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History of Architecture UNIT 7

Imperial styles(Slave Dynasty ,Khalji Dynasty)

IMPERIAL STYLE

The Delhi or the Imperial Style of Indo-Islamic architecture


flourished between 1191-1557 AD and covered Muslim dynasties viz., Slave Dynasty(1191-1246), Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320), Tughlaq Dynasty(1320-1413) Sayyid Dynasty(1414-1444) and Lodi Dynasty(1451-1557) The first Islamic sultanate structures were built of disparate dismantled pieces of Hindu temples, after which came an era of carefully planned structures and precincts, later assimilating and incorporating Hindu elements and workmanship.

ARCHES MINARS TOMBS MOSQUES

It was the first dynasty of sultanate period. It was founded by qutub ud-din-aibak. Qutub-ud-din also started built qutub minar in 1193 ad. He made qutab complex.

Qutub Minar

SLAVE DYNASTY
The construction work of this period was began by Qutubuddin Aibak, who
started erecting monumental buildings of stone on qila rai pithora Qutubuddin aibak got a series of arches constructed to screen the Hindu pillars of the sanctuary.

Shamsuddin Iltutmish (1211-1236 ad) was another great building monarch of the slave dynasty. He extended the Quwwat-ul-islam Masjid (1229 ad) and built the tomb of his son Nasiruddin Mohammed in 1231 ad, which is locally known as the sultan ghari. He also started his own tomb (Iltutmish's tomb) located in the Qutub Minar complex in 1235 AD. This tomb employed the Squinch" system of construction in which a square hall is converted into an octagon by projecting a small arch across the angle of the square hall.

MAMLUK OR THE SLAVE DYNASTY (1205-1290)

Quwwat-ul-Islam (Power of Islam) Qutb-ud-din, the first Sultan of India built the oldest mosque in India, the Quwwat-ul-Islam (Power of Islam) and its lofty minaret in 1193. The first Muslim construction in India made use of the materials taken from destroyed Hindu temples. The columns from the temples were used for walls and a small cupola was built where the walls met. The prayer hall was given faade with five pointed arches and decorated with bands of Koranic script.

One of the earliest mosques in the Subcontinent, built by Qutb-ud-din; the iron pillar in the foreground is from the Gupta Dynasty Period

QUTUB COMPLEX
The Qutab complex, is an array of monuments and buildings at Mehrauli in Delhi, India. This complex was first constructed by Qutab-ud-din Aibak, the first ruler of the Slave Dynasty, and his successor Iltutmish (aka Altmash) in his new city called the Qila-Rai-Pithora near Prithivraj Chauhan's older city. The important monuments situated in this complex are:1 Alai Gate. 2 Qutub Minar. 3 Alai Minar. 4 Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque. 5 Iron pillar. 6 Tomb of Iltutmish.

QUTUB COMPLEX

QUTUB COMPLEX
THIS COMPLEX INCLUDES1 Alai Gate 2 Tomb of Iltutmish 3 Iron Pillar 4 Qutb Minar 5 Alai Gate 6 Tomb of Imanzam 7 Gateway 8) Alai Minar 9) Gateway 10) Major Smith Cupola 11) Chaumukha Gate

QUTB MOSQUE QUWWAT UL ISLAM POWER OF ISLAM

PLAN OF THE QUTB COMPLEX,DELHI,INCLUDING EXTENSIONS CARRIED OUT BY ALA-UD-DIN KHALJI

EXTENSIONS OF THE QUTB

VIEW OF THE COMPLEX

QUTUB MINAR(1192-1230)
The Qutub Minar, built to commemorate the entry of Islam, was essentially a victory tower, decorated with several inscriptions. The diameter of the Qutub Minar is 14.32m at the base and about 2.75m at the top. It measures a height of 72.5m and contains a spiral staircase of 379 steps. interestingly, the Minar is 5 ft shorter than the Taj Mahal (243 ft).

The Qutub Minar, a 234-ft towerthe tallest stone tower in India and the worlds tallest brick minaret. The first Muslim sultan Qutub-ud-din Aibak of Delhi started construction of the tower in 1193, but he only completed the base. The next three stories were added by his son-in-law and successor, Iltutmish, and the final or 5th story was added by Firuz Shah Tughluq. The fluted, red sandstone tower is covered with intricate carvings, some of which are verses from the Koran. It is considered to be a fine example of Indo-Islamic architecture and is on UNESCOs list of World Heritage Sites.

The lowest storey of the Minar has alternate angular and circular flutings. The second storey has round flutings and the third storey angular, keeping through-out the same alignment, giving a pleasing vertical look to the structure The variegated plan of the Minar's three lower storey's, the projecting balconies with stalactite pendentive brackets, and ornate bands of inscriptions on its facades add to its architectural splendor

Decorative inscriptional bands define each storey with its undulating curves.

QUTB MINAR

LANDSCAPING AND RELATION OF THE MINAR WITH THE SURROUNDING

THE SHADOWS OF THE QUTB

PENDENTIVES SUPPORTING THE BALCINIES OF THE MINOR,QUTB COMPLEX

The minaret which originally had three floors was made with sandstone of different colors. Two more floors were later added by Iltutmish. The lowest story has 24 flutings, alternately round and angular, the second has round flutings only and the third only angular. Other floor has same circular plan

VIEW OF QUTUB MINAR FROM NORTH.

PLAN OF QUTB MINAR

QUWWAT UL-ISLAM MOSQUE


Built by Qutub-ud-Din Aibak founder of the Mamluk or Slave dynasty - it's the earliest surviving mosque built by the Delhi Sultans. Construction of the Jami Masjid (Friday Mosque) started in A.D. 1193 and was completed in A.D. 1197 According to a Persian inscription on the inner eastern gateway, the mosque was built using parts from twentyseven Hindu and Jain temples, built during the reigns of Tomar and Prithvi Raj Chauhan, demolished by Qutubud-Din Aibak. Later, the mosque was enlarged by Shams-ud- Din Iltutmish (A.D. 121035) and Ala-ud-Din Khalji.

the Quwwat-ul-Islam (Might of Islam) Mosque is located to the north-east of Qutb Minar in the Qutb Complex.

PLAN OF QUWUAT-UL-ISLAM MOSQUE

Sanctuary of the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, built using Jain columns

EXPANSION OF THE QUTUB COMPLEX

ENLARGED PLAN OF QUWUAT-UL-ISLAM MOSQUE BY ILLUTMISH ,AD,1229

The Iron Pillar of Delhi bears an inscription in Sanskrit in Brahmi script of fourth century A.D., according to which the pillar was set up as a Vishnudhvaja (standard of god Vishnu) on the hill known as Vishnupada in memory of a mighty king named Chandra. A deep socket on the top of the ornate capital indicates

Iltutmish also increased the size of the mosque with addition of another courtyard and the mausoleum. The mausoleum with eight pointed arches and geometric patterns showed great Hindu influence The iron pillars in the Qutub complex QuwwatUl-islam mosque was built By Qutb-Ud-din Aykab.
The mosque is ruins today But indigenous corbelled Arches, floral motifs and Geometrical pattern is seem there

Iltutmish erected a massive stone screen of lofty five arches in front of the mosque's prayer-hall which imparted an Islamic character to the building. The screen is beautifully carved with borders of inscriptions and geometrical and arabesque design, but the hand of craftsmen used to Hindu motifs is nonetheless clear in naturalistic curved lines

IN QUTUB Complex Iltutmish also enclosed the Mosque in rectangular courtyard - 43.2m x 32.8m - in pillared cloisters between 1210 and 1220 AD.

QUTB SCREEN

Islamic Architecture

Slave Dynasty

Unit - 3

QUTB MOSQUE HINDU INFLUENCES

Islamic Architecture

Slave Dynasty

Unit - 3

The iron pillar of Delhi stands in the middle of the courtyard. It is a 23 ft 8 in (7.21 M) high and weighs more than 6 tonnes. The pillar's lower diameter is 16.4 in (420 mm), and its upper diameter 12.05 in (306 mm). It is buried 93 cm (36.6 inches) below the present floor level. It is one of the worlds foremost metallurgical curosties. It was erected by chandragupta ii vikramditya. It is the only piece of Jain temple remains. A fence was erected around the Pillar due to the popularity of tradition

THE NO. OF SCREEN ARCHES ARE ALWAYS ODD IN NO.

ARCH IS THE TYPICAL FEATURE OF THE TOMB ARCHITECTURE

ARHAI DIN KA JHOMPRA

Islamic Architecture

Slave Dynasty

Unit - 3

Tomb Of Iltutmish
Built by Shamsu'd-Din Iltutmish himself in 1235, the tomb of Iltutmish lies to the northwest of the Quwwatu'l Islam Mosque of New Delhi Iltutmish abstained from using the material obtained from the demolition of temples. However, the arches and semi-domes of this tomb were built in the indigenous architectural style. Its tomb-chamber has a cenotaph in its centre, internally nearly 9m-sq and faced with red sandstone. The tomb chamber has a red sand stone cenotaph in its centre.

TOMB OF ILTUTMISH

Islamic Architecture

Slave Dynasty

Unit - 3

METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING A HEMISPHERICAL DOME OVER A CUBICAL BASE USED IN TOMB OF ILLUTUMISH

A CUBIC BASE PIERCED BY ARCHED OPENINGS CROWNED WITH A HEMISPHERICAL DOME

DETAIL ACROSS THR RIGHT ANGULAR JUNCTION OF WALL CORNERS,TOMB OF ILTUMISH

SECTION OF THE TOMB OF ILLUTMISH

The interior on the west is occupied by three `Mihrabs` or prayer niches, the central one higher and ornamented with marble, to serve as a place for prayers, while the other sides are pierced by arched entrances. The Tomb of Iltutmish in Delhi is plain on the outside, but is profusely carved on the entrances and in the interior with inscriptions in `Kufi` and `Naskh` characters with geometrical and arabesque patterns in saracenic tradition, although several motifs among its carvings are reminiscent of Hindu decoration. Ferguson described it as " one of the richest examples of Hindu art applied to Muhammadan purposes".

The square base of the tomb structure is transformed into an octagon overhead with ogee squinch arches. These arches are constructed with corbels rather than with true arches. The structure has no dome or other roof. It has been conjectured that the original dome collapsed; it has also been noted that the exterior walls of the tomb are comparatively thin (2.2 meters), and might not have been able to support the outward thrust generated by a dome. HINDU TECHNIQUE OF CONSTRUCTING SHALLOW DOME

HINDU TECHNIQUE OF CONSTRUCTING MUSLIM OGEE ARCH

The entrance and parts of the exterior are laid with quartzite, and the gates are decorated with carvings; however, the real decorative richness of the tomb is found within. Elaborate epigraphy on walls, arabesques, and geometrical designs adorn the western niches and Mihrab. The inscription panels include Kufic, Tughra and Nakshi scripts illustrating chapters of the Quran. Hindu motifs such as lotus flowers and bells on chains are also found in the sandstone carving

The sandstone structure is square, measuring 9.1 meters along each side, with a height of 8.41 m to the base of the (conjectured) dome. It was constructed of new material, not making use of the spolia used in other buildings in the Qutb complex. It has three entrances, on the north, east, and south elevations. The western wall, facing Mecca, houses the mihrab as the central niche of three . The upper chamber, now open to the sky, contains the richly decorated marble cenotaph. Steps on the northern side leading down to the burial chamber below.

It was built for nasiruddin mahmud. It was built by illtumish in 1231. The material used was same as qutub minar. The propably derives from the cave-like burial chamber.

SULTAN GHARI S TOMB,DELHI,AD.1231

IT STANDS ON OCTAGONAL PLATFORM. THE ENTIRE CONST. IS BASED ON INDIGENOUS TRABEATE METHOD.

SULTAN GHARI SULTAN OF THE CAVE

PORTICO OF THE SANCTUARY ALONG THE WESTRN SIDE, SULTAN GHARI TOMB

VIEW OF CORNER TURRETS OF SULTAN GHARI TOMB GIVING IT A F ORT LIKE APPEARANCE

Islamic Architecture

Slave Dynasty

Unit - 3

TOMB OF BALBAN MANIFESTATION OF TRUE ARCH

Islamic Architecture

End of Slave Dynasty

Unit - 3

1293 to 1296 CE: Ala ad-Din Khilji conquers Deccan 1296 CE: Ala ad-Din Khilji is the First muslim ruler to control the whole of India. 1296 to 1308 CE: Several Mongol invasions pushed back by the Khiljis 1310 CE: Poet Amir Khusrow writes Tarikh Ilahi 1320 CE: End of Khilji dynasty

The Khiljis came to power 50 years after Iltutmish. The third ruler of the dynasty, Ala-ud-Din (1296-1316 AD) was one of the ambitious builders of the time The arch. of Khilji dynasty was great composition of creative knowledge along with intelligent supervison. He built Alai Darwaza and want to built Alai Minar ,but it cannot be completed. The most important building of Khilji Dynasty is ALAI DARWAZA. There was a marked development in the buildings during this period with building techniques, ornamentation and the usage of the true arch. Allauddin Khilji established the second city of Delhi at Siri. Some of the other structures built by Khiji was the city wall of Siri, the tomb of Ala-ud-din-Khilji and the "madrasa" which are now in a dilapitated condition"

Khilji Sultans of Delhi (1290-1320) Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji (1290-1296) Ala ud din Khilji (1296-1316) Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah (1316-1320)

It was One of the four grand gateways; the other three could not be completed because of the death of ala-ud-din in AD 1316 .

The Alai Darwaza (Alai Gate), built in 1311, was the southern gateway leading into Sultan Ala-ud-Din's extension of the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque. The historical monument is part of the Qutb Complex in Mehrauli, South New Delhi, India.

ALAI DARWAZA GATEWAY ALAUDIN KHALJI

Islamic Architecture

Khalji Dynasty

Unit - 3

The Alai Darwaaza is moderate in size and consists of a square hall covered by a single dome. The exterior walls made with red stone and white marble gives a pleasing color effect. The main structure consists of a single hall thirtyfour and a half feet inside, fifty-six and a half outside. The domed ceiling rises to the height of 47 feet. The three doorways on the east, west and south are lofty pointed arches of the horse-shoe type which rise above the flanking side bays. The perforated, lattice work window screens are set in the recessed windows on both sides of the entrances. Bold geometric patterings adorn the interior walls and window screens

It is made of red sandstone relieved by white marble and adorned with bands of quranic texts of the formal arabesques. The structure is marked by a perfect symmetry and structural propriety of all its parts. A high plinth adds to its majesty. The exterior walls have lace like decorations.

The Alai Darwaza (Alai Gate), built in 1311. Latticed stone screen and show Cases the remarkable craftsmanship of the Turkish artisans. It is believed to be the first building in India to employ Islamic architecture principles in its construction and ornamentation.

Stone jalli carved in red sand stone Providing light and ventilation Giving a very dynamic look Creating emphasis in the corner

Entrance arch Treated very beautifully Carving in stone Floral and geometrical patterns

It was conceived to 2times higher than Qutub Minar. The construction was abandonded after the competitions of the 24.5m high. The first storey of Ali Minar also stands today..

ALAI DARWAZA GATEWAY ALAUDIN KHALJI

ALAI MINAR

Islamic Architecture

Khalji Dynasty

Unit-3

JAMAAT KHANA ALAUDDIN KHALJI

HAUS KHAS CITY PLANNING ALAUDDIN KHALJI

it was started in 1321 in delhi. the tughlaqs were a family of turkic family. after feroz died in1388, then tughlaq dynasty started to fade out. this dynasty was almost over within 10 years. tughlaq architecture is not restricted to delhi.

The Tughlaqs (A.D. 1320-1412)

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq founded the third dynasty of the Sultanate period. He was an experienced warrior, statesman and an able administrator. He liberalized various harsh measures imposed by Alauddin Khalji and restored peace and order in the kingdom. He built the fortified city of Tughalaqbad in Delhi. Muhammad Tughlaq was a great scholar and was well versed in various branches of learning. Mohammed Tughlaq the son and successor of Ghiyas-ud-Din also played an important role in the development of architectures during Tughlaq dynasty. His major contributions were the fourth city of Delhi, fortified walls named Jahan-Pannah or the World Refuge, a double storied bridge of seven spans named Sath Pul, Bijai Mandal, the presumably part of a "Palace of a Thousand Columns," and several other buildings. the city was deserted and desolate during the year 1340 due to the unpredictable policy of Muhammad Tughlaq to change the capital from Delhi to the city of Daulatabad.

A Hadith in Tughra, a calligraphic style very popular with the Ottoman Turks

The Tughlaqs (A.D. 1320-1412) After Muhammad Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq came to the throne. He adopted appeasement policies to gain support of the nobles, the army and the ulema. To please orthodox Muslims he imposed jizyah on Brahmans also and made it a separate tax. He also granted lands to the ulema and made iqtas hereditary. The one remarkable feature of his reign was his interest in public works. He founded new cities like Hissar, Ferozpur, Jaunpur and Firuzabad. He also constructed dams, canals, sarais, mosques and madarsas and laid about 1200 state managed fruit gardens. He covered his creations with plastic ornamentation in a rich and varied order. The appearance of the building art represented the suppression of the indigenous impulse. His major creations were, Ferozshah Kotla, the fifth city of Delhi, three other fortress cities named as Jaunpur, Fathabad, and Hissar, Khirki Masjid and the Begum-puri mosque at Jahanpanah, Kali Masjid, another mosque in the Dargah of Shah Alam at Timurpuri and the Kalan Masjid at Shahjahanabad.

A Hadith in Tughra, a calligraphic style very popular with the Ottoman Turks

Walls were steeply inclined. Towers and bastions were tapered . Cornices were surrounded by crenellated parapets. Exuberant ornamentation could be seen in their monuments. Mainly it was done with polychrome techniques through alternating slabs in different colours of stone; later paint and colour-wash. Important buildings were decorated with carved and moulded stucco. The walls were made up of sun-dried bricks. The huge outer walls had sloping, extended to the large area of the southern Delhi ridge. Semi-circular bastions with eyelets were present at regular intervals to look down at the enemies

his formidable-looking fort was the third iteration of the city of Delhi, Tughlaqabad. It was built in 1321 by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (or Ghiyath ul-Din) and was complete with palaces, mosques and other structures. it was abandoned soon after the death of its builder a few years later, probably due to the lack of water in the area, despite a local legend that claims the Saint Nizamuddin Auliya had cursed it in a quarrel with Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. Although the walls are very well preserved, the interior structures lie in ruins and are overgrown with vegetation. The architecture of the Tughlaqabad city was based on Roman fashion and was divided into two parts, one part consisted of the fortress corresponding to the castle of the Occident and the other part was the city, which extended out for the residential and military requirements of the times.

Construction of Tughlaqabad was a mere effort of Ghiyas al-Din. This city was located about 8 km to the east of Lalkot. Bastions were built to impede the use of ladders during attacks being convex in form. Wall used to carry lancet windows for the archers. Ramps for the passage elephants were provided one southern side. A moat surrounds the citadel that dominates the whole tughlaqabad. The great Maghrebian voyager Ibn Battuta left a description of the site, Here were the treasures ,and the great palace that he, Ghiyas al-Din, built in golden bricks so that when the sun rose it shone brilliantly that no one succeeded in keeping his eye upon it. It consists of its spear-head "fringe" however; the horse-shoe shape tomb has been customized into one of a more "Tudor" outline with a slight decorative double curve at the crown. The typical style of combining of the arch and the beam in the tomb was used for the first time in the architecture during the Tughlaq dynasty.

The southern side of the city was protected by an artificial lake with water held by fortified dam.

City consists of high inner fort and a low outer fort.

GHIYAS UD DIN TUGHLAQ

TUGHLAQABAD

TOMB OF Ghiyas ud din Tughlaq


Islamic Architecture Tughlaq Dynasty Unit - 3

Tughlaqabad Fort

Ruins inside the citadel

Former palace or Mosque

Tughlaqabad seen from the outside

SOME WORKS OF TUGLAQS

The buildings are now in ruins and all that remains well-preserved today is his own tomb, a magnificent structure, standing within a separate fortified compound. The tomb itself looks like a fortress with its thick, sloping walls surmounted by crenellations. The compound it is placed within has arcaded walls with fortress-like parapets.

Built between 1323 and 1325, this building stands inside a very small fortress, on the artificial lake, now dry. Situated diagonally in the widest part of court. It is a severe building in red sandstone, with the dome and some decorative parts in white. Outer walls are inclined at 75 Degrees and sides of the base Are about 20m long and 28m high. A the centre of each side apart from west, closed to hold the mihrab is a high, arched door, slightly pointed at the top with a spear head fringe frieze. The tomb is based roughly on a pentagon in plan.

A border of white marble runs at the level of the arched niches framed by rectangles. Dome is supported by four pendentives, surmounted by the hindu motif of kalasha and amalaka.Was built to commemorate guardian of the frontier which is the resolute spirit.

The tomb is based roughly on a pentagon in plan and its entrance is guarded by massive portalst . The mausoleum itself is very simple, very much the warrior's tomb. Simple with the same sloping red sandstone walls which are Tughlaq hallmarks. Each wall has arched gateways excellent views of both Tughlaqabad decorated with the inevitable, but beautiful, latticework and white marble. and Adilabad Forts. The dome is entirely of white marble and is quite striking indeed. This rather severe tomb does allow itself a few inscribed panels, arch borders, latticework screens and 'lotus-bud' edges which decorate it.
The top of the enclosed walls offers

This heavy canopy was built by muhammad bin tughlaq,in the honour of his father. Before the disastrous transfer of capital from delhi toDaulatabad he built the city of jahan-panah.At its centre he built a royal palace known as bijay mandal. A two-storey building with a Beautifully carved wooden ceiling and painted columns. The bijay mandal rises on a platform Reached by means of an elaborate domed gate on its n.Side. Surviving ruins show a long hall with a ribbed vault and a low octagonal pavilion on the west. Excavations revealed the base of wooden pillars.

Bijay Mandal
This canopy was built by muhammad bin tughlaq in the honour of his father. A two-storey building with a Beautifully carved wooden ceiling and painted columns.

Built by Firuz Shah , this fortress Rested on high hills, It was solidly fortified landwards with high walls from which the bastions protruded. From the side of yamuna river ,it was protected with banks. Opposite the gate was a huge garden surrounded by pillared verandah forming Diwan-I amm and behind this diwan- I khas. Along the bank used to be the private palaces, the mosques and the harems of the royal court. Various divisions of the courts could be seen with tree lined gardens with water, baths, fountains, barracks and armouries.

FEROZ SHAH TUGHLAQ

FEROZ SHAH KOTLA

Islamic Architecture

Tughlaq Dynasty

Unit - 3

FEROZ SHAH TUGHLAQ

FEROZ SHAH KOTLA

Islamic Architecture

Tughlaq Dynasty

Unit - 3

FEROZ SHAH TUGHLAQ

FEROZ SHAH KOTLA


Islamic Architecture Tughlaq Dynasty Unit - 3

FEROZ SHAH TUGHLAQ

BEGAMPURI MOSQUE-FIRUZ SHAH

SURAJ KUND FIRUZ SHAH

Islamic Architecture

Tughlaq Dynasty

Unit - 3

Firuz Shah Tughlaq Tomb

Northwest view. West side contiguous with a wing of the madrasa

South faade. Entrance and front court emphasized by low stone railing

Looking west from front court of tomb at the madrasa wing

His tomb is in the middle of a madrasa he commissioned, overlooking a tank of water known as Hauz Khas. The simple 15 foot square structure is built of ashlar walls finished with lime plaster with arched entrances and merlons along the parapet. Internally the tomb measures 29 feet (8.74 meters) and is paved with gray stone slabs. The intrados and ceiling of the dome are embellished with colored bands that intersect each other. The squinches are decorated with plasterwork including incised calligraphy. The designs have been incised and gorgeously painted in dark red, green and turquoise. The medallions, Quranic verses, and floral designs combine to describe paradise. The tomb contains four unmarked graves; three are made of marble and the fourth, near the east door, is of rubble and plaster. The central grave is that of Firuz Khan. It measures nine by six feet and over two feet in height (three by one and a half meters and over half a meter in height).

Looking east from front court of tomb at chattris (domed structures) housing tombs of saints and religious teacher

East faade

Khirki Masjid

Khirki Masjid is immense and is a great example of Islamic architecture while showcasing the immense architectural development during Tughlaq dynasty. Built on an elevated plinth with detritus stone, which were thickly plastered, the Khirki mosque is double storeyed and has a series of basement cells in the lower storey. All the four corners of the structure are occupied by imposing bastions making the mosque look like a fort It is closed on top which makes it unique and different from others. It is a small quadrangle-shaped mosque and is covered entirely by a roof, which is an unusual thing for building of mosques. The presence of several domes on the roof along with the wonderful latticework or jali on the windows represents the typical Islamic style of architecture

The covered court of the khirki masjid

KHIRKI MASJID

FEROZ SHAH TUGHLAQ

Khirki Masjid, Delhi (India) The immense Khirki Masjid with its monumental entrance was Firuz Shah's greatest architectural achievement. The small rectangular mosque has a prayer courtyard that is surrounded by a two-storied cloister that has magnificent arches surmounted by a roof with small, hemispherical domes. Arched windows on the second storey have intricate jali patterns.
Islamic Architecture Tughlaq Dynasty Unit - 3

The main feature of the mosque is its distinctive window opening with jalis or tracery known as khirki or latticed windows. Placed on the upper level of the mosque's exterior wall, these jalis were preponderantly carved stone shields. The courtyard has pillars and is divided into 25 squares with five on each side. Each square is further divided into nine smaller squares. A cluster of nine small low domes made in the Tughlaq pattern covers the following larger squares - the center square of the courtyard with two on the corners, three on each side and one in the middle. Khirki Mosque or the Window Mosque with Kalan Masjid is one among the only two examples of closed mosques in northern India

The four diagonal squares are left uncovered, through which sunlight found its way to the inner sanctum of the mosque. The remaining squares are covered with flat roofs, thus making the mosque partly covered and partly uncovered. It is said that since Khan-I-Jahan used the mosque for his private worship, it was designed like this to beat the intense heat of the region

The Masjid has an entrance on all three sides, except on the western side. It has a pillared courtyard, which is divided in to 25 neatly designed squares which can accommodate nine squares within them. The four squares on the diagonals are left open to let in the much needed air and light. Glancing from the out side, the Masjid gives an impression of a moat or a fort with a moat located in its inside. Khirki Masjid is highly enriched with architectural designs of both Mughal and Lodi periods. It is considered as one of the forerunner of later-day magnificent Islamic structures of India. However, its pillars and brackets show local Hindu influence. Khirki Masjid is built with rubble masonry enclosed on the exterior with plaster has an imposing steps leading up to it.

FEROZ SHAH TUGHLAQ

KALAN MASJID

Islamic Architecture

Tughlaq Dynasty

Unit - 3

The Indo-Islamic style of architecture was the amalgamation of Islamic architecture as well as Hindu style of architecture. Structures were colossal. Lattice work was done with sheer finesse. Marbles and stones were widely used. Grandeur of these ornamentation reflects the development of architecture during Tughlaq dynasty and whispers the saga of the glorious Islamic architecture in India

Thank You
Presented By

Partha Sarathi Mishra


Asst. Prof. Lovely Professional University B Arch (ABIT-PMCA) M Arch (IIT Roorkee) email:- partha.16897@gmail.com