tanjore


9. The historians say that the secret behind the construction of the temple is to make his name and fame to be known to all the people during the reign of Chola king. 10. Another specialty of the temple is the construction which is made by the carvings on the temple made it famous and looks beautiful. 11. The beauty of the construction of the temple is not only seen in the outside carvings but is seen inside the temple too. 12. The lord Shiva inside the temple is been made with a single stone of 13 feet height. 13. There is a belief that the lingam is been brought from the Narmada river shore. 14. There are steps on both the sides of the temple to worship the lord. 15. The gomukha panapattam is been constructed by using a stone which is 500 tons weight. 16. The inside of the temple is divided into two parts and most of the temple inside is of the carvings that are made of the dancers carvings during the times of the Nayaka times. 17. There are also the carvings of the raja chola who along with his three queens worshipping the lord Nataraj is been carved on the temple carvings. 18. To know the customs and traditions during the Chola times can be known by these carvings and sculptures.

Brihadeeswara temple at Tanjore

Brihadeeswara temple at Tanjore

Brihadeeswara temple at Tanjore

Brihadeeswara temple at Tanjore

Brihadeeswara temple at Tanjore

Brihadeeswara temple at Tanjore

Pandyan style Meenakshi Amman temple, Madurai

1. The Meenakshi temple complex at Madurai is a city temple. 2. It has eminent and exquisitely carved towers enveloping the temple, dedicated to Goddess Meenakashi in Madurai. 3. Considered as the south gateway, the Meenakshi temple consists of the twin temples of God Shiva and Goddess Meenakshi, each one as high as about nine storeys. 4. The exact time of temple's origin is not confirmed but the structures that are standing today date mostly from the 12th to the 18th century. The present temple standing today was built in the 17th century A.D. by Nayak rulers. 5. The temple is superb example of sculpture and magnificent architecture.

Special Features of the Temple The Temple Towers or The Gopurams


1. The temple has 12 temple towers also known as the Gopurams. 2. The outer towers of the temple work as landmarks of Madurai.

Gopura
1. The Gopuras or the Pyramidal gates have an enormous height of more than 50m. 2. The entrance to the temple complex is indicated by towering gateways at the four cardinal points, while lesser gopuras lead to the sanctums of the main deities.

Stucco Work
1. After every 12 years, the figures of deities on the tower are reconditioned, repainted and ritually reconsecrated.

Ashta Shakthi Mandapam


1. To enter the temple through the eastern gateway, one has to first enter the Asta Shakti Mandapam (Hall). 2. Built by Thirumalai Nayakar's wives Rudrapathi Ammal and Tholimamai. Next to this hall is the Meenakshi Nayaka Mandapa, a spacious columned hall used for shops and stores. 3. This hall has a dedicated lamp-holder with 1,008 lamps, which are lit and decorated on festive occasions. The sculptures on the pillars tell us about some of the miracles of Lord Shiva and also the story of Meenakshi's birth and her life as the princess of Madurai.

The Temple Towers or The Gopurams

Gopura

Stucco painting

Stucco painting

Stucco Painting

Ashta Shakthi Mandapam

Meenakshi Nayakkar Mandapam


1. Adjacent to the Ashta Shakthi Mandapam, this big hall consists of 110 pillars carrying the figures of a queer animal with a lion's body and an elephant's head called Yalli.

Potramaraikulam (Golden Lotus Tank)


1. The Potramaraikulam temple tank is an ancient tank where devotees take bath in the holy water. 2. It is believed that the area around this tank was the meeting place of the TamilSangam - the ancient academy of poets. 3. The tank is encircled by a pillared corridor. 4. There are steps that lead down to the tank, enabling worshippers to take bathe in it.

Oonjal Mandapam
1. The Oonjal (swing) Mandapam and Killikoontu (parrot cage) Mandapam are situated on the western side of the tank. 2. The golden idols of Meenakshi and Sundareswarar are seated on the swing in the Oonjal Madapam every Friday and hymns are sung as the deities swing to and fro. 3. There many parrots in the Kilikoontu Mandapam who have been trained to repeat Goddess Meenakshi's name. 4. The 28 pillars of the Mandapam are the most interesting parts, exhibiting some excellent Sculptures of figures from Hindu mythology.

Meenakshi Nayakkar Mandapam

Meenakshi Nayakkar Mandapam

Meenakshi Nayakkar Mandapam

Potramaraikulam (Golden Lotus Tank)

Oonjal Mandapam

Oonjal Mandapam

Oonjal Mandapam

Sculptures

Ceiling of Meenakshi Amman temple, Madurai

Thank You
Presented By

Partha Sarathi Mishra


Asst. Prof. Lovely Professional University B Arch (ABIT-PMCA) M Arch (IIT Roorkee) email:- partha.16897@gmail.com