You are on page 1of 392

This edition published 2010 by

John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd


42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064

Typeset in 10.5/12.5pt Times

John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2010

The moral rights of the contributors have been asserted.

ISBN: 978 1 74216 051 1

Reproduction and communication for educational purposes
The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum
of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this work, whichever is the
greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational
institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational
institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration
notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act.
For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact:
info@copyright.com.au

Reproduction and communication for other purposes
Except as permitted under the Act (for example, a fair dealing
for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review), no part
of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without
prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the
publisher at the address above.

Illustrated by Aptara and the Wiley Art Studio

Typeset in India by
Aptara

Printed in Singapore by
Markono Print Media Pte Ltd
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

The publishers would like to thank the following contributors:
Ross Allen Dina Antoniou Gil Brown
Jacinta Deylen Elena Iampolsky Peter Matassa
Carolyn Mews Vinod Narayan David Phillips
Sonja Sambulic

Table of contents
About eBookPlus v
Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex 1
Exercise 1A A review of set notation 1
Exercise 1B Subsets of the set of real numbers 2
Exercise 1C Properties of surds 3
Exercise 1D The set of complex numbers 10
Exercise 1E Multiplication and division of complex
numbers 11
Exercise 1F Representing complex numbers on an
Argand diagram 14
Exercise 1G Factorising quadratic expressions
and solving quadratic equations over the complex
number field 16
Chapter review 19
Short answer 19
Multiple choice 24
Extended response 25
Chapter 2 Transformations 28
Exercise 2A Translations of points and graphs 28
Exercise 2B Reflections of points and graphs 30
Exercise 2C Dilations from axes 32
Exercise 2D The ellipse and the hyperbola 34
Exercise 2E Successive transformations 37
Chapter review 41
Short answer 41
Multiple choice 46
Extended response 48
Chapter 3 Relations and functions 49
Exercise 3A Relations 49
Exercise 3B Functions 51
Exercise 3C Inverse functions 52
Chapter review 56
Short answer 56
Multiple choice 58
Extended response 59
Exam practice 1 60
Short answer 60
Multiple choice 61
Extended response 61
Chapter 4 Algebra 62
Exercise 4A Review of index laws 62
Exercise 4B Standard form and significant figures 63
Exercise 4C Transposition 64
Exercise 4D Solving linear equations and simultaneous
equations 67
Exercise 4E Applications 74
Exercise 4F Algebraic fractions 78
Exercise 4G Linear literal equations 80
Chapter review 82
Short answer 82
Multiple choice 84
Extended response 86
Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their
applications 88
Exercise 5A Trigonometry of right-angled
triangles 88
Exercise 5B Elevation, depression and bearings 94
Exercise 5C The sine rule 99
Exercise 5D The cosine rule 105
Exercise 5E Area of triangles 109
Exercise 5F Trigonometric identities 114
Exercise 5G Radian measurement 114
Exercise 5H Arcs, sectors and segments 116
Chapter review 120
Short answer 120
Multiple choice 121
Extended response 122
Chapter 6 Sequences and series 126
Exercise 6A Describing sequences 126
Exercise 6B Arithmetic sequences 130
Exercise 6C Arithmetic series 134
Exercise 6D Geometric sequences 137
Exercise 6E Geometric series 142
Exercise 6F Applications of sequences and series 148
Chapter review 152
Short answer 152
Multiple choice 153
Extended response 154
Chapter 7 Variation 157
Exercise 7A Direct variation 157
Exercise 7B Further direct variation 160
Exercise 7C Inverse variation 164
Exercise 7D Further inverse variation 169
Exercise 7E Joint variation 172
Exercise 7F Part variation 174
Exercise 7G Transformation of data 177
Chapter review 178
Short answer 178
Multiple choice 179
Extended response 181
Exam practice 2 184
Short answer 184
Multiple choice 184
Extended response 184
Chapter 8 Further algebra 186
Exercise 8A Polynomial identities 186
Exercise 8B Partial fractions 186
Exercise 8C Simultaneous equations 188
Chapter review 194
Short answer 194
Multiple choice 195
Extended response 195
Chapter 9 Algebra and logic 198
Exercise 9A Statements (propositions), connectives and
truth tables 198
Exercise 9B Valid and invalid arguments 201
Exercise 9C Techniques of proof 204
Exercise 9D Sets and Boolean algebra 208
Exercise 9E Digital logic 209
Chapter review 212
Short answer 212
Multiple choice 213
Extended response 214
Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs 216
Exercise 10A The circle 216
Exercise 10B The ellipse 217
Exercise 10C The parabola 220
Exercise 10D The hyperbola 224

Exercise 10E Polar coordinates 229
Exercise 10F Polar equations 231
Exercise 10G Polar graphs 233
Exercise 10H Review of complex numbers and polar
form of complex numbers 235
Exercise 10I Addition of ordinates, reciprocals and
squares of simple graphs 237
Chapter review 237
Short answer 237
Multiple choice 241
Extended response 242
Chapter 11 Linear programming 244
Exercise 11A Graphs of linear inequations 244
Exercise 11B Graphs of simultaneous linear
inequations 249
Exercise 11C Graphs of systems of linear
inequations 255
Exercise 11D Maximising and minimising linear
functions 260
Exercise 11E Solving linear programming
problems 267
Exercise 11F Further applications of linear
programming 272
Chapter review 274
Short answer 274
Multiple choice 276
Extended response 277
Chapter 12 Coordinate geometry 280
Exercise 12A Distance between two points 280
Exercise 12B Midpoint of a line segment 282
Exercise 12C Dividing a line segment internally in
the ratio a:b 283
Exercise 12D Dividing a line segment externally in the
ratio a:b 286
Exercise 12E Parallel lines 288
Exercise 12F Perpendicular lines 291
Exercise 12G Applications 293
Chapter review 296
Short answer 296
Multiple choice 298
Extended response 300
Exam practice 3 301
Short answer 301
Multiple choice 301
Extended response 301
Chapter 13 Vectors 303
Exercise 13A Introduction to vectors 303
Exercise 13B Operations on vectors 304
Exercise 13C Magnitude, direction and components of
vectors 307
Exercise 13D i

, j

notation 314
Exercise 13E Applications of vectors 319
Chapter review 324
Short answer 324
Multiple choice 326
Extended response 327
Chapter 14 Statics of a particle 330
Exercise 14A Force and tension 330
Exercise 14B Newtons first law of motion 331
Exercise 14C Equilibrium forces at an angle 331
Exercise 14D Connected bodies in equilibrium 334
Chapter review 337
Short answer 337
Multiple choice 337
Extended response 338
Chapter 15 Kinematics 341
Exercise 15A Introduction to kinematics 341
Exercise 15B Velocitytime graphs and accelerationtime
graphs 343
Exercise 15C Constant acceleration formulas 347
Exercise 15D Instantaneous rates of change 349
Chapter review 351
Short answer 351
Multiple choice 352
Extended response 354
Chapter 16 Geometry in two and three dimensions 356
Exercise 16A Review of basic geometry 356
Exercise 16B Geometric constructions 358
Exercise 16C Polygons 360
Exercise 16D Three-dimensional geometry 362
Exercise 16E Circle geometry 363
Exercise 16F Tangents, chords and circles 366
Exercise 16G Geometry in architecture, design
and art 370
Chapter review 371
Short answer 371
Multiple choice 373
Extended response 374
Exam practice 4 375
Short answer 375
Multiple choice 376
Extended response 376
Solutions to investigations 378
Chapter 4 378
Investigation Comparing production costs 378
Chapter 6 378
Investigation Changing shape 378
Chapter 7 378
Investigation The effect of changing one variable on
another 378
Chapter 9 380
Investigation A computer storage device 380
Investigation Binary addition 380
Chapter 13 381
Investigation Angle between 2 vectors in , i


notation 381
Chapter 16 383
Investigation Circle constructions 383
Investigation The golden ratio 384



Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 1
Exercise 1A A review of set notation
1


a A = {3, 4, 5, 6}
b A B = {1, 2, 3}
c A B = {2},
d A\{2} = {1}
e A B = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6},
f A B = {1, 3, 4, 5, 6},
g (A B) = {1, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
2 a
213
64
= 3.328 125
b
15
44
= 0.3409


c
16
13
= 1.230 769


3 2 Integer: Z, Q, R

16
8
Natural Number: N, Z, Q, R,

21
16
Rational: Q, R.

2
3
7
Rational: Q, R.
6 3 Irrational: I, R,

1
4
16 Natural Number: N, Z, Q, R.

1
5
5 Irrational: I, R,
Irrational: I, R,
21.72 Rational: Q, R,
2.567

Rational: Q, R,
4.135 218 976 Irrational: I, R,
4.232 332 333 Irrational: I, R.
4 a 0.24


Expanded form = 0.242 424 .
100 0.24

= 24.242 424
99 0.24

= 24
0.24

=
24
99

0.24

=
8
33

b 1.123


Expanded form = 1.123 123 123
1000 1.123

= 1123.123 123
999 1.123

= 1122
1.123

=
1122
999

1.123

=
374
333

c 0.123


Expanded form = 0.123 232 3
100 0.123

= 12.323 232
99 0.123

= 12.2
0.123

=
12.2
99

=
122
990

=
61
495

d 2.1123


Expanded form = 2.112 312 3.2 3
1000 2.1123

= 2112.312 312 312
999 2.1123

= 2110.2
2.1123

=
2110.2
999

2.1123

=
21102
9990

=
3517
1665

5 a TRUE
b TRUE
c FALSE e.g. 2 2 = 0.
d TRUE
6 a A


b A B


c A B


d ( )\( ) A B A B


e A B


Chapter 1 Number systems: real and complex
A GM1 1 - 1 2 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
f A B


g (A B)


7
NUMBER
3 SIG
FIG
4 SIG
FIG
2 D.P. 3 D.P.
1267.1066 1270 1267 1267.11 1267.107
7.6699 7.67 7.670 7.67 7.670
8.00056 8.00 8.001 8.00 8.001
0.99987 1.00 1.000 1.00 1.000
0.076768 0.0768 0.07677 0.08 0.077
0.00017495 0.000175 0.0001750 0.00 0.000
8 a 1.5 10
16
4 10
12

= 6 10
16
10
12

= 6 10
28

b 1.2 10
24
3 10
10

= 3.6 10
24
10
10

= 3.6 10
14

To 1 S.F = 4 10
14

c 3.2 10
25
2 10
15

= 6.4 10
25
10
15

= 6.4 10
40

To 1 S.F = 6 10
40

d 7 10
14
9 10
8

= 63 10
6

To 2 S.F = 6 10
7

e
17
10
8 10
4 10


= 2 10
27

f
12 7
8
2.5 10 8 10
5 10


=
5
8
20 10
5 10

= 4 10
3

9 a 1.4574 10
21
3.6677 10
9

= 5.35 10
30

b 8.2583 10
25
9.2527 10
7

= 7.64 10
18

c
17
10
5.7789 10
4.6999 10

= 1.23 10
7

d
12 7 6
13
2.578 10 (8.775 10 7.342 10 )
5.878 10

+


= 3.60 10
7

10
3
4 2 27
= 4 2 3
= 4 6
= 2 Negative Integers.
Z

. B.
11
9
4
4.4567


0.5048501881 .
I. E
12 A = {5, 6, 7, 8},
B = {5},
\ A B = {6, 7, 8},
D.
13 3.0102 To 4 S.F = 3.010
92457 To 4 S.F = 9246
D.
14 B.
Exercise 1B Subsets of the set of real
numbers
1 a i {5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0};
ii { } : , 6 1 x x Z x < < ,
iii

b i { } 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
ii { } : , 3 4 x x Z x ,
iii

c i { } 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
ii { } : , 6 4 x x Z x < ,
iii
d i { } 1, 2, 3, 4
ii { } : , 0 5 x x Z x < < ,
iii

e i { } ...... 2, 3, 4
ii { } : , 5 x x Z x < ,
iii

f i { } 3, 4, 5......
ii { } : , 2 x x Z x > ,
iii

g i { } 4, 3, 2, 1
ii { } : , 5 0 x x Z x < < ,
iii

2 a { } : Q, 5 x x x >
b { } : Q, 5 20 x x x <
c
{ }
: Q , 20 , x x x
+
<
d { } { } : , 5 20 \ 8,9 , x x Z x < <
e
{ } { } : , 100 \ 40,50 , x x Z x
+
<
Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 3
f { } : 2 5 x x <
g { } : 3 5 , x x < <
h { } { } : 3 : 7 , x x x x < >
i
{ } { } : R , 3 : R, 7 x x x x x x
+
< > ,
3 a { } : 3 1 , x x Interval Notation [3, 1]


b { } : 2 x x< Interval Notation (, 2).


c { } : 2 1 x x < < , Interval Notation (2, 1).


d { } : 2 x x , Interval Notation [2, )


e { } { } : 2 5 : 4 6 x x x x < , Interval Notation
[2, 5) [4, 6) = [2, 6),


f { } { } : 5 : 4 6 x x x x < < , Interval Notation
(, 5) [4, 6) = (, 6).


g { } { } : 2 5 : 4 6 x x x x < < , Interval Notation
[2, 5) (4, 6] = [2, 6]\{4,5}.


h { } { } : 5 : 4 6 x x x x > < , Interval Notation
[5, ) (4, 6] = (5, 6],


4 E.
5 C.
Exercise 1C Properties of surds
1 a 24
= 4 6
= 2 6
b 56
= 4 14
= 2 14
c 125
= 25 5
= 5 5
d 98
= 49 2
= 7 2
e 48
= 16 3
= 4 3
f 300
= 100 3
= 10 3
g 7 80
= 7 16 5
= 7 4 5
= 28 5
h
128
4

=
64 2
4


=
8 2
4

= 2 2
i
2 18
5

=
2 9 2
5


=
2 3 2
5


=
6 2
5

j
3 50
10


=
3 25 2
10


=
3 5 2
10


=
15 2
10


=
3 2
2


2 a 7 2 4 3 5 2 6 3 +
= 2 2 2 3
b 2 5 7 6 4 7 +
= 7 4
c 3 5 6 3 5 5 4 2 8 5 +
= 6 3 4 2
= 2(3 3 2 2) +
d 18 12 75 27 + +
= 9 2 4 3 25 3 9 3 + +
= 3 2 2 3 5 3 3 3 + +
= 3 2 6 3 +
= 3( 2 2 3) + ,
e 50 72 80 45 + +
= 25 2 36 2 16 5 9 5 + +
= 5 2 6 2 4 5 3 5 + +
= 7 5 2
f 3 12 5 18 4 27 5 98 + +
= 3 4 3 5 9 2 4 9 3 5 49 2 + +
= 3 2 3 5 3 2 4 3 3 5 7 2 + +
= 6 3 15 2 12 3 35 2 + +
A GM1 1 - 1 4 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
= 18 3 20 2 +
= 2(9 3 10 2) +
g
2 3 3 2 5 3 5 2
4 8 8 4
+
=
10 2 4 3 3 2 5 3
8 8 8 8
+
=
9 3 13 2
8 8

h
2 27 3 32 5 48 5 2
5 5 3 2
+
=
2 9 3 3 16 2 5 16 3 5 2
5 5 3 2

+
=
6 3 12 2 5 2 20 3
5 5 3 2
+
=
25 2 18 3 24 2 100 3
15 10 15 10
+
=
49 2 118 3
15 10

3 a 6 15
= 90
= 9 10
= 3 10
b 2 3 5 7
= 10 21
c 4 7 3 14
= 12 98
= 12 49 2
= 12 7 2
= 84 2
d
20 15
3 4

=
300
12

=
100 3
12


=
10 3
12

=
5 3
6

4 a 3( 5 2)
15 6 =
b 2( 7 6)
= 14 12 +
= 14 4 3 +
= 14 2 3 +
c 2 3(3 3 2) +
= 6 3 2 6 +
= 18 2 6 +
d 4 3( 32 3 12)
= 4 96 12 36 +
= 4 16 6 12 6 +
= 4 4 6 72 +
= 16 6 72 +
= 8(2 6 9)
e ( 5 3)( 5 2)
= 5 10 15 6 +
f (3 3 2)(2 5 3) +
= 6 15 9 3 4 5 6 +
g ( 18 12)( 3 2 2)
= 54 2 36 36 2 24 +
= 9 6 2 6 6 2 4 6 +
= 3 6 12 6 4 6 +
= 7 6 18
h
2
( 5 3)
= ( 5 3)( 5 3)
= 5 15 15 3 +
= 8 2 15
= 2(4 15)
i
2
( 5 7) +
= ( 5 7)( 5 7) + +
= 5 35 35 7 + + +
= 12 2 35 +
= 2(6 35) +
j
2
(2 3 3 2)
= (2 3 3 2)(2 3 3 2)
= 4 3 6 6 6 6 9 2 +
= 12 12 6 18 +
= 20 12 6
= 4(5 3 6)
k
2
(2 12 3 18) +
= (2 12 3 18)(2 12 3 18) + +
= 4 12 6 216 6 216 9 18 + + +
= 48 12 216 162 + +
= 210 12 36 6 +
= 210 72 6 +
= 2(105 36 6) +
l ( 5 3)( 5 3) +
= 5 15 15 3 +
= 2
m (2 5 3)(2 5 3) +
= 4 5 2 15 2 15 3 +
= 20 3
= 17
n (2 3 3 2)(2 3 3 2) +
= 4 3 6 6 6 6 9 2 +
= 12 18
= 6
o (5 5 10)(5 5 10) +
Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 5
= 25 5 50 5 50 5 100 +
= 125 100 = 25
5 a
18
3

= 6
b
2 24
3 3

=
2 8
3

=
2 14 2
3


=
4 2
3

c
3 88
22

= 3 4
= 6
d
5 3
3 3

=
15
3

e
4 3 5
7 5 5

=
4 15
7 5

=
4 15
35

f
2 8 12
12 12

=
2 96
3 12

=
2 16 6
36


=
8 6
36

=
2 6
9

g
5 2
4 2 2

=
5 2
4 2

=
5 2
8

h
1 5 3
5 3 5 3
+

+

=
5 3
5 3
+


=
5 3
2
+

i
3 3 2
3 2 3 2
+

+

=
3 6
3 2
+


= 3 6 +
j
2 2 2 5 3 2
2 5 3 2 2 5 3 2

+

=
4 10 6 2
4 5 9 2



=
4 10 12
20 18


=
4 10 12
2


= 2 10 6
k
5 3 5 3
5 3 5 3

+

=
5 15 15 3
5 3
+


=
8 2 15
2


= 4 15
l
5 3 5 3
5 3 5 3
+ +

+

=
25 5 3 5 3 3
25 3
+ + +


=
28 10 3
22
+

=
14 5 3
11
+

m
12 8 12 8
12 8 12 8

+

=
12 96 96 8
12 8
+


=
20 2 96
4


=
20 2 16 6
4


=
20 2 4 6
4


=
20 8 6
4


= 5 2 6
n
2 5 3 5 2 3
5 2 3 5 2 3
+

+

=
2 5 4 15 15 2 3
5 4 3
+


=
10 3 15 6
5 12
+


=
4 3 15
7
+


=
4 3 15
7


o
3 5 4 5 4
5 4 5 4

+

=
3 5 12 5 4 5 16
5 16
+


A GM1 1 - 1 6 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
=
15 16 5 16
11
+


=
31 16 5
11


=
16 5 31
11


p
2 18 24 3 8 54
3 8 54 3 8 54
+

+

=
6 144 2 972 3 192 1296
9 8 54
+


=
6 12 36 3 24 3 36
18
+

=
72 12 3 36
18
+

=
36 12 3
18
+

=
6 2 3
3
+

6 a
1 1
2 2 3 2 2 3
+
+

=
1 2 2 3 1 2 2 3
2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3
+
+
+ +

=
2 2 3 2 2 3
8 9 8 9
+
+


=
2 2 3 2 2 3
1 1
+
+


=
4 2
1

= 4 2
b
1 1
3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3

+

=
1 3 2 2 3 1 2 2 3 3
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3
+

+ +

=
3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3
18 12 8 27
+



=
3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3
6 19
+


=
19(3 2 2 3) 6(2 2 3 3)
114 114
+
+
=
57 2 38 3 12 2 18 3
114 114
+
+
=
45 2 20 3
114
+

=
5(9 2 4 3)
114
+

c
3 5 2 5 1
3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3

+

=
3 5 3 2 2 3 2 5 1 2 2 3 3
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3
+

+ +

=
9 10 6 15 4 10 6 15 2 2 3 3
18 12 8 27
+ +



Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 7
=
9 10 6 15 4 10 6 15 2 2 3 3
6 19
+ +


=
19(9 10 6 15) 6(4 10 6 15 2 2 3 3)
114 114
+ +
+
=
171 10 114 15 24 10 36 15 12 2 18 3
114 114
+ +
+
=
195 10 78 15 12 2 18 3
114
+ +

d
2 5 3 3 3 5 2 3
3 5 2 3 2 5 3 3

+

=
2 5 3 3 3 5 2 3 3 5 2 3 2 5 3 3
3 5 2 3 3 5 2 3 2 5 3 3 2 5 3 3
+

+ +

=
6 5 4 15 9 15 6 3 6 5 9 15 4 15 6 3
45 12 4 5 9 3
+ +



=
30 5 15 6 3 30 13 15 18
33 7
+


=
7(30 5 15 6 3) 33(48 13 15)
231 231

+
=
210 35 15 42 3 1584 429 15
231 231

+
=
1794 464 15 42 3
231


e
4 2 3 2 5 2 2 3
4 2 2 3 6 2 3 3
+

+

=
20 2 8 6 15 2 6 6
24 2 12 6 12 6 6 3
+
+

=
40 14 6 30
48 18
+

=
70 14 6
30

=
35 7 6
15

f
2 5 3 3 3 5 4 3
3 5 4 3 2 5 3 3
+ +

=
2 5 3 3 2 5 3 3
3 5 4 3 3 5 4 3
+ +

+

=
4 5 6 15 6 15 9 3
9 5 12 15 12 15 16 3
+ + +
+

=
20 12 15 27
45 48
+ +

=
47 12 15
3
+

=
47 12 15
3

7 Since x = 2 3 2
a
1
x
x
+
=
1 2 3 2
2 3 2
2 3 2 2 3 2
+
+
+

=
2 3 2
2 3 2
4 18
+
+
=
2 3 2
2 3 2
14
+
+
A GM1 1 - 1 8 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
=
14(2 3 2) 2 3 2
14
+

=
28 42 2 (2 3 2)
14
+

=
26 45 2
14

b
1
x
x

=
1 2 3 2
2 3 2
2 3 2 2 3 2
+

+

=
2 3 2
2 3 2
4 18
+

=
2 3 2
2 3 2
14
+

=
14(2 3 2) 2 3 2
14
+ +

=
28 42 2 2 3 2
14
+ +

=
30 39 2
14

c
2
2
2
x x
x +

=
2
(2 3 2) 2(2 3 2)
(2 3 2) 2 +

=
4 12 2 18 4 6 2
4 3 2
+ +

=
18 6 2 4 3 2
4 3 2 4 3 2
+

+

=
72 54 2 24 2 36
16 18
+

=
36 30 2
2
+

= 18 15 2
= 3(6 5 2) +
d
2
2
3
x x
x
+
+

=
2
(2 3 2) 2(2 3 2)
(2 3 2) 3
+
+

=
4 12 2 18 4 6 2
5 3 2
+ +

=
22 18 2 5 3 2
5 3 2 5 3 2
+

+

=
110 66 2 90 2 54 2
25 18
+

=
2 24 2
7

e x
2
4x 14
=
2
(2 3 2) 4(2 3 2) 14
= 4 12 2 18 8 12 2 14 + +
= 0
f 2x
2
2x 9
=
2
2(2 3 2) 2(2 3 2) 9
= 2(4 12 2 18) 4 6 2 9 + +
Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 9
= 8 24 2 36 4 6 2 9 + +
= 3118 2
g x = 2 3 2 is a solution to x
2
4x 14 since there was no remainder. However, it is not a solution to 2x
2
2x 9.
8 Sub x = 5 2 3 into: x
2
13x + 10 and x
2
10x + 13
=
2
(5 2 3) 13(5 2 3) 10 + =
2
(5 2 3) 10(5 2 3) 13 +
= 25 20 3 12 65 26 3 10 + + + = 25 20 3 12 50 20 3 13 + + +
= 18 6 3 + = 0
Therefore 5 2 3 is a solution to
2
10 13. x x +
9 Sub x = 2 1 + into:
2
2 2 1 x x + and
2
(2 2 3) 4 3 2 x x + + +
=
2
( 2 1) 2 2( 2 1) 1 + + + =
2
( 2 1) (2 2 3)( 2 1) 4 3 2 + + + + +
= 2 2 2 1 4 2 2 1 + + + = 2 2 2 1 4 2 2 3 2 3 4 3 2 + + + +
= 0 = 0
Therefore a solution Therefore a solution
10
3 2 1
75 27 48
5 3 2

=
3 2 1
25 3 9 3 16 3
5 3 2

=
15 6 4
3 3 3
5 3 2

= 3 3 2 3 2 3
= 3 B.
11
3 2
2
14
7
a b
ab

=
2
2a
= 2 a A.
12 (3 3 4 8)(2 3 3 8)
= 6 3 9 24 8 24 12 8 +
= 18 17 24 96 +
= 114 17 4 6
= 114 17 2 6
= 114 34 6 A.
13
15 21 14
6 14 14

=
15 294
6 14

=
15 49 6
84


=
105 6
84

=
5 6
4
D.
14
2 5 3 5 3
5 3 5 3
+ +

+

=
2 5 2 15 15 3
5 15 15 3
+ + +
+

=
10 3 15 3
2
+ +

=
13 3 15
2
+
A.
15
3 5 5 3 5 5

3 5 5 3 5 5
+
+

=
3 5 5 3 5 5 3 5 5 3 5 5

3 5 5 3 5 5 3 5 5 3 5 5
+ +

+ +

A GM1 1 - 1 10 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
=
45 15 5 15 5 25 45 15 5 15 5 25

45 25 45 25
+ + + +

=
70 30 5 70 30 5

20 20
+

=
60 5
20


= 3 5 E.
Exercise 1D The set of complex numbers
1 a 16
= 16 1
=
2
4 i
= 4i
b 7
= 7 1
=
2
7 i
= 7i
c 2 20 +
= 2 4 5 1 +
=
2
2 2 5 i +
= 2 2 5i +
d 10 10 +
= 10 1 10 +
=
2
10 10 i +
= 10 10 i +
= 10 10i +
e
1 28
2

=
1 4 7 1
2


=
2
1 2 7
2
i

=
1 2 7
2

2 a 3 + 4i
Re(3 + 4i) = 3
Im(3 + 4i) = 4
b 2 2i +
Re (2 2 ) i + = 2
Im(2 2 ) i + = 2
c z = ( 2 1) ( 2 1)i + +
Re(z) = 2 1
Im(z) = 2 1 +
d z = 8 40
z =
2
2 2 4 10 i
z = 2 2 2 10i
Re(z) = 2 2
Im(z) = 2 10
e z = 6
Re(z) = 6
Im(z) = 0
f z = 13i
Re(z) = 0
Im(z) = 13
3 z
1
= 3 4i and z
2
= 2 3i
a z
1
+ z
2

= (3 4i) + (2 3i)
= 5 7i
b z
1
z
2

= (3 4i) (2 3i)
= 1i
c 2z
1
+ 3z
2

= 2(3 4i) + 3 (2 3i)
= 6 8i + 6 9i
= 12 17i
d 2z
1
3z
2

= 2(3 4i) 3 (23i)
= 6 8i 6 + 9i
= i
e
1 2
2 2 2 z z +
= 2(3 4 ) 2 2 (2 3 ) i i +
= 3 2 4 2 4 2 6 2 i i +
= 7 2 10 2i
f
1 2
2 3 z z +
= 2(3 4 ) 3(2 3 ) i i +
= 3 2 4 2 2 3 3 3 i i +
= (3 2 2 3) (4 2 3 3)i + +
4 a (x + 1) + (y 1)i = 2 + 3i
x + 1 = 2
x = 1
y 1 = 3
y = 4
b (x + 4) (3 + yi) = 2 + 5i
x + 1 yi = 2 + 5i
x + 1 = 2
x = 1
y = 5
y = 5,
c (2x + i) + (3 2yi ) = x + 3i
(2x + 3) + (1 2y)i = x + 3i
2x + 3 = x
x = 3
1 2y = 3
2y = 2
y = 1
d (x + 2i) + 2(y + xi) = 7 4i
(x + 2y) + (2 + 2x)i = 7 4i
x + 2y = 7 (1)
and 2 + 2x = 4 (2)
2x = 2
x = 1
Sub into (1)
1 + 2y = 7
2y = 6
y = 3.
e (2x + 3yi) + 2 (x + 2yi) = 3 + 2i
(2x + 2x) + (3y + 4y)i = 3 + 2i
4x = 3
x =
3
4

7y = 2
y =
2
7
,
f (x + i) + (2 + yi) = 2x + 3yi
(x + 2) + (l + y)i = 2x + 3yi
x + 2 = 2x
x = 2
Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 11
l + y = 3y
2y = 1
y =
1
2

g (2x 3i) + (3 + 2y)i = y xi
2x + (2y 3 3)i = y xi
2x + (2y 6)i = y xi
2x = y (1)
and 2y 6 = x (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
2(2x) 6 = x
4x 6 = x
5x = 6
x =
6
5

Sub x =
6
5
into (1)
y =
6
2
5
| |
|
\ .

y =
12
5

5 a Re(2 + 3i + 3(4 2i))
= Re(14 3i)
= 14
b Re ( 3 2 2 2(3 3 )) i i + +
Re ( 3 3 2) (2 2 6)i
(
+


= 3 3 2
c Im(2(2 3i) 3(4 2i))
= Im(4 12) 6i + 6i
= Im(8)
= 0
d Im(2 3 2 2 2(3 6 )) i i +
= Im(2 3 3 2) (2 2 12)i +
= Im(2 3 3 2) (2 2 2 3)i +
= 2( 2 3) +
6 If z
1
= 2 i and z
2
= 3 2i
then Re(2z
1
3z
2
)
= Re[2(2 i) 3 (3 2i)]
= Re[4 2i 9 + 6i]
= Re[( 5) + (4i)]
= 5 D.
7 If z
1
= 2 i and z
2
= 3 2i
then Im(2z
1
3z
2
)
= Im[2(2 i) 3(3 2i)]
= Im[4 2i 9 + 6i]
= Im[ 5 + 4i]
= 4 B.
8 (2 + xi) + (4 3i) = x + 3yi
6 + (x 3)i = x + 3yi
x = 6
and x 3 = 3y.
sub in x = 6
6 3 = 3y.
3 = 3y
y = 1, A.
Exercise 1E Multiplication and division of
complex numbers
1 a 2i(2 + 3i)
= 4i + 6i
2

= 6 + 4i
b (2 3i) (1 + i)
= 2 + 2i 3i 3i
2

= 2 i + 3
= 5 i
c (2 i) (1 3i)
= 2 + 6i i + 3i
2

= 2 + 5i 3
= 5 + 5i
d (2 3i)
2

= (2 3i) (2 3i)
= 4 6i 6i + 9i
2

= 4 12i 9
= 5 12i
e (6 + 7i) (6 7i)
= 36 42i + 42i 49i
2

= 36 + 49
= 85
f
3 4 5
5 5
i i
i i

=
2
2
15 20
25
i i
i

=
15 20
25
i +

=
4 3
5
i +

=
4 3
5 5
i +
g
3 4 3 4
3 4 3 4
i i
i i
+ +

+

=
2
2
9 12 12 16
9 16
i i i
i
+ + +

=
9 24 16
9 16
i +
+

=
7 24
25
i +

=
7 24
25 25
i +
h
1 2 2
2 2
i i
i i
+

+

=
2
2
2 4 2
4
i i i
i
+

=
2 3 2
5
i + +

=
4 3
5
i +

=
4 3
5 5
i +
i
2
(2 ) 1 2
1 2 1 2
i i
i i
+

+

=
2
4 4 1 2
1 2 1 2
i i i
i i
+ +

+

=
3 4 1 2
1 2 1 2
i i
i i
+

+

=
2
2
3 6 4 8
1 4
i i i
i
+

=
5 2
5
i

=
2
1
5
i
A GM1 1 - 1 12 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
j (3 + 2i)
1

=
1 3 2
3 2 3 2
i
i i

+

=
2
3 2
9 4
i
i

=
3 2
9 4
i
+

=
3 2
13
i

=
3 2

13 13
i
k (3 + 2i)
2

=
2
1
(3 2 ) i +

=
2
1
9 12 4 i i + +

=
1 5 12
5 12 5 12
i
i i

+

=
2
5 12
25 144
i
i

=
5 12
119
i

=
5 12
119 119
i +
l
1 1
2 3 2 3 i i
+
+

=
1 2 3 1 2 3
2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
i i
i i i i
+
+
+ +

=
2 3 2 3
4 9 4 9
i i +
+
+ +

=
2 3 2 3
13 13
i i +
+
=
4
13

m
( )
( )
2
2
3 2
2
i
i

=
9 12 4
4 4 1
i
i

=
5 12 3 4
3 4 3 4
i i
i i
+

+

=
15 20 36 48
9 16
i i + +
+

=
63 16
25
i

=
63 16

25 25
i
n
1
2 3
2 3
i
i
+ +
+

=
1 2 3
2 3
2 3 2 3
i
i
i i
+ +
+

=
2 3
2 3
4 3
i
i + +
+

=
2 3
2 3
7
i
i + +
=
14 7 3 2 3
7 7
i i
+
=
16 8 3
7
i

=
16 8 3

7 7
i

o
3 3
3 3
i i
i i
+
+
+

=
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3
i i i i
i i i i
+ +
+
+ +

=
3 2 3 1 3 2 3 1
3 1 3 1
i i +
+
+ +

=
2 2 3 2 2 3
4 4
i i +
+
=
4
4

= 1.
p
2 3

3 2 2
i i
i i
+
+

=
2 3 2 3 2

3 2 3 2 2 2
i i i i
i i i i
+ +

+ +

=
6 4 3 2 6 3 2 1

9 6 6 4 4 2 2 1
i i i i
i i i i
+ +
+ + + +

=
4 7 5 5

13 5
i i +

=
5(4 7 ) 13(5 5 )

65 65
i i +

=
20 35 65 65

65 65
i i +

=
45 100
65
i

=
9 20

13 13
i
2 If z
1
= 4 3i and z
2
= 3 4i
a
1
z = 4 + 3i
b
1 2
z z
= (4 + 3i) (3 4i)
= 12 16i + 9i + 12
= 24 7i
c
1 2
z z
= (4 3i) (3 + 4i)
= 12 + 16i 9i + 12
= 24 + 7i
d
2
1
z
= (4 + 3i)
2

= (4 + 3i) (4 + 3i)
= 16 + 12i + 12i 9
= 7 + 24i
e
2
2i z
= 2i (3 + 4i)
= 6i 8
= 8 + 6i
f
2
1 2
( ) z z +
=
2
(4 3 3 4 ) i i +
=
2
(7 7 ) i
=
2
(7 7 ) i +
= 49 + 28i 49
= 28i
Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 13
g z
1
1

=
1 4 3
4 3 4 3
i
i i
+

+

=
4 3
16 9
i +
+

=
4 3
25 25
i +
h
1
2
z
z

=
4 3 3 4
3 4 3 4
i i
i i

+

=
12 16 9 12
9 16
i i
+

=
25
25
i

= i
i
1
1
2
z
z
| |
|
\ .

=
2
1
z
z
| |
|
\ .

=
3 4 4 3
4 3 4 3
i i
i i
+

+

=
12 9 16 12
16 9
i i + +
+

=
24 7
25 25
i
+
j
2
1
2
z
z
| |
|
\ .

=
2
4 3
3 4
i
i
+ | |
|
+
\ .

=
16 24 9
9 24 16
i
i
+
+

=
7 24 7 24
7 24 7 24
i i
i i
+

+

=
49 168 168 576
49 576
i i +
+

=
527 336

625 625
i
k
1
1
1
z
z
+
=
1
4 3
4 3
i
i
+ +
=
4 3
4 3
25
i
i
+
+ +
=
25(4 3 ) 4 3
25 25
i i + +
+
=
100 75 4 3
25 25
i i + +
+
=
104 78
25 25
i +
l
1 2
1 2

z z
z z

=
4 3 4 3 3 4 3 4

4 3 4 3 3 4 3 4
i i i i
i i i i

+ +

=
16 24 9 9 24 16

16 9 9 16
i i
+ +

=
14
25

3 a
1 2
z z =
1 2
z z
(a bi)(c di) = ( )( ) a bi c di + +

2
ac adi bci bdi + =
2
ac adi bci bdi + + +
( ) ( ) ac bd ad bc i + = ( ) ( ) ac bd ad bc i + +
= ( ) ( ) ac bd ad bc i +
LHS = RHS.
b
1 2
z z + =
1 2
z z +
( ) ( ) a bi c di + = ( ) ( ) a bi c bi + + +
( ) ( ) a c b d i + + = ( ) ( ) a c b d i + + +
= ( ) ( ) a c b d i + +
LHS = RHS.
c
1
2
z
z
=
1
2
z
z
| |
|
\ .


( )
( )
a bi c di
c di c di
+

+
=
a bi
c di
| |
+
|
|
+
\ .


2 2
ac adi bci bd
c d
+ +
+
=

a bi c di
c di c di
+ | |

|
+
\ .


2 2
( ) ( ) ac bd ad bc i
c d
+ +
+
=
2 2
ac adi bci bd
c d
| |
+ +
|
|
+
\ .

=
2 2
( ) ( ) ac bd bc ad i
c d
+ + | |
|
+ \ .

=
2 2
( ) ( ) ac bd ad bc i
c d
+ +
+

LHS = RHS.
4 a (x + yi)(2 + i) = 3 + 6i
2x + xi + 2yi y = 3 + 6i
(2x y) + (x + 2y)i = 3 + 6i
2x y = 3 (1)
and x + 2y= 6 (2)
(1) 2 4x 2y = 6 (3)
(2) + (3) 5x = 12
x =
12
5

Sub x =
12
5
| |
|
\ .
into (1)

12
2
5
y
| |
|
\ .
= 3

24

5
y = 3
y =
9
5

b
1 2
x yi
i
+
+
= 1 + i

1 2
1 2 1 2
x yi i
i i
+

+
= 1 + i

2 2
1 4
x xi yi y + +
+
= 1 + i

( 2 ) ( 2 )
5
x y y x i + +
= 1 + i

2
5
x y +
= 1
x + 2y = 5 (1)
and
2
5
y x
= 1
A GM1 1 - 1 14 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
y 2x = 5 (2)
(1) (2) 2x + 4y = 10 (3)
(2) + (3) 5y = 15
y = 3.
Sub y = 3 into (1)
x + 2 3 = 5
x = 1
5 a (4 + 3i)z = 2 i
z =
2 4 3
4 3 4 3
i i
i i

+

z =
8 6 4 3
16 9
i i
+

z =
5 10
25
i

z =
1 2
5 5
i +
b (2 3i)z = 3 2i
z =
3 2 2 3
2 3 2 3
i i
i i
+

+

z =
6 9 4 6
4 9
i i +
+

z =
13
13
i

z = i
6 a z = 4 + 5i
z = 4 5i
and
1
z =
1 4 5
4 5 4 5
i
i i

+

=
4 5
16 25
i
+

=
4 5
41
i


1
z =
41
z

b z = a + bi
z = a bi
and
1
z =
1

a bi
a bi a bi

+

=
2 2
a bi
a b +


1
z =
2 2
z
a b +

OR
1
z =
z
zz

7 (2 3 3 )(3 3 2 ) i i
= 18 4 3 9 3 6 i i
= 12 13 3i
B.
8
(2 3 3 ) 3 3 2
(3 3 2 ) 3 3 2
i i
i i
+

+

=
18 4 3 9 3 6
27 4
i i + +
+

=
24 5 3
31
i

A.
9 (1 + i)
2
+ (1 + i)
2

=
2
1
1 2 1
(1 )
i
i
+ +
+

=
1 2
2
2 2
i
i
i i
+
=
2
2
4
i
i +
=
3
2
i
E.
10 (2x + yi) (3 2i) = 4 + 5i
6x 4xi + 3yi + 2y = 4 + 5i
6x + 2y = 4 (1)
4x + 3y = 5 (2)
(1) 2 12x + 4y = 8 (3)
(2) 3 12x + 9y = 15 (4)
(3) + (4) 15y = 23 y =
23
13

Sub y =
23
13
into (1)

23
6 2
13
x
| |
+
|
\ .
= 4

46
6
13
x + = 4
6x =
6
13

x =
1
13

B.
Exercise 1F Representing complex
numbers on an Argand diagram
1 a 2 + 3i


b 2 3i


c 2 + 3i


d 2 3i


Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 15
e 3i


f 2


2 a i
7

= (i)
4
(i)
3

= 1 i
= i
b i
37

= (i
4
)
9
(i)
= 1 i
= i
c i
4

=
4
1
i

=
1
1

= 1
d i
15

=
15
1
i

=
4 3 3
1
( ) ( ) i i

=
1
1 i

=
1 i
i i

=

1
i

= i
e (2i)
6

= 2
6
(i
4
)(i
2
)
= 64 1 1
= 64
f (2i)
8

= 2
8
(i
4
)
2

= 256.
g (2i)
9

= (2)
9
(i
4
)
2
(i)
= 512 1 i
= 512i
h (2i)
9

=
9
1
(2 ) i

=
9 4 2
1
(2 ) ( ) ( ) i i i

=
1
512 1 i

=
1
512
i
i i

=
512
i

=

512
i

3 a z = 3 + 2i
z = 3 2i
z
1
=
1 3 2
3 2 3 2
i
i i

+

=
3 2
9 4
i
+

=
3 2
13
i

=
3 2

13 13
i

b


c z onto z
1

Dilated by a factor of
1
13
from the Real and
Imaginary axis
Reflected about the Real axis
d
1
z

is
1
13
of zs distance from the origin.
4 a z = 2+3i
iz = i(2 + 3i) = 3 + 2i
i
2
z = i(3 + 2i) = 2 3i
i
3
z = i(2 3i) = 3 2i
i
4
z = i(3 2i) = 2 + 3i
b


c i
n
z onto i
n+1
z
The distance from the origin remains the same with a
90 anticlockwise rotation.
5 a z = 1 + i
z
2
=
2
1
(1 ) i +
=
1
1 2 1 i +
=
1
2i
=
2
4
i

=
1
2
i
z
1
=
1 1
1 1
i
i i

+
=
1
1
i
i

+
=
1
2
i
=
1
2 2
i

z
0
= (1 + i)
0
= 1
z
1
= 1 + i
z
2
= (1 + i)
2
= 1 + 2i 1 = 2i
z
3
= (1 + i)
3
= 2i(1 + i) = 2i 2 = 2 + 2i
z
4
= (1 + i)
4
= (2 + 2i)(1 + i) = 2 2i + 2i 2 = 4
b


A GM1 1 - 1 16 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
c Plotting z
n
compared to z
n+1
where nz, undergoes a
rotation 45 anticlockwise and its distance from the
origin is increased by a factor of 2.
d Plot z
0
onto z
n
, nz
+

Rotated n 45 OR
4
n
anticlockwise
Distance from the origin increased by n 2.
e i z
5
= (1 + i)
5

= 4 4i
ii z
3
= (1 + i)
3

=
1 1

4 4
i
iii z
10
= (1 + i)
10

= 32i
iv z
17
= (1 + i)
17

= 256 + 256i
v z
13
= (1 + i)
13

=
1 1
128 128
i +
Exercise 1G Factorising quadratic
expressions and solving quadratic equations
over the complex number field
1 a 2z
2
6
= 2(z
2
3)
=
2
2
2( 3 ) z
= 2( 3)( 3) z z +
b 2z
2
3
=
2 2
( 2 ) ( 3) z
= ( 2 3)( 2 3) z z +
c 3z
2
+ 6
= 3(z
2
+ 2)
=
2 2
3( ( 2 ) ) z i
= 3( 2 )( 2 ) z i z i +
d 2z
2
+
1
2

=
1
2
(4z
2
+ 1)
=
1
2
((2z)
2
(i)
2
)
=
1
2
(2z i) (2z + i)
e z
2
4z
= z(z 4)
f 6z
2
2z
= 2z(3z 1)
g 2 2 z
2
2 z
= 2 z(2z 1)
h 4z
2
3z
= z(4z + 3)
2 a z
2
+ 8z + 16
= (z + 4)
2

b 2z
2
8z + 8
= (2z 4)(z 2)
c 2z
2
+ 3z 2
= (2z 1)(z + 2)
d z
2
+ 2z 3
= (z + 3)(z 1)
e 2z
2
2z 24
= (2z + 6)(z 4)
f 12z
2
+ 10z + 12
= (12z
2
10z 12)
= (4z 6)(3z + 2)
3 a z
2
+ 4z + 14
= z
2
+ 4z +
2 2
4 4
14
2 2
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

= (z + 2)
2
+ 14 4
= (z + 2)
2
+ 10
= (z + 2)
2

2
( 10 ) i
= (z + 2 10i ) (z + 2 + 10i ).
b z
2
+ 10z + 16
= z
2
+ 10z +
2 2
10 10
16
2 2
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

= (z + 5)
2
+ 16 25
= (z + 5)
2
9
= (z + 5)
2
(3)
2

= (z + 5 3) (z + 5 + 3)
= (z + 2) (z + 8)
c 2z
2
+ 5z 3
=
2
5 3
2 z +
2 2
z
| |
|
\ .

=
2 2
2
5 5 3 5
2 +
2 4 2 4
z z
| |
| | | |
+ |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

=
2
5 3 25
2
4 2 16
z
| |
| |
+ |
|
|
\ .
\ .

=
2
5 49
2
4 16
z
| |
| |
+ |
|
|
\ .
\ .

=
2 2
5 7
2
4 4
z
| |
| | | |
+ |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

=
5 7 5 7
2
4 4 4 4
z z
| || |
+ + +
| |
\ .\ .

=
1
2 ( 3)
2
z z
| |
+
|
\ .

d z
2
+ z 3
= z
2
+ z +
2 2
1 1
3
2 2
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

=
2
1 1
3
2 4
z
| |
+
|
\ .

=
2
1 13

2 4
z
| |
+
|
\ .

=
2
2
1 13

2 2
z
| |
| |
+
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

=
1 13 1 13
2 2 2 2
z z
| || |
+ + + | |
| |
\ .\ .
.
e z
2
+ 8z + 16
= z
2
+ 8z +
2 2
8 8
16
2 2
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

= (z + 4)
2
+ 16 16
= (z + 4)
2
.
f z
2
+ 2z + 3
= z
2
+ 2z +
2 2
2 2
3
2 2
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

= (z + 1)
2
+ 3 1
= (z + 1)
2
+ 2
= (z + 1)
2
( 2i )
2

Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 17
= (z + 1 2i )(z + 1 + 2i )
g 2z
2
5z + 2
=
2
5
2 1
2
z z
| |
+
|
\ .

=
2 2
2
5 5 5
2 1
2 4 4
z z
| |
| | | |
+ + |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

=
2
5 25
2 1
4 16
z
| |
| |
+ |
|
|
\ .
\ .

=
2
5 9
2
4 16
z
| |
| |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

=
5 3 5 3
2
4 4 4 4
z z
| || |
+
| |
\ .\ .

=
1
2( 2)
2
z z
| |

|
\ .
.
h 2z
2
+ 8z + 16
= 2(z
2
+ 4z + 4)
=
2 2
2
4 4
2 4 4
2 2
z z
| |
| | | |
+ + + |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

= 2((z + 2)
2
+ 4 4)
= 2(z + 2)
2

i 2z
2
+ 5z + 4
=
2
5
2 2
2
z z
| |

|
\ .

=
2 2
2
5 5 5
2 2
2 4 4
z z
| |
| | | |
+ |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

=
2
5 25
2 2
4 16
z
| |
| |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

=
2
5 57
2
4 16
z
| |
| |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

=
2
2
5 57
2
4 4
z
| |
| |
| |
|

|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .

=
5 57 5 57
2
4 4 4 4
z z
| || |
+ | |
| |
\ .\ .

j 4z
2
+ 4z 1
=
2
1
4
4
z z
| |
+
|
\ .

=
2
2
1 1 1
4
2 4 2
z z
| |
| | | |
+ + |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

=
2
1 1 1
4
2 4 4
z
| |
| |
+ |
|
|
\ .
\ .

=
2
1
4
2
z
| |

|
\ .
.
4 a 3z
2
2 = 0.

2 2
( 3 ) ( 2) z = 0
( 3 2)( 3 2) z z + = 0
3 2 z = 0, 3 2 z + = 0
z =
2
3

z =
6
2

b 2z
2
+ 5 = 0

2 2
( 2 ) ( 5 ) z i = 0
( 2 5 )( 2 5 ) z i z i + = 0
2 5 z i = 0, 2 5 z i + = 0
z =
5
2
i

z =
10
2
i

c 2z
2
7z = 0
z (2z 7) = 0
z = 0, 2z 7 = 0
z = 0, z =
7
2

d z
2
6z + 5 = 0
(z 5) (z 1) = 0
z 5 = 0, z 1 = 0
z = 5, z = 1
e z
2
5z + 6 = 0
(z 3) (z 2) = 0
z 3 = 0, z 2 = 0
z = 3, z = 2
f 2z
2
5z + 3 = 0
(2z 3) (z 1) = 0
2z 3 = 0, z 1 = 0
z =
3
2
, z = 1
g z
2
4z + 2 = 0
z
2
4z +
2
4
2
| |
|
\ .
+ 2
2
4
2
| |
|
\ .
= 0
(z 2)
2
+ z 4 = 0
(z 2)
2

2
( 2) = 0
(z 2 2 )(z 2 + 2) = 0
z 2 2 = 0, z 2 + 2 = 0
z = 2 2
h 2z
2
+ 5z + 4 = 0

2
5
2 2
2
z z
| |
+ +
|
\ .
= 0

2 2
2
5 5 5
2 2
2 4 4
z z
| |
| | | |
+ + + |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .
= 0

2
5 25
2 2
4 16
z
| |
| |
+ + |
|
|
\ .
\ .
= 0

2
5 7
2
4 16
z
| |
| |
+ + |
|
|
\ .
\ .
= 0

5 7 5 7
2
4 4 4 4
z z
| || |
+ + + | |
| |
\ .\ .
= 0

5 7

4 4
z + = 0,
5 7
4 4
z + + = 0
z =
5 7
4 4
.
i z
2
6z + 5 = 0
(z 5) (z 1) = 0
z 5 = 0, z 1 = 0
z = 5, z = 1
j 3z
2
2z 1 = 0.
3
2
2 1
3 3
z z
| |
+ +
|
\ .
= 0
A GM1 1 - 1 18 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
3
2 2
2
2 1 1 1

3 3 3 3
z z
| |
| | | |
+ + + |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .
= 0
3
2
1 1 1
3 3 9
z
| |
| |
+ + |
|
|
\ .
\ .
= 0
3
2
1 2
3 9
z
| |
| |
+ + |
|
|
\ .
\ .
= 0
3
1 2 1 2

3 3 3 3
z z
| || |
+ + + | |
| |
\ .\ .
= 0

1 2
3 3
z + = 0,
1 2
3 3
z + + = 0
z =
1 2
3 3

5 a z
2
10z + 25 = 0
z =
2
10 ( 10) 4(1)(25)
2 1


z =
10 0
2


z = 5
b z
2
10z + 5 = 0
z =
2
10 (10) 4(1)(5)
2 1


z =
10 80
2


z =
10 16 5
2


z =
10 4 5
2


z = 5 2 5
c z
2
4z + 7 = 0
z =
2
4 (4) 4(1)(7)
2 1


z =
4 12
2


z =
2
4 4 3
2
i

z =
4 2 3
2
i

z = 2 3 i
d 2z
2
7z + 6 = 0
z =
2
7 (7) 4(2)(6)
2 2


z =
7 1
4


z =
7 1
4


z = 2, z =
3
2

e 3z
2
7z + 7 = 0,
z =
2
7 (7) 4(3)(7)
2 3


z =
7 35
6


z =
2
7 35
6
i

z =
7 35
6
i

f 2z
2
+ 4z 6 = 0,
z =
2
4 (4) 4(2)(6)
2 2


z =
4 32
4


z =
2
4 16 2
4
i

z =
4 4 2
4
i

z = 1 2 i
6 a (z (2 + 3i))(z (2 3i))
= (z
2
(2 3i) z (2 + 3i) z + (2 + 3i)(2 3i))
= z
2
2(2 3i) z + 4 + 9
= z
2
2(2 3i) z + 13
b (z (2 + 3i))
2

= (z (2 + 3i))(z (2 + 3i))
= z
2
2(2 + 3i) + (2 + 3i)
2

= z
2
2(2 + 3i) + 4 + 12i 9
= z
2
2(2 + 3i) + 12i 5
= z
2
+ 6i 9
c (z 2 + 3i)(z 3 2i)
= z
2
3z 2iz 2z + 6 + 4i + 3iz 9i + 6
= z
2
5z + iz 5i + 12
7 a iz
2
6z + 5i = 0
z =
2
6 (6) 4( )(5 )
2
i i
i


z =
2
6 36 20
2
i
i


z =
6 56
2i


z =
6 4 14
2i


z =
6 2 14
2i


z =
3 14 i
i i


z =
3 14
1
i i

z = 3 14 i i
b (2 + i)z
2
iz (2 i) = 0
z =
2
( ) 4(2 )(2 )
2(2 )
i i i i
i
+ +


z =
4(5)
4 2
i i
i

+

z =
19 4 2
4 2 4 2
i i
i i

+

z =
4 2 (4 19 2 19)
16 4
i i + +
+

z =
2 1 2 19 19
10
i i + +

z =
1 2 19 (2 19)
10
i + +

Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 19
c 3iz
2
(1 + i)z + 5i = 0
z =
2
(1 ) (1 ) 4(3 )(5 )
2 3
i i i i
i
+ +


z =
(1 ) 1 2 1 60
6
i i
i
+ +

z =
(1 ) 26 60
6
i i
i i
+

z =
1 2 60
6
i i i

z =
( 1) 2( 30)
6
i i i
.
8 2z
2
5z + 6 = 0 and 5z
2
11z + 5 = 0
= (5)
2
4(2)(6) = (11)
2
4(5)(5)
= 25 48 = 121 180
= 23 = 59
Complex solutions Complex solutions A.
9 z
2
+ 6z + 11 and 2z
2
4z + 3
= z
2
+ 6z +
2
6
2
| |
|
\ .
+ 11
6
2
| |
|
\ .
=
2
3
2 2
2
z z
| |
+
|
\ .

= (z + 3)
2
+ 11 9 =
2 2
2
2 3 2
2 2
2 2 2
z z
| |
| | | |
+ + |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

= (z + 3)
2
+ 2 =
2
3
2 ( 1) 1
2
z
| |
+
|
\ .

= (z + 3)
2
( 2i )
2
=
2
2
1
2 ( 1)
2
z
| |
| |
|
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

(z + 3 2i ) (z + 3 + 2i ) =
1 1
2 1 1
2 2
z z
| || |
+
| |
\ .\ .

=
2 2
2 1 1
2 2
z z
| || |
+ | |
| |
\ .\ .
A.
Chapter review
Short answer
1 a 4 Z, Q, R, C.
b
16
3
Q, R, C
c 2
7
8
Q, R, C.
d 3 3 I, R, C.
e
1
3
27 N, Z, Q, R, C.
f 4 5 I, R, C.
g 2 I, R, C.
h 3.221 Q, R, C.
i 3.21683947 I, R, C.
j 3+ 2 5 I, R, C.
k 1.1 234

Q, R, C.
l i
2
Z, Q, R, C.
m 2+ 5 c.
n 0.172117722111777222 I, R, C.
o 3 3 I, R, C.
p 4i c.
q 3 + 7i c.
r 4 + 0i Z, Q, R, C.
2 a 0.24


100 0.24

= 24.242424"
A GM1 1 - 1 20 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
99 0.24

= 24
0.24

=
24
99


0.24

=
8
33

b 1.123


1000 1.123

= 1123.123123"
999 1.123

= 1122
1.123

=
1122
999

1.123

=
374
333

c 1.123


100 1.123

= 112.323232"
99 1.123

= 111.2
1.123

=
111.2
99

1.123

=
1112
990

1.123

=
556
495

3
4 5
8
8 10 6 10
3 10


=
9
8
48 10
3 10


= 16 10
17

TO 1 SIG FIG
= 2 10
18

4 a {x: x > 2}
= (2, )


b {x: 3 < x 4}
= (3, 4].


c {x: 4 x 10} {x: 8 < x < 12}
= [4, 10] (8, 12)
= [4, 12)


d {x: 4 x 10} [x: 8 < x < 12}
= [4, 10] (8, 12),
= (8, 10].


5 a {7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
= {x: x Z, 7 x 12}
= OR {x + x Z, 6 < x < 13}


b {integers between 3 and 8}
= {x: x Z,3 < x < 8}


c {rational numbers between 1 and 2}
= {x: x Q, 1 < x < 3},


Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 21
d {rational number greater than 5, except for 10}
= {x: x Q, x > 5\{10}}


e {real numbers greater than 4 and less than 5}
= {x: 4 < x < 5}

f {real numbers less than 4 or greater than 6}
= {x: x < 4 x > 6}


6 a 80 72 50 45 +
= 16 5 36 2 25 2 9 5 +
= 4 5 6 2 5 2 3 5 +
= 5 2 +
b 5(2 5 10) +
= 2 5 50 +
= 10 25 2 +
= 10 5 2 +
= 5(2 2 2) +
c (3 3 2 2)(3 3 2 2) +
= 9 3 6 6 6 6 4 2 +
= 27 8
= 19
d
2
(3 3 2 2)
= (3 3 2 2) (3 3 2 2)
= 9 3 6 6 6 6 4 2 +
= 27 12 6 + 8
= 35 12 6.
e
4 3 2
2 3 2 +

2 3 2
2 3 2

=
24 4 6 2 6 2
12 2
+

=
26 6 6
10

=
13 3 6
5

f
2 3 2
3 2
+


3 2
3 2
+
+

3 2 2
3 2
+
+

3 2
3 2

=
6 2 6 6 2
3 6 6 2
+ + +
+

3 6 2 6 4
3 6 6 2
+
+

=
8 3 6
1
+

1 6
1
+

= 9 2 6 +
7 z
2
2 3 2 z + = 0 z
2
4 3 6 z + = 0

2
( 3 1) 2 3( 3 1) 2 + = 0
2
( 3 1) 4 3( 3 1) 6 + = 0
3 2 3 1 6 4 3 2 + + + = 0 3 2 3 112 4 3 6 + + + = 0
6 2 3 6 2 3 + = 0 2 3 2 = 0
0 = 0
LHS = RHS 3 1 is a solution LHS RHS 3 1 is not a solution
8 a Im(2 8) +
= Im
2
(2 8 ) i +
= Im(2 2 2 ) i +
A GM1 1 - 1 22 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
= 2 2
b Re ((2 ) ( 3 2 )) i i + +
= Re((2 3) (2 1) ) i + +
= Re((2 3) (1)) ) i + +
= 2 3 +
c Im( 2 3(2 6 )) i
= Im( 4 3 2 18 ) i +
= Im( 4 3 2 9 2 ) i +
= Im( 4 3 6 2 ) i +
= 6 2
9 a (3 + 2yi) + (1 i) = x + yi
(3 + 1) + (2y 1) i = x + yi
x = 4
2y 1 = y
y = 1, x = 4.
b (x + 2y) + (2x + y)i = 9 + 6i
x + 2y = 9 (1)
2x + y = 6 (2)
(1) 2 2x + 4y = 18 (3)
(3) (2) 3y = 12
y = 4
sub y = 4 into (1)
x + 2 4 = 9
x + 8 = 9
x = 1, y = 4.
10 a 2z
1
+ 3z
2

2(2 4i) + 3(2 + 3i)
4 8i + 6 + 9i
10 + i
b
1
z
= 2 + 4i
c
1
z z
2

= (2 + 4i)(2 + 3i)
= 4 + 6i + 8i 12
= 8 + 14i
d
1
1
1
z
z

=
1 1
1
z z

=
1
(2 4 )(2 4 ) i i +

=
1
4 16 +

=
1
20

e z
1
+
1
1
z
= (2 4i) +
1
2 4i

2 4
2 4
i
i
+
+

= 2 4i +
2 4
20
i +

=
40 80 2 4
20 20
i i +
+
=
42 76
20
i

=
21 38
10
i

f
1
2
z
z

2
1
z
z

=
(2 4 ) (2 3 )

(2 3 ) (2 4 )
i i
i i
+
+

=
2 4 2 3 2 3 2 4

2 3 2 3 2 4 2 4
i i i i
i i i i
+ +

+ +

=
4 6 8 12 4 8 6 12

4 9 4 16
i i i i + +
+ +

=
8 14 8 14

13 20
i i +

=
160 280 104 182

260 260
i i +

=
56 462
260
i

=
28 231
130
i

11 a
1
z
z
= 3 3i
z = (2 i)(3 3i)
z = (6 6i 3i 3)
z = 3 9i
z = 3(1 3i)
b
2 i
z
= 3 3i
z =
2 3 3
3 3 3 3
i i
i i
+

+

z =
6 6 3 3
9 9
i i + +
+

z =
9 3
18
i +
=
3
9
i +

12 a 2 3i


b i
29

= (i
4
)
6
i
3

= 1 i
= i


c i
29

=
29
1
i

=
1 i
i i


=
1
i

= i


d i(2 + 3i)
= 2i 3
= 3 + 2i
Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 23


e
2 3i i
i i
+

=
2 3
1
i


= 3 2i


13 a z
2
+ 7
= (z)
2

2
( 7 ) i
= (z 7i )(z + 7i )
b 2z
2
+ 3
=
2
( 2 ) z
2
( 3 ) i
= ( 2 3 )( 2 3 ) z i z i +
c 4z
2
+ 5z
= z(4z + 5)
d 16z
2
+ 4z 6
= 2(8z
2
+ 2z 3)
= 2(4z + 3)(2z 1).
e z
2
+ 4z z
= z
2
+ 4z +
2
4
2
| |
|
\ .
2
2
4
2
| |
|
\ .

= (z + 2)
2
2 4
= (z + 2)
2
6
= (z + 2 6 )(z + 2 + 6 )
f z
2
+ 3z + 3
= z
2
+ 3z +
2
3
2
| |
|
\ .
+ 3
2
3
2
| |
|
\ .

=
2
3 9
3
2 4
z
| |
+ +
|
\ .

=
2
3 3
2 4
z
| |
+ +
|
\ .

=
3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2
i i
z z
| || |
+ + + | |
| |
\ .\ .

g 2z
2
+ 3z + 4
= 2(z
2
+
3
2
z + 2)
= 2
2 2
2
3 3 3
2
2 4 2
z z
| |
| | | | | |
+ + + |
| | |
|
\ . \ . \ .
\ .

=
2
3 9
2 2
4 4
z
| |
| |
+ + |
|
|
\ .
\ .

= 2
3
4
z
2
| |
1 | |
+ |
|
|
4
\ .
\ .

= 2
3 3 1
4 4 2
z z
1 | || |
+ + +
| |
2
\ .\ .

=
1 5
2
4 4
z z
| || |
+ +
| |
\ .\ .

14 a 2z
2
+ 5 = 0
( 2 5 )( 2 5 ) z i z i + = 0
( 2 5 ) z i = 0, ( 2 5 ) z i + = 0
z =
5
2
i
, z =
5
2
i

z =
10
2
i
, z =
10
2
i

b z
2
+ 4z + 5 = 0

2 2
2
4 4
4 5
2 2
z z
| | | |
+ + +
| |
\ . \ .
= 0
(z + 2)
2
+ 5 4 = 0
(z + 2)(z + 2 + i) = 0
z + 2 i = 0, z + 2 + i = 0
z = 2 + i, z = 2 i
c 3z
2
+ 5z + 2 = 0
3
2
5 2
3 3
z z
| |
+ +
|
\ .
= 0
3
2 2
2
5 5 2 5
3 6 3 6
z z
| |
| | | |
+ + + |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .
= 0
3
2
5 2 25
6 3 36
z
| |
| |
+ + |
|
|
\ .
\ .
= 0
3
2
5 1
6 36
z
| |
| |
+ |
|
|
\ .
\ .
= 0
3
5 1 1
6 6 6
z z
5 | || |
+ + +
| |
6
\ .\ .
= 0
3
2
( 1)
3
z z
| |
+ +
|
\ .
= 0
z =
2
3

, z = 1.
15 a z
2
+ 6z + 10 = 0
z =
2
6 6 4(1)(10)
2 1


z =
6 4
2


z =
6 2
2
i

z = 3 i
b 2z
2
+ 4z + 5 = 0
z =
2
4 4 4(2)(5)
2 2


z =
4 24
4


z =
4 2 6
4
i

z =
2 6
2
i

c 3z
2
5z + 4 = 0
z =
2
5 ( 5) 4(3)(4)
2 3


z =
5 23
6


z =
5 23
6
i


A GM1 1 - 1 24 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x
Multiple choice
1 27.366, 0.02735 and 273460.123
27.4, 0.0274 and 273000
A.
2
0.14
1.167


=
35
289
Rational A.
3 999, 0.000105 and 0.0496
1000, 0.00011 and 0.050
E.
4 R\ ) 3, 6


= (, 3) [6, ]
C.


5 {x: 4 x 6} {x: 5 < x < 7}, and {x: 4 x 6} {5 < x < 7}
= [4, 6] (5, 7) and [4, 6] (5, 7)
= [4, 7) and (5, 6]
C.
6
5
3
+
3
5

=
15
3
+
15
5

C.
7 2 54 3 27 4 48 5 24 +
= 2 9 6 3 9 3 4 16 3 5 4 6 +
= 6 6 9 3 16 3 10 6 +
= 7 3 6 4
E.
8
3 4 3 1
3 3 3(1 3)
3 3 1 3 1
+
+ + + +
+

=
3 3 4 3 4
3 3 3 3
3 2
+
+ + + +
= 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 + + + + +
= 7 3 5 +
D.
9
2
5( 3 2)
( 3 2)( 3 2) ( 3 2)
3 2
+
+ + + +


=
5( 3 2)
(3 2) (3 2 6 2)
3 2
+
+ + + +


=
5( 3 5 2) 3 2
6 2 6
3 2 3 2
+ +
+ +
+

=
15 5 6 5 6 10
6 2 6
3 2
+ + +
+ +


= 6 2 6 25 10 6 + + +
= 31 12 6 +
E.
10 Re(z
1
z
2
) + Im(z
1
z
2
)
= Re(2 i)(1 2i) + Im(2 i)(1 2i)
= Re(2 4i i 2) + Im(2 4i i 2)
= Re(5i) + Im(5i)
= 0 + 5
= 5
B.
Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 25
11 Re
1
2
z
z
| |
|
\ .
+ Im
1
2
z
z
| |
|
\ .

=
2 2
Re Im
i i
i i
+ | | | |
+
| |

\ . \ .

= Re
2 1 2 1
Im
i i
i i
+ + | | | |
+
| |

\ . \ .

= Re(2i 1) + Im( 1 2i)
= 1 + 2
= 3, D.
12 i
n
+ i
n+1
+ i
n+2
+ i
n+3

C.
13 1 + 2i,
5
1 2i
, i
3
( 2 + i),
1 7
3
i
i
+
+

1
(2 )(4 3 )
5
i i + +
=
5 10
1 4
i +
+
= i( 2 + i) =
3 21 7
9 1
i i + +
+
=
1
(8 6 4 3)
5
i i + +
=
5 10
5
i +
= 2i + 1 =
10 20
10
i +
=
1
(5 10 )
5
i +
= 1+2i = 1+2i = 1+2i = 1+2i
Since all the same. A.
14 z
2
2z 3 + 4i = 0
z =
2
2 ( 2) 4(1)( 3 4 )
2 1
i +


z =
2 4 12 16
2
i +

z =
2 16(1 )
2
i

z =
2 4 1
2
i

z = 1 2 1 i C.
15 3z
2
+ 2z + a = 0
For 2 distinct real solutions > 0
= b
2
4ac
(2)
2
4(3) (a) > 0
4 12a > 0
12a > 4
a <
4
12


a <
1
3
D.
16 3z
2
+ az + 2 = 0
For 2 distinct real solutions > 0
(a)
2
4(3)(2) > 0
a
2
24 > 0
(a)
2
( 24 )
2
> 0
(a 24 )(a + 24 ) > 0
(a 2 6 )(a +2 6 ) > 0,
a < 2 6, a > 2 6 D.
Extended response
1 a z = 1+ 3i


b tan() =
O
A

A GM1 1 - 1 26 Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x


tan() =
3
1

= tan
1
( 3)
= 60
c OZ
2
= 1
2
+
2
3
OZ
2
= 1 + 3
OZ
2
= 4
OZ
2
= 2
d z
1
=
1 1 3
,
1 3 1 3
i
i i

+
z
0
= (1 + 3 i)
0
, z = 1 + 3 , i z
2
= (1 + 3i )
2
, z
3
= (1 + 3i )
3

=
1 3
1 3
i
+
= 1 = 1 + 2 3i 3 = (1 + 3i )(2 + 2 3i )
=
1 3
4
i
= 2 + 2 3i = 2 2 3 : 2 3 : 6 i +
= 2(1 3i ) = 8


e Distance from origin For z
1
=
1
2
, z
0
= 1, z
1
= 2
z
2
= 4, z
3
= 8
Therefore plotting z
n
to z
n+1

1) Rotate 60 or
3

anticlockwise
2) Distance from origin doubles
f Given z
o
= 1 z
n
would
1) Be rotated n 60 or
3
n
anticlockwise
2) Distance form the origin 1 (2)
n

g i z
4
= 8(1+ 3i )
ii z
6
= 64
iii z
9
= 512
iv z
2
=
1 3
8
i

v z
9
=
1
512

2 a (2z + 2)(2 4) = 4z
2
4z 8
Other quadratic equations (nz + 1n)(nz 2n) = n
2
z
2
n
2
z 2n
2
, n z
b i (z + 2)(z 3)
= z
2
z 6
ii (z 4 3 )(z 4 + 3 )
= z
2
4z + 3z 4z + 16 4 3 3z + 4 3 3
= z
2
8z + 13
iii (z 4 2i)(z 4 + 2i)
= z
2
4z + 2zi 4z + 16 8i 2iz + 8i + 4
= z
2
8z + 20
iv (z 3 2 3 )(z 2 + 3 )
= z
2
2z + 3 z 3z + 6 3 3 2 3z + 4 3 6
= z
2
(5 + 3 )z + 3
v (z 3 2i)(z 2 i)
= z
2
2z + zi 3z + 6 3i 2iz + 4i + 2
Nu mb e r s y s t e ms: r e a l a n d c o mp l e x A GM1 1 - 1 27
= z
2
(5 + i)z + 8 + i
c i z = a b 3
ii z = a bi
d i z = 2 + 3i is a solution of z
2
bz + c = 0
The other solution is: z = 2 3i
Therefore (z 2 3i)(z 2 + 3i) = z
2
bz + c
z
2
4z + 13 = z
2
bz + c
b = 4 and c = 13
ii (2 + 3i)
2
b(2 + 3i) + c = 0
4 + 12i 9 2b 3bi + c = 0
(5 + c 2b) + (12 3b)i = 0
12 3b = 0 and 5 + c 2b = 0
3b = 12 5 + c 2(4) = 0
b = 4 c = 13
e z
2
2z + 3 = 0
z =
2
2 ( 2) 4(1)(3)
2 1


z =
2 8
2


z =
2
2 4 2
2
i

z =
2 2 2
2
i

z = 1 2 i
(z 1 i z )(z 1 + i z ) = 0
f 2z
2
+ 4z + 3 = 0.
z =
2
4 (4) 4(2)(3)
2 2


z =
4
4
8

z =
2
4 4 2
4
i

z =
4 2 2
4
i

z =
2
1
2
i


2 2
1 1
2 2
i i
z z
| || |
+ + + | |
| |
\ .\ .

A GM1 1 - 2 28 T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
Exercise 2A Translations of points and graphs
1 a A(1, 2), T
3, 4

A(4, 6)
b A(1, 2), T
3, 4

A(2, 2)
c A(1, 2), T
3, 4

A(2, 2)
d A(1, 2), T
3, 4

A(4, 6)
2 a A(2, 3), A(4, 5)
T
2, 2

Translated 2 right and 2 upward.
b A(2, 3), A (4, 2)
T
2, 1

Translated 2 right and 1 upward.
c A(1, 4), A(3, 1)
T
2, 5

Translated 2 left and 5 upward.
d A(2, 4), A(1, 7)
T
1, 3
.
Translated 1 right and 3 downward.
3 a T
2, 3
, A(4, 1)
A(2, 2)
b T
1, 2
, A(2, 1)
A(1, 1)
c T
3, 2
, A(2, 3)
A(5, 1)
d T
2, 3
, A(5, 2)
A(3, 1)
4 a y = x, T
1, 3
.
x = x + 1, y = y 3
x = x 1, y = y + 3
y = x y + 3 = x 1
y = x 4
Image Rule: y = x 4
y = x Original
y = x 4 Image

b y = 2x, T
1, 2

x= x + 1, y = y 2
x = x 1, y = y + 2
y = 2x y + 2 = 2(x 1)
y = 2x 4
Image Rule: y = 2x 4
y = 2x Original
y = 2x 4 Image

c y = x, T
2, 2

x = x + 2, y = y 2
x = x 2, y = y + 2
y = x y + 2 = x + 2
y = x
Image Rule: y = x.
y = x Original
y = x Image


d y = 2x + 1, T
1, 2

x = x 1, y = y 2
x = x + 1, y = y + 2
y = 2x + 1 y + 2 = 2(x + 1) + 1
y = 2x + 1
Image Rule: y = 2x + 1
y = 2x + 1 Original
y = 2x + 1 Image

e y = x
2
, T
1, 2

x = x 1, y = y + 2
x = x + 1, y = y 2
y = x
2
y 2 = (x + 1)
2

y = (x + 1)
2
+ 2,
Image Rule: y = (x + 1)
2
+ 2.
y = x
2
Original
y = (x + 1)
2
+ 2 Image


f y = 2x
2
, T
2, 1

x = x + 2, y = y 1
x = x 2, y = y + 1
y = 2x
2
y + 1 = 2(x 2)
2
,
y = 2(x 2)
2
1
Image Rule: y = 2(x 2)
2
1
Chapter 2 Transformations
T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s A GM1 1 - 2 29
g y = x
2
+ 2, T
3, 4

x = x 3, y = y + 4
x = x + 3, y = y 4
y = x
2
+ 2 y 4 = (x + 3)
2
+ 2
y = (x + 3)
2
+ 6
Image Rule: y = (x + 3)
2
+ 6
h y = 2x
2
, T
2, 3

x = x 2, y = y + 3
x = x + 2, y = y 3
y = 2x
2
y 3 = 2(x + 2)
2

y = 2(x + 2)
2
+ 3
Image Rule: y = 2(x + 2)
2
+ 3
i y = f(x), T
3, 2

x = x 3, y = y + 2
x = x + 3, y = y 2
y = f(x) y 2 = F(x + 3)
y = F(x + 3) + 2
Image Rule: y = F(x + 3) + 2
j y = f(x), T
1 2

x = x 1, y = y 2
x = x + 1, y = y + 2
y = f(x) y + 2 = f(x + 1)
y = F(x + 1) 2
Image Rule = y = f(x + 1) 2
k y = 2x
2
, T
n, k

x = x + h, y = y + k
x = x h, y = y k
y = 2x
2
y k = 2(x h)
2

y = 2(x h)
2
+ k
Image Rule: y = 2(x h)
2
+ k
l y = 3x, T
n, k

x = x + h, y = y + k
x = x h, y = y k
y = 3x y k = 3(x h)
y = 3(x h) + k
Image Rule: y = 3(x h) + k
5 a x
2
+ y
2
= 4, T
1, 1

x = x + 1, y = y 1
x = x 1, y = y + 1
(x 1)
2
+ (y + 1)
2
= 4
Image Rule: (x 1)
2
+ (y + 1)
2
= 4

b y =
1
x
, T
2, 1

x = x + 2, y = y 1
x = x 2, y = y + 1
y =
1
x
y + 1 =
1
2 x

y =
1
2 x
1
y =
1
2 x
1: Image.
Original Asymptotes: x = 0, y = 0.
Image Asymptotes: x = 2, y = 1.

6 a y = 2x y = 2x + 3
Up 3: T
0, 3

b y = x
2
y = (x + 4)
2
3
Left 4 and Down 3
T
4, 3

c y = x
2
+ 2x + 1 y = x
2
+ 4x 1
Completing the square
y = x
2
+ 2x +
2
2
2
| |
|
\ .
+ 1
2
2
2
| |
|
\ .
,
y = x
2
+ 4x +
2
4
2
| |
|
\ .
1
2
4
2
| |
|
\ .

y = (x + 1)
2
+ 1 1 y = (x + 2)
2
1 4
y = (x + 1)
2
y = (x + 2)
2
5
Left 1 and Down 5
T
1, 5

7 a x
2
+ y
2
= 9 (x 1)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
= 9
Centre (0, 0) Centre (1, 3)
T
1, 3

b (x + 1)
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 4 x
2
+ y
2
2x + 2y 2 = 0
Centre (1, 2) x
2
2x +
2
2
2
| |
|
\ .

2
2
2
| |
|
\ .
+ y + 2y +
2
2
2
| |
|
\ .

2
2
2
| |
|
\ .
2 = 0
(x 1) 1 + (y + 1)
2
1 2 = 0
(x 1)
2
+ (y + 1)
2
= 4
Centre (1, 1)
Translated: Right 2 and Down 3
T
2, 3
.
c Translated 1 unit right and 2 units up T
1, 2

8 a y = 2
x
y = 2
x
+ 3
Translated: Up 3
T
0, 3

b y = 2
x
y = 2
x + 1
+ 7
Translated: Up 7 and Left 1
T
1, 7

c y = 2
x
+ 1 y = 2
x + 3
5
Translated: Down 6 and Left 3
T
3, 6

d y = 2
x + 3
4 y = 2
x 2
+ 1
Translated: Up 5 and Right 5
T
5, 5
9 T
2, 1
(2, 3) (2 + 2, 3 1) = (4, 2) Image
(2, 3) (2 2, 3 + 1) = (0, 4) Original A
10 T
2, 1
y = x
2

x = x 2, y = y +1
x = x + 2, y = y 1
y 1 = (x + 2)
2

y = (x + 2)
2
+ 1.
y = x
2
.
x = x + 2, y = y 1
x = x 2, y = y + 1
y + 1 = (x 2)
2

y = (x 2)
2
1 A
11 (3, 4) (2, 4)
(3 1, 4 8) (2, 4)
T
1, 8
A GM1 1 - 2 30 T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
and y = x
2
+ 1 y = (x 2)
2
+ 2
y 2 = (x 2)
2
y = (x 2)
2
+ 2
Translated: Up 2 and Right 2
T
2, 2
C.
12 y = 2
x
y = 2
x 1
+ 1
Translated: Right 1 and Up 1.
T
1, 1

and y =
1
x
y =
1
1 x +
1
Translated: Left 1 and Down 1
T
1, 1
B.
Exercise 2B Reflections of points and graphs
1 a M
y = 0
(2, 4)
b M
x = 0
(2, 4)
c M
y = x
(4, 2)
d M
y = x
(4, 2)
2 a y =3x, M
y = x
x = y, y = x,
y = x, x = y,
y = 3x x = 3y
Image: y =
3
x



b y = 2x, M
y = x
x = y, y = x,
y = x, x = y,
y = 2x x = 2(y)
Image: y =
2
x



c y = 2x + 3, M
y = 0
x = x, y = y,
x = x, y = y,
y = 2x + 3 y = 2x + 3
Image: y = 2x 3.


d y = 2x
2
, M
y = 0
x = x, y = y
x = x, y = y,
y = 2x
2
y = 2(x)
2

Image: y = 2x
2
,


e y = 3x
2
, M
x = 0
x = x, y = y
x = x, y = y,
y = 3x
2
y = 3(x)
2

Image: y = 3x
2
,


f y =
1
4
x
2
, M
y = x
x = y, y = x,
y = x, x = y,
y =
1
4
x
2
x =
1
4
(y)
2

(y)
2
= 4x, Image: y = 4 , x


g y = x
2
+ 1, M
y = x
x = y, y = x,
y = x, x = y,
y = x
2
+ 1 x = (y)
2
+ 1
Image: y = 1 x


h y =
1
x
, M
x = 0
x = x, y = y,
x = x, y = y,
T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s A GM1 1 - 2 31
y =
1
x
y =
1
x

Image: y =
1
x



i y =
1
1 x +
, M
y = x,
y = x, x = y,
x = y, y = x
y =
1
1 x +
x =
1
1 y +

x(y + 1) = 1, Image: y =
1
x
1


j y =
1
1
x
+ , M
x = 0
x = x, y = y
x = x, y = y
y =
1
1
x
+ y =
1
1
x
+


Image: y =
1
1
x
+


k y =
1
1
1 x
+

, M
y = x
x = y, y = x
y = x, x = y
y =
1
1
1 x
+

x =
1
1
1 y
+


Image: y =
1
1
1 x
+




l y =
2
3
1 x
+

, M
y = x
x = y, y = x
y = x, x = y
y =
2
3
1 x
+

x =
2
3
1 y
+


Image: y =
2
1
3 x

+



m y = 2
x
, M
y = 0

x = x, y = y
x = x, y = y
y = 2
x
y = 2
x

Image: y = 2
x



n y = 2
x
+ 3, M
x = 0

x = x, y = y
x = x, y = y
y = 2
x
+ 3 y = 2
x
+ 3
Image: y = 2
x
+ 3


o y = x , M
y = x

x = y, y = x
y = x, x = y
y = x x = y
Image: y = x
2
.
A GM1 1 - 2 32 T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s


p y = 2 x + , M
y = x

x = y, y = x
y = x, x = y
y = x + 2 x = y + 2
x + 2 = y
x + 2 = y
Image: y = (x + 2)
2



3 Under M
y

= 0
.
(2, 3) (2, 3) and (2, 3) (2, 3)
Image Original, A.
4 Under M
y

= x

y = x
x = y, y = x
y = x, x = y
y = x x = y
Image y = x
2
, x 0
y =
1
1 x

x = y, y = x
y = x, x = y
y =
1
1 x
x =
1
1 y

y 1 =
1
x

y =
1
x
+ 1
Image y =
1
x
+ 1 B.
Exercise 2C Dilations from axes
1 a (2, 3), D
2

x = 2x, y = y
(4, 3)
b (2, 5), D
1, 3

x = x, y = 3y
(2, 15)
c (4, 3), D
2, 3

x = 2x, y = 3y
(8, 9)
d (2, 6),
1
, 2
2
D
x =
1
2
x, y = 2y
(1, 12)
e (6, 4),
2 3
,
3 4
D
x =
2
3
x, y =
3
4
y
(4, 3)
2 a y = x, D
2, 1

x = 2x, y = y
x =
1
2
x, y = y
y = x y =
1
2
x
Image: y =
2
x

b y = x + 1, D
1, 2

x = x, y = 2y
x = x, y =
1
2
y
y = x + 1
1
2
y = x + 1
Image: y = 2x + 2
c y = x + 1, D
2, 1

x = 2x, y = y
x =
1
2
x, y = y
y = x + 1 y =
1
2
x + 1
Image: y =
2
x
+ 1
d y = 0, D
1, 2

x = x, y = 2y
x = x, y =
1
2
y
y = 0
1
2
y = 0
Image: y = 0
e y = 0, D
1, 4

x = x, y = 4y
x = x, y =
1
4
y
y = 0
1
4
y = 0
Image: y = 0
f x = 2, D
2, 1

x = 2x, y = y
x =
1
2
x, y = y
x = 2
1
2
x = 2
Image: x = 4
g x = 2, D
1, 5

x = x, y = 5y
x = x, y =
1
5
y
x = 2 x = 2
Image: x = 2
h x = 0 D
2, 4

x = 2x, y = 4y
x =
1
2
x, y =
1
4
y
x = 0
1
2
x = 0
Image: x = 0
T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s A GM1 1 - 2 33
i y = x
2
, D
2, 1

x = 2x, y = y
x =
1
2
x, y = y
y = x
2
, y =
2
1
2
x
| |

|
\ .

Image: y =
4
x

j y = x
2
, D
1, 2

x = x, y = 2y
x = x, y =
1
2
y
y = x
2
,
1
2
y = (x)
2

Image: y = 2x
2

k y = x
2
1, D
2, 3

x = 2x, y = 3y
x =
1
2
x, y =
1
3
y
y = x
2
1,
1
3
y =
2
1
2
x
| |

|
\ .
1
Image: y =
2
3
4
x
3
l y = 2
x
, D
1, 2

x = x, y = 2y
x = x, y =
1
2
y
y = 2
x

1
2
y = 2
x

Image: y = 2 2
x

m y = 2
x
, D
2, 3

x = 2 x, y = 3y
x =
1
2
x, y =
1
3
y
y = 2
x
,
1
3
y =
2
2
x

Image: y =
2
3 2
x

n y =
1
x
, D
1, 2

x = x, y = 2y
x = x, y =
1
2
y
y =
1
x
,
1
2
y =
1
x

Image: y =
2
x

o y =
1
x
, D
2, 2

x = 2x, y = 2y
x =
1
2
x, y =
1
2
y
y =
1
x
,
1
2
y =
1
1
2
x

Image: y =
4
x

p y = (x 1)
2
, D
2, 3

x = 2x, y = 3y
x =
1
2
x, y =
1
3
y
y = (x 1)
2

1
3
y =
2
1
1
2
x
| |

|
\ .


1
3
y =
2
1
( 2)
2
x
(

(


Image: y =
3
4
(x 2)
2

q y = (x + 2)
2
+ 1, D
2, 2

x = 2x, y = 2y
x =
1
2
x, y =
1
2
y
y = (x + 1)
2
+ 1
1
2
y =
2
1
1
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .
+ 1

1
2
y =
2
1
( 4)
2
x
(
+
(

+ 1
Image: y =
1
2
(x + 4)
2
+ 2
r y = 3(x 1)
2
+ 2, D
3, 2

x = 3x, y = 2y
x =
1
3
x, y =
1
2
y
y = 3(x 1)
2
+ 2
1
2
y = 3
2
1
1
3
x
| |

|
\ .
+ 2

1
2
y = 3
2
1
( 3)
3
x
(

(

+ 2
Image: y =
2
3
(x 3)
2
+ 4
s y = 2
x
, D
2, 3

x = 2x, y = 3y
x =
1
2
x, y =
1
3
y
y = 2
x

1
3
y =
'
2
2
x

Image: y =
2
3 2
x

t y = f(x), D
a, b

x = ax, y = by
x =
x
a

, y =
y
b


y = f(x)
y
b

=
x
f
a
| |
|
\ .

Image: y = b
x
f
a
| |
|
\ .
.
3 a (3, 5), D
1
,
2

x = x, y = 2y
x = x, y =
1
2
y
(3, 5)
5
3,
2
| |
|
\ .

b (3, 5), D
2
,
1

x = 2x, y = y
x =
1
2
x, y = y
(3, 5),
3
, 5
2
| |
|
\ .

c (2, 3), D
2
,
2

x = 2x, y = 2y
A GM1 1 - 2 34 T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
x =
1
2
x, y =
1
2
y
(2, 3)
3
1,
2
| |

|
\ .

d (2, 3), D
2
,
3

x = 2x, y = 3y
x =
1
2
x, y =
1
3
y
(2, 3), (1, 1)
4 a y = x, D
2, 1

x = 2x, y = y
y = x y = 2x
Original: y = 2x.
b y = x
2
, D
1, 2

x = x, y = 2y
y = (x)
2
2y = (x)
2

Original: y =
2
2
x

c y = 2
x
, D
2, 2

x = 2x, y = 2y
y = 2x 2y = 2
2x

Original: y =
1
2
2
2x

d y =
1
x
, D
2, 3

x = 2x, y = 3y
y =
1
x
3y =
1
2x

Original: y =
1
6x

5 D
3, 2

x = 3x, y = 2y
x =
'
3
x
, y =
2
y

(3, 2) (9, 4) Image
(3, 2) (1, 1) Original B
6 D
2, 3

x = 2x, y = 3y
x =
2
x
, y =
3
y

y = f(x)
3
y
= f
2
x | |
|
\ .
Image: y = 3f
2
x | |
|
\ .

y = f(x) 3y = f(2x) Original: y =
1
3
f(2x) A.
Exercise 2D The ellipse and the hyperbola
1 a
2
25
x
+
2
9
y
= 1
Centre: (0, 0)
Semi Major: 5
Semi Minor: 3

b
2
( 5)
25
x
+
2
( 3)
9
y +
= 1
Centre: (5, 3)
Semi Major: 5
Semi Minor: 3

c x
2
+
2
4
y
= 1
Centre: (0, 0)
Semi Major: 2
Semi Minor: 1

d
2
( 2)
4
x +
+
2
( 2)
16
y
= 1
Centre: (2, 2)
Semi Major: 4
Semi Minor: 2

2 a x
2
y
2
= 1
Centre: (0, 0)
Vertices: (1, 0)
Asymptotes: y = x

b
2
9
x

2
16
y
= 1
Centre: (0, 0)
Vertices: (3, 0)
Asymptotes: y =
4
3
x
T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s A GM1 1 - 2 35

c
2
4
x
y
2
= 1
Centre: (0, 0)
Vertices: (2, 0)
Asymptotes: y =
1
2
x

d (x 3)
2
(y + 2)
2
= 1
Centre: (3, 2)
Vertices: (2, 2) and (4, 2)
Asymptotes: y = x 5 and y = x + 1

e
2
( 2)
4
x +

2
( 2)
16
y
= 1
Centre: (2, 4)
Vertices: (2, 2, 4) and (2, + 2, 4) (4, 4) and (0, 4)
Asymptotes: y 4 =
4
2
(x + 2)
y = 2x + 8 and
y = 2x

f
2
( 2)
16
x +

2
( 4)
9
y
= 1
Centre: (2, 4)
Vertices: (2, 4, 4) and (2, + 4, 4) (6, 4) and (2, 4)
Asymptotes: y 4 =
3
4
(x + 2)
y =
3
4
x +
9
2
and
y =
3
4

x +
5
2


g x
2
+ y
2
= 1
Centre: (0, 0)
Vertices: (0, 1)
Asymptotes: y = x

h
2
9
x
+
2
16
y
= 1
Centre: (0, 0)
Vertices: (0, 4)
Asymptotes: y =
4
3
x

i
2
16
x
+
2
9
y
= 1
Centre: (0, 0)
Vertices: (0, 3)
Asymptotes: y =
3
4
x

j (x + 4)
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 1
Centre: (4, 2)
Vertices: (4, 2 1) and (4, 2 + 1) (4, 1) and
(4, 3)
Asymptotes: y 2 = 1 (x + 4)
y = x + 6 and
y = x 2
A GM1 1 - 2 36 T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s

k
2
2)
4
x ( +
+
2
( 4)
16
y
= 1
Centre: (2, 4)
Vertices: (2, 4 + 4) (2, 4 4) (2, 8), (2, 0)
Asymptotes: y 4 =
4
2
(x + 2)
y = 2x + 8, y = 2x

l
2
2)
16
x ( +
+
2
( 4)
4
y
= 1
Centre: (2, 4)
Vertices: (2, 4 + 2) (2, 4 2) (2, 6), (2, 2)
Asymptotes: y 4 =
2
4
(x + 2)
y =
2
x
+ 5, y =
2
x
+ 3

3
2
16
x
+
2
9
y
= 1
a T
2, 4

x = x 2, y = y 4
x = x + 2, y = y + 4

2
16
x
+
2
9
y
= 1
2
( 2)
16
x +
+
2
( 4)
9
y +
= 1
Image
2
( 2)
16
x +
+
2
( 4)
9
y +
= 1
Centre: (2, 4),

b M
y = x

x = y, y = x
y = x , x = y

2
16
x
+
2
9
y
= 1
2
( )
16
y
+
2
( )
9
x
= 1
Image
2
16
y
+
2
9
x
= 1
Centre = (0, 0)

c
1
2,
3
D
x = 2x, y =
1
3
y
x =
1
2
x, y = 3y

2
16
x
+
2
9
y
= 1
2
1
2
16
x
| |

|
\ .
+
( )
2
3
9
y
= 1
Image
2
64
x
+ y
2
= 1
Centre = (0, 0),

4
2
9
x

2
36
y
= 1
a T
1, 2

x = x 1, y = y + 2
x = x + 1, y = y 2

2
9
x

2
36
y
= 1
2
( )
9
x +1

2
( 2)
36
y
= 1
Centre: (1, 2)
Vertices: (1, 3, 2) and (1, + 3, 2) (4, 2) and (2, 2)
Asymptotes: y 2 =
6
3
(x + 1)
y = 2x + 4, y = 2x

b M
y = x

x = y, y = x
y = x, x = y

2
9
x

2
36
y
= 1
2
( )
9
y

2
( )
36
x
= 1
Centre: (0, 0)
T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s A GM1 1 - 2 37
Vertices: (0, 3)
Asymptotes: y =
1
2
x

c
1 1
,
3 2
D
x =
1
3
x , y =
1
2
y
x = 3x , y = 2y

2
9
x

2
36
y
= 1
2
(3 )
9
x

2
(2 )
36
y
= 1
x
2

2
9
y
= 1
Centre: (0, 0)
Vertices: (1, 0)
Asymptotes: y = 3x

5
2
2
x
a

+
2
2
y
b

= 1
2
9
x

2
4
y
= 1
Some asymptotes when a
2
= 9 and b
2
= 4
a =3 b = 2.
6
2
9
x ( 1)
+
2
( 2)
4
y +
= 1
Centre (1, 2)


Domain: [2, 4]
Range: [4, 0] A
7
2
( 2)
4
x

2
8
y ( + 4)
= 1
y k =
b
a
(x h)
y + 4 =
3
2
(x 2)
y + 4 =
2 2
2
(x 2)
y + 4 = 2 (x 2)
y = 2x 2 2 4 and y = 2 x + 2 2 4 A.
Exercise 2E Successive transformations
1 a D
2, 1
then T
3, 4

(x, y)
2,1
D
(2x, y)
(2x, y)
3, 4
T
(2x + 3, y + 4)
Rule: (2x + 3, y + 4)
b T
3, 4
then D
2, 1

(x, y)
3, 4
T
(x + 3, y + 4)
(x + 3, y + 4)
2,1
D
(2x + 6, y + 4)
Rule: (2x + 6, y + 4)
c M
y = x
then T
3, 4

(x, y)
y x
M
=
(y, x)
(y, x)
3, 4
T
(y + 4, x + 3)
Rule: (y + 4, x + 3)
d T
3, 4
then M
y = x

(x, y)
3, 4
T
(x + 3, y + 4)
(x + 3, y + 4)
y x
M
=
(y + 4, x + 3)
Rule: (y + 4, x + 3)
e D
2, 3
then T
3, 4

(x, y)
2, 3
D
(2x, 3y)
(2x, 3y)
3, 4
T
(2x + 3, 3y + 4)
Rule: (2x + 3, 3y + 4)
f T
3, 4
then D
2, 3

(x, y)
3, 4
T
(x + 3 y + 4)
(x + 3, y + 4)
2, 3
D
(2x + 6, 3y + 12)
Rule: (2x + 6, 3y + 12)
g T
3, 4
then T
4, 3

3, 4
4, 3
( , ) ( 3, 4)
( 3, 4) ( 3 4, 4 3)
T
T
x y x y
x y x y

+ +
+ + + + +

Rule: ( 1, 7) x y +
h D
2, 1
then D
3, 2

2,1
3, 2
( , ) (2 , )
(2 , ) (6 , 2 )
D
D
x y x y
x y x y



Rule: (6 , 2 ) x y
i M
y = x
then M
x = 0

0
( , ) ( , )
( , ) ( , )
Rule: ( , )
y x
x
M
M
x y y x
y x y x
y x
=
=


j M
y = x
then M
y = x

(x, y)
y x
M
=
(y, x)
(y, x)
y x
M
=
(x, y)
Rule: (x, y)
k T
2, 3
then D
2, 3
then M
y = 0

(x, y)
2, 3
T

(x + 2, y 3)
(x + 2, y 3)
2, 3
D
(2x + 4, 3y 9)
(2x + 4, 3y 9)
0 y
M
=
(2x + 4, 3y + 9)
Rule: (2x + 4, 3y + 9)
l M
y = 0
then T
2, 3
then D
3, 2

(x, y)
0 y
M
=
(x, y)
(x y)
2, 3
T

(x + 2, y 3)
(x + 2, y 3)
3, 2
D
(3x + 6, 2y 6)
Rule: (3x + 6, 2y 6)
m D
2, 3
then M
y = 0
then T
2, 3

(x, y)
2, 3
D
(3x, 2y)
(3x, 2y)
0 y
M
=
(3x, 2y)
(3x, 2y)
2, 3
T

(3x + 2, 2y 3)
Rule: (3x + 2, 2y 3).
2 a T
r1
: (x, y) (2x + 1, 3y + 2)
M
y = 0
the D
2, 3
the T
1, 2
A GM1 1 - 2 38 T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s

1
( , ) (2 1, 3 2)
r
T
x y x y + +

2
(2 1, 3 2) (3 2, 2 1)
y x
M
x y y x
=
+ +

2, 3
(3 2, 2 1) (9 6, 4 2)
D
y x y x

1, 2
(9 6, 4 2) (9 4 4 1)
T
y x y x
Rule: (9y 4, 4x 1)
b T
r2
: (x, y) (2y + 2, 3x + 2)
M
y = x
the D
3, 2
the T
2, 2


2
( , ) ( 2 2, 3 2)
r
T
x y y x + +

0
( 2 2, 3 2) (2 2, 3 2)
y
M
y x y x
=
+ + +

2, 3
(2 2, 3 2) (6 6, 6 4)
D
y x y x + +

1, 2
(6 6, 6 4) (6 4, 6 5)
T
y x y x + + +
Rule: (6y + 4, 6x + 5)
c (x, y)
1 r
T
(2x + 1, 3y + 2)
(2x + 1, 3y + 2)
0 y
M
=
(2x + 1, 3y 2)
(2x + 1, 3y 2)
2, 3
D
(4x + 2, 9y 6)
(4x + 2, 9y 6)
1, 2
T
(4x + 3, 9y 4)
Rule: (4x + 3, 9y 4)
d (x, y)
2 r
T
(2y + 2, 3x + 2)
(2y + 2, 3x + 2)
y x
M
=
(3x 2, 2y 2)
(3x 2, 2y 2)
3, 2
D
(9x 6, 4y 4)
(9x 6, 4y 4)
2, 3
T
(9x 4, 4y 2)
Rule: (9x 4, 4y 2)
3 a D
2, 3
then T
2, 4

x = 2x, y = 3y
then x = 2x + 2, y = 3y + 4,
(2, 3) (2(2) + 2, 3(3) + 4)
(2, 13)
b M
x = 0
then T
1, 2

x = x, y = y
then x = x + 1, y = y 2
(2, 3) ((2) + 1, 3 2)
(3, 1)
c T
2, 3
then D
2, 3

x = x 2, y = y 3
2 = 2(x 2), y = 3(y 3)
(2, 3)(2(2 2), 3(3 3))
(8, 0)
d T
1, 2
then D
2, 2
then M
y = x

x = x + 1, y = y 2
then x = 2(x + 1), y = 2(y 2)
then x = 2(y 2), y = 2(x + 1)
(2, 3)(2(3 2), 2(2 + 1))
(2, 2).
4 a T
2, 4
then D
2, 3

x = x + 2, y = y + 4
then x = 2(x + 2), y = 3(y + 4)
x = 2
2
x
, y = 4
3
y

y =
1
4
3
y
x

=
1
4
2
x

4
3
y
=
2
4 x

Image: y =
6
12
4 x
+


b T
1, 2
then M
x = 0

x = x + 1, y = y 2
then x = x 1, y = y 2
x = x 1, y = y + 2
y =
1
2 y
x
+ =
1
1 x

Image: y =
1
2
1 x

+

c D
2, 3
then T
2, 3

x = 2x, y = 3y
then x = 2x 2, y = 3y 3
x =
2
2
x
, y =
3
3
y +

y =
1 3
3
y
x
+
=
1
2
2
x +


3
3
y +
=
2
2 x +

3 y + =
6
2 x +

Image:
6
3
2 x

+

d D
22
then T
1, 2
then M
y = x

x = 2x, y = 2y
then x = 2x + 1, y = 2y 2
then x = 2y + 2, y = 2x 1
y =
2
2
x

, x =
1
2
y +


y =
1 2
2
x
x

=
1
1
2
y +



2
2
x

=
2
1 y

+

1 y + =
4
2 x

Image: y =
4
1
2 x


5 a y = x
2
y = (x 2)
2
+ 3
y 3 (x 2)
2

x = x 2, y = y 3
x = x + 2, y = y + 3
T
2, 3

Translated 2 right and 3 upward
b y = (x 1)
2
y = 4(x 1)
2


4
y
=
2
( 1) x
x = x, y =
4
y

x = x, y = 4y
D
1, 4

Dilation factor of 4 from x-axis.
c y = 2x
2
y = 2x
2

y = 2x
2

x = x, y = y
M
y = 0

Reflected about x-axis.
d y = 3
x
y = 3
x

x = x, y = y
M
x = 0
.
Reflected about y-axis.
e y = 3
x
y = 3
x + 4

x = x
1
+ 4, y = y
x = x + 4, y = y
T
4, 0

Translated 4 right
f y = 3
2x
y = 3
2x + 1
2
y + 2 = 3
2x + 1

T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s A GM1 1 - 2 39
2x = 2x + 1, y = y + 2
x =
2 1
2
x
y = y 2
x =
1
2
x Translated
1
2
left and 2 downward

1
, 2
2
T


g y =
1
x
y =
1
x


x = x, y = y
M
y = 0

Reflected about x-axis
h y =
1
2x
y =
1
2 5 x

2x = 2x 5, y = y
2x = 2x + 5
x
1
=
2 5
2
x +

x =
5
2
x +
Translated
5
2
right.

5
, 0
2
T
i y =
5
1 x

+
y =
5
2 x +

x + 1 = x + 2, y = y
x = x 1
T
1, 0

Translated 1 left
j
2 2
x y + =
2 2
1
4 25
x y
+ = 1
x
2
=
2
( )
4
x
, y
2
=
2
( )
25
y

4x
2
= (x)
2
, 25y
2
= (y)
2

x = 2x, y = 5y
D
2, 5

Dilation factor 2 from y-axis and 5 from x-axis.
k
2 2
4 25
x y
+ =
2 2
1 x y + = 1

2
4
x
=
2
( ) , x
2
25
y
=
2
( ) y
x =
2
x
, y =
5
y


1 1
,
2 5
D
Dilation factor of
1
2
from y-axis and
1
5
from x-axis.
l x
2
y
2
= 1 (x + 4)
2
(y 3)
2
= 1
x
2
= (x + 4)
2
, y
2
= (y 3)
2

x = x + 4, y = y 3
x = x 4, y = y + 3
T
4, 3

Translated 4 left and 3 upward
m
2 2
9 16
x y
=
2 2
1 x y = 1

2
9
x
= (x)
2
,
2
16
y
= (y)
2

x =
3
x
, y =
4
y
.

1 1
,
3 4
D
Dilation factor of
1
3
for y-axis and
1
4
for x-axis.
n y = 4x
2
y = (2x 1)
2

4x
2
= (2x 1)
2
, y = y
2x = 2x 1
2x = 2x + 1

1
2
x x = +

1
, 0
2
T
Translated
1
2
right
o
2 2
x y + =
2 2
4
9 16
x y
+ = 1

2 2
4 4
x y
+ =
2 2
1
9 16
x y
+ = 1

2
4
x
=
2 2
( )
,
9 4
x y
=
2
( )
16
y

x =
3
,
2
x y = 2y

3
, 2
2
D
Dilation factor of
3
2
from y-axis and 2 from x-axis
6 a y = f(x) y = f(x)
x = x, y = y
M
y = 0

Reflected about x-axis
b y = f(x) y = f(x)
x = x, y = y
M
x = 0

Reflected about y-axis
c y = f(x) y = f(x + 1)
x + 1 = x, y = y
x = x + 1
T
1, 0

Translated 1 right.
d y = f(x + 1) y = 2f(x + 1)
x + 1 = x + 1 y = 2y
x = x
D
1, 2

Dilation factor of 2 from x-axis.
e y = 2f(2x + 1) y = 2f(2(x + 1))
2(x + 1) = 2x + 1, y = y
x + 1 =
2 1
2
x +

x = x
1
2

x = x +
1
2


1
, 0
2
T
Translated
1
2
right.
f y = 2f(2(x + 1)) y = 2f (2x + 5) + 4
2x + 5 = 2x + 2, y = y + 4
2x = 2x 3
x = x +
3
2


3
, 4
2
T
Translated
3
2
right and 4 upward.
A GM1 1 - 2 40 T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
7 a y = x y = 2x + 4
2x = x y 4 = 2x
x =
1
2
x

y 4 = y
y = y + 4
M
y = 0
,
1
, 1
2
D , T
0, 4

Reflected about x-axis dilation factor of
1
2
from y-axis
and translated 4 upward.
b y = x
2
y = 2 (x + 1)
2
3
M
y = 0
, D
1, 2
, T
1, 3

Reflected about x-axis, dilation factor of 2 from x-axis
and translated 1 left and 3 downwards.
c y =
1
x
y =
2
4
3 x
+


T
3, 4
, D
1, 2

Translated 3 right and 4 upward, dilation factor of 2 for x-axis.
d y = x
2
y = (2x + 3)
2

(2x + 3)
2
= x
2

2x + 3 = x
x =
3
2 2
x


1 3
,1 , 0
2 2
D T


Dilation factor of
1
2
from y-axis and translated
3
2
left.
e y = 2
x
y = 2
4x + 3

4x + 3 = x, y = y
4x = x 3
x =
3
4 4
x
+

0, 0 1 3
, 1 , 0
4 4
, ,
x y
M D T
= =

Reflected about the x and y-axis, dilation factor of
1
4

from y-axis and translated
3
4
right.
f y = 2
x
y = 3(2
3x 5
)
3x 5 = x y = 3y
3x = x + 5
x =
5
3 2
x


1 5
, 3 , 0
3 3
, D T
Dilation factor of
1
3
from y-axis and 3 x-axis translated
5
3
right
g y = f(x) y = 4 f(2x 1) + 3
2x 1 = x
x =
1
2
x +


0 1 1
, 4 , 3
2 2
, ,
y
M D T
=

Reflected about x-axis and dilation
1
2
from y-axis and
4 from x-axis. Translated by
1
2
right and 3 upward.
h y = f(x) y = 2f(2x 1) 4
2x 1 = x
x =
1
2
x +



0 1 1
, 2 , 4
2 2
, ,
x
M D T
=


Reflected about y-axis, dilation factor of
1
2
from y-axis
and 2 from x-axis. Translated
1
2
left and 4 downward.
i y = x
6
y = (2x + 4)
6
+ 7
2x + 4 = x
x =
4
2
x



0, 0 1 2, 7
, 1
2
, ,
y x
M D T
= =

Reflected about the x- and y-axis. Dilation factor of
1
2

from y-axis and translated 2 right and 7 upward.
8 a y = x
2
y = 2(x 2)
2
1


b y = x
2
, y = (2x 1)
2


c y =
1
x
, y =
2
4
2 3 x
+



d y = 2
x
y = 2
x + 3
+ 4

T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s A GM1 1 - 2 41
e y = 2
x
y = 3 (2
2x+ 3
)

f y = 2
x
y = 3(2
2x + 3
) + 1

9 y = f(x) y = f(2x) y = f(2x) f(2x 2)

1
, 1
2
D M
x= 0
T
1, 0
C.
10 T
1, 2
, M
y = x
, D
2, 3
.
y =
1
x

x = x + 1, y = y + 2
x = x 1, y = y 2
y 2 =
1
1 x

y =
1
2
1 x
+



1, 2
T
y =
1
2
1 x
+


x = y, y = x,
x =
1
2
y
+
1

(x 2)(y 1) = 1
y 1 =
1
2 x

y =
1
1
2 x
+



y x
M
=
, y =
1
1
2 x
+


x = 2x, y = 3y
x =
2
x
, y =
3
y


3
y
=
1
1
2
2
x
+



3
y
=
1
1
4 x
x
+



3
y
=
2
1
4 x
+


y =
6
3
4 x
+



2, 3
D
y =
6
3
4 x
+

.
C
Chapter review
Short answer
1 (2, 3) (4, 1)
T
6, 2

x = x + 6, y = y 2
x = x 6, y = y + 2
y = x
2
y + 2 = (x 6)
2

y = (x 6)
2
2
Image: y = (x 6)
2
2.
2 a y = x
2
y = (x + 2)
2
4
x + 2 = x y = y 4
2 x x =
T
2, 4

Translated 2 left and 4 downward.
b y =
1
x
y =
1
1
1 x
+
+

x + 1 = x y = y + 1
x = x 1
T
1, 1

Translated 1 left and 1 upward.
c y = x y = 2 x +
x + 2 = x y = y
x = x 2
T
2, 0

Translated 2 left.
d x
2
+ y
2
= 4 (x 2)
2
+ (y + 5)
2
= 4
x 2 = x, y + 5 = y
x = x + 2, y = y 5
T
2, 5

Translated 2 right and 5 downward.
e y = 5
x
y = 5
x + 3
4
x + 3 = x y = y 4
x = x 3
T
3, 4

Translated 3 left and 4 downward.
f y = x
2
y = x
2
+ 4x 2
=
2 2
2
4 4
4 2
2 2
x x
| | | |
+ +
| |
\ . \ .

= (x + 2)
2
2 4
= (x + 2)
2
6
T
2, 6

Translated 2 left and 6 downward
3 a (2, 0)
x D
M
=
(2, 0)
b (0, 3)
y C
M
=
(0, 3)
c (2, 3)
y x
M
=
(3, 2)
d (3, 2)
y x
M
=
(2, 3)
4 a y = 2x, M
x = 0

x = x, y = y
y = 2x

b y = 2x
2
, M
y = 0

x = x, y = y
y = 2x y = 2x
2

A GM1 1 - 2 42 T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s

c y = 4x
2
, M
y = x
.
x = y, y = x
x = 4y
2
y =
2
x
4 .

d y =
1
1 x +
, M
y = x

x = y, y = x
x =
1
1 y +
y =
1
1
x
+

e y = 2
x
+ 1, M
y = 0

x = x, y = y
y = 2
x
+ 1 y = 2
x
1

f x
2
+ (y + 1)
2
= 9, M
y = 0

x = x, y = y
x
2
+ (y + 1)
2
= 9

g y = , x M
y = x
.
x = y, y = x.
x = y y = (x)
2
, x 0

h y = x , M
x = 0

x = x, y = y
y = x

5 a (2, 3), D
2, 1

x = 2x , y = y
x =
2
x
, y = y
Original = ,
2
x
y
| |

|
\ .

=
2
, 3
2
| |
|
\ .

= (1, 3).
b (6, 3), D
1, 3

x = x, y = 3y
x = x, y =
3
y

Original = ,
3
y
x
| |

|
\ .

=
3
6,
3
| |

|
\ .

= (6, 1)
c (4, 4),
1 1
,
2 4
D
x =
1
2
x, y =
1
4
y
x = 2x, y = 4y
Original = (2x, 4y)
= (2x
4
, 4 4)
= (8, 16)
6 a y = x
2
, D
2, 2

x = 2x, y = 2y.
y = x
2

2
y
=
2
2
x | |
|
\ .

y = 2
2
( )
4
x
(

(


y =
2
( )
2
x

Image: y =
2
2
x

T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s A GM1 1 - 2 43
b y =
1
x
, D
2, 3

x = 2x, y = 3y
y =
1
x

'
3
y
=
1
2
x


3
y
=
2
x

y =
6
x

Image: y =
6
x

c y = x , D
4, 1

x = 4x, y = y
y = x y =
4
x


2
x
y

=
Image: y =
2
x

d y = (x + 1)
2
+ 2, D
3, 2

x = 3x, y = 2y
y = (x + 1)
2
+ 2
2
y
=
2
1 2,
3
x | |
+ +
|
\ .

y =
2
2 1 4
3
x | |
+ +
|
\ .

Image: y =
2
2 1 4
3
x | |
+ +
|
\ .

7 a
2
2
4
x
y + = 1
Centre: (0, 0)
Semi Major: 2
Semi Minor: 1

b
2
( 2) ( 4)
9 4
x y +
+ = 1
Centre: (2, 4)
Semi Major: 3
Semi Minor: 2

c
2 2
( 4) ( 2)
4 16
x y +
+ = 1
Centre: (4, 2)
Semi Major: 4
Semi Minor: 2

d
2 2
( 1) ( 2)
2 3
x y
+ = 1
Centre: (1, 2)
Semi Major: 3
Semi Minor: 2

8 a
2 2
4 16
x y
= 1
Centre: (0, 0)
Vertices: (2, 0)
Asymptotes: y =
4
2
x
y = 2x

b (x 2)
2
2
( 1)
4
y
= 1
Centre: (2, 1)
Vertices: (2 1, 1) (1, 1), (3, 1)
Asymptotes: y 1 =
2
1
(x 2) y = 2x 3, y = 2x + 5

c
2 2
1
4 16
x y
+ =
Centre: (0, 0)
Vertices: (0, 4)
Asymptotes: y =
4
2
x y = 2x
A GM1 1 - 2 44 T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s

d
2 2
3
4 4
x y ( + )
+ = 1
Centre: (3, 0)
Vertices: (3, 2)
Asymptotes: y =
2
2
(x + 3) y = x + 3, y = x 3

9 a (x, y) (2x 2, 3y 3)
D
2, 3
and T
2, 3

(2, 3) (2 2 2, 3 3 3)
(2, 12): Image
y = x
2

2, 3
D

3
y
=
2
2
x | |
|
\ .

y =
2
3
4
x

y =
2, 3
2
3
4
T x

y + 2 =
2
3( 3)
4
x +

y =
2
3( 3)
2:
2
x +
Image.
b (x, y) (2x 2, 3y + 3)
D
2, 3
and T
2, 3

(3, 2) (2 3 2, 3 2 + 3)
(8, 9): Image.
y = x
2

2, 3
D

3
y
=
2
2
x | |
|
\ .

y =
2
3
4
x

y =
2, 3
2
3
4
T x

y + 2 =
2
3( 3)
2
x

y =
2
3( 3)
2
2
x
Image
c (x, y) (2x + 2, 3y 3)
D
2, 3
and T
2, 3

(2, 1) (2 2 + 2, 3 1 3)
(6, 0): Image.
y =
1
x

2 3
D


2
y

=
1
3
x


y =
6
x

y =
6
x

2, 3
3
T
y

+ =
6
2 x

y =
6
3:
2 x

Image
d (x, y) (y 2, 2x + 4)
M
y = x
and D
2, 1
and T
2, 4

(2, 3) ((3) 2, 2(2) + 4)
(1, 8): Image
y =
1
x

y x
M
x
=
=
1
y

y =
1
x

y =
1
x

2, 1
D
y =
1
1
2
x

y =
2
x

y =
2
x

2, 4
T

y 4 =
2
2 x +

y =
2
4:
2 x
+
+
Image.
10 a T
2, 3
, D
2, 1

T
2, 3
x = x 2, y = y + 3
x = x + 2, y = y 3
Given y = f(x)
y 3 = f(x + 2)
y = f(x + 2) + 3
D
2, 1
x = 2x, y = y
y = 2 3
2
x
f
| |
+ +
|
\ .

Rule: y = 2 3
2
x
f
| |
+ +
|
\ .

b D
2, 1
, T
2, 3

D
2, 1
x = 2x, y = y
x =
2
x
, y = y
Given y = f(x)
y =
2
x
f
| |
|
\ .

y =
2
x
f
| |
|
\ .

T
2, 3
x = x 2, y = y + 3
y 3 =
2
2
x
f
+ | |
|
\ .

Rule: y =
2
3
2
x
f
+ | |
+
|
\ .

c D
2, 2
, T
2, 3
, M
y = x

D
2, 2
x = 2x, y = 2y
Given y = f(x)

2
y
=
2
x
f
| |
|
\ .

y = 2
2
x
f
| |
|
\ .

T
2, 3
x = x + 2, y = y 3
y + 3 =
2
2
2
x
f
| |
|
\ .

y =
2
2 3
2
x
f
| |

|
\ .

M
y = x
x = y, y = x.
x =
2
2 3
2
y
f
| |

|
\ .
.
T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s A GM1 1 - 2 45
x =
2
2 3
2
y
f
| |

|
\ .
.
d M
y = x
, D
2, 2
, T
2, 3
.
M
y = x
y = x , x = y
Given y = f(x)
x = f(y)
x = f(y)
D
2, 2
x = 2x, y = 2y

2
x
=
2
y
f
| |
|
\ .

x = 2
2
y
f
| |
|
\ .

T
2, 3
x = x + 2, y = y 3
x 2 =
3
2
2
y
f
+ | |
|
\ .

x =
3
2 2
2
y
f
+ | |
+
|
\ .
.
e T
2, 3
, M
y = x
, D
2, 2

T
2, 3
x = x + 2, y = y 3
Given y = f(x)
y + 3 = f(x 2)
y = f(x 2) 3
M
y = x
x = y, y = x
x = f(y 2) 3
x = f(y 2) 3
D
2, 2
x = 2x, y = 2y

2
x
= 2 3
2
y
f
| |

|
\ .

x = 2 2 3
2
y
f
| |

|
\ .
.
11 a y = 3
x

1
y = 3
x

2
y = 3
x

3
y = 7 (3
x
)
4
y = 7 (3
2x
)
5
y = 7 (3
2x+2
)
1: M
x = 0
Reflection in the y-axis.
2: M
y = 0
Reflection in the x-axis.
3: D
1, 7
Dilation factor of 7 from x-axis (Parallel to
y-axis)
4:
1
, 1
2
D Dilation factor of
1
2
from y-axis (Parallel to
x-axis)
5: T
1, 0
Translation 1 right (positive x direction)
b y =
1
x

1
y =
1
x


2
y =
1
2x


3

y =
1
1
2 1 x

+

1:
0
0
x
y
M
M
=
=
OR Reflection in the y-axis or (x-axis)
2:
1
, 1
2
D Dilation factor of
1
2
from y-axis (parallel to
x-axis)
3:
1
, 1
2
T

Translation
1
2
unit left and 1 unit down.
c y = f(x)
1
y = 2f(x)
2
y = 2f(x)
3

y = 2f(3x)
4
y = 2f(3x)
5
y = 2f
(3x + 2) + 2.
1: D
1, 2
Dilation factor of 2 from x-axis (parallel to y-axis)
2: M
y = 0
Reflection in the x-axis.
3:
1
, 1
3
D Dilation factor of
1
3
from y-axis (parallel to x-axis)
4: M
x = 0
Reflection in the y-axis.
5:
2
, 2
3
T Translation
2
3
of a unit right and 2 units up.
12 a y = x y = 2x + 3
M
y = 0
Reflection in the x-axis.
D
1, 2
Dilation factor of 2 from x-axis
T
0, 3
Translation up 3.

b y = x
2
y = 2(x 1)
2
+ 6.
M
y = 0
Reflection in the x-axis.
D
1, 2
Dilation factor of 2 from x-axis.
T
1, 6
Translation 1 right and 6 up.

c y = x y = 2 2 1 2 x +
M
y = 0
Reflection in the x-axis

1
, 2
2
D Dilation
1
2
from y-axis and 2 from x-axis

1
, 2
2
T Translation
1
2
right and 2 up.

d y = 3
x
y = 2(3
2x + 2
).
M
y = 0, x = 0
Reflection in the x and y-axis.

1
, 2
x
D Dilation
1
2
from y-axis and 2 from x-axis.
T
1, 0
Translation 1 right

A GM1 1 - 2 46 T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
e x
2
+ y
2
= 1
2 2
( 1) ( 2)
4 9
x y +
+ = 1
Circle Ellipse
Centre (0, 0) Centre (1, 2)
Radius = 1 Semi Major: 3
Semi Minor: 2

f x
2
y
2
= 1
2 2
( 2)
4 9
x y
= 1
Centre: (0, 0) Centre: (0, 2)
Vertices: (1, 0) Vertices: (2, 2)
Asymptotes: y = x Asymptotes: y 2 =
3
2
(x)
y =
3
2
x + 2, y =
3
2
x + 2

Multiple choice
1 (2, 4) onto (4, 1)
(3, 5) onto (9, 0)
Since (x + 6, y 5)
B
2 T
2, 1
Translation 2 right and 1 down.
y =
1
1
2 x

D.
3 y =
1
x
y =
1
3
2 x
+
+
.
x = 0 left 2 Asymptotes x = 2
y = 0 up 3 y = 3 D.
4 y = x
2
y = x
2

M
y = 0
Reflection in the x-axis
x = x, y = y
(2, 3) (2, 3) E.
5 y = 1 1 x +
M
y= x
: x = y, y = x.
x = 1 1 y +
(x + 1)
2
= y + 1
y =
2
( 1) 1 x +
Image y = (x + 1)
2
1
y = x
2
+ 2x + 1 1
y = x
2
+ 2 A.
6 (x, y) (ax, by)
x = ax, y = by
y = f(x)
T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s A GM1 1 - 2 47

y
b

=
x
f
a

| |
|
\ .

y =
x
bf
a

| |
|
\ .

Image y =
x
bf
a
| |
|
\ .
B.
7 (6, 4) Image after
3
1
,
2
D Dilation factor of 3 from y-axis and
1
2
from x-axis
x = 3x, y =
1
2
y
x =
3
x
, y = 2y

6
3
x = , y = 2x 4
x = 2, y = 8
Original (2, 8) (C)
8
2 2 2 2
( 2) ( 2) ( ) ( 7)
1 1
9 16 9 16
x y x y + + +
+ = + =
Centre (2, 3) Centre (0, 7)
Translated 2 right and 4 down, T
2, 4
E.
9
2
2
( 2)
( 1) 1
9
x
y

=
y 1 =
1
( 2)
2
x
y =
1
1 1,
2
x + y=
1
1 1
2
x + +
y =
1
,
2
x y =
1
2
2
x + D.
10
2 2
( 1) ( 3)
1
4 9
x y +
=
Centre: (1, 3)
Vertices: (1 2, 3)
(3, 3) and (1, 3) A.
11 T
2, 3
, D
2, 1
, M
y =

x
.

2, 3 2,1 :
( , ) ( 2, 3) (2 4, 3) ( 3, 2 4)
T D My x
x y x y x y y x + + + + + + B.
12
1 2
:( , ) (2 1, 2 2) :( , ) ( 2, 2 )
r r
T x y x y T x y y x + + +

1 0 2, 2 1, 2 2 0 2,1 0, 2
: , , : , , ,
r y r y y x
T M D T T M M D T
= = =


0 1
( , ) (2 1, 2 2) (2 1, 2 2) (2 2, 2 1)
y y x r
M M T
x y x y x y y x
= =
+ + + +

2, 1 0, 2
(2 2, 4 2) (2 , 4 2)
D T
y x y x + + E.
13
1 2
2 2 1 y x y x y x = = = +
1: Dilation factor,
1
2
from y-axis
1
, 1
2
D
2: Translation
1
, 0
2
1
left
2
T

B.
14
1 2
( ) 2 ( 2 ) 2 ( 2 2) 3. y f x y f x y f x = = = + +
1: Dilation factor
1
2
from y-axis and 2 from x-axis,
1
, 2
2
D
2: Translation 1 unit right and 3 unit up, T
1, 3
. C.
15
2 3
2 3(2 ) 1
x x
y y

= = +
The reflection last could change the image equation
Part (E)
1 3 0
, 3 , 1
2 2
, ,
y
D T M
=


1, 3 3
, 1
0 2 2
2 2 3 2 3
2 3(2 ) 3(2 ) 1 3(2 ) 1
y
D T
M
x x x x
y y y y
=
= = = + =
Which is not: y = 3(2
2x 3
) + 1 E.
A GM1 1 - 2 48 T r a n s f o r ma t i o n s
Extended response
1 a i x
2
+ y
2
= 1(x 1)
2
+ (y + 2)
2
= 1
Centre (0, 0) Centre (1, 2)
Translated 1 right and 2 down. T
1, 2

ii x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x + 4y 13 = 0.
x
2
+ 2x +
2 2 2 2
2
3 2 4 4
4 13
2 2 2 2
y y

+ + +


= 0
(x + 1)
2
1 + (y + 2)
2
4 13 = 0
(x + 1)
2
+ 1 + (y + 2)
2
= 18
Centre (1, 2), Radius = 18 3 2 =
iii x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x 2y 7 = 0
x
2
+ 2x +
2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2 7
2 2 2 2
y y

+ +


= 0
(x + 1)
2
1 + (y 1)
2
1 7 = 0
(x + 1)
2
+ (y 1)
2
= 9
Centre (0, 0), r = 1 onto (1, 1), r = 3
Translated 1 unit left and 1 unit up. Dilation factor of 3 from the x and y axis. T
1, 1
and D
3, 3

b i
2 2
2 2
( 1)
1 onto ( 3) 1
4 4
x x
y y
+
= =
Centre (0, 0) Centre(1, 3)
Translated 1 unit Left and 3 units Up. T
1, 3.

ii 9x
2
4y
2
+ 18x 8y 31 = 0
9(x
2
+ 2x) 4(y
2
+ 2y) 31 = 0

2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
9 2 4 2 31
2 2 2 2
x x y y


+ + + +




= 0

2 2
9(( 1) 1) 4(( 1) 1) 31 x y + + = 0

2 2
9( 1) 9 4( 1) 4 31 x y + + + = 0

2 2
9( 1) 4( 1) x y + + = 36

2 2
( 1) ( 1)
4 4
x y + +
= 1
Centre: (1, 1)
Semi Major = 3
Semi Minor = 2
iii x
2
y
2
2x 3 = 0 onto x
2
y
2
4x + 2y 1 = 0

2 2
2 2
2 2
2 3
2 2
x x y

+


= 0
2 2 2 2
2 2
4 4 2 2
4 2 1
2 2 2 2
x x y y


+ +




= 0
(x 1)
2
1 y
2
3 = 0 (x 2)
2
4 ((y 1)
2
1) 1 = 0
(x 1)
2
y
2
= 4 (x 2)
2
4 (y 1)
2
+ 1 1 = 0

2 2
( 2) ( 1) 4 x y =

2 2
( 1)
4 4
x y
= 1
2 2
( 2) ( 1)
4 4
x y
= 1
Centre (1, 0) Centre (2, 1)
Translated 1 right and 1 up. T
1, 1

Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s A GM1 1 - 3 49

Exercise 3A Relations
1 a {(2, 3), (4, 7), (6, 8)}
Domain: {2, 4, 6}
Range: {3, 7, 8}
b { } (2, 1), (3, 1), (4, 1)
Domain: {2, 3, 4}
Range: {1}
c { } (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 5)
Domain: { } 2
Range: { } 2, 3, 5
d { } (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 2), (3, 2)
Domain: { } 1, 2, 3 .
Range: { } 2, 3 .
e {(x, y): x z
+
, y 2x 1}
Domain: {x : x z
+
}
Range: { } : , 1 y y z y
f {(x, y): x Z, x 5, y = x}
Domain: {x : x Z, x 5}
Range: {y : y Z, y 5}
g {(x, y): x Z, 4 x 21, y = x 4}
Domain: {x : x Z, 4 x 21}
Range: {y : y Z, 0 y 17}
h {(x, y): x [2, 7), y = x + 1}
Domain: [2, 7)
Range: [3, 8)
i {(x, y): x (2, 4), y = x
2

Domain: [2, 4)
Range: [4, 16)
j
{ }
2
( , ): ( 1, 1), x y x y x =
Domain: [ 1, 1)
Range: (0, 1)
k
{ }
2
( , ): ( 2, 1), x y x y x =
Domain: ( 2, 1)
Range: (1, 4)
l
{ }
2
( , ): 3 x y y x = +
Domain: R
Range: [3, )
m
{ }
2
( , ): 3 x y y x = +
Domain: R
Range: ( , 3]
n
{ }
2 2
( , ): 9 x y x y + =
Domain: [ 3, 3]
Range: [ 3, 3]
o
{ }
2 2
( , ): ( 2) 4 x y x y + =
Domain: [0, 4]
Range: [ 2, 2]
p
{ }
2 2
( , ): [0, 3), 9 x y x x y + =
Domain: [0, 3)
Range: [ 3, 0) (0, 3]
2 a


Range: { } 2, 3
b


Range: { } 2, 3, 5
c


d


Range: [9, 0]
e


Range: [3, )
f


Range: (, 2]
Chapter 3 Relations and functions
A GM1 1 - 3 50 Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s
g


Range: [5, 3]
h


Range: [4, 2]
i


Range: [2 5, 2 5] +
j


Range: [ 3, 5) ( 5, 3]
k


Range: ( 2 2 1, 5 1] [ 5 1, 2 2 1)
l


Range: [0, 3)
m


Range: ( 5, 3]
n


Range: [3, 5]
3 a Domain: [2, )
Range: R
b Domain: R
Range: R
c Domain: \{0} R
Range: R\{0}
d Domain: \{ 5} R
Range: \{5} R
e Domain: \{ 5, 1} R
Range: \{0} R
f Domain: R
Range: [2.5, 0)
g Domain: (, 5) (0, )
Range: R


h Domain: [8, 8]
Range: [5, 5]
i Domain: [, 5) (5, )
Range: R
+
{ } 0
j Domain: \{ 5} R
Range: \{0} R
k Domain: R
Range: (, 2) (2, )
l Domain: \{ 4, 4} R
Range: (4, )
4
2
2
( 3)
( 1)
4
y
x

+ + = 1


Domain: [2, 0]
Range: [1, 5]
B
5
2 2
( 1) ( 2)
4 16
x y +
= 1
Domain: \( 1, 3) R
A
Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s A GM1 1 - 3 51

Exercise 3B Functions
1 a f : R R, f(x) = 5 x+ Domain: (5, ) not R
b f : R R, f(x) =
2
x x
x
+
Function not defined when x = 0
c f : [1, 5] R
+
, f(x) = 4 x The range [1, 3] co-domain R
+

d f : R
+
R, f(x) = x Not a function since 1 many
e f : R
+
R
+
, f(x) =
3
3
x
x The range R

{ } 0 co-domain R
+

f f : R R, x = 2 Not a function since 1 many
2 a f : [2, 5) R, f(x) = 3x 2


Range: [4, 13)
b f : R R, f(x) = x
2
+ 2x + 3.
T.P. (1, 2)


Range: [2, ).
c f : R R, f(x) = 3
x
+ 2


Range: (2, ).
d f : (2, 4] R, f(x) = 3 2x


Range: [5, 1)
e f : R R, f(x) = 2x
2
+ 8x + 1


Range: (, 9].
f f : R R, f(x) = 4 2
x



Range: (, 4).
g f : (1, 3) R, f(x) = x
2
+ 4x + 2


Range: (7, 23)
h f : (1, 3) R, f(x) = x
2
4x + 2


Range: [2, 1)
i f : [1, 3) R, f(x) = 2
x
+ 2


Range: (6, 0]
j f : R R, f(x) = 3
x
+ 2


Range: (2, )
k f : [4, ) R, f(x) = + 5 x


Range: [3, )
A GM1 1 - 3 52 Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s
l f : \{1} R R, f(x) =
2
1 x



Range: R\{0}.
m f : (, 2) R, f(x) =
1
2 x



Range: R
+

n f: R R, f(x) =
1
2 1
x

+



Range: (1, 0)
o f : \{0} R R, f(x) =
2
,
x x
x
+



Range: \{1} R
3 f(x) = x
2
5x + 6
a 0 = x
2
5x + 6 Factors: (3 2) + 6
0 = x
2
3x 2x + 6 + 5
0 = x(x 3) 2(x 3)
0 = (x 3)(x 2) Factors
x = 3, x = 2 Solutions.
b f(x
2
1) =
2 2
(( 1) 3)(( 1) 2) x x
=
2 2
( 4)( 3) x x
0 =
2 2
( 4)( 3) x x
x
2
4 = 0, x
2
3 = 0
x
2
= 4, x
2
= 3
x = 2, x = 3
4 f(x) = 0 Solutions 2 and 6
f(x) could be f(x) = (x 2)(x 6)
a f(x
2
x) = ((x
2
x) 2)((x
2
x) 6)
0 = (x
2
x 2)(x
2
x 6)
x
2
x 2 = 0, x
2
x 6 = 0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0, (x 3)(x + 2) = 0
x = 2, x = 1, x = 3, x = 2
b f(2
x
2) = ((2
x
2) 2)((2
x
2) 6)
0 = (2
x
4)(2
x
8)
2
x
4 = 0, 2
x
8 = 0
2
x
= 2
2
, 2
x
= 2
3

x = 2, x = 3
5 A : Domain wrong
B : Range co-domain
C : Not a function
D : Domain and not a function E
6 f : [4, ) R, f(x) = 5 x + and
f : ( , 2) R, f(x) =
1
2 x



Range: [3, )


Range: ( , 0) or R


A.
Exercise 3C Inverse functions
1 a f: [0, ) R, f(x) = 3x 2


y = 3x 2
x = 3y 2
3y = x + 2
y =
2
3 3
x
+
f
1
(x) =
2
, 2
3 3
x
x +
Domain Range
f(x) [0, ) [2, )
f
1
(x) [2, ) [0, )
b f: [1, 3) R, f(x) = 2x 4


Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s A GM1 1 - 3 53

y = 2x 4
x = 3y 4
3y = x + 4
y =
4
3 3
x
+
f
1
(x) =
4
, 2 2
3 3
x
x + <
Domain Range
f(x) [1, 3) [2, 2)
f
1
(x) [2, 2) [1, 3)
c f : (1, 2] R, f(x) = 2x + 4


y = 2x + 4
x = 2y + 4
2y = x + 4
y = 2
2
x
+
f
1
(x) = 2, 0 6
2
x
x

+ <
Domain Range
f(x) (1, 2] [0, 6)
f
1
(x) [0, 6) [1, 2)
d f : ( , 2] R, f(x) = 2x + 1


y = 2x + 1
x = 2y + 1
2y = x 1
y =
1
2 2
x

f
1
(x) =
1
, 5
2 2
x
x
Domain Range
f(x) (, 2] (, 5]
f
1
(x) (, 5] (, 2]
e f : (2, 2] R, f(x) = 2x 2


y = 2x 2
x = 2y 2
2y = x 2
y = 1
2
x

f
1
(x) = 1, 6 2
2
x
x

<
Domain Range
f(x) (2, 2] [6, 2)
f
1
(x) [6, 2) (2, 2]
f f: [4, 2) R, f(x) = x 3


y = x 3
x = y 3
y = x 3
f
1
(x) = x 3, 5 < x 1
Domain Range
f(x) [4, 2) (5, 1]
f
1
(x) (5, 1] [4, 2)
2 a f: (1, ) R, f(x) = x
2
2x + 2


y = x
2
2x + 2
x = y
2
2x + 2
x = y
2
2x +
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

x = (y 1)
2
+ 1
y 1 = 1 x
y = 1 1 x +
f
1
(x) = 1 x + 1, x > 1
Domain Range
f(x) (1, ) (1, )
f
1
(x) (1, ) (1, )
b f : ( , 2] R, f(x) = x
2
+ 4x + 5


y = x
2
+ 4x + 5
x = y
2
+ 4x + 5
x = y
2
+ 4x +
2 2
4 4
5
2 2
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

A GM1 1 - 3 54 Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s
x = (y + 2)
2
+ 1
y + 2 = 1 x
y = 1 2 x
f
1
(x) = 1 x 2, x 1
Domain Range
f(x) (, 2] [1, )
f
1
(x) [1, ) (, 2]
c f : (1, ) R, f(x) = x
2
+ 2x + 3


y = x
2
+ 2x + 3
x = (y
2
2y 3)

2 2
2
2 2
2 3
2 2
x y y
| |
| | | |
= + |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

x = ((y 1)
2
4)
y 1 = 4 x +
y = 4 1 x +
f
1
(x) = 4 x + 1, x 4
Domain Range
f(x) (1, ) (, 4)
f
1
(x) (, 4) (1, )
d f :
1
,
2
|

|
.
R, f(x) = 2x
2
+ 2x + 3


y = 2x
2
+ 2x + 3
x = 2
2
3
2
y y
| |

|
\ .

x = 2
2 2
2
1 3 1
2 2 2
y y
| |
| | | |
+ |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

x = 2
2
1 7
2 4
y
| |
| |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .


7
2 4
x
+ =
2
1
2
y
| |

|
\ .

y =
1 1
7 2
2 2
x +
f
1
(x) =
1 1
7 2
2 2
x +
Domain Range
f(x)
1
,
2
|

|
.

7
,
2
| (

(
\

f
1
(x)
7
,
2
| (

(
\

1
,
2
|

|
.

e f : (2, ) R, f(x) = 2 x +


y = 2 x +
x = 2 y +
x
2
= y + 2
y = x
2
2
f
1
(x) = x
2
2, x > 0
Domain Range
f(x) (2, ) R
+

f
1
(x) R
+
(2, )
f f :
1
, ,
2
R
| |

|
\ .
f(x) = 2 1 1 x +


y = 2 1 1 x +
x = 2 1 1 y +
(x 1)
2
= 2y 1
y =
2
1 1
( 1)
2 2
x +
f
1
(x) =
2
1 1
( 1) , 1
2 2
x x + >
Domain Range
f(x)
1
,
2
| |

|
\ .
(1, )
f
1
(x) (1, )
1
,
2
| |

|
\ .

g f : (2, ) R, f(x) = 2 1 x + +


y = 2 1 x + +
x = 2 1 y + +
y + 2 = (1 x)
2

y = (1 x)
2
2
f
1
(x) = (1 x)
2
2, x < 1
Domain Range
f(x) (2, ) (, 1)
f
1
(x) (, 1) (2, )
Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s A GM1 1 - 3 55

h f: ( , 3) R, f(x) = 3 2 x +


y = 3 2 x +
x = 3 2 y +
3 y = (2 x)
2

y = (2 x)
2
+ 3
f
1
(x) = (2 x)
2
+ 3, x < 2
Domain Range
f(x) (, 3) (, 2)
f
1
(x) (, 2) (, 3)
3 a f: R\{0} R, f(x) =
1
x



Passes vertical line test
A function
Passes horizontal line test
Inverse a function
11 function
Domain Range
f(x) R\{0}. R\{0}
f
1
(x) R\{0} R\{0}
y =
1
x

x =
1
y

y =
1
x

f
1
(x) =
1
,
x
x R\{0}
b f : R\{0} R, f(x) =
2
1
x



Passes vertical line test
A function
Fails horizontal line test
Not an inverse function
Not a 11 function
Thus the inverse function does not exist
c f: R
1
\
2

`
)
R, f(x) =
1
2 1 x



Passes vertical line test
A function
Passes horizontal line test
Inverse a function
11 function
y =
1
2 1 x

x =
1
2 1 y

2y 1 =
1
x

2y =
1
1
x
+
y =
1 1
2 2 x
+
f
1
(x) =
1 1
,
2 2 x
+ x R\{0}
Domain Range
f(x) R\
1
2

`
)
R\{0}
f
1
(x) R\{0} R\
1
2

`
)

d f : (2, ) R, f(x) =
2
1
( 2) x



Passes vertical line test
A function
Passes the horizontal line test
Inverse is a function
11 function
y =
2
1
( 2) x

x =
2
1
( 2) y

y 2 =
1
x

y = 2
x
x
+
f
1
(x) = 2,
x
x
+ x R
+

A GM1 1 - 3 56 Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s
Domain Range
f(x) (2, ) R
+

f
1
(x) R
+
(2, )
4 f : [1, ) R, f(x) = 2x
2
4x + 4


y = 2x
2
4x + 4
x = 2y
2
4y + 4
x = 2(y
2
2y + 2)
x =
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
y y

| |
| | | |
+ + |
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .

x = 2
2
(( 1) 1) y +

2
2
x
= y 1
y =
2
1
2
x
+
E
Domain Range
f(x) [1, ) [2, )
f
1
(x) [2, ) [1, )
Chapter review
Short answer
1 a {(2, 3), (2, 4), (3, 3)}
Domain: {2, 3}
Range: {3, 4}.


b {(x, y) : x Z, y = x}


c {(x, y) : x Z
+
, y = 2
x
}


d
{ }
2 2
( , ) : ( 1) ( 2) 4 x y x y + =
Domain: [1, 3]
Range: [0, 4]


e
2 2
( 1) ( 2)
( , ) : 1
4 16
x y
x y


+ =
`

)

Domain: [1, 3]
Range: [2, 6].


f
2 2
( 1) ( 2)
( , ) : 1
4 16
x y
x y


=
`

)

Domain: ( , 1] [3, )
Range: y R
Centre: (1, 2)
Vertices: (1, 2) and (3, 2)
Asymptotes: y 2 =
4
2
(x 1)
y = 2x, y = 2x + 4


2 a Domain: x R
Range: y R
b Domain x R\{4, 2}
Range: y R\{0}.
c Domain: x R.
Range: (, 6] [2, )
d Domain: x R
Range: y R
e Domain: x R
Range: y R
f Domain: (, 3] (0, )
Range: (, 3] (0, )
3 a f : R R, f(x) =
2
2
1 x
x
+

x 0 Incorrect domain
Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s A GM1 1 - 3 57

b f : R
+
R
+
, f(x) = x
2
1
Range = [1, ) and [1, ) R
+
(co-domain)
c f : R R, f(x) = 2 3
2 3 is not a function of x, and not a function
4 a f : [3, 4) R, f(x) = x 4


Range: [1, 0).
b f : R R, f(x) = (x 4)(x 2)


Range: [1, ).
c f : R R, f(x) = e
x
4


Range: (4, )
d f : [4, ) R, f(x) = 5 x +


Range: [3, )
e f : [2, 2] R, f(x) =
2
4 x


Range: [0, 2]
f f : R R, f(x) = 2x
2
+ 4x 1


Range: (, 1].
g f : R\{2} R, f(x) =
3
1
2 x
+




Range: R\{1}.
h f : (2, ) R, f(x) = log
2
(x)


Range: (1, )
i f : R R, f(x) =
2
1
1 x +



Range: (0, 1].
5 a f(x) = x
2
3x + 2(2x 1)
= x
2
2x x + 2
= x(x 2) 1(x 2)
= (x 2)(x 1) Factors
0 = (x 2)(x 1)
x = 2, x = 1 Solutions
b f(x
2
+ 1) = (x
2
+ 1)
2
3(x
2
+ 1) + 2
= x
4
+ 2x
2
+ 1 3x
2
3 + 2
= x
4
x
2

f(x
2
+ 1) =
2 2
(( 1) 2)(( 1) 1) x x + +
= (x
2
1)(x
2
) Factors
0 = (x
2
1)(x
2
)
x
2
1 = 0, x
2
= 0
x = 1, x = 0 Solutions
A GM1 1 - 3 58 Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s
Multiple choice
1
2 2
( , ) : [ 2, 0], 1
4 9
x y
x y x


+ =
`

)
and
2 2
( , ) : 1 ,
4 9
x y
x y


=
`

)

3
2
y
x
= .




Range: [3, 3] Range: R
B
2
{ }
( , ) : 2
y
x y x = and
{ }
2
( , ) : 25 x y y x =




Domain: R
+
or (0, ) Domain: [5, 5]
A
3 f: [2, 3] R
+
, f(x) = x + 3


Range [0, 1].
Since range [0, 1] co-domain R
+

E
4 f : R
+
R, f(x) = 4 x + and f: R R, f(x) = x
2
+ 2x + 1




Range: (, 2) Range: R
+
or (0, )
E
5 f : R

R, f(x) =
2
1
1 x


1
3
=
2
1
1 x

x
2
1 = 3
x
2
= 4
x = 2 Domain R

x = 2
C
Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s A GM1 1 - 3 59

6
2 2
( , ) : [2, ), ( , 0], 1
4 9
x y
x y x y


=
`

)



Vertical line test: Pass Function
Horizontal line test: Pass Inverse function exists
E
7 f : (, 2] R, f(x) = x
2
4x + 1
f(x): Domain: (, 2] y = x
2
4x + 1
Range: [3, ) x = y
2
4x + 1
f
1
(x) Domain [3, ) x = y
2
4x
+
2 2
4 4
1
2 2
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

x =
2
( 2) 1 4 y +
x =
2
( 2) 3 y
(x + 3) = (y 2)
2

y 2 = 3 x+
y = 3 x+ + 2
f
1
(x) = 3 2, [ 3, ) x + +
C
Extended response
1 a f : [0, ) R, f(x) = 2x + 1


y = 2x + 1
x = 2y + 1
2y = x 1
y =
1
2 2
x

f
1
(x) =
1
, 1
2 2
x
x
Domain Range
f(x) [0, ) [1, )
f
1
(x) [1, ) [0, )
b f : (2, 4] R, f(x) = 2x + 1


y = 2x + 1
x = 2y + 1
y =
1
2 2
x
+
f
1
(x) =
1
, 7 5
2 2
x
x + <
Domain Range
f(x) (2, 4] [7, 5)
f
1
(x) [7, 5) (2, 4]
c f : [1, ) R, f(x) = x
2
2x 3


y = x
2
2x 3
x = y
2
2y 3
x =
2 2
2
2 2
2 3
2 2
y y
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

x =
2
( 1) 4 y
y = 4 x + + 1
f
1
(x) = 4 1, 4 x x + +
Domain Range
f(x) [1, ) [4, )
f
1
(x) [4, ) [1, )
d f : (, 0) R, f(x) = x
2
2x 1


y = x
2
2x 1
x = y
2
2y 1
x =
2 2
2
2 2
2 1
2 2
y y
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

x =
2
( 1) 2 y
2 x + = y 1
f
1
(x) = 2 1, 1 x x + + >
Domain Range
f(x) (, 0) (1, )
f
1
(x) (1, ) (, 0)
e f: (2, ) R, f(x) = 2 x


A GM1 1 - 3 60 Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s
y = 2 x
x = 2 y
x
2
= y 2
y = x
2
+ 2
f
1
(x) = x
2
+ 2, x 0
Domain Range
f(x) [2, ) [0, )
f
1
(x) [0, ) [2, )
f f : (, 1) R, f(x) = 1 x


y = 1 x
x = 1 y
x
2
= 1 y
y = 1 x
2

f
1
(x) = 1 x
2
, x 0
Domain Range
f(x) (, 1] (, 0]
f
1
(x) [, 0] (, 1]
g
2
: [ 3, 0] , ( ) 2 1
9
x
f R f x =


y =
2
2 1
9
x

x =
2
2 1
9
y


2
2
x | |
|
\ .
=
2
1
9
y


2

9
y
=
2
1
4
x

y
2
=
2
9 1
4
x
| |

|
|
\ .

y
2
=
2 2
1
3 1 , ( ) 3 1 , 0 2
4 4
x x
f x x

=
Domain Range
f(x) [3, 0] [0, 2]
f
1
(x) [0, 2] [3, 0]
h
2
: [ 3, ] , ( ) 2 1
9
x
f R f x + =


y =
2
2 1
9
x

x =
2
2 1
4
y


2
2
x | |
|
\ .
=
2
1
4
y


2
4 1
2
x
(
| |
+ (
|
\ .
(

= y
2

y =
2
3 1
4
x
+
f
1
(x) =
2
3 1, 0
4
x
x +
Domain Range
f(x) [3, ) [0, )
f
1
(x) [0, ) [3, )
2 a

b P = 6x
c P = 8
8 = 6x

4
3
= x
The largest value of x is
4
3
m.
d Domain:
4
0,
3
(
(


Range: [0, 8]
e {p:
4
0,
3
(
(

R, p(x) = 6x}
f Area = length width
A(x) = 2x x
A(x) = 2x
2
g Let A(x) = 18
18 = 2x
2

9 = x
2

9 x =
x = 3
Length = 3 m
Width = 6 m.
Exam practice 1
Short answer
1 3 72 4 12 300 +
= 3 36 2 4 4 3 100 3 +
= 18 2 8 3 3 + 10
= 18 2 2 3
2 f : [3, 3] R, where f(x) = [2x + 1]



Re l a t i o n s a n d f u n c t i o n s A GM1 1 - 3 61

3 Let f: R R, where f(x) = x 2 and Let g: R\{2} R,
where g(x) =
1
( ) f x




4 Show that if z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c di then
1
2
z
z
equals
2 2
( ) ac bd bc ad i
c d
+ +
+

LHS =
a bi c di
c di c di
+ +

+

=
( )( )
( )( )
a bi c di
c di c di
+ +
+

=
2
2 2
ac bdi adi bci
c di
+ + +


=
2 2
ac bd adi bci
c d
+ +
+

= RHS
Multiple choice
1 z
1
= 4 3i and z
2
= 1 + 2i
Then z
1
z
2

z
1
z
2
= (4 3i)(1 + 2i)
= 4 + 8i 3i 6i
2

= 10 + 5i
D
2 Translation
(x, y) (x + a, y + b)
Reflection in y-axis
(x, y) (x, y)
((x + a), y + b)
B
3 The values of z
1
= 3 2i
z
2
= 2 i
z
1
z
2
= 3 2i (2 i)
= 5 i
Hence point H
A
4 Dilation of 2 from x-axis
(x, y) (x, 2y)
y = 2y
y =
2
y


2
y
= |x 2|
y = 2|x 2|
E
5 The inverse of the function is found by a reflection along
the y = x line
D
Extended response
1 a i
3
, 0
2
| |
|
\ .

ii (3, 0)
iii 4 = 2x 3
x =
7
2

=
7
, 4
2
| |
|
\ .

b Reflection in the y-axis
c {(x, y): y = |2x 3|
d Domain =
7 7
,
2 2
(

(


Range = [0, 4]
2 a Dilation by a factor of
1
3

from the x-axis
b A
3
, 0
2
| |
|
\ .

B (0, 1)
Gradient =
2
3

y 1 =
2
3
(x 0)
y =
2
3
x + 1
c y =
2
3
x + 1

4
3
=
2
3
x + 1

1
3
=
2
3
x
x =
1
2

d
1
2
(
(


A GM1 1 - 4 62 A l g e b r a
Exercise 4A Review of index laws
1 a
2
12
3
a b
a
= 4ab
b
3 4
8
2
a b
ab
=
8
4
3
a
2
4
b
3
1
2 a
1
b
1

= 4a
2
b
3

c
2 4
3
2
a b
ab

=
1
2

a
21
b
4 3

=
1
2

ab
7

=
7
2
a
b


d
3 2
2
6
a b
a b

3
=
1
2

a
3 2
b
2

1

=
1
2

a
5
b
=
5
2
a b

e
3 3
2 4
2a b 3a
2
b
1

=
3 3
2 1
2 4
2 3a b
+

= 6
5
2
a
1
4
b


=
5
2
1
4
6a
b

f
1 1 5
3 2
3 2 2
8 4 a b a b


=
1 5
2 3
2 2
2a b


=
3 1
2 2
2a b
=
3
2 a b
2 a
3 2 2
4 2
( )
2
x y
x y
=
6 4
4 2
2
x y
x y

=
1
2
x
2
y
2

b
2 3
2 3
(2 )
4
xy
x y
=
3 3 6
2 3
2
4
x y
x y

= 2xy
3

c
3 2 2
2 2 4
(3 )
4( )
x y
x y
=
2 6 4
8 8
3
4
x y
x y

=
2 4
9
4x y

d
2 2 3
3 3
2( )
(2 )
x y
x y
=
6 6
3 9 3
2
2
x y
x y

=
3
3
4
y
x

e
3 2 2
( )
2
m n
mn

=
6 4
2
m n
mn


=
7 5
1
2m n

f
1 2 3
2 2 4
(2 )
2( )
m n
m n

=
3 3 6
8 8
2
2
m n
m n


=
14
5
16
n
m

g
2 2
2 2 3
(5 )
(3 )
m n
m n


1
3m
n


=
2 4 2
3 6 6
5
3
m n
m n


1
3m
n


=
25 3
27

m
41 6
n
261

=
25
9
m
9
n
5

=
9
5
25
9
m
n

h
3 3
2 1 3
( 2 )
(5 )
v w
v w


2
2
2
( )
w
vw

=
3 9 3 2
3 6 3 2 2
( 2) 2
5
v w w
v w v w



=
17 3 2 3 2
16
125
v w
+


=
6
17
16
125
w
v


i
1 2 2
2 2 3
(4 )
( 3 )
v w
m n


2 2 2
2
( )
2
v w
w


=
2 2 4
3 6 6
4
( 3)
v w
m n


4 4
2
2
v w
w


=
2 6
2 6
16
27 2
v m
w n



=
2 6
2 6
8
27
v m
w n


j
2 3 2
2 1 2 3 2
( 3 ) 9
(2 ) ( 2 )
vw w
v w v


=
3 3 6 2 6
2 4 2 2
( 3) ( 2)
2 9
v w v
v w w



=
3 4 6 2
3 2 2 6 2
1
( 3) 2 ( 2) 9
v w
v w



=
7 4
6 2
1
27 4 4 9
v w
v w



=
13 6
1
3888v w

3 ab =
1
1
2
1
2
2
( ) ab









=
1
8
( ) ab E
4 a 2
n 1
4
n

+ 1
16
n

= 2
n1
2
2(n+1)
2
4n

= 2
n 1 + 2n + 2 + 4n

= 2
7n + 1

b 3
n + 2
9
n 1
27
= 3
n+2
3
2(n1)
3
3

Chapter 4 Algebra
A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 63
= 3
n + 2 + 2n 2 + 3

= 3
3n + 3

c
3 1
5 3
75
n n
n
+


=
3 1
5 3
(25 3)
n n
n
+


=
3 1
2
5 3
5 3
n n
n n
+


=
3
5 3
n

d
2
1
27 4
16 3
n
n
+


=
3 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
n
n

+

=
2
4
3
4
n
n
+
+
=
2
2 8
3
2
n
n
+
+

e
2
6
2 3
n
n n +
=
2
(2 3)
2 3
n
n n +


= 2
n(n+2)
3
n n

= 2
2
3
2n

=
2
3
4
n

f 72
m2
4 3
2m

= (3
2
2
3
)
m2
2
2
3
2m

= 3
2(m 2)

+ 2m
2
3(m 2)

+ 2

= 3
4m 4
2
3m 4

Exercise 4B Standard form and significant
figures
1 a 3.604 10
5

b 2.13457 10
2

c 1.029398 10
3

d 3.24 10
2

e 1.0031 10
4

f 5.70201009 10
8

2 a
2800
350
=
4
2
2.8 10
3.5 10


= 0.8 10
2

= 80
b
5
3
4.2 10
1.4 10


= 3 10
2

= 300
c
7
3
1.12 10
2.8 10


= 0.4 10
4

= 4000
d
7
4
8 10
1.6 10


= 5 10
3

= 5000
e
6
3
3.1 10
1.55 10


= 2 10
3

= 2000
f
6
3
7.5 10
1.5 10


= 5 10
3

= 5000
g
0.00024
0.3

=
4
2.4 10
0.3


= 8 10
4

= 0.0008
h
5
2
1.8 10
6 10


= 0.3 10
3

= 0.0003
i
5
2
5.6 10
3.5 10


= 1.6 10
3

= 0.0016
j
4
3
8.4 10
2.1 10


= 4 10
1

= 0.4
k
6
2
5.8 10
2 10


= 2.9 10
8

l
5
3
1.3 10
2.6 10


= 0.5 10
8

= 5 10
7

m
3
4
6.6 10
1.1 10


= 6 10
7

n
5
5
9.5 10
1.9 10


= 5 10
10

o
4 3
2
1.8 10 4.5 10
9 10


=
4.5
5
10
1

= 0.9 10
1

= 0.09
p
3 3
4.9 10 1.75 10
35



= 0.245
q
7 5
3
7.5 10 2.5 10
1.25 10


= 6 2.5 10
1

= 15 10
1

= 1.5
r
7 9
3
2.56 10 4 10
6.4 10


=
8
5
10
1

= 16
3 10.0673 = 1.00673 10
A
4 a 0.023 : 2 sf.
b 10.21: 4 sf
c 3045 : 4 sf
d 210 50 : 5 sf
e 10 10 : 4 sf
f 34700.002 : 8 sf
g 0 12010 : 5 sf
h 7620 : 3 sf
i 190 0 : 4 sf
A GM1 1 - 4 64 A l g e b r a
j 0.000002 : 1 sf
k 4730 90 : 6 sf
l 28 00000: 2 sf
5 a

2.456
0.9
3.356

3 as 1 sf
b

12.340
1.02
13.360

13.4 as 3 sf
c

120.350
2.04
118.310

118 as 3 sf
d

0.2507
0.120
0.1307

0.131 as 3 sf
e 1.903 230.576
= 438.786128
438.8 as 4 sf
f 28.1 2.1020
= 59.0662
59.1 as 3 sf
g 403.5 5.1
= 79.117647
79 as 2 sf
h 2.01 0.05080
= 39.566929
39.6 as 3 sf
6

130.70
28.9913
101.7087

5 sf 101.71 A
7 32.3695 1.870
= 17.30989
17.31 as 4 sf D
8 a
1.35km
0.0007km
= 1928.5714
1 sf 2000 steps.
b
250g
3.24g
= 77.1605
2 sf 77 sugar cubes
9
9
6
8.4 10
4.2 10

= 0.002
10
2500000
625
= 4000
2 sf 4.0 10
3
days.
11
21
18
5970 10
73500 10


= 81.224489
3 sf 8122%
8120%
Exercise 4C Transposition
1 a 5y + 4x = 20
5y = 4x + 20
y =
4
5
x + 4
4x = 5y + 20
x =
5
4

y + 5
x = 5
5
4
y
b 3x 4y + 12 = 0
3x + 12 = 4y

3
4
x +
12
4
= y

3
4
x + 3 = y
y =
3
4
x + 3
c m = 3a 14
m + 14 = 3a

14
3 3
m
+ = a
a =
14
3 3
m
+
a =
1 14
3 3
m+
d 5p = 2 3k
5p 2 = 3k

5
3
p +
2
3
= k
k =
5 2
3 3
p

+
k =
2 5
3 3
p
e
1
2
a =
3
4
b
a =
3
4
2
2

1
1
b
a =
3
2
b
or

1
2
1
4

2
3
a = b

2
3
a = b
b =
2
3
a
f 10 3a = 2a b
10 + b = 2a + 3a
10 + b = 5a

10
5
b +
= a
2 +
1
5
b = a
a = 2 +
1
5
b
or
10 3a 2a = b
10 5a = b
10 + 5a = b
A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 65
5a 10 = b
b = 5a 10
g a = 3b 0.5c
a + 0.5c = 3b
0.5c = 3b a

1
2
c = 3b a
c = 6b 2a
c = 2a + 6b
h
2( 3)
5
a
= b
2(a 3) = 5b
2a 6 = 5b
2a = 5b + 6
a =
5 6
2 2
b
+
a =
5
2
b + 3
i 5(3 2d) = 6(f + 4)
15 10d = 6f + 24
10d = 6f + 24 15
10d = 6f + 9
d =
6 9
10
f

5(3 2d) = 6(f + 4)
15 6d = 6f + 24
15 10d 24 = 6f
9 10d = 6f

9 10
6
d
= f
f =
10 9
6
d

j
7( 4 )
3
a b
=
5( 2 )
4
b a


7 28
3
a b
=
5 10
4
b a

4(7a 28b) = 3(5b 10a)
28a 112b = 15b 30a
28a + 30a = 15b + 112b
58a = 127b or
58
127
a
= b
a =
127
58
b
k
3 2( 3 )
2 3
a b a +
+ = 1
LCD = 6

3
6
3
2
a

2
1
6 +
2( 3 )
3
b a +

1
= 1 6
9a + 4(b + 3a) = 6
9a + 4b + 12a = 6
21a + 4b = 6
21a = 6 4b
a =
6 4
21
b

a =
2 4
7 21
b
or
4b = 6 21a
b =
6 21
4
a

b =
3 21
2 4
a
l
2
5
x
6 =
3 6
10
x y

LCD = 10
10
2
2
5
x

1
6 10 = 10
3 6
10
x y

4x 60 = 3x 6y
4x 3x = 6y + 60
x = 6y + 60
or x 60 = 6y

1
6
x + 10 = y
2 a v
2
= u
2
+ as
v
2
u
2
= as
a =
2 2
v u
s


v
2
= u
2
+ as
u
2
= v
2
as
u =
2
v as
b S = 4 r
2


4
S

= r
2

r =
4
S


c
1
R
=
1 2
1 1
R R
+

1
R
=
2 1
1 2
R R
R R
+

R =
1 2
2 1
R R
R R +


1
R
=
1 2
1 1
R R
+

2
1 1
R R
=
1
1
R


2
2
R
R R
R

=
1
1
R

R
1
=
2
2
RR
R R

d A =
0
1
100
r
A

+




0
A
A
= 1
100
r
+

0
1
A
A
=
100
r

r =
0
100 1
A
A




e s = ( )
2
t
u v +
2s = t(u + v)
t =
2s
u v +

s = ( )
2
t
u v +
2s = t(u + v)

2s
t
= u + v
u =
2s
v
t

A GM1 1 - 4 66 A l g e b r a
f T = 2
L
z
g


2
T

=
L
g


2
2
4
T

=
L
g

L =
2
2
4
T g



2
2
4
T

=
g
L

g =
2
2
4 L
T


g C =
2 2
( ) a b +
C
2
= a
2
+ b
2

b
2
= C
2
a
2

b =
2 2
C a
h s =
2
1
2
ut at +
s ut =
2
1
2
at
2s 2ut = at
2

a =
2
2 2 s ut
t


=
2
2( ) s ut
t


i P = I
2
R

P
R
= I
2

I =
P
R

P = I
2
R
R =
2
P
I

j R =
2 1
mv mv
t


Rt = mv
2
mv
1

= m(v
2
v
1
)
m =
2 1
( )
Rt
v v

R =
2 1
mv mv
t


Rt = mv
2
mv
1

Rt mv
2
= mv
1

v
1
=
2
Rt mv
m


=
2
mv Rt
m


or v
1
= v
2

Rt
m

3 A gardener charges a $40 fixed fee for each visit plus $12
per hour of work
C = 12t + $40
B. when t = 4
C = 12 4 + 40
= 48 + 40
= 84
not 76
D. when t = 5
C = 12 5 + 40
= 60 + 40
= 100
The answer is D
4 Check that equation is equivalent to C = 12t + 40
A C + 40 = 12t
C = 12t 40
B C = 12t + 40
C 12t + 40 C = 0
C = 12t 40
C = 12t + 40
The answer is C
5 C = 12t + 40
C 40 = 12t

40
12 12
C
= t

10
12 3
C
= t

1
3
12 3
C
= t
t =
1
3
12 3
C

The answer is E
6 C = 12t + 40
If C = 79 t = ?
79 = 12t + 40
79 40 = 12t

39
12
= t
3.25 = t
t = 3 hours 15 mins
The answer is B
7 V =
2
1
3
s h
3V = s
2
h

3V
h
= s
2

s =
3V
h

The answer is E
8 V =
2
1
3
s h
3V = s
2
h
h =
2
3V
s

s = 5, V = 75
h =
2
3 75
5


=
225
25

h = 9 cm
The answer is B
9 V =
2
1
3
s h
s = 25, h = 2h
V =
2
1
(2 ) 2
3
s h
=
2
1
4 2
3
s h
=
2
1
8
3
s h
The volume increases 8 times
The answer is E
A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 67
10 V =
2
1
3
s h
h =
2
3V
s

s = 2s, V = V
h =
2
3
(2 )
V
s

=
2
3
4
V
s

=
2
1 3
4
V
s

The height becomes
1
4
of the original size
The answer is C
11 a S = (n 2) 180

180
S
= n 2

180
S
+ 2 = n
n =
180
S
+ 2
b
Polygon No. of sides Sum of interior angles
Triangle 3 S = (3 2) 180 = 180
Hexagon 6 S = (6 2) 180 = 720
Dodecagon 12 S = (12 2) 180 = 1800
Nonagon 9 S = (9 2) 180 = 1260
Heptagon 7 S = (7 2) 180 = 900

Octagon: n =
1080
180
+ 2 = 6 + 2 = 8
Pentagon: n =
540
180
+ 2 = 3 + 2 = 5
Quadrilateral: n =
360
180
+ 2 = 2 + 2 = 4
Decagon: n =
1440
180
+ 2 = 8 + 2 = 10

Polygon Number
of sides
(n)
Sum of
interior
angles (S)
Triangle 3 180
Hexagon 6 720
Dodecagon 12 1800
Nonagon 9 1260
Heptagon 7 900
Octagon 8 1080
Pentagon 5 540
Quadrilateral 4 360
Decagon 10 1440
12 a S = [2 ( 1) ]
2
n
a n d +
2S = n[2a + (n 1)d]

2S
n
= 2a + (n 1)d
2a =
2
( 1)
S
n d
n

a =
( 1)
2
S n d
n


=
2 ( 1)
2
S n n d
n


n = 26, d = 3, S = 1079
a =
2 1079 26(26 1) 3
2 26


=
2158 26 25 3
52


=
2158 1950
52


=
208
52

a = 4
b S = [2 ( 1) ]
2
n
a n d +
2S = n[2a + (n 1)d]

2S
n
= 2a + (n 1)d

2
2
S
a
n
= (n 1)d
d =
2
2
( 1)
S
a
n
n


=
2 2
( 1)
S an
n n


n = 20, a = 18, S = 20
d =
2 20 2 18 20
20(20 1)


=
40 720
20 19


=
760
380


d = 2
Exercise 4D Solving linear equations and
simultaneous equations
1 a x + 3 = 16
x + 3 3 = 16 3
x = 19
b 3 2x = 10
2x = 7
x =
7
2


x =
1
3
2

c 0.2x = 10
x =
10
0.2

x = 50
d
6
7
x
= 5
6x = 5 7
x =
35
6


x =
5
5
6

A GM1 1 - 4 68 A l g e b r a
e
4
x
=
1
2

x =
1
2
4
x = 2
f
3
4
x
+ 11 = 20

3
4
x
= 20 11
3x = 4 9
x =
36
3

x = 12
g
2
5
x
+ 3 = 7

2
5
x
= 7 3
2x = 5 10
x =
50
2


x = 25
h
9
7
x
= 5
x 9 = 5 7
x = 35 + 9
x = 44
i
6
13
x
= 5
6 x = 5 13
x = 65 6
x = 59
x = 59
j
11 2
5
x +
= 7
11x + 2 = 7 5
11x = 35 2
x =
33
11

x = 3
k 6
2
x
= 15

2
x
= 15 6
x = 9 2
x = 18
x = 18
l 17
2
3
x
= 20

2
3
x
= 20 + 17
2x = 3 3
x =
9
2


x = 4
1
2

2 a 2x = 7 + 9x
7 = 9x 2x
7 = 7x

7
7

= x
1 = x
x = 1
b 15x + 22 = 7x
15x + 7x = 22
22x = 22
x =
22
22


x = 1
c 12 17x = 5x
12 = 5x + 17x
12 = 12x
1 = x
x = 1
d 3x + 4 = x 6
3x x = 6 4
2x = 10
x = 5
e 5x + 2 = 3x + 18
2 18 = 3x + 5x
16 = 8x

16
8

= x
2 = x
x = 2
f 5x 3 = 3 5x
5x + 5x = 3 + 3
10x = 0
x =
0
10

x = 0
g 2x 7 = 2x + 1
2x + 2x = 1 + 7
4x = 8
x =
8
4

x = 2
h 15x + 2 = 13x 10
15x 13x = 10 2
2x = 12
x = 6
i 8 3x = 4 x
8 4 = x + 3x
4 = 2x

4
2
= x
2 = x
x = 2
j 13 3x = 4 6x
13 4 = 6x + 3x
9 = 3x

9
3
= x
3 = x
x = 3
k 9 + 11x = 3 x
11x + x = 3 + 9
12x = 6
x =
6
12

x =
1
2

3 a 4(x 20) = 16
4x 80 = 16
4x = 16 + 80
x =
96
4

x = 24
A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 69
b (5 + 6x) = 13
5 6x = 13
5 13 = 6x
18 = 6x

18
6

= x
3 = x
x = 3
c 2(2x 7) = 3x
4x + 14 = 3x
14 = 3x + 4x
14 = 7x

14
7
= x
2 = x
x = 2
d 8(2x + 1) = 2(7 3x)
16x + 8 = 14 + 6x
16x 6x = 14 8
10x = 22
x =
22
10


x = 2
1
5
(or 2.2)
e 4(x + 3) = 2(7 4x) + 5
4x + 12 = 14 8x + 5
4x + 8x = 14 + 5 12
12x = 7
x =
7
12

f 5(2x 4) 3 + 7(2 x) = 0
10x 20 3 + 14 7x = 0
3x 9 = 0
3x = 9
x =
9
3

x = 3
4 a
4
3
x +
=
2 1
2
x +


4
3
x +
6 =
2 1
2
x +
6
2(x + 4) = 3(2x + 1)
2x + 8 = 6x + 3
8 3 = 6x 2x
5 = 4x

5
4
= x
x = 1
1
4

b
7
x
x = 12

7
x
7 x 7 = 12 7
x 7x = 84
6x = 84
x =
84
6

x = 14
c x +
2
6
x
3 = 0
x 6 +
2
6
x
6 3 6 = 0
6x + 2x 18 = 0
8x 18 = 0
8x = 18
x =
18
8

x =
9
4

x = 2
1
4

d
7 1
4
x
=
2 3
5
x


7 1
4
x
20 =
2 3
5
x
20
5(7x 1) = 4(2 3x)
35x 5 = 8 12x
35x + 12x = 8 + 5
47x = 13
x =
13
47

e
7
3
x
=
3(2 3 ) 5
2 8
x x
+

7
3
x
=
6 9 5
2 8
x x
+
LCD = 24
24
8
7
3
x
= 24
12
(6 9 ) 5
2 8
x x
+
1
24
3

56x = 12(6 9x) + 15x
56x = 72 108x + 15x
56x = 72 93x
56x + 93x = 72
149x = 72
x =
72
149

f
3 2 7 2 1
4 3 2
x x x +
+ =
1
6

LCD = 12

12
3
(3 2)
4
x
1
12
+
4
(7 )
3
x
1
12

6
(2 1)
2
x +
1
=
1
6
1
12

2
1

9x 6 + 28 4x 12x 6 = 2
7x + 16 = 2
7x = 14
x =
14
7


x = 2
g
7
5
x
4 =
2(3 6)
3
x


7 4
5 1
x
=
6 12
3
x

LCD = 15

15
3
(7 )
5
x
1
4 15
1

=
15
5
(6 12)
3
x
1

21 3x 60 = 30x 60
39 + 60 = 30x + 3x
21 = 33x

21
33
= x
x =
7
11

A GM1 1 - 4 70 A l g e b r a
h
4(6 2 )
9
x
= 5
3( 7)
6
x +


24 8
9
x
=
5 3 21
1 6
x +

LCD = 18

18
2
(24 8 )
9
x
1
=
5 18
18
1

3
(3 21)
6
x +
1

48 16x = 90 3(3x + 21)
48 16x = 90 9x 63
48 16x = 27 9x
48 27 = 9x + 16x
21 = 7x
x =
21
7

x = 3
5 a i
2 1
1 x x

+
=
4
x

Undefined when x = 0 or 1
ii
3 4
1 x x
+

=
2
3x

Undefined when x = 0 or 1
iii
2(3 6) 1
( 1)( 1) ( 1)
x
x x x

+
+ +
=
4
( 1) x +

Undefined when x = 1 or 1
iv
5 7
2 4 x x
= 1
Undefined when x = 0
v
3(7 4)
2
x
x

= 4
Undefined when x = 2
vi
15 11
4 8 x x
=
3
3 x


Undefined when x = 0 or x = 3
b i
2 1
1 x x

+
=
4
x

LCD = x(x + 1)

2
1 x +
( 1) x x +
1
x

x(x + 1) =
4
x
x ( 1) x +
2x (x + 1) = 4(x + 1)
2x x 1 = 4x + 4
x 1 = 4x + 4
x 4x 1 = 4
3x = 4 + 1
3x = 5
x =
5
3

ii
3 4
1 x x
+

=
2
3x

LCD = 3x(x 1)

3
1 x
3 ( 1) x x
4
x
+
3 x ( 1) x =
2
3 x
3 x ( 1) x
9x + 12(x 1) = 2(x 1)
9x + 12x 12 = 2x 2
21x 12 = 2x 2
21x 2x 12 = 2
19x = 2 + 12
19x = 10
x =
10
19

iii
2(3 6) 1
( 1)( 1) ( 1)
x
x x x

+
+ +
=
4
( 1) x

LCD = (x 1)(x + 1)

2(3 6)
( 1)
x
x

( 1) x +
( 1) x ( 1) x + +
1
1 x +
( 1) x ( 1) x + =
4
1 x
( 1) x ( 1) x +
2(3x 6) + (x 1) = 4(x + 1)
6x 12 + x 1 = 4x + 4
7x 13 = 4x + 4
7x 4x 13 = 4
3x = 4 + 13
3x = 17
x =
17
3

iv
5 7
2 4 x x
= 1
LCD = 4x

5
2 x
2
4x
7
4x
4x = 1 4x
10 7 = 4x
3 = 4x

3
4
= x
x =
3
4

v
3(7 4)
2
x
x

= 4
LCD = (x 2)

3(7 4)
2
x
x

( 2 x ) = 4( 2) x
21x 12 = 4x + 8
21x + 4x 12 = 8
25x = 8 + 12
25x = 20
x =
20
25

x =
4
5

vi
15 11
4 8 x x
=
3
3 x


LCD = 8x(x 3)
28x
15
( 3)
4
x
x
8x
11
( 3)
8
x
x

= 8 ( 3 x x
3
)
3 x


2(x 3) 15 (x 3) 11 = 8x 3
30x 90 11x + 33 = 24x
19x 57 = 24x
43x = 57
x =
57
43

6 a 3x + y = 6
(1) y-intercept: x = 0
0 + y = 6
y = 6
(0, 6)
(2) x-intercept: y = 0
3x = 6
x = 2
(2, 0)
A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 71
y-intercept: x = 0
x 2y = 2
2y = 2
y = 1
(1) y-intercept: x = 0
(0, 1)
(2) x-intercept: y = 0
x + y = 0
x = 2
(2, 0)


b x + 3y = 3
3y = 3
y = 1
(1) y-intercept: x = 0
(0, 1)
(2) x-intercept: y = 0
x = 3
x = 3
(3, 0)
2x + 3y = 12
(1) y-intercept: x = 0
3y = 12
y = 4
(0, 4)
(2) x-intercept: y = 0
2x = 12
x = 6
(6, 0)


c x = y + 2
(1) y-intercept: x = 0
0 = y + 2
y = 2
(0, 2)
(2) x-intercept: y = 0
x = 0 + 2
x = 2
(2, 0)
2y x = 0
(1) y-intercept: x = 0
2y = 0
y = 0
(0, 0)
(2) Let x = 2 y = ?
2y 2 = 0
2y = 2
y = 1
(2, 1)


d 3x + 2y = 6
(1) y-intercept: x = 0
2y = 6
y = 3
(0, 3)
(2) x-intercept: y = 0
3x = 6
x = 2
(2, 0)
y = 1 x
(1) y-intercept: x = 0
y = 1 0
y = 1
(0, 1)
(2) x-intercept: y = 0
0 = 1 x
x = 1
(1, 0)


7 y = x + 5 y = x 1
m = 1 m = 1
Same gradient parallel so no intersection
The answer is C
8 2x 2y = 4 y = x 2
2y = 2x + 4 m = 1
y = x 2
m = 1
Actually same line therefore infinite number of solutions.
The answer is D
9 a If two lines with different gradients go through the
origin, then the solution to the pair of simultaneous
equations defining these lines would be (0, 0).
b If two lines have the same gradient but different y-intercept,
then the pair of simultaneous equations defining such lines
will have no solution (as they are parallel lines).
c If both lines are defined by the equation y = mx + c and have
the same value of c but a different value of m, then the
solution to such pairs of simultaneous equation will be (0, c).
10 a y = 2x + 3 (1)
6x + y = 11 (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
6x + 2x + 3 = 11
8x + 3 = 11
A GM1 1 - 4 72 A l g e b r a
8x = 8
x = 1
Sub x into (1)
y = 2 + 3
y = 5
(1, 5)
b x = y (1)
6x 2y = 10 (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
6y 2y = 10
4y = 10
y = 2.5
Sub y into (1)
x = 2.5
(2.5, 2.5)
c y = 3x 6 (1)
y = 16 + 5x (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
3x 6 = 16 + 5x
3x 5x = 16 + 6
2x = 22
x = 11
Sub x into (1)
y = 33 6
y = 39
(11, 39)
d x = y (1)
3x 6y = 36 (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
3y 6y = 36
9y = 36
y = 4
Sub y into (1)
x = 4
(4, 4)
e 2y 6 = x (1)
7x + 3y = 25 (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
7(2y 6) + 3y = 25
14y 42 + 3y = 25
17y = 25 + 42
17y = 17
y = 1
Sub y into (1)
x = 2 6
x = 4
(4, 1)
f x = 5 4y (1)
2y 3x = 13 (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
2y 3(5 4y) = 13
2y 15 + 12y = 13
14y = 13 + 15
14y = 28
y = 2
Sub y into (1)
x = 5 8
x = 3
(3, 2)
11 a 2x + y = 3 (1)
4x y = 9 (2)
(1) + (2)
2x + 4x = 3 9
6x = 6
x = 1
Sub x into (1)
2 + y = 3
y = 5
(1, 5)
b x y = 7 (1)
y + x = 1 (2)
(1) + (2)
x + x = 7 1
2x = 6
x = 3
Sub x into (1)
3 y = 7
y = 7 3
y = 4
y = 4
(3, 4)
c 3x 2y = 1 (1)
3x 6y = 9 (2)
(1) (2)
2y + 6y = 1 + 9
4y = 8
y = 2
Sub y into (1)
3x 4 = 1
3x = 1 + 4
3x = 3
x = 1
(1, 2)
d x + 3y = 7 (1)
5x 3y = 19 (2)
(1) + (2)
x + 5x = 7 19
6x = 12
x = 2
Sub x into (1)
2 + 3y = 7
3y = 9
y = 3
(2, 3)
e 2x + 4y = 24 (1)
6x + 4y = 8 (2)
(1) (2)
2x + 6x = 24 8
8x = 16
x = 2
Sub x into (1)
4 + 4y = 24
4y = 20
y = 5
(2, 5)
f 2x y = 0 (1)
2x 4y = 9 (2)
(1) (2)
y + 4y = 0 + 9
3y = 9
y = 3
Sub y into (1)
2x 3 = 0
2x = 3
x =
3
2

x = 1.5
(1.5, 3)
12 2x 3y = 5 (1)
3x + 4y = 10 (2)
eliminate x
(1) 3
(2) 2
eliminate y
A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 73
(1) 4
(2) 3
(this one does not appear in the choices)
The answer is C
13 a 2x 3y = 8 (1) 3
3x + 4y = 5 (2) 2
eliminate x
6x 9y = 24 (3)
6x + 8y = 10 (4)
(3) (4)
9y 8y = 24 + 10
17y = 34
y = 2
Sub y into (1)
2x + 6 = 8
2x = 2
x = 1
(1, 2)
b x 2y = 4 (1)
3x + y = 9 (2) 2
eliminate y
x 2y = 4 (1)
6x + 2y = 18 (3)
(1) + (3)
x + 6x = 4 + 18
7x = 14
x = 2
Sub x into (1)
2 2y = 4
2y = 6
y = 3
(2, 3)
c
2
3
x +
1
3
y = 5 ( 3)
2x + y = 15 (1)
2x y = 3 (2)
(1) (2)
y + y = 15 + 3
2y = 18
y = 9
Sub y into (1)
2x 9 = 3
2x = 6
x = 3
(3, 9)
d 2y x = 10 (1)
3y + x = 5 (2)
(1) + (2)
2y + 3y = 10 5
5y = 15
y = 3
Sub y into (1)
6 x = 10
x = 4
x = 4
(4, 3)
e 5y 2x = 4 (1)
6x + y = 4 (2) 5
5y 2x = 4 (1)
5y + 30x = 20 (3)
(1) (3)
2x 30x = 4 20
32x = 16
x =
1
2

Sub x =
1
2
into (2)
6
1
2
+ y = 4
3 + y = 4
y = 1

1
, 1
2




f
1
5
x +
3
5
y = 5 (1) 5
2y + x = 20 (2)
x + 3y = 25 (3)
x + 2y = 20 (2)
(3) (2)
y = 5
Sub y = 5 into (2)
10 + x = 20
x = 10
(10, 5)
14 When is x undefined? (3, 1, 0)
The answer is E
15
3( 1) 5
2 1
x
=
4 2
3
x

LCD = 6
Each term needs to be multiplied by 6
The answer is E
16
2
3
x
= 4
2x = 4 3
x = 4
3
2


2
or
3




answer C
17 a line 1: Using pts (0, 2), (1, 0)
m =
0 2
1 0

= 2.
y = mx + c
m = 2, c = 2
y = 2x 2
Answer B
b line 2: Using pts (0, 2), (3, 0)
m =
0 2 2
3 0 3
=
y = mx + c; m =
2
3
, c = 2
y =
2
3
x + 2
3y = 2x + 6
3y + 2x = 6 Answer E
c Using G. Calculator: pt of intersection
3
, 1
2




Answer D
18 Substitute x = 1 into the equation.

3
1 2 1 1
z

+
=
8 1
(1 2)(1 1)

+


3
1 2
z

=
8
1 2

3
2
z
= 4
A GM1 1 - 4 74 A l g e b r a

2
z
= 4 + 3
z = 1 2
z = 2
z = 2
19
5
2 2 x
=
4 6
1 2 x x
+


LCD = 2(x 1)(x 2)
2(x 1) ( 2 x
5
)
2 2 x


= 2 ( 1) x
4
( 2)
1
x
x


+ 2( 1) ( 2) x x
6
2 x


(x 2) 5 = 2(x 2) 4 + 2(x 1) 6
5x 10 = 8x 16 + 12x 12
5x 10 = 20x 28
18 = 15x
x =
18
15

=
6
5

20 2x + 3y z = 7 (1)
3x + 2y + z = 2 (2)
(1) + (2)
5x + 5y = 5 (3)
2x + 3y z = 7 (1) 2
4x + 6y 2z = 14 (4)
x 4y + 2z = 15 (5)
(4) + (5)
5x + 2y = 1 (6)
5x + 5y = 5 (3)
5x + 2y = 1 (6)
(3) (6)
5y 2y = 5 1
3y = 6
y = 2
Sub y = 2 into (3)
5x 10 = 5
5x = 5
x = 1
Sub x = 1, y = 2 into (1)
2 6 z = 7
4 z = 7
z = 3
z = 3
(x, y, z) = (1, 2, 3)
Exercise 4E Applications
1 Let x + 1, x + 3, x + 5 = consecutive odd numbers

1 3 5
3
x x x + + + + +
= 3

3 9
3
x +
= 3
3x + 9 = 9
3x = 9 9
x =
18
3


x = 6
The numbers are 5, 3, 1
The largest number is 1
2 Let x = a certain number
3 26
2
x



= 18
78
3
2
x
= 18

3
2
x
= 18 78
3x = 2 60
x =
120
3


x = 40
The certain number is 40
3 Let x = an unknown number

3
x
+ 5 = 27

3
x
= 27 5
x = 22 3
x = 66
the certain number is 66
4 Let x = the number of red tulip bulbs
Let 28 x = the number of yellow tulip bulbs
Total cost of red tulip bulbs = 6.4x
Total cost of yellow tulip bulbs = 5.2(28 x)
6.4x + 5.2(28 x) = 167.2
6.4x + 145.6 5.2x = 167.2
1.2x = 167.2 145.6
1.2x = 21.6
x =
21.6
1.2

x = 18
There are 18 red tulip bulbs and 28 18 = 10 yellow
tulip bulbs
5 Length (l) = width (w) 2.5
p = 2(l + w) if p = 56
56 = 2(w 2.5 + w)
56 = 2 3.5w
56 = 7w

57
7
= w
8 = w
l = 8 2.5
= 20
The width is 8 cm and the length is 20 cm
6


32 = 2x 8 + x + x
32 = 4x 8
32 + 8 = 4x
40 = 4x

40
4
= x
The dimensions are 10 cm, 10 cm, and 20 8 = 12 cm
7


A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 75
180 = + 3 + ( 20)
180 = 5 20
200 = 5
40 =
(i) angle measurements are 40, 120, 20
(ii) obtuse triangle ( = 120)
8 15% reduction = 85% of original price
Let original price = x
85% of x = 84.15
0.85 x = 84.15
x =
84.15
0.85

x = 99
The original price was $99
9 a Let x = a certain number
52 7x = 3
52 3 = 7x
49 = 7x

49
7
= x
7 = x
The answer is B
b Let x = a certain number

4
x
+ 10 = 15

4
x
= 15 10
x = 5 4
x = 20
The unknown number is 20
The answer is D
10 a Carlas age = c
Ninas age = n
My age = m
m = 3 c
c = 3
1
3
n
m + c + n = 43
substitute m = 3c
3c + c + n = 43
substitute c =
10
3
n

3
10
c
= n
3c + c +
3
10
c
= 43
LCD = 10
30c + 10c + 3c = 430
43c = 430
c =
430
43

c = 10
My cousin is 10 years old
b Z = Zaras age
Carla = 10 yrs Nina = c
3
10

=
30
10

= 3
(Zaras age Carlas age) Ninas age = Zaras age
(Z 10) 3 = Z
3Z 30 = Z
2Z = 30
Z = 15
Zara is 15 years old.
11 a Length of stay in USA = x
Length of stay in Germany = x + 1
Lived in London = 2(x + 1)
Lived in Melbourne = x 2
x + x + 1 + 2(x + 1) + x 2 = 16
x + x + 1 + 2x + 2 + x 2 = 16
5x + 1 = 16
5x = 16 1
x =
15
5

x = 3
Simon left USA at the age of 3
b He lived in USA = 3 yrs
Germany = 4
London = 2(3 + 1)
= 8
Australia = 3 2
= 1
12 x = the number of kg of Golden delicious
35 x = the number of kg of Jonathans
Cost: 2.8x + 3.50(35 x) = 3.10(x + 35 x)
2.8x + 122.5 3.5x = 108.5
122.5 0.7x = 108.5
14 = 0.7x
20 = x
The number of Golden delicious = 20 kg
The number of Jonathans = 35 20
= 15 kg
13 Let x = the time taken for Alex to catch Nat.
Nats travel time = x + 0.25
Nats speed = 10 km/h
Alexs travel time = x
Alexs speed = 12 km/h
Nats distance = 10(x + 0.25)
Alexs distance = 12 x
12x = 10(x + 0.25)
12x = 10x + 2.5
2x = 2.5
x = 1.25
Alex will catch up to Nat in 1.25 hours at 11.30 am.
14 x km/h = Samuels constant speed
1 hr 20 min as a fraction =
4
3


4
3
=
distance
2 x +
4 =
distance
2 x


4 8
3
x +
= distance
4x 8 = distance

4 8
3
x +
= 4x 8
4x + 8 = 3(4x 8)
4x + 8 = 12x 24
32 = 8x
4 = x
Samuels constant speed is 4 km/h.
15 x = faster typist time
1.5x = slower typist time
Slower typist takes 15 hours
1.5x = 15
x =
15
1.5

x = 10
It will take the faster typist 10 hours
A GM1 1 - 4 76 A l g e b r a
16 x = total amount of money
Plumber works at
28
x
per day
Carpenter works at
21
x
per day
Total need to pay per day is

28 21
x x
+ =
3 4
84
x x +

=
12
x

Therefore total amount of money divided over 12 days, so
Maya can hire tradesmen for 12 days - but she cannot wait
14 days for the next pay cheque.
17 Let x = no. of students who achieved a score > 99.4
Let (1 + 0.15)x = no. of students who achieved a score
between 99.4 and 99.0
x + (1 + 0.15)x = 43
x + 1.15x = 43
2.15x = 43
x =
43
2.15

x = 20
20 students achieved a score greater than 99.4
18 x = first number
y = 2nd number
x + y = 89 (1)
y = x + 1 (2)
Sub (2) into (1)
x + x + 1 = 89
2x + 1 = 89
2x = 88
x = 44
Sub x = 44 into (2)
y = 44 + 1
y = 45
The two numbers are 44 and 45
19 x = first number
y = second number
3x + 2y = 13 (1)
4(x y) = 44
4x 4y = 44 (2)
3x + 2y = 13 2
6x + 4y = 26 (3)
4x 4y = 44 (2)
(3) + (2)
10x = 70
x = 7
Sub x = 7 into (1)
3 7 + 2y = 13
21 + 2y = 13
2y = 8
y = 4
The two numbers are 7 and 4
20 Let x = first number
y = second number

2
x y +
= x 6
both sides by 2
x + y = 2(x 6)
x + y = 2x 12
y = x 12 (1)

3
x y
= y 1
both sides by 3
x y = 3(y 1)
x y = 3y 3
x 4y = 3 (2)
y = x 12 (1)
Sub (1) into (2)
x 4(x 12) = 3
x 4x + 48 = 3
3x + 48 = 3
3x = 51
x = 17
Sub x = 17 into (1)
y = 17 12
y = 5
Two numbers are 17 and 5
21 x = first number
y = second number
5x = 2 4y 20(x y) = 3
5x = 8y (1) 20x 20y = 3 (2)
x =
8
5
y (3)
Sub 3 into (2)

4
20
8
5

1
20 y y = 3
32y 20y = 3
12y = 3
y =
1
4

Sub y =
1
4
into (3)
x =
2
8 1
5 4

1

x =
2
5

The two numbers are
2
5
and
1
4

22 L = W + 2 (1)
P = 2(L + W)
24 = 2(L + W) (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
24 = 2(W + 2 + W)

24
2
= 2W + 2
12 = 2W + 2
10 = 2W
5 = W
Sub W = 5 into (1)
L = 7
Area = 5 7
= 35 cm
2

The length = 7 cm
The width = 5 cm
The area = 35 cm
2

23 x + 2 = 10
x = 8
2x 1 = 16 1
= 15
x = 15 cm
5 + y = 15
y = 10
y = 10 cm
Perimeter = 10 + 10 + 15 + 15
= 50 cm
A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 77
24


x + y = 2x 3
y = x 3 (1)
x + y = 3y 1
x 2y = 1 (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
x 2(x 3) = 1
x 2x + 6 = 1
x = 7
x = 7
Sub x = 7 into (1)
y = 4
Sides = 7 + 4
= 11 cm
P = 3 11
= 33 cm
25


x = side lengths
y = length of diagonal AC
4x = 2x + y + 10
2x y = 10 (1)
y = x 2 (2)
Sub (2) into (1)
2x (x 2) = 10
2x x + 2 = 10
x + 2 = 10
x = 8
y = 8 2
y = 6
The diagonal AC = 6 cm
26 a


b P = 2(2x + 5y)
70 = 2(2x + 5y) (1)
65 = 8x + 5y (2)
65 8x = 5y (3)
Sub (3) into (1)
70 = 2(2x + 65 8x)
70 = 2(65 6x)
70 = 130 12x
12x = 60
x = 5
Sub x = 5 into (3)
65 40 = 5y
25 = 5y
5 = y
The dimensions of each cell are 5 5 cm, so they are
squares
27 x = number of people who say yes
y = number of people who say no
x + y = 72 (1)
3x = y (2)
Sub (2) into (1)
x + 3x = 72
4x = 72
x = 18
Sub. x = 18 into (2)
y = 54
18 people said yes, so 54 people said no
According to the survey
18 1
72 4



of the population uses the
Internet at home
28 t = toasters s = sandwich makers
5t + 2s = 149.65 (1)
3t + 3s = 134.70 (2)
(1) 3: 15t + 6s = 448.95 (3)
(2) 2: 6t + 6s = 269.4 (4)
(3) (4)
9t = 179.55
t = $19.95
Sub t = $19.95 into (1)
5 19.95 + 2s = 149.65
2s = 149.65 99.75
2s = 49.90
s = $24.95
toaster costs $19.95
Sandwich maker costs $24.95
29 pool/spa = x
pool/spa/sauna/steam = y
3.50x + 5.20y = 799.6 (1)
x + y = 193 (2)
x = 193 y (3)
Sub (3) into (1)
3.50(193 y) + 5.20y = 799.6
675.5 3.5y + 5.2y = 799.6
1.7y = 124.1
y = 73
The cashier sold 73 pool/spa/sauna/steam tickets, so, they
sold 193 73 = 120 pool/spa tickets
30 x = number of 5c coins
y = number of 10c coins
x + y = 42 (1)
0.05x + 0.1y = 2.5 (2)
x = 42 y (3)
Sub (3) into (2)
0.05(42 y) + 0.1y = 2.5
2.1 0.05y + 0.1y = 2.5
0.05y = 0.4
y = 8
There are 8 10-cent coins, so, there are 42 8 = 34 5-cent
coins.
31 L = amount of lamb purchased
P = amount of pork purchased
Mayas family:
3L + 1.5P = 13.5 (1)
Roses family:
1.5L + 4.5P = 13.5 + 8.25
A GM1 1 - 4 78 A l g e b r a
1.5L + 4.5P = 21.75 (2)
(2) 2 3L + 9P = 43.5 (3)
(3) (1)
7.5P = 30
P = 4
Sub P = 4 into (1)
3L + 6 = 13.5
3L = 7.5
L = 2.5
Pork costs $4 per kg and lamb costs $2.50 per kg.
32 Bellas age = x
x + y = 100 (1)
Boris age = y
y = x + 4 (2)
Sub (2) into (1)
x + x + 4 = 100
2x + 4 = 100
x = 48
Bella is 48 years old now, so she was 48 25 = 23 on her
wedding day
33 x = scientific text y = fiction
0.6x + y = 8
y = 8 0.6x (1)
0.95x + 1.5y = 12.5 (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
0.95x + 1.5(8 0.6x) = 12.5
0.95x + 12 0.9x = 12.5
0.05x = 0.5
x = 10
Sub x = 10 into (1)
y = 8 0.6 10
y = 2
10 scientific pages and 2 pages of fiction can be
translated
34 x = dim sim y = spring roll,
51 minutes =
51
60

= 0.85 of an hour
0.2x + 0.25y = 2 (1)
0.05x + 0.15y = 0.85 (2) 4
0.2x + 0.6y = 3.4 (3)
(1) (3)
0.25y 0.6y = 2 3.4
0.35y = 1.4
y = 4
Sub y = 4 into (1)
0.2x + 0.25 4 = 2
0.2x + 1 = 2
0.2x = 1
x = 5
He can make 4 spring rolls and 5 dim sims
Exercise 4F Algebraic fractions
1 a
3
7 4
a a
+
=
4 21
28
a a +

=
25
28
a

b
2 5
3 4
b b
+
=
8 15
12
b b +

=
23
12
b

c
4

5 3
d d

=
3 20
15
d d

=
17

15
d

d
3 4

2 3
g g

=
9 8
6
g g

=
6
g

e
4
5
h
h
+
=
2
20
5
h
h
+

f
2 5
3 2
k
+
=
4 15
6
k +

g
2

7
m
m

=
2
14
7
m
m

h
1 2

3 3
n
n

=
2
1 2
3
n
n

2 a
2 3
2 p p
+
+

=
2( 2) 3
( 2)
p p
p p
+ +
+

=
2 4 3
( 2)
p p
p p
+ +
+

=
5 4
( 2)
p
p p
+
+

b
3 5
2 5 q q
+
+

=
3( 5) 5(2 )
2 ( 5)
q q
q q
+ +
+

c
4 3
1 2 r r
+
+

=
4( 2) 3( 1)
( 1) ( 2)
r r
r r
+ +
+

=
4 8 3 3
( 1)( 2)
r r
r r
+ +
+

=
7 5
( 1) ( 2)
r
r r +

d
1 7

3 4 s s +

=
4 7( 3)
( 3)( 4)
s s
s s
+
+

=
4 7 21
( 3)( 4)
s s
s s
+ +
+

=
6 25
( 3)( 4)
s
s s
+
+

A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 79
e
3 2

(2 3) ( 1) t t +

=
3( 1) 2(2 3)
(2 3)( 1)
t t
t t
+
+

=
3 3 4 6
(2 3)( 1)
t t
t t +

=
9
(2 3)( 1)
t
t t +

f
3 5
2 3 8
v
v
+
=
3 8 5 (2 3)
8(2 3)
v v
v
+

=
2
24 10 15
8(2 3)
v
v
+

=
2
9 10
8(2 3)
v
v
+

g
3 5

2 2
w
w

=
3 ( 2) 10
2( 2)
w w
w

=
2
3 6 20
2( 2)
w w
w

h
10( 1) 3( 3)
6
x x + +

=
10 10 3 9
6
x x + +

=
13 1
6
x

3 a
3 7

3 3 y y +

=
3( 3) 7( 3)
( 3)( 3)
y y
y y
+
+

=
3 9 7 21
( 3)( 3)
y y
y y +

=
4 30
( 3)( 3)
y
y y +

b
1 5
2 2 z z
+
+

=
2 5 ( 2)
( 2)( 2)
z z
z z
+ +
+

=
6 8
( 2)( 2)
z
z z
+
+

c
1 4
3 2 2 x x
+
=
2 4(3 2 )
(3 2 ) ( 2)
x x
x x
+

=
2 12 8
(3 2 )( 2)
x x
x x
+

=
7 10
(3 2 )( 2)
x
x x
+

d
3 2
1 3 y y
+
+

=
3( 3) 2(1 )
(1 )( 3)
y y
y y
+ +
+

=
3 9 2 2
(1 )( 3)
y y
y y
+ +
+

=
11
(1 ) ( 3)
y
y y
+
+

e
2
2 5
3 ( 3) a a
+
+ +

=
2
2 5( 3)
( 3)
a
a
+ +
+

=
2
5 17
( 3)
a
a
+
+

f
2
1 7

3 2 (3 2) b b

=
2
3 2 7
(3 2)
b
b

=
2
3 9
(3 2)
b
b

4 3(x 3)
2

D
5
2
3 3 2 2
2 ( 1) 4 4 1
2 (2 )
a a a a
a b a b
+

=
2 1 a
2
2 3
1
4
a b

2
4 2
(2 1)
a b
a (2 1) a

=
4 2
2 3
2
(2 1)
a b
a b a

=
2
2
(2 1)
a
b a

A
6
2 3
2
9
2( 3)
e e
e e

+

=
3
2
(3 )(3 )
2( 3)
e e e
e e
+

+

=
(3 )
2
e e

Answer C
7 a
3
2
2 2( 2)
( 2) 10
x x
x x
+

+

=
2
5
x

b
2
3 2( 5)
3( 5) 8
b b
b b
+

+

=
1
4b

c
2
3 2
5 12
3 2 10
d d
d d
+

+

=
2
2 2
5 4
2( 5)
d
d d
+

+

=
2
2
d

d
2
2
9 2
(3 )
e e
e e

+

=
(3 )(3 ) 2
(3 )
e e
e e
+

+

=
2(3 ) e
e

A GM1 1 - 4 80 A l g e b r a
e
2
2
(2 ) 3
6 4
g g g
g

=
3
(2 )
2(2 )(2 )
g g
g g +

=
3
2(2 )
g
g

f
2
3 2
7 ( 2) 12
2 7 14
h h h
h h
+

+

=
2
2
7 ( 2) 6
1 7 ( 2)
h h h
h h
+

+

= 6h
8 a
2 2
( 3) ( 2) 12( 3) ( 7)
3( 7) 2( 2)
j j j j
j j
+ +

+ +

=
2
2( 3)
( 7)( 2)
j
j j + +

b
2
3 3
2( 1) ( 2) 15( 5) ( 2)
5( 5) 3( 1)
k k k k
k k
+ +

+ +

=
2
2
2( 2)
( 5) ( 1)
k
k k + +

c
2
2
2 3 3
6( 1) 2 (2 3)
m m m
m m m

=
2
(2 3) ( 1) 3
6( 1) 2 (2 3)
m m m
m m m
+


=
( 1)
4( 1)(2 3)
m
m m
+

d
2
2 2
( 1) 9
6 ( 1)
n n
n n
+

=
2
( 1) 3
2 ( 1)( 1)
n
n n n
+
+

=
3( 1)
2 ( 1)
n
n n
+

e
3 21
7 3( 3)
p p
p
+

+

= p
f
2
( 2) ( 3) 3( 5)
( 5) ( 2)
q q q
q q
+ +

+

=
3( 3)
2
q
q
+

g
2
2 3
3 (3 2)
2(3 5 2) 15
r r
r r r
+

+ +

=
(3 2) 1
2(3 2) ( 1) 5
r
r r r
+

+ +

=
1
10 ( 1) r r +

h
2
2
3( 4) 2 4
18 27 (4 9)
s s
s s

=
3( 2) ( 2) (2 3)(2 3)
9(2 3) 2( 2)
s s s s
s s
+ +

=
( 2)(2 3)
6
s s + +

Exercise 4G Linear literal equations
1 a
x
b
= c
x = bc
b
2x
w
= y
2x = wy
x =
2
wy

c
2( ) x m
n
= p
2(x m) = np
(x m) =
2
np

x =
2
np
m +
d
x r
s
+
= 3t
x + r = 3st
x = 3st r
e
d
f
x
= g

d
x
= f + g

x
d
=
1
f g +

x =
d
f g +

f
3k
l
x l
+
+
= 4

3k
x l +
= 4 l

3
x l
k
+
=
1
4 l

x + l =
3
4
k
l

x =
3

4
k
l
l

g ax + b =
1
c

ax =
1
c
b
x =
1

b
ac a

h 2bx c = 4a
2bx = 4a + c
x =
4
2
a c
b
+

i a(b x) = b a
b x =
b a
a

x = b

b a
a

x =
a b
b
a
+
j
1

m
x n
= m

1
x
=
m
m
n
+
A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 81

1
x
=
nm m
n
+

x =
( 1)
n
m n +

k ( ) r x s =
1
b

x s =
1
br

x =
1
s
br
+
l nx p(x q) = n(x + p)
nx px + pq = nx + np
px + pq = np
px = pq + np
x =
pq np
p
+

x = q + n
x = q n
m
1
e
x d
+
+
=
1
( ) f x d +

1 + e(x + d) =
1
f

e(x + d) =
1
1
f

x + d =
1 1

ef e

x =
1

f
d
ef

n
mbx cnx
nm
+
= n

( ) x mb cn
nm
+
= n
x (mb + cn) = n
2
m
x =
2
n m
mb cn +

o
2
c x d
x x
+
+ =
3
e
x


2
d
c x + + =
3
e

x =
3 2
e d
c
p
dx
x
e
= x f

dx
e
= f
x =
ef
d

2
x
a
=
y
c
b
+
x =
ay
ac
b
+
x =
abc ay
b
+

x =
( ) a bc y
b
+

D.
3 a ax + by = a
2
+ b
2
(1)
ax by = a
2
b
2
(2)
(1) + (2) 2ax = 2a
2

x = a.
y = b.
b ax + by = a
2
ab + 2b
2
(1)
ax by = a
2
ab 2b
2
(2)
(1) + (2) 2ax = 2a
2
2ab (2a)
x = a b.
(2) (1) 2by = 4b
2
y = 2b
c
x y
a b
+ = 1 (1)

x y
a b
= 2 (2)
(1) + (2)
2x
a
= 4
x = 2a.
(2) (1)
2y
b
= 2
y = b.
d
x y
a b
+ = 1
a b
a
+
+ (1)

2
x y
a b
+ =
2
a b
a
+
(2)
(1) (2)
2
x
a
=
2
a b
a
+
+ 1
x = a + b + 2a
x = 3a + b

3a b y
a b
+
+ = 1
a b
a
+
+

y
b
=
3

a b a a b
a a a
+
+

y
b
=
a
a

y = b
e
x
by
a
+ =
2
a b
a
+
(1)

x
y
b
+ =
2 2
a b
ab
+
(2)
(1) a x + aby = a + b
2
(3)
(2) ab ax + aby = a
2
+ b
2
(4)
(4) (3) (a 1) x = a
2
a
x =
( 1) a a
1
1 a
1

x = a
Sub into (2)

a
y
b
+ =
2 2
a b
ab
+

y =
2 2

a b a
ab b
+

y =
2 2 2

a b a
ab ab
+

y =
2
b
ab

y =
b
a
.
f ( )
y
a b x
b
+ = 4 (1)
( )
3
y
b a x
b
+ = 0 (2)
A GM1 1 - 4 82 A l g e b r a
(1) + (2)
1 1

3
y
b b



= 4

2
3
y
b
= 4
y =
3
2
b

Sub into (2)

3 1
( )
2 3
b
b a x
b
+ = 0

1
( )
2
b a x + = 0
x =
1
2( ) b a

g a
2
x + by = ab 2b
2
(1)

y
bx
a
+ =
2
2 b b
a
(2)
(2) ab ab
2
x + by = b
3
2b
2
(3)
(3) (1) (ab
2
a
2
)x = ab b
3

x =
3
2 2

ab b
ab a

x =
2
2
( )
( )
b a b
a a b

x =

b
a

Sub into (1)

2

b
a by
a

+


=
2
2 ab b
ab + by = ab 2b
2

a + y = a 2b
y = 2a 2b
h
x
by
a
=
b
a
(1)

x
ay
b
+ =
a b
b
(2)
(1) a x aby = b (3)
(2) b x + aby = a b (4)
(3) + (4) 2x = a 2b
x =
2
2
a b

(4) (3) 2aby = a 2b
y =
2
2
a b
ab

4 a S = [2 ( 1) ]
2
n
a n d +

2
2 ( 1)
S
a n d
n
= +

2
( 1) 2
S
n d a
n
=

2 ( 1)
2 2
S n d
a
n

=
When n = 26, d = 3 and S = 1079
a =
2 1079 (26 1) 3
2 26 2


= 4
b S = [2 ( 1) ]
2
n
a n d +

2
2 ( 1)
S
a n d
n
= +

2
2 ( 1)
S
a n d
n
=

2 2
( 1) 1
S a
d
n n n
=


When n = 20, a = 18 and S = 20
d = 2
Chapter review
Short answer
1
2
2 4 1
2
5 3 3
5 3 x y x y






=
2 4 2
2 4
5 3 3
5 3 x y x y


=
2 2 4
4
5 3 3
45x y


=
4 16
15 3
45x y


2 a 4.5 10
5
1.2 10
8

= 3.75 10
3

= 0.00375
b 1.2 10
5
3.4 10
1

= 4.08 10
6

= 0.000 004 08
c 2.45 10
2
1.7 10
4

4.165 10
6

4 165 000
3 a 3.2418
103.27
106.5118

to 5 sf: 106.51
b 1.0065 1200
= 1207.8
to 2 sf 1200
4 a 6x 12y + 15 = 0
6x = 12y 15
x =
12 15
6
y

x = 2y
15
6

x = 2y
5
2

b
7(3 4 )
5
d
=
8( 7)
3
e +
3
LCD = 15

3
15 7(3 4 )
5
d
1
=
3
15 8( 7)
3
e +
1
15 3
21(3 4d) = 40(e + 7) 45
(1) 63 84d = 40e + 280 45
84d = 40e + 235 63
84d = 40e + 172
d =
40 172
84
e

d =
10 43
21 21
e

(2) 63 84d = 40e + 235
63 84d 235 = 40e
84d 172 = 40e

84 172
40
d
= e
e =
21 43
10 10
d

A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 83
5
2 3 6 3
5 4
x x
= 2 +
7
3
x

LCD = 60

60(2 3) 60(6 2 )
5 4
x x
= 60 2 +
60 7
3
x

12(2x 3) 15(6 3x) = 2 60 + 20 7x
24x 36 90 + 45x = 120 + 140x
69x 126 = 120 + 140x
126 + 120 = 140x 69x
6 = 71x

6
71

= x
x =
6
71


6 a (0, 4) (8, 0) (1, 0) (0, 2)
m =
4 0
0 8

m =
0 2
1 0



m =
1
2
m = 2
y =
1
2
x + 4 y = 2x + 2
b 2y = x + 8 (1)
y = 2x + 2 (2)
Sub (2) into (1)
2(2x + 2) = x + 8
4x + 4 = x + 8
5x = 4
x =
4
5

x = 0.8
Sub x = 0.8 into (2)
y = 2 0.8 + 2
y = 1.6 + 2
y = 3.6
(0.8, 3.6)
7 a 6x + 2y = 12 (1)
x 2y = 2 (2)
(1) + (2)
7x = 14
x = 2
Sub x = 2 into (1)
12 + 2y = 12
2y = 0
y = 0
(2, 0)
b 8y 24 = 4x
2y 6 = x
x = 2y 6 (1)
7x + 3y = 25 (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
7(2y 6) + 3y = 25
14y 42 + 3y = 25
17y = 17
y = 1
Sub y = 1 into (1)
x = 2 6
x = 4
(4, 1)
c 15 3x 3y = 30
3x 3y = 15
x + y = 5 (1)
2x + y = 4 (2)
(2) (1)
x = 1
Sub x = 1 into (1)
1 + y = 5
y = 6
(1, 6)
8 x = number of 10-cent coins
2x = number of 5-cent coins
4x = number of 20-cent coins
0.1x + 0.05 2x + 0.2 4x = 5
0.1x + 0.1x + 0.8x = 5
x = 5
If he has 5 10-cent coins then he has:
2 5 = 10 5-cent coins and
4 5 = 20 20-cent coins.
9 n = number of days
T = total cost of work
e = number of extra days
T = 2300 + 500n 135e
Find formula for n:
T 2300 + 135e = 500n

2300 135
500
T e +
= n
n =
2300 135
500
T e +

Formula for e:
T 2300 500n = 135e
T + 2300 + 500n = 135e

2300 500
135
n T +
= e
e =
2300 500
135
n T +

10 J = Jessicas age and R = Rebeccas age
J = R + 3 (1)
J + 5 = 3(R 2) (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
R + 3 + 5 = 3R 6
R + 8 = 3R 6
14 = 2R
7 = R
Rebecca is 7 years old Jessica is 10 years old.
11 a
5 4 6
2 3
m m +

=
3(5 4) 2( 6)
6
m m +

=
15 12 2 12
6
m m

=
13 24
6
m

b
1 4
3 4
x
x


=
4(3 4)
(3 4)
x x
x x


=
12 16
(3 4)
x x
x x
+


=
11 16
(3 4)
x
x x
+


c
3 2
( 1)( 2) ( 3)( 1) x x x x
+
+ + +

=
3( 3) 2( 2)
( 1)( 2)( 3)
x x
x x x
+ +
+ +

=
3 9 2 4
( 1)( 2)( 3)
x x
x x x
+ +
+ +

=
5 5
( 1)( 2)( 3)
x
x x x

+ +

A GM1 1 - 4 84 A l g e b r a
12
3 ( 2) g
1
2
4
( 3)
4( 1)
g
g
+

2
2
12 ( 1) g

1
5
( 3)
( 2)
g
g
+

1

=
5
2
36( 3)
4( 1)
g
g
+


=
5
2
9( 3)
( 1)
g
g
+


13
2
2
25 15 9
2 8 4( 16)
w w
w w



=
2
2
5(5 3) 4( 16)
2( 4) 9
w w
w w



=
5(5 3) 4 ( 4) w w ( 4)
2 ( 4)
w
w
+
( 3)( 3) w w +

=
10(5 3)( 4)
( 3)( 3)
w w
w w
+
+

14 a
b ax
g

= mn
b ax = gmn
b gmn = ax
x =
b gmn
a


b
3
px w x
k

+ = pk [3k]
k(px w) + 3x = 3pk
2

kpx kw + 3x = 3pk
2

kpx + 3x = 3pk
2
+ kw
x(kp + 3) = 3pk
2
+ kw
x =
2
3
3
pk kw
kp
+
+

15 a 2ax by = 1 + 2b
2
(1)
bx
y
a
=
5
2
b
a
(2)
(1) ab ab
2
x by =
2
5
2
b
(3)
(3) (1) (ab
2
2a)x =
2
2
5
1 2
2
b
b
x =
2
2
1
1
2
2
b
ab a


x =
2
1
( 2)
2
b
2
( 2) a b

x =
1
2a

Sub into (2)
b
1
2
y
b
a a
=
5
2
b
a


2
b
y =
5
2
b
y =
5
2 2
b
b
y = 2b
Multiple choice
1
3
2
4
3m
n




=
3 6
12
3 m
n

=
6
12
27m
n

B
2 20.034
5 s. figures
D
3 1303.45
23000
24303.45
2 s. figures 24000
E
4 25.69 2.5040
= 64.3272
4 s. figures
64.33
B
5 A =
2 3
4
B +

4A = 2B + 3
4A 3 = 2B

4 3
2
A
= B
2A
3
2
= B
B = 2A
3
2

The answer is A
6 P = 3x +
11
7
x

7P = 21x + 11x
7P = 32x

7
32
P
= x
The answer is A
7 x =
7 8
32


x = 1.75 cm.
The answer is E
8
2
3
x
5 = 1

2
3
x
= 1 + 5
2x = 4 3
x =
12
2

x = 6
The answer is E
9 12
3
4
x
= 6

3
4
x
= 6
x =
6 4
3


x = 8
The answer is D
10 2(3x 1) = 5x + 3
6x 2 = 5x + 3
6x 5x 2 = 3
x 2 = 3
The answer is C
11
1 2
3
x
+
4
x
= 2

12
4
(1 2 )
3
x
1
12
+
3
4
x
1
= 12 2
A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 85
4(1 2x) + 3x = 24
4 8x + 3x = 24
4 5x = 24
5x = 20
x = 4
The answer is D
12
6 8
1 x x

+
=
4
x

LCD = x(x + 1)
( 1) x x +
6
1 x

+
x
8
( 1) x
x
+ = x
4
( 1) x
x
+
x 6 (x + 1)8 = (x + 1) 4
6x 8x 8 = 4x + 4
2x 8 = 4x + 4
12 = 6x
x = 2
The answer is D
13 y + x = 12 (1)
2y 6 = x (2)
Sub (2) into (1)
y + 2y 6 = 12
3y = 18
y = 6
Sub y = 6 into (2)
x = 12 6
x = 6
sum = 6 + 6
= 12
The answer is B
14 y = 3x 4 (1)
y = 5 + 4x (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
3x 4 = 5 + 4x
4 = 5 + x
9 = x
Sub x = 9 into (1)
y = 27 4
y = 31
9, 31
The answer is A
15 (0, 4) (5, 0)
m =
4 0
0 5


=
4
5

y =
4
5
x + 4
5y = 4x + 20 (1)
(2, 0) (0, 2)
m =
2 0
0 2

+

= +1
y = x + 2 (2)
5y = 4x + 20 (1)
Sub (2) into (1)
5(x + 2) = 4x + 20
5x + 10 = 4x + 20
9x + 10 = 20
9x = 10
x =
10
9

Sub x =
10
9
into (2)
y =
10
9
+ 2
y = 3
1
9


1 1
1 , 3
9 9




The answer is D
16 y + x = 22 (1) 3x y = 26
y = 3x 26 (2)
Sub (2) into (1)
3x 26 + x = 22
4x = 48
x = 12
Sub x = 12 into (2)
y = 36 26
y = 10
A. True 10 + 12 = 22
B. 3 12 = 36
36 10 = 26 True
C. 3 10 = 30
30 12 26 False
D. 3 12 10 = 26 True
E. 22 10 = 12
22 12 = 10 True
The answer is C
17 6 3x = 9
3x = 3
x = 1
The answer is B
18 Let x = side length of hexagon
6x = 4x + 12.6
2x = 12.6
x = 6.3 cm
The answer is E
19 Let x = the number
8
2
x
= 2x + 2
8
2
x
= 2 + 2x
The answer is C
20 Let x = first number
y = second number
x + y = 42 (1)
x y = 4 (2)
(1) + (2)
2x = 46
x = 23
Sub x = 23 into (1)
y = 42 23
y = 19
The answer is D
21 B = Bens age, E = Esters age
B + 1 = 2E (1)
B + E = 20
E = 20 B (2)
Sub (2) into (1)
B + 1 = 2(20 B)
B + 1 = 40 2B
3B = 39
B = 13
The answer is C
22
5( 1) ( 3)
3 2
x x
x
+

=
10 ( 1) 3( 3)
6
x x x
x
+

A GM1 1 - 4 86 A l g e b r a
=
2
10 10 3 9
6
x x x
x


=
2
10 13 9
6
x x
x


a = 10 b = 13 c = 9
D
23
2
2 3
9 2( 3) e e
e e
+

=
(3 ) (3 ) e e +
1
2
e
3
1
e

2 ( 3)
e
e +
1
=
(3 )
2
e e

C
24
2
mx
x = x 3p

2
mx
= 3p
mx = 6p
x =
6p
m

B
Extended response
1 a W = 600 + 0.02s
b i W = 600 + 0.02s
= 600 + 0.02 20 000
= 1000
$1000
ii W = 600 + 0.02s
= 600 + 0.02 65 000
= 1900
$1900
iii W = 600 + 0.02s
= 600 + 0.02 100 000
= 2600
$2600
c i W = 600 + 0.02s
1300 = 600 + 0.02s
1300 600 = 0.02s

700
0.02
= s
s = $35 000
ii W = 600 + 0.02s
1800 = 600 + 0.02s
1800 600 = 0.02s

1200
0.02
= s
s = $60 000
iii W = 600 + 0.02s
2400 = 600 + 0.02s
2400 600 = 0.02s

1800
0.02
= s
s = $90 000
d Brett is paid $860 regardless of whether or not he makes a
sale
Adrian is paid $600 fortnightly. He must make sales in
order to obtain more money
e s = 860
f W = 600 + 0.02s
860 = 600 + 0.02s
860 600 = 0.02s

260
0.02
= s
s = $13 000
2 He places x in the bank
I
1
=
6
100
x

I
1
= 0.06x
Therefore he places 15 000 x in the building society
I
2
=
11(15000 )
100
x

I
2
=
165000 11
100
x

I
2
= 1650 0.11x
I
1
+ I
2
= 1200
0.06x + 16.50 0.11x = 1200
1650 0.05x = 1200
1 0.05x = 450
x = $9000
This means he should place $9000 in the bank
15000 9000 = 6000
He should place $6000 in the building society
3 Line 1 has a fixed cost of $40 (or y-intercept of 40)
The equation for this line is C = 40 + 0.05n
a Line 1 represents company B
b The 25 and 40 represent fixed costs
c Point of intersection represent the amount that is the same
for both companies
d C = 25 + 0.08n (1)
C = 40 + 0.05n (2)
Sub (1) into (2)
25 + 0.08n = 40 + 0.05n
0.03n = 15
n = 500
when
n = 500 c = 25 + 0.08 500
= 65
Point of intersection: (500, 65)
e Trip = 700 km
Company A Company B
C = 25 + 0.08 700 C = 40 + 0.05 700
= $81 = $75
Company B will cost less.
f Trip = 300 km
Company A Company B
C = 25 + 0.08 300 C = 40 + 0.05 300
C = $49 C = $55
Company A costs less.
g At 500 km both companies are the same.
Under 500 km choose A.
Over 500 km choose B.
h d = 25 + 0.08n 40 0.05n
d = 0.03n 15.
i d d
n 1
= 0.03 d
0
= 15
A l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 4 87
j
Distance Difference in
cost of A to B
0 15
100 12
200 9
300 6
400 3
500 0
600 3
700 6
800 9
900 12
1000 15
Company A will exceed Company B between 800 and
900 km.
4 a C = 15n + 21 000
b SP = 45n
c


No because there are initial costs involved prior to puzzles
being manufactured
d Refer to graph in part c
Yes, no sales, no money
e Break even occurs when expenses equal selling price
No profit, no loss
f (700, 31 500)
Equate the two equations
45n = 15n + 21 000
45n 15n = 21 000
30n = 21000
n = 700
When n = 700,
SP = 45 700
= 31 500
g Refer to part c
Expenses greater than selling price.
h Refer to part c.
Selling price greater than expenses; profit made
i P = SP Expenses
= 45n (15n + 21 000)
= 45n 15n 21 000
= 30n 21 000
j i P = 30n 21 000
= 30 400 21 000
= 9000
loss of $9000
ii P = 30n 21 000
= 30 600 21 000
= 3000
loss of $3000
iii P = 30n 21 000
P = 30 800 21 000
= 3000
profit of $3000
iv P = 30n 21 000
= 30 1000 21 000
= 9000
profit of $9000
A GM1 1 - 5 88 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
Exercise 5A Trigonometry of right-angled
triangles
1 a


b


c


d


2 a


sin() =
O
H

sin(40) =
10
x

10 sin(40) = x
x = 10 sin(40)
x = 10 0.642 787 6
x = 6.428
x = 6.43
b


tan() =
O
A

tan(3214) =
7.5
x

x tan(3214) = 7.5
x =
7.5
tan(32 14 )

=
7.5
0.630 546

= 11.894
x = 11.89
c

cos() =
A
H

cos(478) =
17
x

x cos(478) = 17
x =
17
cos(47 8 )

=
17
0.680 295

= 24.989
x = 24.99
d

tan() =
O
A

tan(6238) =
684
x

x tan(6238) = 684
x =
684
tan(62 38 )

=
684
1.931945 7

= 354.047
x = 354.05
e sin() =
O
H

sin(1425) =
1.03
x

Chapter 5 Trigonometric ratios and their applications
T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 89



x sin(1425) = 1.03
x =
1.03
sin(14 25 )

=
1.03
0.248 972

= 4.137
x = 4.14
f


tan() =
O
A

tan(78) =
3.85
x

x = 3.85 tan(78)
= 3.85 4.7046 30
= 18.112
x = 18.11
g

cos() =
A
H

cos(2747) =
504
x

x = 504 cos(2747)
= 504 0.884 717
= 445.897
x = 445.90
h


x: tan() =
O
A

tan(3848) =
17
x

x tan(3848) = 17
x =
17
tan(38 48 )

=
17
0.804 021

= 21.143
x = 21.14
y: sin() =
O
H

sin(3848) =
17
y

y sin(3848) = 17
y =
17
sin(38 48 )

=
17
0.628 604

= 27.130
y = 27.13
3 a

sin() =
O
H

sin() =
7
10

= sin
1
7
10




= sin
1
(0.7)
= 44.427
= 4426
b

tan() =
O
A

tan() =
12
5

=
1
12
tan
5





= tan
1
(2.4)
= 67.380
= 6723
c

cos() =
A
H

cos() =
20
28

A GM1 1 - 5 90 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
=
1
20
cos
28





= cos
1
(0.7143)
= 44.415
= 4425
d


tan() =
O
A

tan() =
2.1
6.8

=
1
2.1
tan
6.8





= tan
1
(0.3088)
= 17.162
= 1710
e


cos() =
A
H

cos() =
4.2
11.7

=
1
4.2
cos
11.7





= cos
1
(0.3590)
= 68.963 = 6858
f


sin() =
O
H

sin() =
30
48

=
1
30
sin
48





= sin
1
(0.625)
= 38.682
= 3841
g


cos() =
A
H

cos() =
53.2
78.1

=
1
53.2
cos
78.1





= cos
1
(0.6812)
= 47.064
= 474
h


tan() =
O
A

tan() =
3.26
1.74

=
1
3.26
tan
1.74





= tan
1
(1.8736)
= 61.909
= 6155
4


a tan() =
O
A

tan(30) =
6
h

h = 6 tan(30)
= 6
1
3

=
6
3

=
6 3
3

= 2 3 cm
b A =
1
2
bh
=
1
2
12 2 3
= 12 3 cm
2

c cos() =
A
H

cos(30) =
6
x

x cos(30) = 6
x =
6
cos( )

=
6
3
2

=
12
3

T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 91

=
12 3
3

= 4 3
Perimeter = 2 4 3 + 12
= (8 3 + 12) cm
5





tan() =
O
A

tan(60) =
26
x

x tan(60) = 26
x =
26
tan(60 )

x =
26
3
=
26 3
3



sin() =
O
H

sin(60) =
26
y

y sin(60) = 26
y =
26
sin(60)

=
26
3
2





=
52
3
=
52 3
3

P = 14 + 26 + 14 + x + y
=
26 3 52 3
54
3 3
+ +
= (54 + 26 3) cm
6 a


sin() =
O
H

sin(50) =
6.5
h

h = 6.5 sin(50)
= 6.5 0.766 04
= 4.98 m
b New height = 4.98 + 1 = 5.98 m


sin() =
O
H

sin() =
5.98
6.5

=
1
5.98
sin
6.5





= sin
1
(0.92)
= 66.926
= 6656
7


sin() =
O
H

sin() =
50
400

=
1
50
sin
400





= sin
1
(0.125)
= 7.1808
= 711
8


sin() =
O
H

sin() =
3
15

=
1
3
sin
15





= sin
1
(0.2)
= 11.537
= 1132
The angle is 2
Angle = 2 1132
= 234
A GM1 1 - 5 92 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
9

tan() =
O
A

tan(65) =
4
h

h = 4 tan(65)
= 4 2.1445
= 8.578
= 8.58 m
10




tan() =
O
H

tan(27.5) =
0.75
h

h tan(27.5) = 0.75
h =
0.75
tan(27.5 )

=
0.75
0.52057

= 1.4407
1.44 m
11

sin() =
O
H

sin(60) =
8
x

x = 8 sin(60)
= 8
3
2

= 4 3
cos() =
A
H

cos(60) =
8
y

y = 8 cos(60)
= 8 0.5
= 4 cm
The dimensions are 4 cm and 4 3 cm.
12 sin() =
O
H

sin(50) =
7
a

a = 7 sin(50)
a = 5.36
cos() =
A
H

cos(50) =
7
b

b = 7 cos(50)
b = 4.50
tan() =
O
A

tan(30) =
a
b c +

tan(30) =
5.36
4.5 c +

(4.5 + c) tan(30) = 5.36
4.5 + c =
5.36
tan(30 )

=
5.36
0.5774

= 9.284
c = 9.284 4.5
c = 4.784
4.78
sin() =
O
H

sin(30) =
a
d

=
5.36
d

d sin(30) = 5.36
d =
5.36
sin(30 )

d = 10.72
13 sin() =
O
H

sin(70) =
14
a

a sin(70) = 14
a =
14
sin(70 )

a = 14.90
sin() =
O
H

sin(48) =
a
b

=
14.9
b

b sin(48) = 14.9
b =
14.9
sin(48 )

b = 20.05
T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 93

14


tan( ) =
O
A

tan(33) =
6
z

z tan(33) = 6
z =
6
tan(33 )

=
6
0.6494

z = 9.24

2
z
=
9.24
2

= 4.62
tan( ) =
O
A

tan(58) =
4.62
y

y = 4.62 tan(58)
= 7.39
x = y + 6
x = 7.39 + 6
x = 13.39
15


sin( ) =
O
H

sin(75) =
120
h

h = 120 sin(75)
= 115.91
The height is 115.91 metres.
16


sin() =
O
H

sin( ) =
8.5
20

= 0.425
= sin
1
(0.425)
= 25.1507
= 259
cos( ) =
A
H

cos(x) =
8.5
20

= 0.425
x = cos
1
(0.425)
= 64.8493
= 6451
Therefore A = 2
= 5018
B = C = 6451
17


sin( ) =
O
H

sin(30) =
12
x

x = 12 sin(30)
x = 6
cos( ) =
A
H

cos(30) =
12
y

y = 12 cos(30)
= 10.39
A =
1
2
(a + b)h
A =
1
2
(4 + (x + 4)) y
A =
1
2
(4 + 6 + 4) 10.39
A = 72.73 m
2

15 cm = 0.15 m
Volume = AH
= 72.73 0.15
= 10.91
The volume is 10.91 m
3

18


a sin( ) =
O
H

sin( ) =
2.7
8.3

= 0.3253
A GM1 1 - 5 94 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
= sin
1
(0.3253)
= 18.984
= 1859
The angle of the sides is 1859.
b cos( ) =
A
H

cos( ) =
8.3
x

cos(1859) =
8.3
x

x = 8.3 cos(1859)
= 7.849
x = 7.85 m
2x = 15.7 m
The base is 15.7 m long.
19 a


sin( ) =
O
H

sin(55) =
10
x

x = 10 sin(55)
= 8.19


sin( ) =
O
H

sin(48) =
10
y

y = 10 sin(48)
y = 7.43
x y = 8.19 7.43
= 0.76
The ladder slips 0.76 metres.
b


cos( ) =
A
H

cos(55) =
10
a

a = 10 cos(55)
= 5.74 m


cos( ) =
A
H

cos(48) =
10
b

b = 10 cos(48)
= 6.69 m
b a = 6.69 5.74
= 0.95
The ladder slides 0.95 metres across the floor. Therefore
the foot of the ladder does not move the same distance as
the top of the ladder.
Exercise 5B Elevation, depression and
bearings
1


tan() =
O
A

tan(6) =
60
x

x tan(6) = 60
x =
60
tan(6 )

= 570.86
The fire is 571 metres away from the tower.
2


tan( ) =
O
A

tan(55) =
20
x

x = 20 tan(55)
x = 28.6
h = x + 1.7
= 28.6 + 1.7
= 30.3
The building is 30 metres high.
3


tan( ) =
O
A

tan(25) =
57
x

x tan(25) = 57
x =
57
tan(25 )

= 122.2
tan( ) =
O
A

tan(15) =
57
y

y tan(15) = 57
T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 95

y =
57
tan(15 )

= 212.7
Distance travelled = y x
= 212.7 122.2
= 90.5
The ship travels 91 metres.
4


tan( ) =
O
A

tan(27) =
22
x

x =
22
tan(27 )

= 43.18
The river is 43.18 m wide.
5


a tan() =
O
A

tan(62) =
42
x

x tan(62) = 42
x =
42
tan(62 )

x = 22.33
Denis is 22.33 m from the building.
b tan( ) =
O
A

tan(68) =
y
x

tan(68) =
22.33
y

y = 22.33 tan(68)
= 55.27
h = y 42
= 55.27 42
= 13.27
The height of the crane is 13.27 metres.
6 4.2 km = 4200 m


tan( ) =
O
A

tan( ) =
500
4200

= 0.119 05
= tan
1
(0.119 05)
= 6.789
= 647
The angle of depression is 647.
7 a


b

tan( ) =
O
A

tan(42) =
2500
x

x = 2500 tan(42)
x = 2251.01
tan( ) =
O
A

tan(55) =
2500
y

y = 2500 tan(55)
y = 3570.37
Distance apart = y x
= 3570.37 2251.01
= 1319.36
The two survivors are 1319.36 m apart.
8


tan( ) =
O
A

tan(15.7) =
5.8
x

x = 5.8 tan(15.7)
= 1.6303
tan(15.9) =
5.8
y

y = 5.8 tan(15.9)
= 1.6522
h = y x
= 1.6522 1.6303
= 0.0219 km
h = 0.0219 1000 m
h = 21.9 m
h 22
The height of the lookout tower is 22 m.
9

A GM1 1 - 5 96 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
tan( ) =
O
A

tan(60) =
50
x

x tan(60) = 50
x =
50
tan(60 )

=
50
3

=
50 3
3

tan( ) =
O
A

tan(45) =
50
y

y tan(45) = 50
y =
50
tan(45 )

=
50
1

= 50
d = y x
= 50
50 3
3

The distance from A to B is
50 3
50
3




m.
10 a N 35 W is (360 35) T
= 325 T
b S 47 W is (180 + 47) T
= 227 T
c N 58 E is 058 T
d S 17 E is (180 17) T
= 163 T
11 a 246 T is S(246 180) W
= S66 W
b 107 T is S(180 107) E
= S73 E
c 321 T is N(360 321) W
= N39 W
d 074 T is N 74 E
12 a S30 E = (180 30) T
= 150 T
The answer is C.
b 280 T = N(360 280) W
= N80 W
The answer is D.
13


cos() =
A
H

cos(20) =
1800
x

x = 1800 cos(20)
= 1691.4
She is 1691 m North of her starting point.
14

a x
2
= 2
2
+ 5
2

= 4 + 25 = 29
x = 29
= 5.385
The final leg is 5.39 km long.
b tan( ) =
O
A

tan( ) =
2
5

tan( ) = 0.4
= tan
1
(0.4)
= 21.801
= 2148
The bearing is N 2148 W.
15

tan( ) =
O
A

=
8
20
= 0.4
= tan
1
(0.4)
= 21.8014 = 2148
Bearing from starting point is 180 + 2148
= 20148T.
16

T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 97

a


sin( ) =
O
H

sin(30) =
2
x

x = 2 sin(30)
= 1.0
cos(30) =
2
y

y = 2 cos(30)
= 1.732


d
2
= 4
2
+ (1.732)
2

= 16 + 3
= 19
d = 19
= 4.36
The competitor is 4.36 km from his starting point.
b tan() =
O
A

tan() =
1.732
4

= 0.433
= tan
1
(0.433)
= 23.41
= 2325
The true bearing is = 180 2325
= 15635T
17


a d
2
= 7
2
+ 10
2

= 49 + 100
= 149
d = 149
= 12.2
The two hikers are 12.2 km apart.
b tan( ) =
O
A

tan( ) =
7
10

=
1
7
tan
10





= tan
1
(0.7)
= 34.99
35


= 43 + 35
= 78
Bearing is 270 + 78 = 348T
or 360 348 = 12
N 12 W
18


a


cos( ) =
A
H

cos(40) =
3
x

x = 30 cos(40)
x = 22.98


sin( ) =
O
H

sin(20) =
20
y

y = 20 sin(20)
y = 6.84
Distance south = x + y
A GM1 1 - 5 98 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
= 22.98 + 6.84
= 29.82
Ship is 29.82 km south of its starting point.
b


sin( ) =
O
H

sin(40) =
30
a

a = 30 sin(40)
a = 19.284


cos( ) =
A
H

cos(20) =
20
b

b = 20 cos(20)
b = 18.794
Distance west = a + b
= 19.284 + 18.794
= 38.078 38.08
Ship is 38.08 km west of its starting point.
c


tan( ) =
O
A

tan( ) =
29.82
38.08

= 0.78309
= tan
1
(0.783 09)
= 38.06 38
The ship is (270 38) True.
That is, 232 T from its original position.
19


a Distance = speed time
d = 40 3
= 120
sin( ) =
O
H

sin(70) =
x
d

=
120
x

x = 120 sin(70)
= 112.76
The distance between Arley and Bracknaw is
112.76 km.
b time =
distance
speed

Time between
A and B =
112.76
45

= 2.506 hours
= 2 hours and 30 minutes
Total time = 2 hours and 30 minutes + 3 hours
= 5 hours and 30 minutes
20 a


tan( ) =
O
A

tan(46) =
85
d

d tan(46) = 85
d =
85
tan(46 )
= 82.08
From A, the tower is 82.08 m away.
b


tan( ) =
O
A

tan(32) =
85
x

x tan(32) = 85
x =
85
tan(32 )
= 136.03
From B, the tower is 136.03 m away.
c


T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 99

tan( ) =
O
A

tan( ) =
82.08
136.03

= 0.6034
= tan
1
(0.6034)
= 31.107
= 316
The tower is (270 + 316) = 3016 T from B.
21 a i


tan( ) =
O
A

tan(5) =
50
x

x tan(5) = 50
x =
50
tan(5 )

x = 571.5
At noon, the bird is 571.5 m away.
ii


tan( ) =
O
A

tan(4) =
50
y

y tan(4) = 50
y =
50
tan(4 )

y = 715.03
At 12.02 pm, the bird is 715 m away.
b i Distance travelled
= 715 571.5
= 143.5 m
The bird has travelled 143.5 m.
ii Speed =
distance
time

=
143.5 1000
2
60


=
0.1435
0.03333

= 4.31
The speed of the bird is 4.31 km/h.
Exercise 5C The sine rule
1



sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
b
B


10
sin( ) A
=
12
sin(58 )

10 sin(58) = 12 sin(A)
sin(A) =
10sin(58 )
12


= 0.7067 07
A = sin
1
(0.7067 07)
= 44.9676
= 4458
C = 180 (58 + 4458)
= 772

sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
b
B


sin(77 2 )
c

=
12
sin(58 )

c =
12 sin(77 2 )
sin(58 )


= 13.7893
c = 13.79
2



sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
a
A


17.35
sin( ) C
=
26.82
sin(101 47 )

17.35 sin(10147) = 26.82 sin(C)
sin(C) =
17.35sin(101 47 )
26.82


= 0.633 27
C = sin
1
(0.633 27)
= 39.292
C = 3918
B = 180 (10147 + 3918)
= 3855

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(38 55 )
b

=
26.82
sin(101 47 )

b =
26.82 sin(38 55 )
sin(101 47)


= 17.2107
b 17.21
3

C = 180 (80 + 30)
= 70
A GM1 1 - 5 100 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(80 )
b

=
5
sin(30 )

b =
5sin(80 )
sin(30 )


= 9.848 08
b = 9.85

sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(70 )
c

=
5
sin(30 )

c =
5sin(70 )
sin(30 )


= 9.3969
c = 9.40
4

B = 180 (105 + 42)
= 33

sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
c
C


sin(105 )
a

=
27
sin(42 )

a =
27 sin(105 )
sin(42 )


= 38.9759
a = 38.98

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
c
C


sin(33 )
b

=
27
sin(42 )

b =
27 sin(33 )
sin(42 )


= 21.976 66
b = 21.98
5


sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
a
A


5
sin( ) C
=
7
sin(68 )

5 sin(68) = 7 sin(C)
sin(C) =
5sin(68 )
7


= 0.66227
C = sin
1
(0.662 27)
= 41.4735
= 4128
B = 180 (68 + 4128)
= 7032

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(70 32 )
b

=
7
sin(68 )

b =
7sin(70 32 )
sin(68 )


= 7.12
Perimeter = a + b + c
= 7 + 7.12 + 5
= 19.12
6

C = 180 (57 + 72)
= 51

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(72 )
b

=
48.2
sin(57 )

b =
48.2sin(51 )
sin(57 )


= 54.66

sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(51 )
c

=
48.2
sin(57 )

c =
48.2sin(51 )
sin(57 )


= 44.66
7

A = 180 (105 + 15)
= 60

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(105 )
b

=
105
sin(60 )

b =
105sin(105 )
sin(60 )


= 117.11

sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(15 )
c

=
105
sin(60 )

T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 101

c =
105sin(15 )
sin(60 )


c = 31.38
8



sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
a
A


51
sin( ) B
=
32
sin(28 )

51 sin(28) = 32 sin(B)
sin(B) =
51sin(28 )
32


= 0.748 22
B = sin
1
(0.748 22)
= 48.436 or 131.564
= 4826 or 13134
C = 180 (28 + 4826) or
C = 180 (28 + 13134)
C = 10334 or C = 2026

sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(103 34 )
c

=
32
sin(28 )
or

sin(20 26 )
c

=
32
sin(28 )

c =
32sin(103 34 )
sin(28 )

or
c =
32sin(20 26 )
sin(28 )


c = 66.26 or c = 23.80
Solution B = 4826, C = 10334,
c = 66.26 or
B = 13134, C = 2026, c = 23.80
9



sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
a
A


6.2
sin( ) B
=
7.8
sin(50 )

6.2 sin(50) = 7.8 sin(B)
sin(B) =
6.2sin(50 )
7.8


= 0.608 91
B = sin
1
(0.608 91)
= 37.5105
B = 3731
C = 180 (50 + 3731)
= 9229

sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(92 29 )
c

=
7.8
sin(50 )

c =
7.8sin(92 29 )
sin(50 )


= 10.17
Perimeter = a + b + c
= 7.8 + 6.2 + 10.17
= 24.17
10


B = 180 (40 + 80)
= 60

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
c
C


sin(60 )
b

=
3
sin(80 )

b =
3sin(60 )
sin(80 )


= 2.64
The answer is A.
11


or



sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
c
C


10
sin( ) A
=
8
sin(50 )

10 sin(50) = 8 sin(A)
sin(A) =
10sin(50 )
8


= 0.957 56
A = sin
1
(0.957 56)
A = 73.247
A = 7315
or A = 180 7315
= 10645
B = 180 (7315 + 50)
= 5645
or B = 180 (10645 + 50)
= 2315

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
c
C

A GM1 1 - 5 102 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s

sin(56 45 )
b

=
8
sin(50 )
or

sin(23 15 )
b

=
8
sin(50 )

b =
8sin(56 45 )
sin(50 )


= 8.73
or b =
8sin(23 15 )
sin(50 )


= 4.12
Solution is A = 7315, b = 8.73 or
A = 10645, b = 4.12
12


or



sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
b
B


20
sin( ) A
=
12
sin(35 )

20 sin(35) = 12 sin(A)
sin(A) =
20sin(35 )
12


= 0.955 96
A = sin
1
(0.955 96)
= 72.933
A = 7256
or A = 180 7256
= 1074
C = 180 (35 + 7256)
C = 724
or C = 180 (35 + 1074)
C = 3756

sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
b
B


sin(72 4 )
c

=
12
sin(35 )
or

sin(37 56 )
c

=
12
sin(35 )

c =
12sin(72 4 )
sin(35 )


= 19.90
or c =
12sin(37 56 )
sin(35 )


= 12.86
Perimeter = a + b + c
= 20 + 12 + 19.90 or
= 20 + 12 + 12.86
= 51.90 or 44.86
13


C = 180 (27 + 43)
= 110

sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
c
C


sin(27 )
a

=
6.4
sin(110 )

a =
6.4sin(27 )
sin(110 )


a = 3.09

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
c
C


sin(43 )
b

=
6.4
sin(110 )

b =
6.4sin(43 )
sin(110 )


b = 4.64
C = 110, a = 3.09, b = 4.64
14


B = 180 (100 + 42)
= 38

sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
b
B


sin(100 )
a

=
2.1
sin(38 )

a =
2.1sin(100 )
sin(38 )


a = 3.36

sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
b
B


sin(42 )
c

=
2.1
sin(38 )

c =
2.1sin(42 )
sin(38 )


= 2.28
B = 38, a = 3.36, c = 2.28
15


or
T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 103




sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
a
A


17
sin( ) B
=
13
sin(25 )

17 sin(25) = 13 sin(B)
sin(B) =
17sin(25 )
13


= 0.552 65
B = sin
1
(0.552 65)
B = 33.549
B = 3333
or B = 180 3333
= 14627
C = 180 (25 + 3333)
= 12127
or C = 180 (25 + 14627)
C = 833

sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(121 27 )
c

=
13
sin(25 )

or
sin(8 33 )
c

=
13
sin(25 )

c =
13sin(121 27 )
sin(25 )


= 26.24
or c =
13sin(8 33 )
sin(25 )


= 4.57
Solution is B = 3333, C = 12127, c = 26.24 or
B = 14627, C = 833, c = 4.57
16


B = 180 64
= 116
C = 180 (48 + 116)
= 16

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
c
C


sin(116 )
b

=
18
sin(16 )

b =
18sin(116 )
sin(16 )


= 58.69


sin() =
O
H

sin(48) =
58.69
h

h = 58.69 sin(48)
= 43.62
The height of the building is 43.62 metres.
17

a C = 180 (43 + 35)
= 102

sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
c
C


sin(43 )
x

=
10
sin(102 )

x =
10sin(43 )
sin(102 )


= 6.97
The distance from the second bearing to the tree is 6.97
metres.
b

cos() =
A
H

cos(55) =
6.97
w

w = 6.97 cos(55)
= 3.9978
The width of the river is 4 metres.
18


A GM1 1 - 5 104 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
a B = 180 (65 + 20)
= 95

sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
b
B


14
sin( ) C
=
20
sin(95 )

14 sin(95) = 20 sin(C)
sin(C) =
14sin(95 )
20


= 0.697 336
C = sin
1
(0.697 336)
= 44.214
= 4413
A = 180 (95 + 4413)
= 4047

sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
b
B


sin(40 47 )
x

=
20
sin(95 )

x =
20sin(40 47 )
sin(95 )


= 13.11
The ship is 13.11 km from its starting point.
b


+ 20 = 4047
= 2047
The 20 km leg is sailed on a bearing or N 2047 W.
19


a B = 30 + 53
= 83
C = 180 (60 + 83)
= 37
Distance = speed time
c = 8
45
60

= 6 km

sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
c
C


sin(60 )
a

=
6
sin(37 )

a =
6sin(60 )
sin(37 )


= 8.634
The second leg is 8.63 km long.
b Speed =
distance
time

=
8.634
80
60

=
8.634 60
80


= 6.48
The speed is 6.48 km/h.
c
sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(83 )
b

=
6
sin(37 )

b =
6sin(83 )
sin(37 )


= 9.896
She needs to run 9.90 km to get back to the start.
20


A = 180 (42 + 63)
= 75
B = 63 12
= 51
C = 180 (75 + 51)
= 54

sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
c
C


sin(75 )
a

=
23
sin(54 )

a =
23sin(75 )
sin(54 )


= 27.46

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
c
C


sin(51 )
b

=
23
sin(54 )

b =
23sin(51 )
sin(54 )


= 22.09
The fire is 22.09 km from A and 27.46 km from B.
T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 105

21


B = 85 + 15
= 100
A = 90 15
= 75
C = 180 (100 + 75)
= 5

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
c
C


sin(100 )
b

=
10
sin(5 )

b =
10sin(100 )
sin(5 )


= 112.99
or b = 113 km
The answer is D.
22


A = 90 30
= 60
C = 30 + (90 10)
= 110

sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(110 )
c

=
8
sin(60 )

c =
8sin(110 )
sin(60 )


= 8.68
The answer is B.
23


A = 180 (40 + 25)
= 115
B = 25
C = 40

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
a
A


sin(25 )
x

=
37
sin(115 )

x =
37sin(25 )
sin(115 )


= 17.25


sin() =
O
H

sin(50) =
17.25
y

y = 17.25 sin(50)
= 13.21
h = 37 y
= 37 13.21
= 23.79
Total length of rope required
= 2 + x + h
= 2 + 17.25 + 23.79
= 43.04 metres
Therefore 45 m is enough rope since only 43 m is required.
Exercise 5D The cosine rule
1


c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(C)
= 3.4
2
+ 7.8
2
2 3.4 7.8 cos(80)
= 11.56 + 60.84 9.2103
= 63.1897
c = 63.1897
= 7.9492
c = 7.95
2

a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
2bc cos(A)
= 64.5
2
+ 38.1
2
2 64.5 38.1 cos(5834)
= 4160.25 + 1451.61 4914.9 0.5215
= 5611.86 2563.1504
= 3048.7096
a = 3048.7096
= 55.215
a = 55.22
A GM1 1 - 5 106 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
3

b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos(B)
= 10
2
+ 17
2
2 10 17 cos(115)
= 100 + 289 340 (0.4226)
= 389 + 143.6902
b
2
= 532.6902
b = 532.6902
= 23.080
= 23.08
cos(A) =
2 2 2
2
b c a
bc
+

=
2 2 2
23.08 10 17
2 23.08 10
+


=
532.6902 100 289
461.6
+

=
343.6902
461.6

= 0.744 563
A = cos
1
(0.744 563)
= 41.878
= 4153
C = 180 (4153 + 115)
= 237
4

Smallest angle is opposite the shortest side.
cos(B) =
2 2 2
2
a c b
ac
+

=
2 2 2
6 8 4
2 6 8
+


=
36 64 16
96
+

=
84
96

= 0.875
B = cos
1
(0.875)
= 28.955
= 2857
5

Largest angle is opposite the longest side.
cos(A) =
2 2 2
2
b c a
bc
+

=
2 2 2
207 296 356
2 207 296
+


=
42 849 87 616 126 736
122 544
+

=
3729
122 544

= 0.030 43
A = cos
1
(0.030 43)
= 88.256
= 8815
6

cos(A) =
2 2 2
2
b c a
bc
+

=
2 2 2
17.3 26.4 23.6
2 17.3 26.4
+


=
439.29
913.44

= 0.480 92
A = cos
1
(0.480 92)
= 61.2546
A = 6115
cos(B) =
2 2 2
2
a c b
ac
+

=
2 2 2
23.6 26.4 17.3
2 23.6 26.4
+


=
954.63
1246.08

= 0.7661
B = cos
1
(0.7661)
= 39.994
= 3960
= 40
C = 180 (6115 + 40)
= 7845
7

f
2
= d
2
+ e
2
2de cos(60)
= 3
2
+ 7
2
2 3 7 cos(60)
= 9 + 49 42
1
2

= 58 21
= 37
f = 37 cm
8

C = 180 (30 + 40)
T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 107

= 110
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(C)
= 1200
2
+ 1500
2
2 1200 1500 cos(110)
= 1 440 000 + 2 250 000 3 600 000 (0.342 021 43)
= 3 690 000 + 1 231 272.516
= 4 921 272.516
C = 4 921 272.516
= 2218.394
The two rowers are 2218 m apart.
9

a B = 180 (34 + 68)
= 78
b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos(B)
= 7
2
+ 12
2
2 7 12 cos(78)
= 49 + 144 168 0.2079
= 193 34.9292
= 158.0708
b = 158.0708
= 12.573
She is 12.57 km from her starting point.
b cos(C) =
2 2 2
2
a b c
ab
+

=
2 2 2
7 12.57 12
2 7 12.57
+


=
63.0049
175.98

= 0.358 023
C = cos
1
(0.358 023)
= 69.021
= 691


= 691 34
= 351
The bearing of the starting point from the finishing point
is S 351 E.
10

a Smallest angle is opposite the smallest side.
cos(C) =
2 2 2
2
a b c
ab
+

=
2 2 2
4.5 5.2 3
2 4.5 5.2
+


=
38.29
46.8

= 0.818 16
C = cos
1
(0.818 16)
= 35.099
= 356
b

sin() =
O
H

sin(356) =
4.5
h

h = 4.5 sin(356)
= 2.59
Area =
1
2
bh
=
1
2
5.2 2.59
= 6.73
The area is 6.73 m
2
.
11

cos(A) =
2 2 2
26
b c a
c
+

=
2 2 2
7 5.2 3
2 7 5.2
+


=
67.04
72.8

= 0.920 88
A = cos
1
(0.920 88)
= 22.945
= 2257
23
The shot must be made within 23.
A GM1 1 - 5 108 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
12


cos(A) =
2 2 2
2
b c a
bc
+

=
2 2 2
5 110 100
2 35 120
3 +


=
5625
8400

= 0.669 64
A = cos
1
(0.669 64)
= 47.960
= 4758
sin() =
O
H

sin(4758) =
120
h

h = 120 sin(4758)
h = 120 sin(47.96)
h = 89.12
The balloon can fly 89.12 m.
13


a B = 70 10
= 60
b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos(B)
= 150
2
+ 80
2
2 150 80 cos(60)
= 28 900 12 000
= 16 900
b = 16 900
= 130
The plane is 130 km from its starting point.
b cos(A) =
2 2 2
2
b c a
bc
+

=
2 2 2
130 80 150
2 130 80
+


=
800
20 800

= 0.038 462
A = cos
1
(0.038 462)
= 87.796
= 8748
= 180 (8748 + 70)
= 2212
The plane is on a bearing of S 2212 E from its starting
point.
14


C = 117 53 = 64
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(C)
= 16.2
2
+ 31.6
2
2 16.2 31.6 cos(64)
= 1261 448.8219
= 812.1781
c = 812.1781
= 28.499
The ships are 28.5 km apart.
15


C = 35 + 90 + 10
= 135
Distance travelled by plane A
= 120
25
60

= 50 km
Distance travelled by plane B
= 90
20
60

= 30 km
So a = 50 km, b = 30 km.
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(C)
= 50
2
+ 30
2
2 50 30 cos(135)
= 3400 3000 (0.707 11)
= 3400 + 2121.3203
= 5521.3203
c = 5521.3203
= 74.3
At 10.25 am the planes are 74.3 km apart.
16


a = 5 + 6 = 11
b = 6 + 8 = 14
c = 5 + 8 = 13
Largest angle is opposite the longest side.
cos(B) =
2 2 2
2
a c b
ac
+

T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 109

=
2 2 2
11 13 14
2 11 13
+


=
94
286

= 0.328 67
B = cos
1
(0.328 67)
= 70.8118
B = 7049
The largest angle is 7049.
17


a d
2
= 7
2
+ 10
2
2 7 10 cos(60)
= 149 70
= 79
d = 79
= 8.89
The diagonal is 8.89 m long.
b cos(B) =
2 2 2
7 8.89 10
2 7 8.89
+


=
28.0321
124.46

= 0.225 23
B = cos
1
(0.225 23)
= 76.984
= 7659
c


A = 150 7659
= 731
a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
2bc cos(A)
x
2
= 8.89
2
+ 8
2
2 8.89 8 cos(731)
= 143.0321 41.5474
= 101.4847
x = 101.4847
= 10.07 m
18


sin() =
O
H

sin(47) =
68
x

a sin(47) = 68
a =
68
sin(47 )

a = 92.98
sin() =
O
H

sin(15) =
68
b

b sin(15) = 68
b =
68
sin (15 )

b = 262.73
47 15 = 32
y
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(32)
= 92.98
2
+ 262.73
2
2 92.98 262.73 cos(32)
= 77 672.333 41 433.315
= 36 239.018
y = 36 239.018
= 190.37
Speed =
distance
time

=
190.37 1000
10
60


1.14
Speed of the yacht is 1.14 km/h.
Exercise 5E Area of triangles
1


A =
1
2
ab sin(C)
=
1
2
7 4 sin(68)
= 14 0.927 18
= 12.98 06
= 12.98
2


A =
1
2
ac sin(B)
=
1
2
7.3 10.8 sin(10440)
= 39.42 0.967 415
= 38.1355
= 38.14
3


A =
1
2
bc sin(A)
A GM1 1 - 5 110 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
=
1
2
23.1 18.6 sin(8217)
= 214.83 0.990 944
= 212.8845
= 212.88
4


Area =
1
2
de sin (F)
=
1
2
6 9 sin(60)
= 27
3
2

=
27 3
2

5


Area =
1
2
pr sin (Q)
=
1
2
12 10 sin (45)
= 60
2
2

= 30 2
6



sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
b
B


15
sin( ) A
=
20
sin(50 )

15 sin(50) = 20 sin(A)
sin(A) =
15sin(50 )
20


= 0.574 53
A = sin
1
(0.574 53)
= 35.067
= 354
C = 180 (354 + 50)
= 9456
Area =
1
2
ab sin(C)
=
1
2
15 20 sin(9456)
= 149.44 m
2

The answer is C.
7

Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
=
1
2
(5 + 6 + 8)
= 9.5
Area = 9.5(9.5 6)(9.5 8)(9.5 5)
= 9.5 3.5 1.5 4.5
= 224.4375
= 14.98 cm
2

8

Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
=
1
2
(40 + 30 + 57)
= 63.5
Area = 63.5(63.5 30)(63.5 57)(63.5 40)
= 63.5 33.5 6.5 23.5
= 324 937.4375
= 570.03 mm
2

9

Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
=
1
2
(1.6 + 3 + 2.7)
= 3.65
Area = 3.65(3.65 1.6)(3.65 3)(3.65 2.7)
= 3.65 2.05 0.65 0.95
= 4.620 44
= 2.15 cm
2

10 s =
4 4 4
2
+ +
= 6
Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
= 6(6 4)(6 4)(6 4)
T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 111

= 6 2 2 2
= 48
= 4 3
11 s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
s =
1
2
(10 + 14 + 20)
= 22
Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
= 22(22 10)(22 14)(22 20)
= 22 12 8 2
= 4224
= 64.99 cm
2

65 cm
2

The answer is B.
12



sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
c
C


10
sin( ) A
=
14
sin(48 )

10 sin(48) = 14 sin(A)
sin(A) =
10sin(48 )
14


= 0.530 82
A = sin
1
(0.530 82)
= 32.061
A = 324
B = 180 (324 + 48)
= 9956
Area =
1
2
ac sin(B)
=
1
2
14 10 sin(9956)
= 70 0.985 01
= 68.951
= 68.95 cm
2

13



sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
c
C


17
sin( ) A
=
22
sin(56 )

17 sin(56) = 22 sin(A)
sin(A) =
17sin(56 )
22


= 0.640 62
A = sin
1
(0.640 62)
A = 39.838
= 3950
B = 180 (3950 + 56)
= 8410
Area =
1
2
ac sin(B)
=
1
2
17 22 sin(8410)
= 186.032
= 186.03 m
2

14



sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
b
B


15
sin( ) C
=
32
sin(38 )

15 sin(38) = 32 sin(C)
sin(C) =
15sin(38 )
32


= 0.288 59
C = sin
1
(0.288 59)
= 16.774
= 1646
A = 180 (38 + 1646)
= 12514
Area =
1
2
bc sin(A)
=
1
2
32 15 sin(12514)
= 196.034
= 196.03 mm
2

15 s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
=
1
2
(114 + 72 + 87)
= 136.5
Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
= 136.5(136.5 114)(136.5 72)(136.5 87)
= 136.5 22.5 64.5 49.5
= 980 5733.438
= 3131.41 mm
2

16



sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
b
B


35
sin( ) C
=
62
sin(115 )

35 sin(115) = 62 sin(C)
sin(C) =
35sin(115 )
62


= 0.511 625
C = sin
1
(0.511 625)
A GM1 1 - 5 112 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
= 30.772
C = 3046
A = 180 (115 + 3046)
= 3414
Area =
1
2
bc sin(A)
=
1
2
62 35 sin(3414)
= 610.38 cm
2

17


a Area =
1
2
ac sin(B)
=
1
2
30 25 sin(30)
= 187.5 cm
2

b b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos(B)
= 30
2
+ 25
2
2 30 25 cos(30)
= 1525 1299.04
= 225.96
b = 225.96
= 15.03 cm
c s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
=
1
2
(30 + 25 + 15.03)
= 35.015
Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c

= 35.015(35.015 30)(35.015 15.03)(35.015 25)
= 35.015 5.015 19.985 10.015
= 35146.35
= 187.47 cm
2

18


b
2
= 1
2
+ 2
2

= 1 + 4
= 5
b = 5
= 2.24
ABC,
Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
=
1
2
(5 + 2.24 + 4)
= 5.62
Area = 5.62(5.62 2.24)(5.62 5)(5.62 4)
= 5.62 3.38 0.62 1.62
= 19.0792
= 4.37 m
2

ACD, Area =
1
2
b h
=
1
2
2 1
= 1 m
2

Total area = 4.37 + 1
= 5.37 m
2

Number of fish =
5.37
0.3

= 17.9
So, the pond can hold 17 goldfish.
19


Area =
1
2
ac sin(B)
ABC,
Area =
1
2
5 8 sin(60)
= 17.32 m
2

b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos(60)
= 8
2
+ 5
2
2 5 8 0.5
= 89 40
= 49
b = 49
= 7
ACD,
s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
s =
1
2
(4 + 3.5 + 7)
= 7.25
Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
= 7.25(7.25 4)(7.25 3.5)(7.25 7)
Area = 7.25 3.25 3.75 0.25
= 22.0898
= 4.70 m
2

Total area = 4.70 + 17.32
= 22.02 m
2

20


a ABC,
Area =
1
2
5 8.5 sin(125)
= 17.407 cm
2

T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 113

ACE,
Area =
1
2
5 8.5 sin(55)
= 17.407 cm
2

Area of parallelogram
= 2 17.407 + 2 17.407
= 69.63 cm
2

b c
2
= a
2
+ e
2
2ae cos(C)
x
2
= 5
2
+ 8.5
2
2 5 8.5 cos(125)
= 97.25 + 48.754
= 146.004
x = 146.004
= 12.08
c
2
= a
2
+ e
2
2ae cos(C)
y
2
= 5
2
+ 8.5
2
2 5 8.5 cos(55)
= 97.25 48.754
= 48.496
y = 48.496
= 6.96
The dimensions of the parallelogram are 12.08 cm and
6.96 cm.
21 s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
=
1
2
(11 + 15 + 17.2)
= 21.6
Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
= 21.6(21.6 11)(21.6 15)(21.6 17.2)
= 21.6 10.6 6.6 4.4
= 6648.9984
= 81.54 m
2

Amount of grass seed =
81.54
5
(kg)
= 16.3
That is, 17 kg of grass seed will be required to cover all the
lawn.
22


c
2
= 2000
2
+ 200
2

= 4 040 000
c = 4 040 000
= 2010
ABD,
Area =
1
2
200 2000
= 200 000 m
2

ABC,
s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
=
1
2
(1800 + 400 + 2010)
= 2105
Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
= 2105(2105 1800)(2105 400)(2105 2010)
= 2105 305 1705 95
= 103991999 400
= 322 477.9 m
2

Total area = 200 000 + 322 477.9
= 522 477.9 m
2

= 522 477.9 10 000 hectares
= 52.2
The fire has burnt 52.2 hectares of land.
23


ABC,
a
2
= 2
2
+ 5
2
2 2 5 cos(50)
= 29 12.856
= 16.144
a = 16.144
= 4.02

sin( )
b
B
=
sin( )
a
A


5
sin( ) B
=
4.02
sin(50 )

5 sin(50) = 4.02 sin(B)
sin(B) =
5sin(50 )
4.02


= 0.952 79
B = sin
1
(0.952 79)
= 72.325
B = 7219
BCD,
DBC = 130 7219
= 5741
DCB = 180 (100 + 5741)
= 2219



sin(22 19 )
x

=
4.02
sin(100 )

x =
4.02sin(22 19 )
sin(100 )


= 1.55
Area of BCD =
1
2
1.55 4.02 sin(5741)
= 2.633 m
2

Area of ABC =
1
2
2 5 sin(50)
= 3.830 m
2

Total area = 3.830 + 2.633
= 6.463 m
2

Volume = A L
= 6.463 27
= 174.501
A GM1 1 - 5 114 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
174.5
The volume of the embankment is 174.5 m
3
.
24

Area = 2
1
2
18 14 sin(72)
= 252 0.951 056 5
= 239.7 cm
2

The answer is D.
25

h
2
= 15
2
9
2

= 225 81
= 144
h = 144
= 12
Area =
1
2
b h
=
1
2
18 12
= 108 m
2

Total area to be painted = 2 108
= 216 m
2

Amount of paint required =
216
12

= 18 L
The answer is B.
Exercise 5F Trigonometric identities
1 sin
2
( ) + cos
2
( ) = 1
sin
2
( ) +
2
4
5



= 1
sin
2
( ) +
16
25
= 1
sin
2
( ) =
9
25

sin( ) =
3
5

As is in the first quadrant sin( ) =
3
5
.
2 sin
2
( ) + cos
2
( ) = 1

2
12
13



+ cos
2
( ) = 1

144
169
+ cos
2
( ) = 1
cos
2
( ) =
25
169

cos( ) =
5
13

As is in the first quadrant cos( ) =
5
13
.
3 sin
2
( ) + cos
2
( ) = 1

2
6
10



+ cos
2
( ) = 1

36
100
+ cos
2
( ) = 1
cos
2
( ) =
64
100

cos( ) =
8
10

As is in the first quadrant cos( ) =
8
10
=
4
5
.
4 sin
2
( ) + cos
2
( ) = 1
sin
2
( ) +
2
2
7



= 1
sin
2
( ) +
4
49
= 1
sin
2
( ) =
45
49

sin( ) =
45
7

=
3 5
7

As is in the first quadrant sin( ) =
3 5
7
.
5 sin(30) =
1
2
, cos(30) =
3
2

sin
2
(30) + cos
2
(30)
=
2
2
1 3
2 2


+






=
1 3
4 4
+
=
4
4

= 1
So sin
2
( ) + cos
2
( ) = 1 is true for = 30.
6 sin( ) = cos(90 )
= 12
sin(12) = cos(90 12)
= cos(78)
= 0.208
7 cos( ) = sin(90 )
= 42
cos(42) = sin(90 42)
= sin(48)
= 0.743
Exercise 5G Radian measurement
1 a 30 = 30
180


=
30
180


=
6


b 60 = 60
180


=
60
180


=
3


T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 115

c 120 = 120
180


=
120
180


=
2
3


d 150 = 150
180


=
150
180


=
5
6


e 225 = 225
180


=
225
180


=
5
4


f 270 = 270
180


=
270
180


=
3
2


g 315 = 315
180


=
315
180


=
7
4


h 480 = 480
180


=
480
180


=
8
3


i 72 = 72
180


=
72
180


=
2
5


j 200 = 200
180


=
200
180


=
10
9


2 a
4

=
4


180


=
180
4

= 45
b
3
2

=
3
2


180


=
3 180
2


= 270
c
7
6

=
7
6


180


=
7 180
6


= 210
d
5
3

=
5
3


180


=
5 180
3


= 300
e
7
12

=
7
12


180


=
7 180
12


= 105
f
17
6

=
17
6


180


=
17 180
6


= 510
g
12

=
12


180


=
180
12

= 15
h
13
10

=
13
10


180


=
13 180
10


= 234
i
11
8

=
11
8


180


=
11 180
8


= 247.5
j 8 = 8
180


= 8 180
= 1440
3 a 27 = 27
180


=
27
180


= 0.4712
b 109 = 109
180


=
109
180


= 1.9024
c 243 = 243
180


=
243
180


= 4.2412
d 351 = 351
180


=
351
180


= 6.1261
A GM1 1 - 5 116 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
e 7 = 7
180


=
7
180


= 0.1222
f 6342 = 63.7
= 63.7
180


=
63.7
180


= 1.1118
g 13821 = 138.35
= 138.35
180


=
138.35
180


= 2.4147
h 2748 = 274.133 333 3
= 274.133 333 3
180


=
274.1333333
180


= 4.7845
i 32653 = 326.883 333 3
= 326.883 333 3
180


=
326.8833333
180


= 5.7052
j 472 = 47.033 333 33
= 47.033 333 33
180


=
47.0333333
180


= 0.8209
4 a 2.345
c
= 2.345
180


=
2.345 180


= 134.358 603
= 13422
b 0.6103
c
= 0.6103
180


=
0.6103 180


= 34.967 614 24
= 3458
c 1
c
= 1
180


=
1 180


= 57.295 779 51
= 5718
d 1.61
c
= 1.61
180


=
1.61 180


= 92.246 205 02
= 9215
e 3.592
c
= 3.592
180


=
3.592 180


= 205.806 44
= 20548
f 7.25
c
= 7.25
180


=
7.25 180


= 415.394 401 5
= 41524
g 0.182
c
= 0.182
180


=
0.182 180


= 10.427 831 87
= 1026
h 5.8402
c
= 5.8402
180


=
5.8402 180


= 334.618 811 5
= 33437
i 4.073
c
= 4.073
180


=
4.073 180


= 233.365 71
= 23322
j 6.167
c
= 6.167
180


=
6.167 180


= 353.343 072 3
= 35321
Exercise 5H Arcs, sectors and segments
1 65 = 65
180


=
65
180


= 1.1345
l = r
= 14 1.1345
= 15.883
= 15.88 cm
2 153 = 153
180


=
153
180


= 2.6704
l = r
= 75 2.6704
= 200.28 mm
3 135 = 135
180


=
135
180


=
3
4


l = r
T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 117

= 10
3
4


=
15
2

cm
4 41 = 41
180


=
41
180


= 0.7156
l = r
3.5 = r 0.7156
r =
3.5
0.7156

= 4.891
= 4.89 cm
5 205 = 205
180


=
205
180


= 3.5779
l = r
27.8 = r 3.5779
r =
27.8
3.5779

r = 7.77 cm
6 60 = 60
180


=
60
180


=
3


l = r
4 = r
3


r =
12

cm
7 a l = r
20 = 75
=
20
75

= 0.2667
c

b = 0.2667
180


= 15.2808
= 1517
8 a l = r
8 = 5
=
8
5

= 1.6
c

b = 1.6
c

= 1.6
180


= 91.6732
= 9140
9 l = r
8 = 13
=
8
13

= 0.6154
c

=
0.6154 180


= 35.2598
= 3516
10 l = r
245 = 180
=
245
180

= 1.3611
c

= 1.3611
180


= 77.985
= 7759
11 =
20
60
360
= 120
= 120
180


= 2.0944
l = r
= 35 2.0944
= 73.304
= 73.3 cm
12 = 42
= 42
180


= 0.7330
c

l = r
= 3 0.7330
= 2.199
= 2.20 m
13 = 56
= 56
180


= 0.9774
A =
1
2
r
2

=
1
2
17
2
0.9774
= 141.2343
= 141.23 cm
2

14 = 256
= 256
180


= 4.468 04
A =
1
2
r
2

=
1
2
6.2
2
4.468 04
= 85.875 73
= 85.88 cm
2

15 100 = 100
180


=
100
180


=
5
9


A =
1
2
r
2

=
1
2
6
2

5
9


= 10 cm
2

A GM1 1 - 5 118 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
16 70 = 70
180


= 1.2217
A =
1
2
r
2

825 =
1
2
r
2
1.2217
r
2
=
2 825
1.2217


= 1350.577 065
r = 1350.577 065
= 36.7502
= 36.75 cm
17 A =
1
2
r
2

309 =
1
2
18.2
2

= 165.62
=
309
165.62

= 1.8657
c

= 1.8657
180


= 106.897
= 10654
18 l = r
18 = 30
=
18
30

= 0.6
c

A =
1
2
r
2

=
1
2
30
2
0.6
= 270 cm
2

19 a l = r
5 = 4
=
5
4

= 1.25
c

A =
1
2
r
2

=
1
2
4
2
1.25
= 10 m
2

b V = A h, h = 10 cm = 0.1 m
= 10 0.1
= 1 m
3

20 =
40
60
360
= 240
= 240
180


= 4.188 79
c

A =
1
2
r
2

=
1
2
62
2
4.188 79
= 8050.85 cm
2

21 a = 150
= 150
180


= 2.617 99
c

A =
1
2
r
2

=
1
2
12
2
2.617 99
= 188.495
= 188.50 cm
2

b Length of arc:
l = r
l = 12 150
180


l = 10
Circumference of base of cone
= length of arc.
C = 2 r
10 = 2 r
r =
10
2


r = 5 cm
22 100 = 100
180


= 1.745 33
c

A =
1
2
r
2
( sin( ))
r = 25, = 1.745 33
c
or = 100
A =
1
2
25
2
(1.745 33 sin(100))
=
1
2
625(1.745 33 0.984 81)
= 312.5 0.760 52
= 237.6632
= 237.66 cm
2

23 = 8520
= 85.333
= 85.333
180


= 1.489 35
c

A =
1
2
r
2
( sin( ))
r = 4.7, = 1.489 35
c
or = 8520
=
1
2
4.7
2
(1.489 35 0.996 68)
=
1
2
4.7
2
0.492 67
= 5.441
= 5.44 m
2

24 75 = 75
180


= 1.3090
c

A =
1
2
r
2
( sin( ))
A = 100, = 1.309 or = 75
100 =
1
2
r
2
(1.3090 sin(75))
200 = r
2
(1.3090 0.9659)
200 = r
2
0.3431
r
2
=
200
0.3431

r
2
= 582.9204
T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 119

r = 582.9204
r = 24.14 cm
25 A =
1
2
r
2

100 =
1
2
15
2

=
2
2 100
15


=
200
225

= 0.8889
c

= 0.8889
180


= 50.9302
= 5056
26


3, 4 and 5 form a Pythagorean triad, therefore they form a
right-angled triangle.


sin(a) =
3
5

= 0.6
a = sin
1
(0.6)
= 36.87
= 36.87
180


= 0.6435
c

2a = 73.74 or 2a = 1.287
c

sin(b) =
4
5

= 0.8
b = sin
1
(0.8)
= 53.13
= 53.13
180


= 0.9273
c

2b = 106.26 or 2b = 1.8546
c

Area = Sum of area of two segments
=
1
2
r
1
2
(2a sin(2a)) +
1
2
r
2
2
(2b sin(2b))
=
1
2
4
2
(1.287 sin(73.74)) +
1
2
3
2

(1.8546 sin(106.26))
= 8 (0.3270) + 4.5 (0.8946)
= 2.616 + 4.0257
= 6.6417
= 6.64 cm
2

27 l = r
28 = 20
=
28
20

= 1.4
c

The answer is D.
28 A =
1
2
r
2
( sin( ))
60 = 60
180


= 1.0472
r = 12, = 1.0472 or = 60
A =
1
2
12
2
(1.0472 sin(60))
= 72 0.1812
= 13.04 cm
2

The answer is E.
29





cos(a) =
2 2 2
7 10 4
2 7 10
+


=
133
140

= 0.95
a = cos
1
(0.95)
= 18.195
= 18.195
180


= 0.3176
c

2a = 36.39 or 2a = 0.6352
c

cos(b) =
2 2 2
4 10 7
2 4 10
+


=
67
80

= 0.8375
b = cos
1
(0.8375)
= 33.123
b = 33.123
180


= 0.5781
c

2b = 66.246 or 2b = 1.1562
c

Area = Sum of area of two segments
=
1
2
r
1
2
(2a sin(2a)) +
1
2
r
2
2

(2b sin(2b))
=
1
2
7
2
(0.6352 sin(36.39)) +
1
2
4
2

(1.1562 sin(66.246))
= 24.5 (0.0419) + 8 (0.2409)
= 1.0266 + 1.9272
= 2.9538
= 2.95 m
2

30 l = r
= 10 50
180


A GM1 1 - 5 120 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
=
500
180


= 8.727
= 8.73 cm
The answer is A.
Chapter review
Short answer
1


tan(60) =
1
h

h = tan(60)
h = 3 = 1.73 m
2


tan() =
O
A

tan(30) =
12
x

x tan(30) = 12
x =
12
tan(30 )

= 20.785
= 20.8 m
3
sin(45 )
m

=
12
sin(30 )

m
2
2
= 12
1
2


2
2
m
= 24
m = 12 2 cm
4


Largest angle is opposite the longest side, that is, B.
cos(B) =
2 2 2
2
a c b
ac
+

=
2 2 2
15 12 20
2 15 12
+


=
31
360


= 0.086 11
5 Area =
1
2
20 25 sin(45)
= 250
2
2

= 125 2 m
2

6 s =
4 5 7
2
+ +
= 8
Area = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
= 8(8 4)(8 5)(8 7)
= 8 4 3 1
= 48
= 4 3 m
2

7 sin
2
( ) + cos
2
( ) = 1

2
3
8



+ cos
2
( ) = 1

9
64
+ cos
2
( ) = 1
cos
2
( ) =
55
64

cos( ) =
55
8

As is in the first quadrant cos( ) =
55
.
8

8 a i 80 = 80
180


=
80
180


=
4
9


ii 125 = 125
180


=
125
180


=
25
36


iii 640 = 640
180


=
640
180


=
32
9


b i
20
c

=
20


180


=
180
20

= 9
ii
15
8
c

=
15
8


180


=
15 180
8


= 337.5
iii 7
c
= 7
180


= 7 180
= 1260
T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 121

9

= 60
= 60
180


= 1.0472
c

a l = r
= 75 1.0472
= 78.54 m
Perimeter = 2 75 + 78.54
= 150 + 78.54
= 228.54 m
b A =
1
2
r
2

=
1
2
75
2
1.0472
= 2945.25 m
2

Multiple choice
1 tan( ) =
O
A

tan( ) =
5
4

= 1.25
= tan
1
(1.25)
= 51.34
51
The answer is C.
2

sin( ) =
O
H

sin( ) =
2
4.5

= 0.4444
= sin
1
(0.4444)
= 26.39
26
The answer is B.
3

tan( ) =
O
A

tan(62) =
18
h

h = 18 tan(62)
h = 33.85
Height of building = 33.85 + 1.8
= 35.65
36 m
The answer is C.
4 310T = N(360 310)W
= N 50 W
The answer is B.
5


sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
b
B


10
sin( ) A
=
7
sin(40 )

10 sin(40) = 7 sin(A)
sin(A) =
10sin(40 )
7


= 0.918 27
A = sin
1
(0.918 27)
= 66.674 or 180 66.674
= 6640 or = 113.326
= 11320
C = 180 (40 + 6640)
= 7320
73
or
C = 180 (40 + 11320)
= 2640
27
The answer is D.
6

a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
2bc cos(A)
= 10
2
+ 15
2
2 10 15 cos(135)
= 325 300 (0.7071)
= 325 + 212.132
= 537.132
a = 537.132
= 23.18 km
The answer is E.
7

The largest angle is opposite the longest side.
cos(B) =
2 2 2
2
a c b
ac
+

A GM1 1 - 5 122 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
=
2 2 2
8 5 10
2 8 5
+


=
11
80


= 0.1375
B = cos
1
(0.1375)
= 97.9
98
The answer is C.
8

A =
1
2
ab sin(C )
=
1
2
8 10 sin(72)
= 40 0.951 056 5
= 38.042
= 38.04 m
2

The answer is D.
9 s =
1
2
(a + b + c)
=
1
2
(4 + 5.2 + 7)
= 8.1
A = ( )( )( ) s s a s b s c
= 8.1(8.1 4)(8.1 5.2)(8.1 7)
= 8.1 4.1 2.9 1.1
= 105.9399
= 10.293
Volume = Ah, h = 250 mm = 0.25 m
= 10.293 0.25
= 2.57 m
3

The answer is B.
10 75 = 75
180


=
75
180


=
5
12


The answer is D.
11 5.321
c
= 5.321
180


= 304.871
= 30452
The answer is B.
12 l = r
3.5 = 5
=
3.5
5

= 0.7
c

= 0.7
180


= 40.1
40
The answer is B.
13 = 30
= 30
180
c


= 0.5236
c

A =
1
2
r
2

40 =
1
2
r
2
0.5236
80 = r
2
0.5236
r
2
=
80
0.5236

= 152.7887
r = 152.7887
= 12.36
l = r
= 12.36 0.5236
= 6.47 cm
The answer is D.
14 = 120
= 120
180
c


= 2.0944
c

A =
1
2
r
2
(
c
sin( ))
r = 40, = 2.0944
c
or = 120
=
1
2
40
2
(2.0944 sin(120))
= 800 (2.0944 0.8660)
= 800 1.2284
= 982.7
983 cm
2

The answer is E.
15 =
48
60
360
= 288
= 288
180
c


= 5.0265
c

A =
1
2
r
2

=
1
2
75
2
5.0265
= 14 137.2 cm
2

= 1.413 72 m
2

1.41 m
2

answer is C.
Extended response
1 a


a = 2 + 3 = 5 cm
b = 3 + 4 = 7 cm
c = 2 + 4 = 6 cm
cos(A) =
2 2 2
2
b c a
bc
+

T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 123

=
2 2 2
7 6 5
2 7 6
+


=
60
84

= 0.7143
A = cos
1
(0.7143)
= 44.415
= 4425
cos(B) =
2 2 2
2
a c b
ac
+

=
2 2 2
5 6 7
2 5 6
+


=
12
60

= 0.2
B = cos
1
(0.2)
= 78.463
= 7828
C = 180 (4425 + 7828)
= 577
The three angles are 4425, 577 and 7828.
b Area =
1
2
ab sin(C)
=
1
2
5 7 sin(577)
=
1
2
5 7 0.8398
= 14.697 cm
2

c Shaded area = Area of Triangle Area of 3 sectors.
Triangle of radius 2 cm:
A =
1
2
r
2

r = 2 cm, = B = 7828
7828 = 78.467
= 78.467
180


= 1.3695
c

A =
1
2
2
2
1.3695
= 2.739 cm
2

Triangle of radius 3 cm:
A =
1
2
r
2

r = 3 cm, = C = 577
577 = 57.1167
= 57.1167
180


= 0.9969
c

A =
1
2
3
2
0.9969
= 4.486
Triangle of radius 4 cm:
A =
1
2
r
2

r = 4 cm, = A = 4425
4425 = 44.4167
= 44.4167
180


= 0.7752
c

A =
1
2
4
2
0.7752
= 6.202
Shaded Area = 14.697 (2.739 + 4.486 + 6.202)
= 1.270
The shaded area is 1.270 cm
2
.
2


a
sin( )
c
C
=
sin( )
b
B


sin(42 )
c

=
3.2
sin(33 )

c =
3.2sin(42 )
sin(33 )


= 3.931.
The river frontage is 3.931 km long.
b Area =
1
2
bc sin(A)
=
1
2
3.2 3.931 sin(105)
= 6.075 km
2

c


ABD: Area =
1
2
6.075
= 3.0375 km
2

Area =
1
2
3.931 x sin(33)
3.0375 =
1
2
3.931 x 0.544 64
6.075 = 3.931 0.544 64 x
= 2.141x
x =
6.075
2.141

= 2.8375
y
2
= 3.931
2
+ 2.8375
2
2 3.931 2.8375 cos(33)
= 23.5042 18.7094
= 4.7948
y = 4.7948
y = 2.190 (Length of fence)

sin( )
x

=
sin(33 )
y



2.8375
sin( )
=
2.190
sin(33 )

A GM1 1 - 5 124 T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s
2.8375 sin(33) = 2.19 sin( )
sin( ) =
2.8375sin(33 )
2.19


= 0.705 67
= sin
1
(0.705 67)
= 44.884
= 4453
Bearing is N (45 + 4453)E = N 8953E
d From part c the length of fence is y, that is, 2.190 km.
3 a


i B = 90 + 25
= 115
b
2
= a
2
+ c
2
2ac cos(B)
= 8.2
2
+ 6.7
2
2 8.2 6.7 cos(115)
= 112.13 + 46.44
= 158.57
b = 158.57
= 12.59 km
ii
sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
b
B


6.7
sin( ) A
=
12.59
sin(115 )

6.7 sin(115) = 12.59 sin(A)
sin(A) =
6.7sin(115 )
12.59


= 0.4823
A = sin
1
(0.4823)
= 28.836
= 2850
= 65 2850
= 3610
Direction is S3610E.
b


tan( ) =
O
A

tan(47) =
3500
h
x

1.072 37 =
3500
h
x

h = (3500 x) 1.072 37
h = 3753.295 1.072 37x [1]
tan(72) =
h
x

3.077 68 =
h
x

3.077 68x = h
x =
3.077 68
h
[2]
Substitute x into equation [1]
h = 3753.295 1.072 37
3.077 68
h




= 3753.295 0.348 43h
1.348 43h = 3753.295
h =
3753.295
1.348 43

= 2783.46
The height is 2783 m.
4 a and b
Triangle 1:



sin( )
a
A
=
sin( )
b
B


56
sin( ) A
=
124
sin(95 )


sin( )
56
A
=
sin(95 )
124


sin(A) =
56sin(95 )
124


A =
1
56sin(95 )
sin
124





= 26.736 907 67
= 2644
B = 180 (95 + 2644)
= 5816
Length OA
C
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(C )
OA
2
= OB
2
+ AB
2
2 OB AB cos(5816)
OA
2
= 56
2
+ 124
2
2 56 124 cos(5816)
= 11 207.376 64
OA = 11207.376 64
= 105.86 m
Triangle 2:


c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(C)
BC
2
= OB
2
+ OC
2
2 OB OC cos(64)
= 56
2
+ 52
2
2 56 52 cos(64)
= 3286.926 441
BC = 3286.926 441
= 57.33 m
Triangle 3:
T r i g o n o me t r i c r a t i o s a n d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s A GM1 1 - 5 125



c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(C )
DC
2
= OC
2
+ OD
2
+ 2 OC OD cos(80)
= 52
2
+ 68
2
2 52 68 cos(80)
= 6099.960 088
DC = 6099.960 088
= 78.10 m
Triangle 4:


c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(C )
DE
2
= OD
2
+ OE
2
2 OD OE cos(25)
= 68
2
+ 43
2
2 68 43 cos(25)
= 1172.912 061
DE = 1172.912 061
= 34.25 m
DOE = 360 (95 + 64 + 80 + 58 + 38)
= 360

(335)
= 25
Triangle 5:


c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(C )
EF
2
= OE
2
+ OF
2
2 OE OF cos(58)
= 43
2
+ 85
2
2 43 85 cos(58)
= 5200.290 178
EF = 5200.290178
= 72.11 m
Triangle 6:



c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(C )
AF
2
= OA
2
+ OF
2
2 OA OF cos(38)
= 105.86
2
+ 85
2
2 105.86 85 cos(38)
= 4250.140 476
AF = 4250.140 476
= 65.19 m
c Total length
= 124 + 56 + 105.86 + 57.33 + 52 + 78.10 + 68 + 34.25
+ 43 + 72.11 + 85 + 65.19
= 840.84 m
d Sold by the metre only
840.84 m 841 m required
Cost = 841 4.50
= $3784.50
e Area 1
A =
1
2
ab sin(C )
=
1
2
105.86 56 sin(95)
= 2952.80 m
2

Area 2
A =
1
2
ab sin(C )
=
1
2
56 52 sin(64)
= 1308.64 m
2

Area 3
A =
1
2
ab sin(C )
=
1
2
52 68 sin(80)
= 1741.14 m
2

Area 4
A =
1
2
ab sin(C )
=
1
2
43 68 sin(25)
= 617.87 m
2

Area 5
A =
1
2
ab sin(C )
=
1
2
85 43 sin(58)
= 1549.81 m
2

Area 6
A =
1
2
ab sin(C )
=
1
2
105.86 85 sin(38)
= 2769.89 m
2

Total area
= 2952.80 + 1308.64 + 174.14 + 617.87 + 1549.81
+ 2769.89
= 10 940.15 m
2

(Note: depending on which values were used this answer
may vary slightly.)
A GM1 1 - 6 126 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
Exercise 6A Describing sequences
1 a Add 3 to the previous term. The next three terms are 10,
13, 16.
b Subtract 1 from the previous term. The next three terms
are 3, 4, 5.
c Multiply the previous term by 4. The next three terms are
256, 1024, 4096.
d Divide the previous term by 2. The next three terms are
3 3 3
, ,
8 16 32
.
e Add three to the magnitude of the previous term and then
change the sign. The next three terms are 17, 20, 23.
f The difference between the terms increases by 1 for each
successive pair. The next three terms are 27, 35, 44.
g Add the previous two terms. The next three terms are 29,
47, 76.
h Add 3b a to the previous term. The next three terms are
2a + 7b, 3a + 10b, 4a + 13b.
i Many possible answers. Subtract 1 for the first two
differences, then add 1 for the next two differences, then
repeat is one possibility. The next three terms are 0, 1, 0.
j Append 1 to the decimal expansion of the previous term.
The next three terms are 1.111, 1.1111, 1.11111.
k Divide the previous term by 2. The next three terms are
64, 32, 16.
2 a t
n
= 2n 5
t
1
= 2 1 5
= 3
t
5
= 2 5 5
= 5
t
10
= 2 10 5
= 15
b t
n
= 4 3
n 2

t
1
= 4 3
1 2

=
4
3

t
5
= 4 3
5 2

= 4 3
3

= 108
t
10
= 4 3
10 2

= 4 3
8

= 26 244
c t
n
=
1
n
n +

t
1
=
1
1 1 +

=
1
2

t
5
=
5
5 1 +

=
5
6

t
10
=
10
10 1 +

=
10
11

d t
n
= 17 3.7n
t
1
= 17 3.7 1
= 13.3
t
5
= 17 3.7 5
= 1.5
t
10
= 17 3.7 10
= 20
e t
n
=
1
5
2
n




t
1
=
1
1
5
2




=
5
2

t
5
=
5
1
5
2




=
5
32

t
10
=
10
1
5
2




=
5
1024

f t
n
=
3
1
5
2
n




t
1
=
3 1
1
5
2




=
5
4

t
5
=
3 5
1
5
2




= 20
t
10
=
3 10
1
5
2




= 640
g t
n
= (1)
n
+ n
t
1
= (1)
1
+ 1
= 0
t
5
= (1)
5
+ 5
= 1 + 5
= 4
t
10
= (1)
10
+ 10
= 1 + 10
= 11
h t
n
= 3
n
2
n

t
1
= 3
1
2
1

=
3
2

t
5
= 3
5
2
5

=
243
32

t
10
= 3
10
2
10

=
59 049
1024

i t
n
= n
2
n + 41
t
1
= 1
2
1 + 41
= 41
t
5
= 5
2
5 + 41
= 61
t
10
= 10
2
10 + 41
= 131
Chapter 6 Sequences and series
S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 127
j t
n
= a + (n 1)d
t
1
= a + (1 1)d
= a
t
5
= a + (5 1)d
= a + 4d
t
10
= a + (10 1)d
= a + 9d
k t
n
= ar
n 1

t
1
= ar
1 1

= a
t
5
= ar
5 1

= ar
4

t
10
= ar
10 1

= ar
9

3 a u
a

+

1
= u
n
+ 2
u
1
= 3
u
2
= 3 + 2
= 5
u
3
= 5 + 2
7 =
u
4
= 7 + 2
= 9
u
5
= 9 + 2
= 11
u
6
= 11 + 2
= 13
u
7
= 13 + 2
= 15
u
8
= 15 + 2
17 =
u
9
= 17 + 2
= 19
u
10
= 19 + 2
21 =
b u
n + 1
= u
n
2
u
1
=
1
2

u
2
=
1
2
2

=
1
1
2

u
3
=
1
1 2
2


1
3
2
=
u
4
=
1
3 2
2

=
1
5
2

u
5
=
1
5 2
2

=
1
7
2

u
6
=
1
7 2
2

=
1
9
2

u
7
=
1
9 2
2


1
11
2
=
u
8
=
1
11 2
2


1
13
2
=
u
9
=
1
13 2
2

=
1
15
2

u
10
=
1
15 2
2


1
17
2
=
c u
n + 1
= 3u
n

u
1
= 0.85
u
2
= 3 0.85
= 2.55
u
3
= 3 2.55
7.65 =
u
4
= 3 7.65
= 22.95
u
5
= 3 22.95
= 68.85
u
6
= 3 68.85
= 206.55
u
7
= 3 206.55
= 619.65
u
8
= 3 619.65
1858.95 =
u
9
= 3 1858.95
= 5576.85
u
10
= 3 5576.85
16 730.55 =
d u
n + 1
= 2u
n

u
1
= 3
u
2
= 2 3
= 6
u
3
= 2 6
12 =
u
4
= 2 12
= 24
u
5
= 2 24
= 48
u
6
= 2 48
= 96
u
7
= 2 96
= 192
u
8
= 2 192
384 =
u
9
= 2 384
= 768
u
10
= 2 768
1536 =
e
1 n
u
+
=
3
4
n
u
u
1
=
4
3

u
2
=
3 4
4 3

= 1
u
3
=
3
1
4

A GM1 1 - 6 128 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s

3
4
=
u
4
=
3 3
4 4

=
9
16

u
5
=
3 9
4 16

=
27
64

u
6
=
3 27
4 64

=
81
256

u
7
=
3 81
4 256

=
243
1024

u
8
=
3 243
4 1024


729
4096
=
u
9
=
3 729
4 4096

=
2187
16 384

u
10
=
3 2187
4 16 384


6561
65 536
=
f
1
7
n n
u u
+
=
u
1
= 14
u
2
= 7

3
0 u =
u
4
= 7
u
5
= 14
u
6
= 21
u
7
= 28

8
35 u =
u
9
= 42

10
49 u =
g u
n + 1
= u
n
+ 2
u
1
= 3
u
2
= 3 + 2
= 1
u
3
= (1) + 2
= 3
u
4
= (3) + 2
= 1
u
5
= (1) + 2
= 3
u
6
= 3 + 2
= 1
u
7
= (1) + 2
= 3
u
8
= 3 + 2
= 1
u
9
= (1) + 2
= 3
u
10
= 3 + 2
= 1
h
1
( 1)
n
n n n
u u u
+
= +
u
1
= 3
u
2
= 3 + (1)
1
3
u
3
= 0 + (1)
3
0
0 =
u
4
= 0
u
5
= 0
u
6
= 0
u
7
= 0

8
0 u =
u
9
= 0

10
0 u =
i u
n
= 2u
n 1

u
1
=
1
4

u
2
=
1 1
2
4 2
=

3
1
2 1
2
u = =
u
4
= 2x 1 = 2
u
5
= 2x 2 = 4
u
6
= 2x 4 = 8
u
7
= 2x 8 = 16

8
2 16 32 u x = =
u
9
= 2x 32 = 64

10
2 64 128 u x = =
j u
n + 1
= au
n
+ a
u
1
= a
u
2
= a
2
+ a
u
3
= a(a
2
+ a) + a
= a
3
+ a
2
+ a
u
4
= a(a
3
+ a
2
+ a) + a
= a
4
+ a
3
+ a
2
+ a
u
5
= a(a
4
+ a
3
+ a
2
+ a) + a
= a
5
+ a
4
+ a
3
+ a
2
+ a
u
6
= a
6
+ a
5
+

+ a
u
7
= a
7
+ a
6
+

+ a

8 7
8
u a a a = + + +
u
9
= a
9
+ a
8
+

+ a

10 9
10
u a a a = + + +
k u
n + 2
= u
n + 1
+ u
n

u
1
= 1
u
2
= 1
u
3
= 1 + 1
= 2
u
4
= 2 + 1
= 3
u
5
= 3 + 2
= 5
u
6
= 5 + 3
= 8
u
7
= 8 + 5
= 13
u
8
= 13 + 8
= 21
u
9
= 21 + 13
= 34
u
10
= 34 + 21
= 55
l u
n + 1
= u
n
2
2
u
1
= 3
S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 129
u
2
= 3
2
2
= 11
u
3
= (11)
2
2
= 123
u
4
= (123)
2
2
= 15 131
u
5
= (15 131)
2
2
= 228 947 163
u
6
= (228 947 163)
2
2
= 5.24 10
16

u
7
= (5.24 10
16
)
2
2
= 2.75 10
33


66
8
7.55 10 u =
u
9
= 5.70 10
133


267
10
3.2 10 u =
4 a a = 0.8, t
0
= 0.5
t
n + 1
= 0.8 t
n
(1 t
n
)
t
1
= 0.8 t
0
(1 t
0
)
= 0.8 0.5(1 0.5)
= 0.2
t
2
= 0.8 t
1
(1 t
1
)
= 0.8 0.2(1 0.2)
= 0.128
t
3
= 0.8 t
2
(1 t
2
)
= 0.8 0.128(1 0.128)
= 0.0 892 928
and so on.
So t
4
= 0.0650556767
t
5
= 0.0486587485
t
6
= 0.0370328598
Sequence converges to 0.
b a = 0.4, t
0
= 0.6
t
n + 1
= 0.4 t
n
(1 t
n
)
t
1
= 0.4 0.6(1 0.6)
= 0.096
t
2
= 0.4 0.096(1 0.096)
= 0.0 347 136
and so on. So:
t
3
= 0.0134034264
t
4
= 0.0052895098
t
5
= 0.0021046124
t
6
= 0.0008400732
Sequence converges to 0.
c a = 1.1, t
0
= 0.9
t
n + 1
= 1.1t
n
(1 t
n
)
t
1
= 1.1 t
0
(1 t
0
)
= 1.1 0.9(1 0.9)
= 0.099
t
2
= 1.1 t
1
(1 t
1
)
= 1.1 0.099(1 0.099)
= 0.0981189
t
3
= 0.0973407396
t
4
= 0.096652072
t
5
= 0.0960414939
t
6
= 0.0954992779
Sequence converges to
1
11
.
d a = 1.9, t
0
= 0.4
t
n + 1
= 1.9t
n
(1 t
n
)
t
1
= 1.9t
0
(1 t
0
)
= 1.9 0.4(1 0.4)
= 0.456
t
2
= 1.9t
1
(1 t
1
)
= 1.9 0.456(1 0.456)
= 0.4713216
t
3
= 0.4734373438
t
4
= 0.4736594081
t
5
= 0.4736817291
t
6
= 0.4736839624
Sequence converges to
9
19
.
All other parts are done in the same manner. Here are the
results.
e a = 2.1, t
0
= 0.5
t
1
= 0.525
t
2
= 0.5236875
t
3
= 0.5238216949
t
4
= 0.5238083064
t
5
= 0.5238096455
t
6
= 0.5238095116
Sequence converges to
11
21
.
f a = 2.5, t
0
= 0.3
t
1
= 0.525
t
2
= 0.6234375
t
3
= 0.586907959
t
4
= 0.6061175167
t
5
= 0.5968476816
t
6
= 0.6015513164
Sequence converges to
3
5
.
g a = 3, t
0
= 0.2
t
1
= 0.48
t
2
= 0.7488
t
3
= 0.56429568
t
4
= 0.7375981966
t
5
= 0.5806412909
t
6
= 0.7304909466
Sequence oscillates between 2 points.
h a = 3.4, t
0
= 0.7
t
1
= 0.714
t
2
= 0.6942936
t
3
= 0.7216499898
t
4
= 0.6829623589
t
5
= 0.7361842358
t
6
= 0.660337823
Sequence oscillates between 2 points.
i a = 4.2, t
0
= 0.1
t
1
= 0.378
t
2
= 0.9874872
t
3
= 0.0518961653
t
4
= 0.206652404
t
5
= 0.6885781893
t
6
= 0.9006407194
Sequence is diverging.
j a = 4.5, t
0
= 0.8
t
1
= 0.72
t
2
= 0.9072
t
3
= 0.37884672
t
4
= 1.058948472
t
5
= 0.2809052764
t
6
= 1.619158728
Sequence is diverging.
Note: to establish convergence/divergence many more terms
need to be generated first use the graphics calculator.
5 a 15, 20 Difference between successive terms increases
by 1.
b 4, 3 The difference decreases by 2; that is, 5, 3, 1, 1,
3,
A GM1 1 - 6 130 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
c No clear pattern.
d
3
16
,
3
256
Each successive term is multiplied by an
increasing power of
1
2
.
That is,
1
1
2




,
0
1
2



,
1
1
2




e 34, 55 Each successive term is the sum of the previous
two terms.
f 31, 63 Each term is one less than powers of two 2
1
, 2
2
, 2
3
.
g 5, 4 Add 2 to find the next term then subtract 1 to find
the following term then repeat.
6 a Choose t
n
= 5 2n
(Since successive terms decrease by 2)
t
1
= 5 2 1
= 3
t
2
= 5 2 2
= 1
t
3
= 5 2 3
= 1
The answer is D.
b Each successive term is obtained by multiplying the
previous term by
1
2
.
t
n + 1
=
2
n
t

The answer is E.
c t
n
=
2
6 12
2
n

t
1
=
2
6 1 12
2


= 3
t
2
=
2
6 2 12
2


= 6
t
3
=
2
6 3 12
2


= 28
Sequence is {3, 6, 21, }
The answer is C.
7 a Each successive term decreases by 2.
t
n + 1
= t
n
2, t
1
= 7
b Each successive term is divided by 2.
t
n + 1
= ,
2
n
t
t
1
= 12
c Each successive term has 0.6 added to it.
t
n + 1
= t
n
+ 0.6, t
1
= 12
d Each successive term is 5 times the previous term plus
one.
t
n + 1
= 5t
n
+ 1, t
1
= 2
e Each successive term is multiplied by 3.
t
n + 1
= 3t
n
, t
1
= 4
f Each successive term is the square of the previous term.
t
n + 1
= (t
n
)
2
, t
1
= 2
8 a p
n + 1
= 1.3p
n
(1 p
n
) 2004: p
0
= 0.28 (since p
n
is in
hundreds).
2005: p
1
= 1.3 0.28(1 0.28) = 0.26208 (hundreds)
2006: p
2
= 1.3 0.26208(1 0.26208) = 0.2514122957
(hundreds)
so expected number of cats (to the nearest whole number)
are: 26 and 25.
b Continuing the iterative process shows that the sequence
converges to
3
13
(or 0.230769), so the limiting number
is 23.
9 p
n + 1
= 0.3 p
n
(1 p
n
). Substituting 0.62 for p
0
gives the
following sequence: 0.07068, 0.0197053017,
0.0057951007, 0.0017284553 .. Sequence converges to
0. If we consider to the nearest whole number, all cats will
be gone in 4 years time, or by 2009.
Exercise 6B Arithmetic sequences
1 a t
2
t
1
= 7 12
= 5
t
3
t
2
= 2 7
= 5
the sequence is arithmetic.
b t
2
t
1
= 3.48 0.12
= 3.6
t
3
t
2
= 7.08 3.48
= 3.6
the sequence is arithmetic.
c t
2
t
1
=
3 3
8 8


=
3
4

t
3
t
2
=
9 3
8 8

=
3
4

the sequence is arithmetic.
d t
2
t
1
= 1.7 2.3
= 4
t
3
t
2
= 5.7 1.7
= 4
the sequence is arithmetic.
e
2 1
t t =
1 5
9 9

=
2
3


3 2
t t =
7 1
9 9

=
2
3

the sequence is arithmetic.
f t
2
t
1
= 18 18
= 36
t
3
t
2
= 54 18
= 36
the sequence is arithmetic.
g
2 1
t t =
4 2
7 5
15 3

=
3
1
5


3 2
t t =
13 4
8 7
15 15

=
3
1
5

the sequence is arithmetic.
h t
2
t
1
= 2x + 7 (x + 9)
= x 2
t
3
t
2
= 3x + 5 (2x + 7)
= x 2
S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 131
the sequence is arithmetic.
i t
2
t
1
= 5x
2
2x (3x
2
4x)
= 2x
2
+ 2x
t
3
t
2
= 7x
2
(5x
2
2x)
= 2x
2
+ 2x
the sequence is arithmetic.
j t
2
t
1
= 2(2 x) 3(2 x)
= 1(2 x)
= (2 x) = x 2
t
3
t
2
= 2 x 2(2 x)
= (2 x) = x 2
the sequence is arithmetic.
2 a t
2
t
1
= 5 3 = 2
t
3
t
2
= 7 5 = 2
The sequence is arithmetic with the common
difference d = 2.
t
4
= t
3
+ 2
= 7 + 2
= 9
t
n
= a + (n 1)d with a = 3, d = 2
t
n
= 3 + (n 1)2
= 1 + 2n
b t
2
t
1
= 7 4 = 3
t
3
t
2
= 11 7 = 4
There is no common difference so the sequence is not
arithmetic.
c t
2
t
1
= 6 3 = 3
t
3
t
2
= 12 6 = 6
There is no common difference so the sequence is not
arithmetic.
d t
2
t
1
= 0 3 = 3
t
3
t
2
= 3 0 = 3
The sequence is arithmetic with the common difference
d = 3.
t
4
= t
3
+ 3
= 3 + 3
= 6
t
n
= a + (n 1) with a = 3, d = 3
t
n
= 3 + (n 1)3
= 6 + 3n
e t
2
t
1
= 6 2 = 4
t
3
t
2
= 10 6 = 4
The sequence is arithmetic with the common difference
d = 4.
t
4
= t
3
4
= 10 4
= 14
t
n
= (a d) + nd
a = 2, d = 4
t
n
= (2 4) + 4 n
= 2 4n
f t
2
t
1
=
11 2 1
14 7 2
=

3 2
t t =
9 11 1
7 14 2
=
The sequence is arithmetic with common difference
1
2
d = .
t
4
=
3
1
2
t +
=
9 1
7 2
+
=
18 9
14 14
+
=
25
14

t
n
= (a d) + nd
a =
2 1
,
7 2
d =
t
n
=
2 1
7 2 2
n
1
+



=
4 7
14 14 2
n
+



=
3
14 2
n
+
g
2 1
t t =
3 3 3
2 4 4
=

3 2
t t =
3 3 3
1 2 2
=
There is no common difference so the sequence is not
arithmetic.
h
2 1
t t =
3 3 3
2 4 4
=

3 2
t t =
9 3 3
4 2 4
=
The sequence is arithmetic with common difference
d =
3
4
.

4
t =
3
3
4
t +
=
9 3
4 4
+
= 3
t
n
= (a d) + nd
a =
3
4
, d =
3
4


n
t =
3 3 3
4 4 4
n

+



=
3
4
n

i
2 1
t t =
3 1 7
2 4 4

=

3 2
t t =
13 13 7
4 2 4

=
The sequence is arithmetic with common difference
d =
7
4


4
t =
3
7
4
t
=
13 7
4 4


= 5
t
n
= (a d) + nd
a =
1
4
, d =
7
4


t
n
=
1 7 7
4 4 4
n

+



= 2
7
4
n

j t
2
t
1
= 4 + 1 (2 + 3)
= 2 2
t
3
t
2
= 6 1 (4 + 1)
= 2 2
A GM1 1 - 6 132 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
The sequence is arithmetic with common difference
d = 2 2
t
4
= t
3
+ 2 2
= 6 1 + 2 2
= 8 3
t
n
= (a d) + nd
a = 2 + 3, d = 2 2
t
n
= [2 3 (2 2)] + (2 2) n +
= 5 + 2( 1)n
3 a a = 4, d = 5
t
n
= a + (n 1)d
t
21
= 4 + (21 1) 5
= 4 + 20 5
= 104
b a = 2, d = 12
t
n
= 2 + (n 1) 12
t
58
= 2 + 57 12
= 682
c a = 27, d = 15
t
n
= 27 + (n 1) 15
t
100
= 27 + 99 15
= 1458
d a = 2, d = 13
t
n
= 2 + (n 1) 13
t
2025
= 2 + 2024 13
= 26 310
4 a t
n
= (a d) + nd
a = 5, d = 3
t
n
= (5 3) + n 3
= 8 3n, n = 1, 2, 3,
b t
n
= (a d) + nd
a = 2.5, d =
1
2

t
n
=
1 1
2.5
2 2
n

+



= 2 +
1
2
n, n = 1, 2, 3,
c t
n
= (a d) + nd
a = 3, d = 3
t
n
= (3 3) + n 3
= 6 + 3n, n = 1, 2, 3,
d t
n
= (a d) + nd
a = 2x, d = 5x
t
n
= (2x 5x) + n 5x
= 3x + 5nx, n = 1, 2, 3,
5 t
n
= a + (n 1)d
a = 6
t
3
= 6 + (3 1)d
= 6 + 2d
6 + 2d = 10
2d = 4
d = 2
t
n
= 6 + (n 1)2
= 6 + 2n 2
t
n
= 4 + 2n, n = 1, 2, 3,
6 t
n
= a + (n 1)d
a = 3
t
3
= 3 + (3 1)d
= 3 + 2d
3 + 2d = 13
2d = 10
d = 5
t
n
= 3 + (n 1) 5
= 3 + 5n 5
= 2 + 5n
t
n
= 5n 2, n = 1, 2, 3,
7 x, y and z in arithmetic sequence, y =
2
x z +

x = 16, y = m, z = 27
m =
16 27
2
+

=
1
21
2
=
2
t
d = t
2
t
1

=
1
21 16
2

=
1
5
2

t
4
= t
3
+ d
n = t
4
=
1
27 5
2
+
=
1
32
2

8 t
2
=
( 3 ) ( 3 5 )
2
x y x y + +

= x + y
t
4
= t
3
+ d
d = x + y (x 3y)
= 2x + 4y
t
4
= (3x + 5y) + (2x + 4y)
= 5x + 9y
9 t
n
= a + (n 1)d
a = 6
t
7
= a + 6d
6 + 6d = 10
6d = 16
d =
16
6


=
8
3

t
4
= a + 3d
=
8
6 3
3
+
= 6 8
= 2
t
n
= a + (n 1)d
= 6 + (n 1)
8
3

=
26 8
3 3
n
10 t
n
= a + (n 1)d
t
10
: a + 9d = 100 [1]
t
15
: a + 14d = 175 [2]
[2] [1]:
a + 14d a 9d = 175 100
5d = 75
d = 15
Substitute d = 15 into [1]
a + 9 15 = 100
a + 135 = 100
a = 35
t
n
= 35 + (n 1) 15
= 35 + 15n 15
= 15n 50
11 t
n
= a + (n 1)d
t
10
: a + 9 =
1
2
[1]
S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 133
t
13
: a + 12d =
3
4
[2]
[2] [1]
a + 12d a 9d =
3
4

1
2


3d =
5
4

d =
5
12

Substitute d =
5
12
into [1]

5
9
12
a + =
1
2


15
4
a + =
1
2

a =
1 15
2 4

=
17
4

=
1
4
4


n
t =
1 5
4 ( 1)
4 12
n +
=
1 5 5
4
4 12 12
n +
=
2 5
4
3 12
n +
12 t
n
= a + (n 1)d
Let t
1
= a = 8
and let t
6
= a + 5d = 36
8 + 5d = 36
5d = 28
d =
28
5

t
n
=
28
8 ( 1)
5
n +
= 8 + 5.6n 5.6
= 2.4 + 5.6n
n = 2: t
2
= 2.4 + 5.6 2
= 13.6
n = 3: t
3
= 2.4 + 5.6 3
= 19.2
n = 4: t
4
= 2.4 + 5.6 4
= 24.8
n = 5: t
5
= 2.4 + 5.6 5
= 30.4
13 t
n
= a + (n 1)d
t
1
= a = 22
t
4
= a + 3d = 37
22 + 3d = 37
3d = 15
d = 5
t
2
= m = 22 + (n 1) 2
= 22 + 5
= 27
t
3
= n = t
2
+ 5
= 32
14 a d = 7 3
= 4
t
n + 1
= t
n
+ 4; t
1
= 3
b d = 0 3
= 3
t
n + 1
= t
n
+ 3; t
1
= 3
c d = 6 2
= 4
t
n + 1
= t
n
4; t
1
= 2
d d =
11 2
14 7

=
11 4
14 14

=
7
14

=
1
2

t
n

+

1
= t
n
+
1
2
; t
1
=
2
7

e d =
3 3
2 4

=
3
4

t
n +

1
= t
n
+
3
4
; t
1
=
3
4

f d =
3 1
2 4

=
7
4

t
n + 1
= t
n

7
4
; t
1
=
1
4

g d = 4 + 1 (2 + 3)
= 2 2
t
n + 1
= t
n
+ 2 2; t
1
= 2 + 3
15 t
1
= a = 37
t
2
= a + d = 32
37 + d = 32
d = 5
t
n
= 37 + (n 1) 5
= 37 5n + 5
= 42 5n
t
k
= 42 5k = 3
5k = 45
k = 9
16 t
1
= a = x [1]
t
2
= a + d = 3x + 4 [2]
t
3
= a + 2d = 10x 7 [3]
[2] [1]
a + d a = 3x + 4 x
d = 2x + 4
[3] [2]
a + 2d a d = 10x 7 3x 4
d = 7x 11
2x + 4 = 7x 11
4 = 5x 11
15 = 5x
x = 3
17 a = 4
d = 7
t
4
= a + 3d
= 4 + 3 7
= 25
t
10
= a + 9d
t
10
= 4 + 9 7
= 67
t
10
t
4
= 67 25
= 42
The answer is B.
18 t
3
= a + 2d = 2 [1]
t
10
= a + 9d = 12 [2]
A GM1 1 - 6 134 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
[2] [1]
a + 9d a 2d = 12 2
7d = 14
d = 2
Substitute d = 2 into [1]
a + 2 2 = 2
a + 4 = 2
a = 6
The answer is E.
19 a
1
2
t
t
=
3
4
a
a d
=
+

4a = 3a + 3d
a = 3d

3
4
t
t
=
2
3
a d
a d
+
+

Substitute a = 3d

3
4
t
t
=
3 2
3 3
d d
d d
+
+

=
5
6
d
d

=
5
6

b
1
n
n
t
t
+
=
( 1) a n d
a nd
+
+

Substitute a = 3d

1
n
n
t
t
+
=
3 ( 1)
3
d n d
d nd
+
+

=
3 1
3
n
n
+
+

=
2
3
n
n
+
+

Exercise 6C Arithmetic series
1 S
n
= (2 ( 1) )
2
n
a n d +
a a = 1, d = 2 1 = 1,
n = 10: S
10
=
10
(2 1 9 1)
2
+
= 55
n = 50: S
50
=
50
(2 1 49 1)
2
+
= 1275
n = 100: S
100
=
100
(2 1 99 1)
2
+
= 5050
b a = 1, d = 2
n = 5: S
5
=
5
(2 1 4 2)
2
+
= 25
n = 10: S
10
=
10
(2 1 9 2)
2
+
= 100
n = 20: S
20
=
20
(2 1 19 2)
2
+
= 400
c a = t
1

= 3 1 + 7
= 10
t
2
= 3 2 + 7
= 13
d = 13 10
= 3
n = 5: S
5
=
5
(2 10 4 3)
2
+
= 80
n = 10: S
10
=
10
(2 10 9 3)
2
+
= 235
n = n: S
n
= (2 10 ( 1) 3)
2
n
n +
= (20 3 3)
2
n
n +
= (17 3 )
2
n
n +
=
2
17 3
2
n n +

d a = t
1
= 4 1 + 15
= 11
t
2
= 4 2 + 15
= 7
d = 7 11
= 4
n = 5: S
5
=
5
(2 11 4 4)
2
+
= 15
n = 10: S
10
=
10
(2 11 9 4)
2
+
= 70
n = n: S
n
= (2 11 ( 1) 4)
2
n
n +
= (22 4 4 )
2
n
n +
= (26 4 )
2
n
n
=
2
26 4
2
n n

= 13n 2n
2

= n(13 2n)
e a = 2.5, d = 5.5
n = 5: S
5
=
5
(2 2.5 4 5.5)
2
+
= 67.5
n = 10: S
10
=
10
(2 2.5 9 5.5)
2
+
= 272.5
n = 20: S
20
=
20
(2 2.5 19 5.5)
2
+
= 1095
f a = 2, d =
n = 5: S
5
=
5
(2 2 4 )
2
+
20 =
n = 10: S
10
=
10
(2 2 9 )
2
+
= 65
n = 20: S
20
=
20
(2 2 19 )
2
+
= 230
g a = 4, d = 3
n = 4: S
4
=
4
(2 4 3 3)
2
+
= 34
S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 135
n = 16: S
16
=
16
(2 4 15 3)
2
+
= 424
n = 64: S
64
=
64
(2 4 63 3)
2
+
= 6304
h a = 14, d =
1
3
2

n = 4: S
4
=
4 1
2 14 3 3
2 2

+



= 35
n = 9: S
9
=
9 1
2 14 8 3
2 2

+



= 0
n = 14: S
14
=
14 1
2 14 13 3
2 2

+



=
1
122
2

i a = 50
t
10
= a + 9d = 40
50 + 9d = 40
9d = 90
d = 10
n = 10: S
10
=
10
(2 50 9 10)
2
+
= 50
j t
5
: a + 4d = 10 [1]
t
8
: a + 7d = 16 [2]
[2] [1]
a + 7d a 4d = 16 10
3d = 6
d = 2
Substitute d = 2 into [1]
a + 4 2 = 10
a + 8 = 10
a = 2
n = 5: S
5
=
5
(2 2 4 2)
2
+
= 30
n = 50:
50
S =
50
(2 2 49 2)
2
+
= 2550
n = 500:
500
S =
500
(2 2 499 2)
2
+
= 250 500
2 a S
n
= (2 ( 1) )
2
n
a n d +
a = 1, d = 1, n = 50
Sum of first 50 positive integers is
S
50
=
50
2
(2 1 + 49 1)
= 1275
b Sum of first 100 positive integers is
S
100
=
100
(2 1 99 1)
2
+
= 5050
3 a
n
S = (2 ( 1) )
2
n
a n d +
a =
1
2
, d = 1, n = 100
S
100
=
100 1
2 99 1
2 2

+



= 5000
b Each of the 100 terms is
1
2
less than those in
question 2b. Therefore the sum is
1
100 50
2
= less than
the answer to 2b.
4 t
2
: a + d = 8 [1]
t
13
: a + 12d = 41 [2]
[2] [1]
a + 12d a d = 41 8
11d = 33
d = 3
Substitute d = 3 into [1]
a + 3 = 8
a = 5
S
n
= (2 ( 1) )
2
n
a n d +
a = 5, d = 3, n = 12
S
12
=
12
(2 5 11 3)
2
+
= 258
5 S
n
= (2 ( 1) )
2
n
a n d +
a a = 15, d = 6
n = 13:
13
S =
13
(2 15 12 6)
2
+
= 273
n = 16:
16
S =
16
(2 15 15 6)
2
+
= 480
n = 19:
19
S =
19
(2 15 18 6)
2
+
= 741
b t
10
+ t
11
+ + t
15
= S
15
S
9

S
9
=
9
(2 15 8 6)
2
+

= 81
S
15
=
15
(2 15 14 6)
2
+
= 405
S
15
S
9
= 405 81
= 324
6 a t
1
= 2 1 7
= 5
t
2
= 2 2 7
= 3
d = t
2
t
1
= 3 5
= 2
a = 5, d = 2
n = 20: S
20
=
20
(2 5 19 2)
2
+
= 280
b t
21
+ t
22
+ " + t
40
= S
40
S
20

S
40
=
40
(2 5 39 2)
2
+
= 1360
S
40
S
20
= 1360 280
= 1080
c Average of first forty terms =
40
40
S

=
1360
40

= 34
A GM1 1 - 6 136 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
7 S
n
= (2 ( 1) )
2
n
a n d +
a = 1, d = 1
S
n
= (2 1 ( 1) 1)
2
n
n +
= (2 1)
2
n
n +
= (1 )
2
n
n +
=
( 1)
2
n n +

8 a S
n
= (2 ( 1) )
2
n
a n d +
a = 1, d = 2 for odd integers
S
n
= (2 1 ( 1) 2)
2
n
n +
= (2 2 2)
2
n
n +
= 2
2
n
n
= n
2

b S
n
= (2 ( 1) )
2
n
a n d +
a = 2, d = 2 for even integers
S
n
=
(2 2 ( 1) 2)
2
n
n +

= (4 2 2)
2
n
n +
= (2 2 )
2
n
n +
= n(1 + n)
= n
2
+ n
9 S
n
= (2 ( 1) )
2
n
a n d +
a = 5, d = 2
S
n
= (2 5 ( 1) 2)
2
n
n +
= (10 2 2)
2
n
n +
= (8 2 )
2
n
n +
= n(4 + n)
If S
n
= 357:
n(4 + n) = 357
n
2
+ 4n = 357
n
2
+ 4n 357 = 0
(n + 21)(n 17) = 0
n = 21 (discard) or n = 17
17 terms are required for the sum of 357.
10 S
n
= (2 ( 1) )
2
n
a n d +
a = 1, d = 1
S
n
= (2 1 ( 1) 1)
2
n
n +
= (2 1)
2
n
n +
= ( 1)
2
n
n +
If S
n
= 1000:
( 1)
2
n
n + = 1000
n(n + 1) = 2000
n
2
+ n = 2000
n
2
+ n 2000 = 0
n =
2
1 1 4 1( 2000)
2


=
1 7999
2


=
1 89.4
2
+
or
1 89.4
2


= 44.2 or 45.2 (reject)
So the sum will first exceed 1000 when n = 45.
11 a a = 201, d = 3
t
n
= a + (n 1) d
= 201 + (n 1) 3
= 201 + 3n 3
= 198 + 3n
If 198 + 3n 400
3n 202
n
1
67
3

n = 67
S
67
=
67
(2 201 66 3)
2
+
= 20 100
b a = 204, d = 6
t
n
= a + (n 1) d
= 204 + (n 1) 6
= 204 + 6n 6
= 198 + 6n
If 198 + 6n 400
6n 202
n
2
33
3

n = 33
S
33
=
33
(2 204 32 6)
2
+
= 9900
12 a = 5
S
20
:
20
(2 5 19 )
2
d + = 1240
10(10 + 19d ) = 1240
100 + 190d = 1240
190d = 1140
d = 6
13 S
4
= 58, first four terms
S
8
S
4
= 2 58, next four terms
= 116
S
8
= 116 + 54
= 116 + 58
= 174
S
4
:
4
(2 3 )
2
a d + = 58
4a + 6d = 58 [1]
(or 2a + 3d = 29)
S
8
:
8
(2 7 )
2
a d + = 174
8a + 28 d = 174
or 4a + 14 d = 87 [2]
[2] [1]
8d = 29
d =
29
8

S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 137
Substitute d =
29
8
into [1]
4a + 6
29
8
= 58
4a +
3
21
4
= 58
4a =
1
36
4

a =
1
9
16

S
12
=
12 1 29
2 9 11
2 16 8

+



=
1 7
6 18 39
8 8

+



= 6 58
= 348
S
12
S
8
= 348 174
= 174
14 S
n
= 4n
2
+ 3
S
n + 1
= 4(n + 1)
2
+ 3(n + 1)
= 4(n
2
+ 2n + 1) + 3n + 3
= 4n
2
+ 8n + 4 + 3n + 3
= 4n
2
+ 11n + 7
t
n + 1
= S
n + 1
S
n

= 4n
2
+ 11n + 7 4n
2
3n
= 8n + 7
t
n
= 8(n 1) + 7
Therefore S
n
is an arithmetic series with d = 8 and a = 7
Functional equation is t
n
= 8n 1, n = 1, 2, 3,
Iterative equation is t
n + 1
= t
n
+ 8, t
1
= 7
Exercise 6D Geometric sequences
1 a
2
1
t
t
=
6
3

= 2

3
2
t
t
=
9
6

=
1
1
2

The ratios are not equal so the sequence is not geometric.
b
2
1
t
t
=
12
4

= 3

3
2
t
t
=
36
12

= 3
The sequence is geometric with common ratio r = 3
t
4
= t
3
r
= 36 3
= 108
t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 4, r = 3
t
n
= 4 3
n1

c
2
1
t
t
=
6
3

= 2

3
2
t
t
=
12
6

= 2
The sequence is geometric with common ratio r = 2
t
4
= t
3
2
= 12 2
= 24
t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 3, r = 2
t
n
= 3 2
n1

d
2
1
t
t
=
6
4

=
3
2


3
2
t
t
=
9
6

=
3
2

The sequence is geometric with common ratio r =
3
2

t
4
=
3
3
2
t
=
3
9
2

=
1
13
2

t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 4, r =
3
2

t
n
=
1
3
4
2
n




=
1
2
1
3
2
2
n
n


= 3
n 1
2
3 n

e
2
1
t
t
=
1
3

=
1
3


3
2
t
t
=
1
3
1


=
1
3

The sequence is geometric with common ratio
r =
1
3
.
t
4
= t
3
r
=
1 1
3 3

=
1
9

t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 3, r =
1
3

t
n
=
1
1
3
3
n





= 3 (3)
1 n

= (3)
2 n

f
2
1
t
t
=
6
2


= 3

3
2
t
t
=
18
6

= 3
The sequence is geometric with common ratio r = 3
A GM1 1 - 6 138 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
t
4
= t
3
r
= 18 3
= 54
t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 2, r = 3
t
n
= 2 (3)
n1

g
2
1
t
t
=
6
14
2
7

=
3
2


3
2
t
t
=
9
14
6
14

=
3
2

The sequence is geometric with common ratio r =
3
2

t
4
= t
3
r
=
9 3
14 2

=
27
28

t
n
= ar
n 1

a =
2
7
, r =
3
2

t
n
=
1
2 3
7 2
n




h
2
1
t
t
=
3
2
3
4

= 2

3
2
t
t
=
3
1
3
2

= 2
The sequence is geometric with common ratio r = 2
t
4
= t
3
r
=
3
2
1

= 6
t
n
= ar
n 1

a =
3
4
, r = 2
t
n
=
1
3
(2)
4
n

=
1
2
3
2
2
n

= 3 2
n 3

i
2
1
t
t
=
3
2
3
4

= 2

3
2
t
t
=
9
4
3
2

=
3
2

The ratios are not equal so the sequence is not geometric
j
2
1
t
t
=
3
2
1
4


= 6

3
2
t
t
=
9
3
2


= 6
The sequence is geometric with common ratio r = 6
t
4
= t
3
r
= 9 6
= 54
t
n
= ar
n 1

a =
1
4
, r = 6
t
n
=
1
1
( 6)
4
n

k
2
1
t
t
=
2
4
2


= 2

3
2
t
t
=
3
2
8
4


= 2
The sequence is geometric with common ratio r = 2
t
4
= t
3
r
= 8
3
2
= 16
4

t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 2, r = 2
t
n
= 2 (2)
n1

= (2)
n

2 a i
2
1
t
t
=
10
5

= 2

3
2
t
t
=
20
10

= 2
The sequence is geometric with r = 2
ii t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 5, r = 2
t
n
= 5 2
n1

n = 6: t
6
= 5 2
5

= 160
n = 10: t
10
= 5 2
9


= 2560
b i
2
1
t
t
=
5
2

= 2.5

3
2
t
t
=
12.5
5

= 2.5
The sequence is geometric with r = 2.5.
ii t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 2, r = 2.5
t
n
= 2 (2.5)
n1

n = 6: t
6
= 2 (2.5)
5

= 195.31
S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 139
n = 10: t
10
= 2 (2.5)
9

= 7629.39
c i
2
1
t
t
=
3
1


= 3

3
2
t
t
=
9
3

= 3
The sequence is geometric with r = 3.
ii t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 1, r = 3
t
n
=
1
1 ( 3)
n

= (3)
n 1

n = 6: t
6
= (3)
5

= 243
n = 10: t
10
= (3)
9

= 19 683
d i
2
1
t
t
=
4
2


= 2

3
2
t
t
=
8
4

= 2
The sequence is geometric with r = 2.
ii t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 2, r = 2
t
n
=
1
2 ( 2)
n

n = 6: t
6
= 2 (2)
5

= 64
n = 10: t
10
= 2 (2)
9

= 1024
e i
2
1
t
t
=
3.45
2.3

= 1.5

3
2
t
t
=
5.175
3.45

= 1.5
The sequence is geometric with r = 1.5.
ii t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 2.3, r = 1.5
t
n
=
1
2.3 (1.5)
n

n = 6: t
6
= 2.3 (1.5)
5

= 17.47
n = 10: t
10
= 2.3 (1.5)
9

= 88.42
f i
2
1
t
t
=
1
1
2

= 2

3
2
t
t
=
2
1

= 2
The sequence is geometric with r = 2.
ii t
n
= ar
n 1

a =
1
2
, r = 2
t
n
=
1 1 1
1
(2) 2 2
2
n n
=
= 2
n 2

n = 6: t
6
= 2
4

= 16
n = 10: t
10
= 2
8

= 256
g i
2
1
t
t
=
1
12
1
3

=
1
4


3
2
t
t
=
1
48
1
12


1
4
=
The sequence is geometric with r =
1
4
.
ii t
n
= ar
n 1

a =
1
3
, r =
4
1

t
n
=
1
1 1
3 4
n




n = 6: t
6
=
5
1 1
3 4




=
1
3072

n = 10: t
10
=
9
1 1
3 4




=
1
786 432

h i
2
1
t
t
=
1
5
3
5


=
1
3


3
2
t
t
=
1
15
1
5


=
1
3

The sequence is geometric with r =
1
3
.
ii t
n
= ar
n 1

a =
3
5
, r =
1
3

t
n
=
1
3 1
5 3
n





n = 6: t
6
=
5
3 1
5 3





=
1
405

n = 10: t
10
=
9
3 1
5 3





=
1
32 805

i i
2
1
t
t
=
4
3x
x

= 3x
3

A GM1 1 - 6 140 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s

3
2
t
t
=
7
4
9
3
x
x

= 3x
3

The sequence is geometric with r = 3x
3
.
ii t
n
= ar
n 1

a = x, r = 3x
3

t
n
= x
3 1
(3 )
n
x


n = 6: t
6
= x (3x
3
)
5

= 243 x
16

n = 10: t
10
= x (3x
3
)
9

= 19 683 x
28

j i
2
1
t
t
=
2
2
1
x
x

=
2
x


3
2
t
t
=
3
2
4
2
x
x

=
2
x

The sequence is geometric with r =
2
x
.
ii t
n
= ar
n 1

a =
1
x
, r =
2
x

t
n
=
1
1 2
n
x x




n = 6: t
6
=
1
x

5
2
x




=
6
32
x

n = 10: t
10
=
1
x

9
2
x




=
10
512
x

3 a t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 2, t
3
= 18
18 = 2 r
3 1

= 2 r
2

r
2
=
18
2

= 9
r = 9
r = 3
t
n
= 2 3
n 1
or 2 (3)
n 1

n = 10: t
10
= 2 3
9

= 39 366
or t
10
= 2 (3)
9

= 39 366
There are two possible answers since r = 3 or 3.
b t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 1, t
3
= 4
4 = 1 r
2

r
2
= 4
r = 2
t
n
= (2)
n 1
or t
n
= (2)
n 1

n = 10: t
10
= 29
= 512
or t
10
= (2)
9

= 512
There are two possible answers since r = 2 or 2.
c t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 5, t
4
= 40
40 = 5 r
3

r
3
= 8
r = 2
t
n
= 5 2
n 1

n = 10: t
10
= 5 2
9

= 2560
d t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 1, t
2
= 2
2 = 1 r
1

r = 2
t
n
= 1 (2)
n 1

n = 10: t
10
= 1 (2)
9

= 512
e t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 9, t
3
=
1
81


1
81
= 9 r
2

r
2
=
1
9 81

=
1
729

r =
1
729

=
1
27

t
n
=
1
1
9
27
n



or t
n
=
1
1
9
27
n





t
n
= 3
5 3n
or t
n
= (3)
5 3n

n = 10: t
10
= 3
5 3 10
= 3
25

or t
10
= (3)
5 3n
= (3)
25
= 3
25

4 t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 6, t
7
=
3
32


3
32
= 6 r
6

r
6
=
3
32 6

=
1
64

r =
6
1
64

=
1
2

t
n
=
1
1
6
2
n



or t
n
=
1
1
6
2
n





n = 4: t
4
= 6
3
1
2




=
3
4

or t
4
=
3
1
6
2





=
3
4

S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 141
5 t
n
= ar
n 1


a = 3, t
4
= 6 2
6 2 = 3 r
3

r
3
= 2 2
r = 2
t
n
=
1
3 ( 2)
n

=
1
1
2
3 2
n





=
1
2
3 2
n



6 r =
2
1
3
t m
t
=
r
3
=
4
1
192
3
t
t
=
= 64
r = 4
4 =
3
m

m = 12

3
2
t
t
=
n
m
= 4

12
n
= 4
n = 48
7 r =
2
1
t
t
=
16
m

r
2
=
3
1
t
t
=
81
16

r =
81
16

= +
9
4
or
9
4
(reject since m, n > 0)

16
m
=
9
4

m = 36
n = 81
9
4

=
729
4

8 r =
2
1
t
t
=
15
a

r
2
=
4
2
t
t
=
0.0375
15

= 0.0025
r = 0.05
or 0.005 (reject since a, b > 0)

15
a
= 0.05
0.05a = 15
a = 300
b = 15 0.05
= 0.75
9 t
n
= ar
n 1

n = 3: ar
2
= 100 [1]
n = 5: ar
4
= 400 [2]

[2]
[1]

4
2
ar
ar
=
400
100

r
2
= 4
r = 4
r = 2
Substitute r = 2 into [1]
r = 2: a 2
2
= 100
a = 100 4
a = 25
r= 2: a (2)
2
= 100
a = 100 4
a = 25
a = 25, r = 2
t
n
= 25 2
n 1
or t
n
= 25 (2)
n 1

10 t
n
= ar
n 1

n = 2: ar =
1
2
[1]
n = 5: ar
4
=
27
16
[2]

[2]
[1]

4
ar
ar
=
27
16
1
2

r
3
=
27
8

r =
3
2

Substitute r =
3
2
into [1]

3
2
a =
1
2

a =
1
2
3
2

=
1
3

a =
1
3
, r =
3
2

t
n
=
1
1 3
3 2
n




=
2
1
3
2
n
n


t
n
=
2 1
3 2
n n

11
3 4
1
x
x
+

=
6 8
3 4
x
x
+
+

(3x + 4)
2
= (6x + 8)(x 1)
9x
2
+ 24x + 16 = 6x
2
+ 8x 6x 8
= 6x
2
+ 2x 8
3x
2
+ 22x + 24 = 0
(3x + 4)(x + 6) = 0
3x + 4 = 0 or x + 6 = 0
3x = 4 or x = 6
x =
4
3
or x = 6
reject x =
4
3
since this would make 3x + 4 = 0 and
3x + 4 is the middle term of the sequence.
x = 6
12 t
n
= ar
n 1

a = 8
n = 5:
1
32
= ar
4

= 8r
4

A GM1 1 - 6 142 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
r
4
=
1
32 8

=
1
256

r =
1
4

t
2
= 8
1
4
or t
2
= 8
1
4

= 2 = 2
t
2
= 8
2
1
4



or t
2
= 8
2
1
4




=
1
2
=
1
2

t
2
= 8
3
1
4



or t
2
= 8
3
1
4




=
1
8
=
1
8

The three terms are 2,
1
2
,
1
8
or 2,
1
2
,
1
8

13 a t
2
t
1
= ar a = 6
a(r 1) = 6 [1]
t
3
t
2
= ar
2
ar = 3
ar(r 1) = 3 [2]

[2]
[1]

( 1)
( 1)
ar r
a r

=
3
6

=
1
2

r =
1
2

Substitute r =
1
2
into [1]

1
1
2
a



= 6
a
1
2

= 6
a = 12
t
3
= ar
2

=
2
1
12
2




= 3
t
4
= ar
3

=
3
1
12
2



=
3
2

t
3
t
4
=
3
3
2

=
3
2

b t
n
= ar
n 1

=
1
1
12
2
n




=
1
24 1
2 2
n

=
24
2
n

14 t
1
= a = 120
t
2
= ar = 24

2
1
t
t
=
ar
a
=
24
120

r =
1
5

t
k
= ar
k 1

=
1
1
120
5
k





1
1
120
5
k



= 0.0384
(0.2)
k 1
= 0.000 32
(0.2)
k 1
= (0.2)
5

k 1 = 5
k = 6
Exercise 6E Geometric series
1 a S
n
=
1
( )
1
n
a r
r


t
n
: {1, 2, 4, }
a = 1, r = 2
n = 5: S
5
=
5
1(2 1)
2 1


=
32 1
1


= 31
n = 10: S
10
=
10
1(2 1)
2 1


=
1024 1
1


= 1023
n = 20: S
20
=
20
1(2 1)
2 1


=
1048 575
1

= 1 048 575
b S
n
=
( 1)
1
n
a r
r


t
n
: {1, 3, 9, }
a = 1, r = 3
n = 5: S
5
=
5
1(3 1)
3 1


=
242
2

= 121
n = 10: S
10
=
10
1(3 1)
3 1


=
59 048
2

= 29 524
n = 20: S
20
=
20
1(3 1)
3 1


=
348 678 440
2

= 1 743 392 200
c S
n
=
( 1)
1
n
a r
r


t
n
= 3(2)
n 1

t
1
= 3(2)
0
,
= 3
t
2
= 3(2)
1

= 6
a = 3, r =
6
3


= 2
S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 143
n = 5: S
5
=
5
3(( 2) 1)
2 1



=
3 33
3


= 33
n = 10: S
10
=
20
3(( 2) 1)
2 1



=
3 1023
3


= 1023
n = 20: S
20
=
20
3(( 2) 1)
2 1



=
3 1048 575
3


= 1 048 575
d S
n
=
1
( )
1
n
a r
r


t
n
= 4(1.2)
n 1

t
1
= 4 1.2
0

= 4
t
2
= 4(1.2)
1

= 4.8
a = 4, r =
4.8
4

= 1.2
n = 1: S
1
= a
= 4
n = 10: S
10
=
10
( 4)(1.2 1)
1.2 1


=
20.766 945 69
0.2


= 103.8
n = 20: S
20
=
20
( 4)(1.2 1)
1.2 1


=
149.3504
0.2


= 746.8
e S
n
=
1
( )
( 1)
n
a r
a r


t
n + 1
= 2t
n
; t
1
=
3
2

t
2
=
3
2
2

= 3
a =
3
2
, r = 2
n = 1: S
1
= a
=
3
2

n = 5: S
5
=
5
3
(2 1)
2
2 1


=
93
2

= 46.5
n = 10: S
10
=
10
3
(2 1)
2
2 1


=
1534.5
1

= 1534.5
f S
n
=
1
( )
1
n
a r
r


t
n + 1
=
1
2
t
n
, t
1
=
2
3

t
2
=
1
2

2
3

=
1
3




a =
2
3
, r =
1
2

n = 1: S
1
= a
=
2
3

n = 5: S
5
=
5
2 1
1
3 2
1
1
2







=
2 31
3 32
1
2


=
31
24

n = 10: S
10
=
10
2 1
1
3 2
1
1
2







=
2 1023
3 1024
1
2


=
341
256

g a = 3000, r = 1.05
n = 4: S
4
=
4
3000(1.05 1)
1.05 1


=
64.651875
0.05

= 12 930
n = 16: S
16
=
16
3000(1.05 1)
1.05 1


=
3548.6238
0.05

= 70 972
n = 64: S
64
=
64
3000(1.05 1)
1.05 1


=
65114.0016
0.05

= 1 302 280
h a = 1400, r = 1.1
n = 4: S
4
=
4
1400(( 1.1) 1)
1.1 1



=
649.74
2.1

= 309
n = 9: S
9
=
9
1400(( 1.1) 1)
1.1 1



A GM1 1 - 6 144 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
=
4701.127
2.1


= 2239
n = 14: S
14
=
14
1400(( 1.1) 1)
1.1 1



=
3916.498
2.1

= 1865
i a = 20, r = 5
n = 5: S
5
=
5
20(5 1)
5 1


=
62 480
4

= 15 620
n = 10: S
10
=
10
20(5 1)
5 1


=
195 312 480
4

= 48 828 120
j a = 2, r =
1
2

n = 5: S
5
=
5
1
2 1
2
1
1
2









=
2.0625
1
1
2


= 1.375
n = 10: S
10
=
10
1
( 2) 1
2
1
1
2









=
1.998 046 875
1.5

= 1.332
2 a a = 440
t
12
= ar
11

= 880
440r
11
= 880
r
11
= 2
r = 1.065 04
S
6
=
6
( 1)
1
a r
r


=
6
440((1.065 04) 1)
1.065 04 1


=
202.17
0.065 04

= 3108
b t
n
= ar
n 1

n = 5: ar
4
= 1 [1]
n = 8: ar
7
= 8 [2]

[2]
[1]

7
4
ar
ar
=
8
1

r
3
= 8
r = 2
Substitute r = 2 into [1]
a 2
4
= 1
a =
1
16

S
n
=
1
(2 1)
16
2 1
n


=
1
(2 1)
16
n

n = 1: S
1
= a
=
1
16

n = 10: S
10
=
10
1
(2 1)
16

=
15
63
16

n = 20: S
20
=
20
1
(2 1)
16

=
15
66 535
16

3 t
n
= ar
n 1

n = 2: ar =
8
3
[1]
n = 5: ar
4
= 9 [2]

[2]
[1]

4
ar
ar
=
9
8
3

r
3
=
27
8

r =
3
2

Substitute r =
3
2
into [1].

3
2
a =
8
3

a =
8 2
3 3

=
16
9

S
12
=
12
16 3
1
9 2
3
1
2







=
228.88
0.5

458
4 a = 2, r =
3
2
= 1.5
S
n
=
2(1.5 1)
1.5 1
n

> 100

2(1.5 1)
0.5
n

> 100
4(1.5
n
1) > 100
1.5
n
1 > 25
1.5
n
> 26
(1.5)
8
= 25.6
(1.5)
9
= 38.4
Therefore 9 terms are required for a sum greater
than 100.
S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 145
5 S
4
=
( 1)
1
n
a r
r

= 312
S
8
S
4
= r
4
S
4
= 625 S
4

r
4
= 625
S
12
S
8
= r
4
(S
8
S
4
)
= 625 (625 S
4
)
= 625
2
312
= 121 875 000
6 2
9
= 512 > 500
2
15
= 32 768 < 50 000
2
16
= 65 536 > 50 000
2
9
2
15
is 7 terms, with a = 512, r = 2, n = 7
S
7
=
7
512(2 1)
2 1


= 65 024
7 4
5
= 1024 > 500
4
7
= 16 384 < 50 000
4
8
= 65 536 > 50 000
4
5
4
7
is 3 terms
with a = 1024, r = 4, n = 3
S
3
=
3
1024(4 1)
4 1


=
64 512
3

= 21 504
8 a t
n
= ar
n 1

a =1, r =
1
2

S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
=
1
1
1
2


=
1
1
2

= 2
b a = 1, r =
1
2

S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
=
1
1
1
2


=
1
3
2

=
2
3

c a = 1, r =
1
3

S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
=
1
1
1
3


=
1
2
3

=
3
2

d a = 1, r =
2
3

S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
=
1
2
1
3


=
1
1
3

= 3
e a = 1, r =
2
3

S

=
1
2
1
3


=
1
5
3

=
3
5

9 a =
1
2
, r =
1
2

S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
=
1
2
1
1
2


= 1
t
1
=
1
2
:
1
2
100
1

= 50% of sum.
t
2
=
1
4
:
1
4
100
1

= 25% of sum.
t
3
=
1
8
:
1
8
100
1

= 12.5% of sum.
10 a = 1, r =
1
4

S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
=
1
1
1
4


=
1
3
4

=
4
3

t
1
= 1:
1
100
4
3

= 75% of sum.
A GM1 1 - 6 146 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
t
2
=
1
4
:
1
4
100
4
3

= 18.75% of sum.
t
3
=
1
16
:
1
16
100
4
3

= 4.6875% of sum.
11 a = 1, r =
3
4

S

=
3
1
4
a

; r < 1
=
1
3
1
4


=
1
1
4

= 4
t
1
= 1:
1
100
4

= 25% of sum.
t
2
=
3
4
:
3
4
100
4

= 18.75% of sum.
t
3
=
9
16
:
9
16
100
4

= 14.06%
12 a S
n
=
( 1)
1
n
a r
r


t
n
=
1
1
3
2
n



,
n {1, 2, 3, }
t
1
=
0
1
3
2




= 3
t
2
=
1
1
3
2




=
3
2

a = 3, r =
3
2
3
=
1
2

n = 20: S
20
=
20
1
3 1
2
1
1
2







=
20
1
3 1
2
1
2







=
20
1
3 1
2
1
2








=
20
1
6 1
2








= 5.999 994 278
b n = 40: S
40
=
40
1
3 1
2
1
1
2







=
40
1
3 1
2
1
2







=
40
1
6 1
2








= 6
S
40
S
20
= 6 5.999 994 278
= 5.722 10
6

c S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
=
3
1
1
2


=
3
1
2

= 6
13 a t
n
= {9, 3, 1, }
a = 9, r =
3
9
=
1
3

n = 9: S
9
=
9
1
9 1
3
1
1
3









=
9
1
9 1
3
4
3







=
9
1
9 1
3
4
3








=
9
27 1
1
4 3








= 6.750 343
b n = 15: S
15
=
15
1
9 1
3
1
1
3









=
15
1
9 1
3
4
3







S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 147
=
15
1
9 1
3
4
3








=
15
27 1
1
4 3








= 6.750 000 47
S
15
S
9

= 6.750 000 47 6.750 343
= 0.00 034 25 or 3.425 10
4

c S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
=
9
1
1
3


=
9
1
1
3
+

=
9
4
3

=
3
6
4

14 t
1
= 5 a = 5
t
4
= 0.078 125
ar
3
= 0.078 125
5r
3
= 0.078 125
r
3
= 0.015 625
r = 0.25
S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
=
5
1 0.25

=
5
0.75

= 6.6667 or
2
6
3

15 S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
32 =
1
a
r
[1]
S
4
=
4
( 1)
1
a r
r


30 =
4
( 1)
1
a r
r


or 30 =
4
(1 )
1
a r
r

[2]
Substitute
1
a
r
= 32
(from [1]) into [2]
30 = 32(1 r
4
)

30
32
= 1 r
4

r
4
= 1
30
32

r
4
=
2
32

=
1
16

r =
1
2

Substitute r =
1
2
into [1]
32 =
1
2
a
r

=
1
2
a

a =
1
32
2

= 16
t
1
= a = 16
t
2
= ar =
1
16
2

= 8
t
3
= ar
2
=
2
1
16
2




= 4
16 r =
5 3
5 3

+

=
5 3 5 3
5 3 5 3

+

=
5 2 15 3
5 3
+


=
8 2 15
2


= 4 15
a = 5 3 +
S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
=
5 3
1 (4 15)
+


=
5 3 15 3
15 3 15 3
+ +

+

=
75 3 5 45 3 3
15 9
+ + +


=
5 3 3 5 3 5 3 3
6
+ + +

=
8 3 6 5
6
+

=
4 3 3 5
3
+

17 1 + 3x + 9x
2
+ =
2
3

a = 1, r = 3x
S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
where S

=
2
3


2
3
=
1
1 3x

2(1 3x) = 1 3
2 6x = 3
A GM1 1 - 6 148 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
6x = 1
x =
1
6

18 S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
S

= 6, a = 4
6 =
4
1 r

6 6r = 4
6r = 2
r =
2
6


=
1
3

19 S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
S

= 100, r = 0.99
100 =
1 0.99
a


=
0.01
a

a = 100 0.01
= 1
t
1
= a = 1
t
2
= ar = 1 0.99
= 0.99
20 x
n
1 for n {1, 2, 3, }
n = 1: x 1 = 1(x 1)
n = 2: x
2
1 = (x 1)(x + 1)
n = 3: x
3
1 = (x 1)(x
2
+ x + 1)
n = 4: x
4
1 = (x
2
1)(x
2
+ 1)
= (x 1)(x + 1)(x
2
+ 1)
= (x 1)(x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1)
n = 5:
x
5
1 = (x 1)(x
4
+ x
3
+ x
2
+ x + 1)
In general
x
n
1 = (x 1)(x
n 1
+ x
n 2
+ + x + 1)
So (x 1) is always a factor of x
n
1
for n {1, 2, 3, }
21 (1) The road is 10 metres wide.
Let t
1
= first attempt at crossing the road.
t
1
= 10 2 = 5 m
Let t
2
= second attempt at crossing the road.
t
2
= 5 +
1
(10 )
2
t

= 5 + 2.5
= 7.5 m
Let t
3
= third attempt at crossing the road.
t
3
= 7.5 +
2
(10 )
2
t

= 7.5 + 1.25
= 8.75 m
Continuing this sequence,
t
4
= 8.75 +
(10 8.75)
2


= 9.375 m
t
5
= 9.375 +
(10 9.375)
2


= 9.6875 m
t
6
= 9.6875 +
(10 9.6875)
2


= 9.843 75 m
Mathematically, the student will never make it past the
other side of the road. After each attempt, the distance
remaining is halved and this result is the extra distance
walked at the next attempt. Thus the distance travelled
across the road approaches, but never reaches,
10 metres.
(2) As shown in part 1, the extra distance travelled at each
attempt is equal to half the remaining distance from the
previous attempt. Given that there will always be an
amount remaining to travel, only half this amount can be
achieved on the next attempt, regardless of the width of
the road.
Exercise 6F Applications of sequences
and series
1 a
Year 1970 1975 1980
Value 60 000 69 000 79 350

69 000
60 000
= 1.15 and

79 350
69 000
= 1.15 so the three terms form a geometric
sequence with common ratio r = 1.15 and a = 60 000.
i 1985: t
4
= t
3
r
= 79 350 1.15
= 91 252.5
The value in 1985 would be $91 253.
ii 1995: t
6
= ar
5

= 60 000 (1.15)
5

= 120 681.4
The value in 1995 would be $120 681.
b 2010: t
9
= ar
8

= 60 000 (1.15)
8

= 3.059 60 000
So it increases by a factor of 3.059.
2 a Her salary has $2500 added on each successive year. It is
therefore an arithmetic sequence with common
difference d = 2500.
b a = 28 000
t
15
= a + 14d
= 28 000 + 14 2500
= 28 000 + 35 000
= 63 000
She earns $63 000 in her 15th year.
c S
15
=
15
2
[2 28 000 + 14 2500]
= 7.5(91 000)
= 682 500
She earns a total of $682 500 in her first 15 years.
d i
2500
100
28 000
= 8.93%
ii t
14
= a + 13d
= 28 000 + 13 2500
= 60 500
Increase at end of 14th year is
2500
100
60 500
= 4.13%
3 a Her salary increases by a factor of 4% or 0.04 each year.
This is a geometric sequence with common ratio
r = 1.04.
b a = 28 000, r = 1.04
t
15
= ar
14

= 28 000 (1.04)
14

= 48 486.9
Her salary in her 15th year is $48 487.
S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 149
c S
15
=
15
28 000(1.04 1)
1.04 1


=
22 426.42
0.04

= 560 660.4
In 15 years she earns $560 660.
d i t
2
t
1
= ar a
= 28 000 1.04 28 000
= 29 120 28 000
= 1120
Increase after the first year is $1120.
ii t
15
t
14
= ar
14
ar
13

= 48 487 28 000 1.04
13

= 48 487 46 622
= 1865
Increase after 14th year is $1865.
4 a a = 20, d = 28 20
= 8
After day 2: t
3
= 20 + 2 8
= 36 mg
Day 3: t
4
= 20 + 3 8
= 44 mg
Day 10: t
11
= 20 + 10 8
= 100 mg
nth Day: t
n + 1
= 20 + n 8
= 8n + 20 mg
b 8n + 20 = 200
8n = 180
n = 22.5
It first exceeds 200 mg on the 23rd day.
c a = 20, r =
28
20
= 1.4
Day 2: t
3
= 20 1.4
2

= 39.2 mg
Day 3: t
4
= 20 1.4
3

= 54.88 mg
Day 10: t
11
= 20 1.4
10

= 578.5 mg
nth Day: t
n + 1
= 20 1.4
n

d t
5
= 20 (1.4)
4
= 76.83 mg
t
6
= 20 (1.4)
5
= 107.57 mg
t
7
= 20 (1.4)
6
= 150.59 mg
t
8
= 20 (1.4)
7
= 210.83 mg
It first exceeds 200 mg on the 7th day
5 a a = 6, d = 1, n = 20
S
20
=
20
(2 6 19 1)
2
+
= 310
There is a total of 310 logs.
b S
n
=
2
n
[2 6 + (n 1) 1]
=
310
2

(12 1)
2
n
n + = 155
n(11 + n) = 310
n
2
+ 11 n 310 = 0
n =
2
11 11 4(1)( 310)
2


=
11 1361
2


=
11 36.9
2
+
or
11 36.9
2

(reject)
= 12.95
Therefore the workers will take logs from the 13th row
down before half the stack is removed.
6 a = 1, r = 7, n = 5
S
5
=
5
1(7 1)
7 1


=
16 806
6

= 2801
7 S
n
= [2 ( 1) ]
2
n
a n d +
S
n
100, a = 1, d = 1
[2 1 ( 1) 1]
2
n
n + 100
(2 1)
2
n
n + 100
n(n + 1) 200
n
2
+ n 200
n
2
+ n 200 0
n =
2
1 1 4(1)( 200)
2 1


=
1 801
2
+

=
1 28.3
2
+
or
1 28.3
2

(reject)
= 13.65
The last person to receive tickets is the 13th.
t
13
= a + 12d
= 1 + 12
= 13
S
13
=
13
(2 1 12 1)
2
+
= 91
So the last person receives 13 tickets and Frank has
9 tickets left.
8 S
n
=
( 1)
1
n
a r
r


S
n
200, a = 1, r = 2

1(2 1)
2 1
n

200
2
n
1 200
2
n
201
n = 7, since 2
n
= 128 and 2
8
= 256.
t
7
= ar
6

= 1 2
6

= 64
S
7
=
7
1(2 1)
2 1


= 127
The last person received 64 tickets and Kate has
73 tickets left.
9 a S
n
=
( 1)
1
n
a r
r


a = 1, r = 2, n = 64
S
64
=
64
1(2 1)
2 1


= 1.84 10
19
grains of rice.
b Weight
= 1.84 10
19
0.1 10
3
kg.
= 1.84 10
15
kg.
A GM1 1 - 6 150 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
10 a S
n
= [2 ( 1) ]
2
n
a n d +
a = 1, d = 2, n = 64
S
64
=
64
[2 1 63 2]
2
+
= 4096 grains of rice.
b Weight = 4096 0.1 10
3
kg.
= 0.41 kg.
11 S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
a = 1, r =
1
2

S

=
1
1
1
2


= 2
The student will only travel 2 m and so will not get closer
than (3 2) = 1 m from the door.
12 S

=
1
a
r
; r < 1
a = 36, r =
2
3

S

=
36
2
1
3


=
36
1
3

= 108
The hiker will cover 100 km.
S
n
=
( 1)
1
n
a r
r


a = 36, r =
2
3
, S
n
= 100

2
36 1
3
2
1
3
n






= 100

2
36 1
3
1
3
n






= 100

2
108 1
3
n







= 100

2
1
3
n



=
100
108


2
3
n



=
8
108

= 0.0741

6
2
3



= 0.008

7
2
3



= 0.059
So n = 7
The hiker completes 100 km on the 7th day.
13 a 0.111 = 0.1 + 0.01 + 0.001 +
a = 0.1, r =
0.01
0.1
= 0.1
S

=
1
a
r

=
0.1
1 0.1

=
0.1
0.9

0.1111 =
1
9

b 0.333 333 = 0.3 + 0.03 + 0.003 +
a = 0.3, r =
0.03
0.3
= 0.1
S

=
1
a
r

=
0.3
1 0.1

=
0.3
0.9

=
3
9

0.3333 =
1
3

c 0.5757 = 0.57 + 0.0057 +
a = 0.57, r =
0.0057
0.57
= 0.01
S

=
1
a
r

=
0.57
1 0.01

=
0.57
0.99

0.5757 =
57
99

d 2.343 434 = 2 + (0.34 + 0.0034 + )
S

=
1
a
r

=
0.34
1 0.01

=
0.34
0.99

0.343434 =
34
99

2.343434=
34
2
99

e 3.142 142 142 = 3 + (0.142 + 0.000 142 + )
a = 0.142, r =
0.000142
0.142
= 0.001
S

=
1
a
r

=
0.142
1 0.001

=
0.142
0.999

0.142142 =
142
999

3.142141 =
142
3
999

f 21.2121 = 21 + (0.21 + 0.0021 + )
a = 0.21, r =
0.0021
0.21
= 0.01
S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 151
S

=
1
a
r

=
0.21
1 0.01

=
0.21
0.99

=
21
99

0.2121 =
7
33

21.2121 =
7
21
33

g 16.666 = 16 + (0.6 + 0.06 +)
a = 0.6, r =
0.06
0.6
= 0.1
S

=
1
a
r

=
0.6
1 0.1

=
0.6
0.9

0.666 =
2
3

16.666 =
2
16
3

14 a a = 100, r = 1.2
t
6
= ar
5

= 100 1.2
5

= 248.8
In 1995 there were 249 students.
b S
n
=
( 1)
1
n
a r
r


n = 10: S
10
=
10
100((1.2) 1)
1.2 1


=
519.1736
0.2

= 2595.9
Over the decade, 2596 students enrolled in the subject.
15 t
1
= a, r =
8.5
1
100

= 1 0.085
= 0.915
t
n
= ar
n 1

t
n
= 0.5a
0.5a =
1
(0.915)
n
a


where (n 1) is the number of years after purchase taken to
reach half the initial value.
(0.915)
n 1
= 0.5
(0.915)
7
= 0.536
(0.915)
8
= 0.49
The computer will be sold after 8 years.
16 t
n
: {a, b,
2 2
} a b +
b =
2 2
2
a a b + +
, b is the arithmetic mean of a and
2 2
a b +
a +
2 2
a b + = 2b [1]
Perimeter = a + b +
2 2
a b +
= 72 [2]
Substitute a +
2 2
a b + = 2b into [2]
2b + b = 72
3b = 72
b = 24
Substitute b = 24 into [1]

2 2
24 a a + + = 2 24

2
576 a a + + = 48

2
576 a + = 48 a
a
2
+ 576 = (48 a)
2

= 2304 96a + a
2

576 = 2304 96a
1728 = 96 a
a = 18

2 2
a b + =
2 2
18 24 +
= 30
The three sides are 18 m, 24 m and 30 m.
17 a
2
A r =
A
1
=
2
1
=
A
2
=
2 2
2 1
= 3
A
3
=
2 2
3 2
= 5
A
4
=
2 2
4 3
= 7
Areas are
2
, 3 , 5 , 7 cm
3 = 2,
5 3 = 2,
7 5 = 2
It is an arithmetic sequence with a = and d = 2.
b Total area = 4
2

= 16
Pr(Hit A
1
) =
1
16 16

=
Pr(Hit A
2
) =
3 3
16 16

=
Pr(Hit A
3
) =
5 5
16 16

=
Pr(Hit A
4
) =
7 7
16 16

=
18 a t
n
= a + (n 1)d
a = 180, d = 12
t
n
= 180 + (n 1) 12
= 192 12n m/s
b 192 12n = 0
12n = 192
n = 16
Average speed is 0 m/s in the 16th second.
c S
16
=
16
(2 180 15 12)
2
+
= 1440
The maximum height is 1440 m.
19
74 20 54
80 60

= = 0.9

68.6 20 48.6
80 54

= = 0.9
A geometric sequence with a = 60 and r = 0.9.
t
n
= ar
n 1

If t
n
30
30 60 (0.9)
n 1


0.9
n 1
0.5
0.9
7
= 0.478
A GM1 1 - 6 152 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
0.9
6
= 0.531
1 7 n =
n = 8
The coffee will not be drunk after 8 minutes since the
coffee temperature drops below 50 C during the seventh
minute.
20 t
n
= 2n 3,
u
n
= 3n
t
n
u
n
= 3n(2n 3)
n = 1: t
1
u
1
= 3(1)
= 3
n = 2: t
2
u
2
= 6(1)
= 6
n = 3: t
3
u
3
= 9(3)
= 27
Let S
1
= 3,
S
2
= 6,
S
3
= 27
Let a
n
be the sequence from this series

1 1
3 a S = =
a
2
= S
2
S
1
= 6 3
= 9
a
3
= S
3
S
2
= 27 6
= 21
Sequence a
n
= { 3, 9, 21, }
a
2
a
1
= 9 3 = 12
a
3
a
2
= 21 9 = 12
The sequence is arithmetic with a = 3 and d = 12
a
n
= a + (n 1)d
= 3 + (n 1) 12
a
n
= 12n 15
Chapter review
Short answer
1 a 11 = 2 7 3
19 = 2 11 3
35 = 2 19 3
t
n + 1
= 2t
n
3, t
1
= 7
b 5 = (2)
2
+ 1
26 = (5)
2
+ 1
677 = (26)
2
+ 1
t
n + 1
= (t
n
)
2
+ 1, t
1
= 2.
2 a t
n
= a + (n 1)d
n = 3, t
n
= 10
a + 2d = 10 [1]
n = 6, t
6
= 478
a + 5d = 478 [2]
[2] [1]
3d = 468
d = 156
Substitute d = 156 into [1]
a + 2 156 = 10
a + 312 = 10
a = 302
t(n) = 302 + (n 1) 156
= 302 + 156n 156
= 156n 458
b t
n + 1
= t
n
+ d, t
1
= a
= t
n
+ 156, t
1
= 302
3 a a = 0.5, d = 1.0 0.5
= 0.5
t
10
= a + 9d
= 0.5 + 9 0.5
= 5
The car travels 5 m in the 10th second.
b S
n
= [2 ( 1) ]
2
n
a n d +
S
10
=
10
[2 0.5 9 0.5]
2
+
= 27.5
The car has travelled 27.5 m after 10 seconds.
c S
n
= [2 ( 1) ]
2
n
a n d +
S
n
1000, a = 0.5, d = 0.5
[2 0.5 ( 1) 0.5]
2
n
n + 1000
(1 0.5 0.5)
2
n
n + 1000
(0.5 0.5 ) n n + 2000

2
0.5 0.5 n n + 2000

2
n n + 4000

2
4000 n n + 0
For n
2
+ n 4000 = 0
n =
2
1 1 4(1)( 4000)
2 1


=
1 16 001
2


=
1 126.5
2
+

1 126.5
or
2




=
125.5
2
(reject since negative)
= 62.75
The car travels 1000 m after 63 seconds.
4 a a = 1000, r =
800
1000

= 0.8
t
10
= ar
9

= 1000 0.8
9

= 134.2
The exposure after 10 days is 134.2 milli-rem.
b S
n
=
1
( )
1
n
a r
r


S
5
=
5
1000(0.8 1)
0.8 1


=
672.32
0.2


= 3361.6
The total exposure after 5 days is 3361.6 milli-rem.
5 S

=
1
a
r
; | | 1 r <
S

= 99, a = 10
99 =
10
1 r

99 99 r = 10
99 r = 89
r =
89
99

6 a 1 +
1
4
+
1
16
+
1
64
+


a = 1, r =
1
4
1

=
1
4

S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 153
S

=
1
a
r
; | | 1 r <
=
1
1
1
4


=
1
3
4

=
4
3

b
2 4 8
1
3 9 27
+ +


a = 1, r =
2
3
1


=
2
3

S

=
1
a
r
; | | 1 r <
S

=
1
2
1
3


=
1
5
3

=
3
5

7 a 0.222 222
= 0.22 + 0.0022 + 0.000 022 +
a = 0.22, r =
0.0022
0.01
0.22
=
S

=
1
a
r

=
0.22 0.22
1 0.01 0.99
=


=
2
9

b 2.454 545
= 2 + 0.45 + 0.0045 + 0.000 045
= 2 + (geometric series)
a = 0.45, r =
0.0045
0.01
0.45
=
S

=
1
a
r

=
0.45 0.45 45
1 0.01 0.99 99
= =


2.45

= 2 +
45
99

=
243
99

5
2
11




Multiple choice
1 t
n + 1
= 2t
n
+ 4; t
3
= 12
t
3
= 2t
2
+ 4
12 = 2t
2
+ 4
2t
2
= 8
t
2
= 4
The answer is D.
2 The successive difference is the sequence 7, 11, 15, and so
on.
t
5
= 36 + 19
= 55
The answer is E.
3 Arithmetic sequence with a = 7, d = 4
t
23
= a + 22d
= 7 + 22 4
= 81
The answer B.
4 a =
52 41
2
+

= 46.5
Difference d = 41 46.5
= 5.5
b = 41 5.5
= 35.5
a 3b = 46.5 3 35.5
= 60
The answer is A.
5 3x 4y =
( 2 ) (4 7 )
2
x y x y +

=
5 9
2
x y

6x 8y = 5x 9y
y = x
The answer is B.
6 a = 2, d = 1.5
S
15
=
15
(2 2 14 1.5)
2
+
= 187.5
The answer is C.
7 S
4
=
4
(2 3 )
2
a d +
= 2(2a + 3d)
2(2a + 3d) = 70
2a + 3d = 35 [1]
S
6
=
6
(2 5 )
2
a d +
= 3 (2a + 5d)
3(2a + 5d) = 63
2a + 5d = 21 [2]
[2] [1]
2d = 14
d = 7
Substitute d = 7 into [1]
2a + 3 7 = 35
2a 21 = 35
2a = 56
a = 28
t
6
= a + 5d
= 28 + 5 7
= 7
The answer is B.
8 t
4
= ar
3
= 5 [1]
t
7
= ar
6
= 625 [2]
[2] [1]

6
3
ar
ar
= r
3
= 125
r = 5
Substitute r into [1]
a (5)
3
= 5
a =
5
125

=
1
25

t
2
= ar
A GM1 1 - 6 154 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
=
1
5
25

= 0.2
The answer is E.
9 S

=
1
a
r
; | | 1 r <
S

= 5.6, r = 0.2
5.6 =
1 0.2
a


=
0.8
a

a = 5.6 0.8
= 4.48
S
4
=
4
( 1)
1
a r
r


=
4
4.48(0.2 1)
0.2 1


=
4.472832
0.8


= 5.59
Which is closest to 5.6
The answer is D.
10 S
n
=
1
( )
1
n
a r
r


S
10
= 400, r = 3
400 =
10
(3 1)
3 1
a


=
59048
2
a

800 = 59048 a
a =
800
59048

=
100
7381

The answer is C.
11 t
9
=
8
1
81
3




=
1
81

S
9
= 1 0.1 9
= 0.1

9
9
t
S
=
1
81
0.1

=
10
81

The answer is E.
Extended response
1


a Perimeter = 4 2
= 8
b


x =
2 2
1 1 +
= 2
ABCD Perimeter = 4 2
c


y =
2 2
2 2
2 2

+



=
2 2
4 4
+
= 1
= 1
EFGH Perimeter = 4 1
= 4
d Sequence is 8, 4 2, 4,
This is geometric with
a = 8
r =
4 2
8

=
2
2

Perimeter, P
n
= ar
n 1

= 8
1
2
2
n





2 a t
n + 1
= t
n

3
4
, t
1
=
1
8

i t
1
=
1
8

t
2
=
1
8

3
4

=
5
8

t
3
=
5
8

3
4

=
11
8

t
2
t
1
=
5
8

1
8

=
3
4

S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s A GM1 1 - 6 155
t
3
t
2
=
11
8

5
8

=
3
4

The sequence is arithmetic.
ii t
4
= t
3

3
4

=
11
8

3
4

=
17
8

b t
n + 1
= at
n
, t
1
= b
2

i t
1
= b
2

t
2
= ab
2

t
3
= a (ab
2
)
= a
2
b
2


2
1
t
t
=
2
2
ab
b

= a

3
2
t
t
=
2 2
2
a b
ab

= a
The sequence is geometric.
ii t
4
= at
3


= a(a
2
b
2
)
= a
3
b
2

c t
n + 1
= 3t
n
2
1.5, t
1
= 0.5
i t
1
= 0.5
t
2
= 3 0.5
2
1.5
= 0.75
t
3
= 3 ( 0.75)
2
1.5
= 0.1875
t
2
t
1
= 1.25
t
3
t
2
= 0.2625
The sequence is not arithmetic.

2
1
t
t
= 1.5

3
2
t
t
= 0.25
The sequence is not geometric.
ii t
4
= 3 (t
3
)
2
1.5
= 3 (0.1875)
2
1.5
= 1.394 531 25
3 p
n + 1
= 0.5p
n
(1 p
n
)
a i January 2004 p
0
= 0.8 (Fish number in thousands)
January 2005:

p
1
= 0.5 0.8(1 0.8)
= 0.08 (80 fish)
ii January 2006:

p
2
= 0.5 0.08(1 0.08)
= 0.0368 (37 fish)
iii January 2007:

p
3
= 0.5 0.0368(1 0.0368)
= 0.017 722 88 (18 fish)
b Continuing the sequence from part a, the sequence
converges to 0. It will take 9 years from 2004 to
reach 0.
c p
0
= 0.037
January 2007:

p
1
= 1.6 0.037(1 0.037)
= 0.057 009 6 (57 fish)
January 2008:

p
2
= 1.6 0.057 009 6 (1 0.057 009 6)
= 0.086 015 208 8 (86 fish).
d Continuing the sequence, the values for p
n
increase,
resulting in the trout population increasing.
e No, the sequence eventually converges to 0.375 (or 375
fish).
4 a Population A:
geometric sequence with
a = 10 000, r = 1.12
A
n
= 10 000 (1.12)
n 1

Population B:
arithmetic sequence with
a = 15 000, d = 1000
B
n
= 15 000 + (n 1)1000
= 15 000 + 1000 n 1000
= 14 000 + 1000 n
Year n A
n
= 10 000
(1.12)
n 1

B
n
= 14 000 + 1000 n Difference
B
n
A
n

1990 1 10 000 15 000 5000
1991 2 11 200 16 000 4800
1992 3 12 544 17 000 4456
1993 4 14 049 18 000 3951
1994 5 15 735 19 000 3265
1995 6 17 623 20 000 2377
1996 7 19 738 21 000 1262
1997 8 22 107 22 000 107
1998 9 24 760 23 000 1760
1999 10 27 731 24 000 3731
2000 11 31 058 25 000 6058
b A
n
> B
n
in 1997
c n = 11: Let A
11
= B
11
and
B
n
= 15 000 + (n 1)d
B
11
= 15 000 + (11 1)d
= 15 000 + 10d
But A
11
= 310 58
15 000 + 10d = 31 058
10d = 16 058
d = 1605.8
The annual increment of species B needs to be 1606
d Let A
11
= 10 000(r)
10

But B
11
= 25 000
10 000r
10
= 25 000
r
10
= 2.5
r =
1
10
(2.5)
= 1.0959
The growth rate of species A needs to be 1.095 96.
5 a S
n
= 2n
2
+ 3n
S
1
= 2 1
2
+ 3 1
= 5
S
2
= 2 2
2
+ 3 2
= 14
S
3
= 2 3
2
+ 3 3
= 27
S
4
= 2 4
2
+ 3 4
= 44
t
1
= S
1
= 5
t
2
= S
2
S
1
= 14 5
= 9
t
3
= S
3
S
2
= 27 14
= 13
t
4
= S
4
S
3
= 44 27
= 17
Sequence t
n
is {5, 9, 13, 17, }
9 5 = 13 9 = 17 13 = 4.
Sequence is arithmetic with a = 5 and d = 4.
t
n
= a + (n 1)d
A GM1 1 - 6 156 S e q u e n c e s a n d s e r i e s
= 5 + (n 1) 4
= 5 + 4n 4
= 1 + 4n
b S
n
= an
2
+ bn
S
1
= a + b
S
2
= 4a + 2b
S
3
= 9a + 3b
t
1
= S
1
= a + b
t
2
= S
2
S
1
= 4a + 2b (a + b)
= 3a + b
t
3
= S
3
S
2
= 9a + 3b (4a + 2b)
= 5a + b
Sequence is t
n
is
{a + b, 3a + b, 5a + b, }
3a + b (a + b) = 5a + b (3a + b) = 2a
The sequence is arithmetic with
a = a + b and d = 2a
t
n
= a + (n 1)d
= a + b + (n 1) 2a
= a + b + 2an 2a
= b a + 2an
6 a i
2200
2000
=
2420
2200
= 1.1
ii 1.1 100 = 110 hence 10% increase
iii 2000 1.1
4
= 2928
iv S
10
=
10
2000(1.1 1)
0.1

= 31784
v Geometric sequence hence 1.1 and 0 b c = =
b i 3500 + 3 80 = 3740
ii 3500 + 80n 4400
80n 900
n 11.25
hence number of heating systems = 11 + 5 = 16
iii 20 squares requires 12 outlets so 35 squares requires
35
12 21
20
= outlets
Cost = 3500 80 16 $4780 + =
c i 2224 = 1.2 S
2
200
2424 = 1.2 S
2

S
2
= 2020
2020 = 1.2 S
1
200
2220 = 1.2 S
1

S
1
= 1850
ii Total sold = S
1
+ S
2
+ S
3

= 1850 + 2020 + 2224
= 6094
Total produced = P
1
+ P
2
+ P
3

= 1850 + 2200 + 2420
= 6620

6094
100 92.1%
6620
=
V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 157

Exercise 7A Direct variation
1 a
3
2
=
4.5 6 7.5
3 4 5
= = which is constant.


The given points fit perfectly on a straight line.
The extended line passes directly through the origin.
y varies directly as x.
b
4 2
1
1 2
3 3
3 4 5 6
= = = =
1
3
which is constant.


The given points fit perfectly on a straight line.
The extended line passes through the origin.
b varies directly as a.
c
2 8 14
1 4 6
= which is not constant.


All points do not fit perfectly on a straight line.
r does not vary directly as p.
d
1 1.5 4 5
2 3 8 10
= = = =
1
2
which is constant.


All points fit perfectly on a straight line.
The extended line passes through the origin.
n varies directly as m.
e
1 2 5 9
3 6 15 18
= = =

which is not constant.


All points do not fit perfectly on a straight line.
t does not vary directly as s
f
5 4 7 8
10 8 14 16

= = =

which is constant.


All points fit perfectly on a straight line.
The extended line passes through the origin.
v varies directly as u.
2 Graphs i, ii, iv, v and vi are not straight lines through the
origin.
The answer is C.
3 a and b Ratio =
C
n

First pair:
20
0
is undefined.
or (0, 20) means a straight line does not pass through the
origin. Therefore C is not directly proportional to n and
Sam is correct.
4 a i k =
y
x

=
23
10

= 2.3
ii k =
y
x

=
18
9

= 2
iii k =
y
x

=
2.2
2


= 1.1
iv k =
7.5
3


= 2.5
v k =
20.8
4

= 5.2
vi k =
10
3
5

=
2
3

vii k =
4.5
9

= 0.5
viii k =
1
4

b
y
x
= k
Chapter 7 Variation
A GM1 1 - 7 158 V a r i a t i o n
i
y
x
= 2.3
1st pair:
4
y
= 2.3
y = 9.2
2nd pair:
5
y
= 2.3
y = 11.5
3rd pair:
18.4
x
= 2.3
18.4 = 2.3 x
x =
18.4
2.3

= 8
5th pair:
27.6
x
= 2.3
27.6 = 2.3 x
x =
27.6
2.3

= 12
x 4 5 8 10 12
y 9.2 11.5 18.4 23 27.6
ii
y
x
= 2
1st pair:
4
y
= 2
y = 8
2nd pair:
7
y
= 2
y = 14
4th pair:
36
x
= 2
36 = 2x
x = 18
5th pair:
40
x
= 2
40 = 2x
x = 20
6th pair:
45
x
= 2
45 = 2x
x = 22.5
x 4 7 9 18 20 22.5
y 8 14 18 36 40 45
iii
y
x
= 1.1
2nd pair:
1.1
x

= 1.1
1.1 = 1.1x
x = 1
3rd pair:
3
y
= 1.1
y = 3.3
4th pair:
5
y
= 1.1
y = 5.5
5th pair:
9.9
x
= 1.1
9.9 = 1.1x
x = 9
x 2 1 3 5 9
y 2.2 1.1 3.3 5.5 9.9
iv
y
x
= 2.5
2nd pair:
2
y

= 2.5
y = 5
3rd pair:
2.5
x

= 2.5
2.5 = 2.5x
x = 1
5th pair:
12.5
x
= 2.5
12.5 = 2.5x
x = 5
6th pair:
30
x
= 2.5
30 = 2.5x
x = 12
x 3 2 1 1 5 12
y 7.5 5 2.5 2.5 12.5 30
v
y
x
= 5.2
1st pair:
10.4
x
= 5.2
10.4 = 5.2x
x = 2
3rd pair:
6
y
= 5.2
y = 31.2
4th pair:
41.6
x
= 5.2
41.6 = 5.2x
x = 8
5th pair:
72.8
x
= 5.2
72.8 = 5.2x
x = 14
x 2 4 6 8 14
y 10.4 20.8 31.2 41.6 72.8
vi
y
x
=
2
3

1st pair:
2
3
x
=
2
3


2
3
=
2
3
x
x = 1
2nd pair:
3
y
=
2
3

y = 2
4th pair:
6
y
=
2
3

y = 4
5th pair:
8
x
=
2
3

8 =
2
3
x
x = 12
V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 159

x 1 3 5 6 12
y
2
3
---

2
10
3
------

4 8
vii
y
x
= 0.5
1st pair:
1
x

= 0.5
1 = 0.5x
x = 2
2nd pair:
2
y
= 0.5
y = 1
3rd pair:
2
x
= 0.5
2 = 0.5x
x = 4
4th pair:
5
y
= 0.5
y = 2.5
x 2 2 4 5 9
y 1 1 2 2.5 4.5
viii
y
x
=
1
4

1st pair:
2
y
=
1
4

y =
1
2

2nd pair:
3
y
=
1
4

y =
3
4

4th pair:
1.5
x
=
1
4

1.5 =
1
4
x
x = 6
5th pair:
7
4
x
=
1
4


7
4
=
1
4
x
x = 7
x 2 3 4 6 7
y
1
2
---

3
4
---

1 1.5
7
4
---

5
n
m
=
3
9
= k =
1
3

The answer is C.
6 m =
1
3
n
The answer is D.
7 m = 4,
4
n
=
1
3

n =
4
3

m = 12,
12
n
=
1
3

n = 4
The answer is B.
8 k =
a
b

=
21
15

= 1.4
when a = 49,
49
b
= 1.4
49 = 1.4b
b = 35
The answer is D.
9 a K =
d
t

=
234
2.6

= 90
t = 3,
3
d
= 90
d = 90 3
= 270
He will travel 270 km in three hours.
b d = 117,
117
t
= 90
117 = 90t
t = 1.3
= 1 hour + (0.3 60) mins
= 1 hour 18 mins
To travel 117 km will take 1 hour and 18 minutes.
c speed =
d
t
= k
= 90
The speed of the truck is 90 km/h.
10 a k =
1
2
5
= 0.1 (half a cup in 5 litres)
Volume of water
(L)
1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 30
Amount of clean
(cups)
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
1
2
1 1.5 2 3
b Multiples of 5 litres of water will be convenient to use.
11 a k =
P
s

=
12
4

= 3
s = 12.3,
12.3
P
= 3
P = 36.9 cm
b P = 88.2,
88.2
5
= 3
88.2 = 3s
s = 29.4 cm
c The shape must have three equal sides and hence is an
equilateral triangle.
12 a Area = 10 3 + 2 2 + 4 3
= 46
The floor area to be polished is 46 m
2
.
b k =
A
V

=
34.5
3

= 11.5
A GM1 1 - 7 160 V a r i a t i o n

A
V
= 11.5
Since polished twice, A = 46 2
= 92

92
V
= 11.5
92 = 11.5V
V = 8
To polish the floors, 8 L of varnish is required, so 3 cans
must be purchased
c
1
3
of a can of varnish is wasted (1 litre =
1
3
can)
Cost = 12.60
1
3

= $4.20 worth of wasted varnish.
13 a The graph is a straight line through the origin: so F
varies directly as a.
b k =
F
a

=
1600
2

= 800
c 800 =
F
a

F = 800a
d a = 4, F = 800 4
= 3200 N
e F = 1000, 1000 = 800a
a = 1.25 m/s
2

14 a k =
km
Miles

=
8
5

= 1.6
M = 26,
km
26
= 1.6
km = 41.6
So 26 miles is approximately equivalent to
41.6 kilometres.
b k =
km
Miles

=
8.045
5

= 1.609
M = 26,
km
26
= 1.609
km = 41.834
c Difference = 41.834 41.6
= 0.234 km.
d Percentage =
0.234
100
41.834

= 0.56%
15 k =
2
a
and k =
12.5
a


2
a
=
12.5
a

a
2
= 25
a = 5 or 5
k =
5
2
or
5
2


= 2.5 or 2.5
Exercise 7B Further direct variation
1 a i : x 1 2 3 4
ii : x 1 3 5 7
iii : x 2 4 6 8
b i


Direct variation exists between y and , x k = 3
ii


Direct variation exists between y and , x k = 5
iii


Direct variation does not exist between y and x
2 a i x
2
: 1 4 9 16
ii x
2
: 1 9 25 36
iii x
2
: 4 16 36 64
iv x
2
: 1 4 16 36
b i


Direct variation exists between y and x
2
, k = 2
ii


Direct variation exists between y and x
2
, k =
1
2

iii


V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 161

Direct variation does not exist between y and x
2
.
iv


Direct variation exists between y and x
2
, k =
1
6
.
3 a i x
3
: 1 8 27 64 125
ii x
3
: 8 27 125
iii x
3
: 8 64 216
iv x
3
: 1 8 64 216
b i
3
y
x
:
1
4
1
=
1
4


2
8
=
1
4


7
27

1
4


16
14
=
1
4


32
125

1
4

Since
3
y
x
is not constant, direction variation does not
exist between y and x
3
.
ii
3
:
y
x

24
8
= 3

81
27
= 3

375
125
= 3
Since
3
y
x
= 3 for all pairs, direct variation exists
between y and x
3
.
iii
3
:
y
x

2
3
8
=
1
12


16
3
64
=
1
12


18
216
=
1
12

Since
3
y
x
=
1
12
for all pairs, direct variation exists
between y and x
3
.
iv
3
:
y
x

5
1
= 5

40
8
= 5

300
64
5

1080
216
= 5
Since
3
y
x
is not constant, direct variation does not
exist between y and x
3
.
4
x 1 4 16 36
x
1 2 4 6
x
2
1 16 256 1296
y 0.3 0.6 1.2 1.8
Between y and x


Not a straight line so not direct variation.
Between y and x


The graph is a straight line through the origin, so direct
variation exists between y and . x
Between y and x
2



The graph is not a straight line, so direct variation does not
exist between y and x
2
.
5 a k =
n
m
=
1
2
4

=
1
2
2

=
1
4

b
n
m
=
1
4

n =
1
4
m
c m = 1, n =
1
4
1
=
1
4

n =
3
4
,
3
4
=
1
4
m
3 = m
m = 9
n = 1, 1 =
1
4
m
4 = m
A GM1 1 - 7 162 V a r i a t i o n
m = 16
m = 25, n =
1
25
4

=
5
4

m 1 4 9 16 25
n
1
4
---

1
2
---

3
4
---

1
5
4
---

6 k =
2
a
b

=
2
16
8

=
16
64

=
1
4

a = 1,
2
1
b
=
1
4

b
2
= 4
b = 2
The answer is B.
7 k =
m
n

=
3
4

=
3
2

n = 64,
4
m
=
3
2


8
m
=
3
2

m = 12
The answer is D.
8 k =
3
p
s

=
3
72
6

=
72
216

=
1
3

p = 9,
3
9
s
=
1
3

9 =
3
1
3
s
27 = s
3

s = 3
The answer is C.
9 a i A r
2

ii V s
3

iii E v
2

iv r A
v d h
b i A = kr
2

ii V = ks
3

iii E = kv
2

iv r = k A
v d = k h
10 a A r
2

A = kr
2

1256 = k (10)
2

= 100k
k =
1256
100

= 12.56
b A = 12.56 r
2

r = 12.5, A = 12.56 (12.5)
2

= 1962.5 cm
2

c A = 12.56 r
2

A = 2826, 2826 = 12.56r
2

r
2
=
2826
12.56

= 225
r = 15 cm
11 a V r
2

V = kr
2

113.04 = k 3
2

= 9k
k =
113.04
9

= 12.56
b V = 12.56r
2

r = 3.5, V = 12.56 (3.5)
2

= 153.86 mL
r = 4, V = 12.56 4
2

= 200.96 mL
r = 4.5, V = 12.56 (4.5)
2

= 254.34 mL
12 T L
T = k L
1.9 = k 0.9
= k 0.95
k = 2
T = 2 L
T = 2.5, 2.5 = 2 L
1.25 = L
L = 1.56 m
L = 2 m, T = 2 2
= 2.83 s
13 a V s
3

V = ks
3

9 = k 3
3

= k 27
k =
1
3

V =
1
3
s
3

b s = 25 = 5
V =
1
3
5
3

=
125
3

= 41.67 cm
3

c V = 576,
576 =
1
3
s
3

1728 = s
3

s = 12 cm.
d h = s. So the height of the pyramid is equal to the side
length of the square base.
14 a V I
V = kI
V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 163

V
new
= k(2I)
= 2kI
= 2V
The voltage is doubled if the current is doubled.
b V
new
= k(3I)
= 3kI
= 3V
The voltage is tripled if the current is tripled.
c V
new
=
1
2
k I




=
1
2
kI
=
1
2
V
The voltage is halved if the current is halved.
15 a m n
2

m = kn
2

i m
new
= k(2n)
2

= k 4n
2

= 4(kn
2
)
= 4m
m is quadrupled.
ii m
new
= k(3n)
2

= k 9n
2

= 9(kn
2
)
= 9m
m is multiplied by 9.
iii m
new
= k(4n)
2

= k 16n
2

= 16(kn
2
)
= 16 m
m is multiplied by 16.
iv m
new
=
2
1
2
k n




= k
2
1
4
n
=
2
1
( )
4
kn
=
1
4
m
m is multiplied by
1
4
.
b m n
3

m = kn
3

i m
new
= k(2n)
3

= k 8n
3

= 8(kn
3
)
= 8m
m is multiplied by 8.
ii m
new
= k(3n)
3

= k 27n
3

= 27(kn
3
)
= 27m
m is multiplied by 27.
iii m
new
= k(4n)
3

= k 64n
3

= 64(kn
3
)
= 64m
m is multiplied by 64.
iv m
new
=
3
1
2
k n




= k
3
1
8
n
=
3
1
8
kn
=
1
8
m
m is multiplied by
1
8
.
c m n
m = k n
i m
new
= 2 k n
= 2k n
= 2m
m is multiplied by 2.
ii m
new
= 3 k n
= 3( ) k n
= 3m
m is multiplied by 3.
iii m
new
= 4 k n
= 2( ) k n
= 2m
m is doubled.
iv m
new
=
1
2
k n
=
1
( )
2
k n
=
1
2
m
m is multiplied by
1
2
.
16 a y x
2

y = kx
2

x
2
=
y
k

x =
y
k

i x
new
=
4y
k

= 2
y
k

= 2x
x is doubled.
ii x
new
=
4
y
k

=
1
2
y
k

=
1
2
x
x is halved.
b y x
y = k x

y
k
= x
x =
2
2
y
k

i x
new
=
2
2
(4 ) y
k

A GM1 1 - 7 164 V a r i a t i o n
=
2
2
16
y
k

= 16x
x is multiplied by 16.
ii x
new
=
2
2
1
4
y
k




=
2
2
1
16
y
k

=
1
16
x
x is multiplied by
1
16
.
17 A r
2

A = kr
2

a i A
new
= k(2r)
2

= k 4r
2

= 4(kr
2
)
= 4A
Area is multiplied by 4.
ii A
new
= k(3r)
2

= k 9r
2

= 9(kr
2
)
= 9A
Area is multiplied by 9.
iii A
new
= k(8r)
2

= k 64r
2

= 64(kr
2
)
= 64A
Area is multiplied by 64.
iv A
new
= k(10r)
2

= k 100 r
2

= 100(kr
2
)
= 100 A
Area is multiplied by 100.
v A
new
=
2
1
2
k r




=
2
1
4
k r
=
1
4
(kr
2
)
=
1
4
A
Area is multiplied by
1
4
.
vi A
new
=
2
1
3
k r




= k
2
1
9
r
=
2
1
( )
9
kr
=
1
9
A
Area is multiplied by
1
9
.
b r = 7, A = 154
Using answers from part a
r 8, r
new
= 56, A
new
= 64 154
= 9856 cm
2

r 10, r
new
= 70, A
new
= 100 154
= 15 400 cm
2


1
3
r , r
new
=
1
2
3
, A
new
=
1
9
154
=
1
17
9
cm
2

r 2, r
new
= 14, A
new
= 4 154
= 616 cm
2


1
2
r , r
new
= 3.5, A
new
=
1
4
154
= 38.5 cm
2

r 3, r
new
= 21, A
new
= 9 154
= 1386 cm
2

18 a y is multiplied by n.
b y is multiplied by n
2
.
c y is multiplied by . n
d y is multiplied by n
3
.
19 a Let y x
2

y = kx
2

(2, b): b = kx
2

b = 4k
k =
4
b
[1]
, 4
3
b
b



: 4b = k
2
3
b



4b =
2
9
b
k
k =
2
9
4b
b

=
36
b
[2]
Equate [1] and [2]
k =
4
b
=
36
b

b
2
= 144
b = 12
b Substitute b = 12 into [1]
k =
12
4

= 3
c a = 3 3
2

= 27
Exercise 7C Inverse variation
1 a Product = xy
1st pair: 1 12 = 12
2nd pair: 2 6 = 12
3rd pair: 3 4 = 12
4th pair: 4 3 = 12
Since the product is constant (= 12), y varies inversely
as x.
b Product = xy
1st pair: 1 18 = 18
2nd pair: 3 6 = 18
3rd pair: 6 3 = 18
4th pair: 9 2 = 18
Since the product is constant (= 18), y varies inversely
as x.
c Product = xy
1st pair: 1 28 = 28
2nd pair: 2 14 = 28
3rd pair: 3
1
9
3
= 28
4th pair: 4 7 = 28
V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 165

Since the product is constant (= 28), y varies inversely
as x.
d Product = xy
1st pair: 2 5 = 10
2nd pair: 4 2.5 = 10
3rd pair: 5 2 = 10
4th pair: 6
2
1
3
= 10
Since the product is constant (= 10), y varies inversely as
x.
e Product = xy
1st pair: 4 15 = 60
2nd pair: 5 12 = 60
3rd pair: 6 10 = 60
4th pair: 10 8 = 80
Since the product is not constant, y does not vary
inversely as x.
f Product = xy
1st pair:
4
5
5
= 4
2nd pair:
2
6
3
= 4
3rd pair:
1
8
2
= 4
4th pair:
1
16
4
= 4
5th pair:
2
25
10
= 5
Since the product is not constant, y does not vary
inversely as x.
2 a
x 2 4 8 10
1
x

1
2

1
4

1
8

1
10

y 60 30 15 12




The graph of y against
1
x
is a straight line directed from
the origin. Hence y
1
x
.
b
x 1 4 5 8
1
x
1
1
4

1
5

1
8

y 40 10 8 6



The points of y against
1
x
do not all lie on a straight line.
So y is not proportional to
1
x
.
c
x
1
2

1
3

1
4

1
5

1
x
2 3 4 5
y 5 7.5 10 12.5



The graph of y against
1
x
is a straight line directed from
the origin, so y
1
x
.
d
x
1
4

1
2
2 4
1
x
4 2
1
2

1
4

y 20 10 5 2.5



The points of y against
1
x
do not all lie on a straight line.
So y is not proportional to
1
x
.
e
x 3 5 8 10
1
x

1
3

1
5

1
8

1
10

y 13 8 5 4



The points of y against
1
x
do not all lie on a straight line.
So y is not proportional to
1
x
.
A GM1 1 - 7 166 V a r i a t i o n
f
x
2
3

3
5

1
4
1
1
x

3
2

5
3
4 1
y 18 20 48 12



The points of y against
1
x
lie on a straight line directed
from the origin. So y
1
x
.
3 m
1
n

k = mn
=
1
6
2

= 3
(3, 1) belongs to the same relationship.
The answer is C.
4 y
1
x
is represented by iii and v.
The answer is D.
5 a k = xy
i k = 2 6
= 12
ii k = 4 15
= 60
iii k =
1
6 5
3

= 32
iv k = 3
2
8
3

= 26
v k =
1
20
4

= 5
vi k = 4 4
= 16
vii k = 30
1
60

=
1
2

viii k = 3
2
6
3

= 20
b i 2nd pair: y =
12
2.5

= 4.8
3rd pair: y =
12
3

= 4
4th pair: x =
12
2.4

= 5
x 2 2.5 3 5
y 6 4.8 4 2.4
ii 1st pair: x =
60
30

= 2
3rd pair: x =
60
12

= 5
4th pair: y =
60
10

= 6
x 2 4 5 10
y 30 15 12 6
iii 1st pair: y =
32
1

= 32
2nd pair: x =
32
16

= 2
3rd pair: y =
32
4

= 8
x 1 2 4 6
y 32 16 8
1
5
3

iv 1st pair: y =
26
1

= 26
2nd pair: x =
26
13

= 2
4th pair: x =
26
1
6
2

= 4
x 1 2 3 4
y 26 13
2
8
3

1
6
2

v 1st pair: y =
5
1
5

= 25
3rd pair: y =
5
1
2

= 10
4th pair: x =
5
5

= 1
5th pair: y =
5
2

= 2.5
x
1
5

1
4

1
2
1 2
y 25 20 10 5 25
vi 1st pair: x =
16
16

= 1
V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 167

2nd pair: x =
16
8

= 2
4th pair: y =
16
32

=
1
2

5th pair: y =
16
48

=
1
3

x 1 2 4 32 48
y 16 8 4
1
2

1
3

vii 1st pair: x =
1
2
1
4

= 2
2nd pair: x =
1
2
1
10

= 5
3rd pair: y =
1
2
8

=
1
16

4th pair: y =
1
2
20

=
1
40

x 2 5 8 20 30
y
1
4

1
10

1
16

1
40
1
60

viii 2nd pair: y =
20
4

= 5
3rd pair: x =
20
2

= 10
4th pair: x =
20
4
3

= 15
5th pair: y =
20
30

=
2
3

x 3 4 10 15 30
y
2
6
3
5 2
4
3

2
3

6 u goes on the vertical axis and
1
v
on the horizontal axis.
The answer is E.
7 k = uv
= 4 15
= 60
The answer is E.
8 2nd pair: u =
60
5

= 12
3rd pair: v =
60
10

= 6
u = 2v
The answer is A.
9 a Let p = the price of the prizes
Let n = the number of prizes
n
1
p

n =
k
p

when p = 3.2, n = 40
40 =
3.2
k

k = 128
n =
128
p

when p = 4, n =
128
4
= 32
So she can buy 32 of the better quality items.
b When n = 80, 80 =
128
p

p =
128
80
= 1.6
So maximum cost for 80 prizes is $1.60 each.
10 a Let d = number of days to complete a job
Let n = number of bricklayers
n
1
d

n =
k
d

when d = 12, n = 5
5 =
12
k

k = 5 12
= 60
n =
60
d

4 =
60
d

4d = 60
d = 15
To complete the job, 15 days are required with 4
bricklayers.
b 1st 5 days;
1
3
of job is completed with 4 bricklayers.

2
3
of job left with 5 bricklayers taking
2
12
3
= 8
days.
Total time in these circumstances is 13 days.
c For 5 days, 5 bricklayers complete
5
12
of job. So
7
12
of
job left to do with 6 bricklayers, takes:

5
7
6
days
6 days
It takes (5 + 6) = 11 days to complete the job.
A GM1 1 - 7 168 V a r i a t i o n
11 Area = 4 9
= 36 m
2

a If l = 9 3 = 6 and w = 4 + 3 = 7
Area = 6 7
= 42 m
2

Area is greater, so there is not enough fertiliser.
b l = 9 2 = 4.5 and w = 4 2 = 8
Area = 4.5 8
= 36 m
2

Area is the same, so there is enough fertiliser.
c A = x
2
, where x is the side length of square.
36 = x
2

x = 6 m
12 f
1


f =
k


a k = f
= 1000 0.34
= 340
i f =
340


=
340
200

= 1.7
ii f =
340
800

= 0.425
b k = v = 340
f =
v


=
340


13 a m
1
a

m =
k
a

k = ma
= 20 5
= 100
m =
100
a

or a =
100
m

i a
new
=
100
2m

=
1 100
2 m




=
1
2
a
The acceleration is halved.
ii a
new
=
100
3m

=
1 100
3 m




=
1
3
a
The acceleration is divided by 3.
iii a
new
=
100
1
2
m

=
100
2
m




= 2a
The acceleration is doubled.
b F = k = ma
= 20 5
= 100 N
14 W
d
= F
d

F =
d
W
d
or d =
d
W
F

if W
d
is fixed as a constant, the other two variables vary
inversely.
15 a Water = 20 1
= 19 mL
b Water = 15 19
= 285 mL
c Total Volume = 285 + 15
= 300 mL
d Betadine =
Water
19

=
190
19

= 10 mL
e Volume used = 100 mL
Total volume = 300 mL
% used =
100 100
300 1

= 33.33%
16 s
1
d

s =
k
d

k = sd
= 70 4
= 280
when d = 1, s =
280
1

= 280 revolutions per minute
17 s
1
t

s =
k
t

k = st
= 20 300
= 6000
a gears 2 and 4: t = 8
s =
6000
t

=
6000
8

= 750 revolutions per minute
gear 3: t = 40
s =
6000
40

= 150 revolutions per minute
b k = st
= 300 8
= 2400
V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 169

gear 1: t = 20
s
1
=
2400
t

=
2400
20

= 120 revolutions per minute
gear 2: t = 8
s
2
=
2400
8

= 300 revolutions per minute
gear 3: t = 40
s
3
=
2400
40

= 60 revolutions per minute
Exercise 7D Further inverse variation
1 a
x 1 2 3 4
x
3
1 8 27 64
y 60 7.5
20
9

15
16

Product = x
3
y
1st pair: 1 60 = 60
2nd pair: 8 7.5 = 60
3rd pair:
20
27
9
= 60
4th pair:
15
64
16
= 60
Since the product is constant, y
3
1
x
.
b
x 2 3 4 5
x
3
8 27 64 125
y 15 4.4 1.875 0.96
Product = x
3
y
1st pair: 8 15 = 120
2nd pair: 27 4.4 = 118.8
Since the product is not constant, y is not proportional
to
3
1
.
x

c
x 2 4 5 6
x
3
8 64 125 216
y 130
1
4
16

2
2
25

11
1
64

Product = x
3
y
1st pair: 8 130 = 1040
2nd pair: 64
1
4
16
= 260
Since the product is not constant, y is not proportional
to
3
1
.
x

d
x 1 3 5 7
x
3
1 27 125 343
y 343
19
12
27

93
2
125
1

Product = x
3
y
1st pair: 1 343 = 343
2nd pair: 27
19
12
27
= 343
3rd pair: 125
93
2
125
= 343
4th pair: 343 1 = 343
Since the product is constant, y
3
1
.
x

2 a
x 1 4 9 25
x
1 2 3 5
y 60 30 20 12



Yes, y
1
.
x

b
x 1 4 9 16
x 1 2 3 4
y 30 15 10 7.5



Yes, y
1
.
x

c
x 4 9 16 36
x
2 3 4 6
y 45 30 20 15



No, y is not proportional to
1
.
x

d
x 4 16 25 49
x 2 4 5 7
y 10 5 4
6
2
7


A GM1 1 - 7 170 V a r i a t i o n


Yes, y
1
.
x

3
n 16 36 64
n 4 6 8
n
2
256 1296 4096
n
3
4096 46 656 262 144
m 1296 256 81



No, m is not proportional to
1
.
n



No m is not proportional to
1
.
n



Yes, m
2
1
.
n



No, m is not proportional to
3
1
.
n

p = kq
3

4 a k = pq
3

= 6
3

17
4
27

= 216
17
4
27

= 1000
b p =
3
1000
q
or
q
3
=
1000
p

q =
10
3 p

1st pair: q = 2 p =
3
1000
2

=
1000
8

= 125
2nd pair: q = 3 p =
3
1000
3

=
1000
27

=
1
37
27

3rd pair: p =
5
15
8
q =
3
10
5
15
8

=
10
2.5

= 4
4th pair: p = 8 q =
3
10
8

=
10
2

= 5
q 2 3 4 5 6
p 125
1
37
27
5
15
8
8
17
4
27

5 a i I
1
R

ii F
2
1
d

iii R
2
1
d

iv n
1
l

v t
1
v

vi I
2
1
d

b i I =
p
R

ii F =
2
p
d

iii R =
2
p
d

iv n =
p
l

v t =
p
v

vi I =
2
p
d

6 a I
2
1
d

I =
2
k
d

V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 171

5.5 =
2
7
k

5.5 =
49
k

k = 5.5 49
= 269.5
I =
2
269.5
d

I = 12, 12 =
2
269.5
d

12d
2
= 269.5
d
2
=
269.5
12

= 22.458
d = 4.74 m
b d = 1.75, I =
2
269.5
1.75

=
269.5
3.0625

= 88 units
7 a I
1
A

I =
k
A

I = 0.5, where A = 2 5
= 10 m
2

0.5 =
10
k

k = 5
I =
5
A

i A = 0.7
2

= 0.49
=
5
0.49

= 10.20 W/m
2

ii A = 3 1.5
= 4.5
=
5
4.5

= 1.11 W/m
2

b I =
5
9
,

5
9
=
5
A

A = 9
x
2
= 9, where x is the side
length of a square
x = 3 m.
8 T
1
k

T =
p
k


2
7

=
10
p

p =
2 10
7


2.84
T =
2.84
k

a k = 25, T =
2.84
25

=
2.84
5

= 0.57
b T =
32
7


14.36
14.36 =
2.84
k

14.36 k = 2.84
k =
2.84
14.36

= 0.198
k = 0.0391
9 I
2
1
d

I
2
k
d

a d =
2 2
2 1
= 1.732 m
b I
A
=
2
2
k

=
4
k

I
B
=
2
( 3)
k

=
3
k

I
C
=
4
k


B
A
I
I
=
B
C
I
I
=
3
4
k
k

=
4
3

10 H
2
1
s

H =
2
k
s

a H
new
=
2
(2 )
k
s

=
2
4
k
s

=
2
1
4
k
s

=
1
4
H
The height is multiplied by
1
.
4

b H
new
=
2
2
k
s



=
2
4
k
s

= 4
2
k
s

= 4H
The height is multiplied by 4.
c H
new
=
2
(4 )
k
s

=
2
16
k
s

=
2
1
16
k
s

=
1
16
H
The height is multiplied by
1
16
.
d H
new
=
2
4
k
s



=
2
16
k
s

= 16
2
k
s

= 16 H
The height is multiplied by 16.
11 a y =
k
x

If x is tripled.
y
new
=
3
k
x

=
1
3
k
x

=
1
3
y
The answer is B.
b m
1
n

m =
k
n

m
new
=
2
k
n

= 2
k
n

= 2m
The answer is C.
c p
2
1
s

p =
2
k
s


4
p
=
2
4
k
s

=
2
(2 )
k
s

s
new
= 2s
The answer is C.
A GM1 1 - 7 172 V a r i a t i o n
Exercise 7E Joint variation
1 a x yz
x = kyz
k =
x
yz

k =
4
2 1

=
4
2

= 2,
k =
12
3 2

=
12
6

= 2,
k =
24
4 3

=
24
12

= 2,
k =
40
5 4

=
40
20

= 2
k is constant for each set of values
for x, y, z.
x varies jointly as y and z.
b x = kyz
k =
x
yz

k =
6
2 1

=
6
2

= 3,
k =
36
4 3

=
36
12

=

3,
k =
48
4 4

=
48
16

= 3,
k =
75
5 5

=
75
25

= 3
k is constant for each set of values
for x, y, z.
x varies jointly as y and z.
c k =
x
yz

k =
1
1 2

=
1
2
,
k =
3
2 3

=
1
2
,
k =
8
3 5

=
8
15

k is not constant.
x does not vary jointly as y
and z.
d k =
x
yz

k =
2
2 4

=
2
8

=
1
4
,
k =
6
4 6

=
6
24

=
1
4
,
k =
10
8 5

=
10
40

=
1
4
,
k =
15
6 10

=
15
60

=
1
4

k is constant for each set of values
of x, y, z.
x varies jointly as y and z.
2 x
y
z

x =
ky
z

xz = ky
k =
xz
y

a k =
2 2
1


=
4
1

= 4,
k =
4 2
2


=
8
2

= 4,
k =
6 2
3


=
12
3

= 4,
k =
8 2
4


=
16
4

= 4
k is constant, for each set of
values of x, y, z.
x varies jointly as y and z.
x
y
z

b k =
5 4
1


=
20
1

= 20,
k =
4 10
2


=
40
2

= 20,
k =
3 20
3


=
60
3

= 20,
k =
2 40
4


=
80
4

= 20
k is constant, for each set of
values of x, y, z.
x varies jointly as y and z.
x
y
z

c k =
1 6
2


=
6
2

= 3,
k =
2 6
4


=
12
4

= 3,
k =
3 6
6


=
18
6

= 3,
k =
5 6
8


=
30
8

=
3
3
4

k is not constant for each set of
values of x, y, z.
V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 173

x does not vary jointly as y and z.
x is not proportional to .
y
z

d k =
2 3
2


=
6
2

= 3,
k =
3 4
3


=
12
3

= 4
k is not constant for each set of
values of x, y, z.
x does not vary jointly as y and z.
x is not proportional to
y
z

3 a m n
2
p
m = kn
2
p
k =
2
m
n p

=
2
450
10 9

=
450
900

=
1
2

m =
1
2
n
2
p
1st group: 6 =
2
1
3
2
n
12 = 3n
2

n
2
= 4
n = 2
2nd group: 18 =
2
1
3
2
p
36 = 9p
p = 4
3rd group: m =
2
1
5 6
2

= 3 25
= 75
4th group: 126 =
2
1
6
2
p
252 = 36 p
p = 7
b
n 2 3 5 6 10
p 3 18 6 7 9
m 6 4 75 126 450
4 v
u
w

v =
ku
w

k =
v w
u

=
2 36
4


=
2 6
4


= 3
v =
3u
w

1st group: 9 =
3 3
w


9 w = 9
w = 1
w = 1
2nd group: v =
3 4
4


=
12
2

= 6
3rd group: 5 =
3 5
w


5 w = 15
w = 3
w = 9
4th group: 6 =
3
16
u

6 =
3
4
u

24 = 3u
u = 8
5th group: 6 =
3 10
w


6 w = 30
w = 5
w = 25
u 3 4 5 8 10
w 1 4 9 16 25
v 9 1 5 1 6
5 a P
2
v
R

P =
2
kv
R

b P RI
2

P = kRI
2

c E v
2
m
E = kv
2
m
d F
m
R

F =
km
R

e F
t
m

F = k
t
m

6 V r
2
h
r = 12 cm, h = 15 cm,
V = 6785.84 cm
3

a V = ? r is tripled, h remains the
same
V = k r
2
h
6785.84 = k 12
2
15
6785.84 = k 2160
k =
6785.84
2160

k = 3.1416
V = 3.1416 r
2
h
r = 3 12 = 36 cm, h = 15 cm
V = 3.1416 36
2
15
= 61 072.70 cm
3

b h = ? r = 7 cm, V = 1328.7 cm
3

V = 3.1416 r
2
h
1328.7 = 3.1416 7
2
h
= 153.9384 h
h =
1328.7
153.9384

h = 8.63 cm
7 a u mh
u = kmh
140 = k 10 1.4
= 14 k
k =
140
14

= 10
u = 10mh
m = 20, h = 1
u = 10 20 1
= 200 J
b 220.5 = 10 m 3.5
= 35 m
m =
220.5
35

= 6.3 kg
c 0.75 = 10 0.25 h
= 2.5h
h =
75
2.5

= 30 m
8 a E wt
E = kwt
615 = k 52 30
= 1560 k
k =
615
1560

=
41
104

E =
41
104
wt
E =
41
102 120
104

= 4825.4 J
b 2091 =
41
102
104
t
t =
2091 104
41 102


= 52 min
c If E is the same, w is less
t is greater and play time is
longer.
d i more
ii shorter.
9 a m
2
n
p

m =
2
k n
p

A GM1 1 - 7 174 V a r i a t i o n
2.4 =
2
16
3
k

=
4
9
k

k =
2.4 9
4


= 5.4
m =
2
5.4 n
p

b m =
2
5.4 9
6

=
5.4 3
36


=
16.2
36

= 0.45
c 4.536 =
2
5.4 441
p

4.536 p
2
= 5.4 21
= 113.4
p
2
=
113.4
4.536

= 25
p = 5
10 a R
l
A

R =
kl
A

2.848 =
6
800
5 10
k


=
6
00
5 10
k


2.848 5 10
6
= 800k
14.24 10
6
= 800k
k =
6
14.24 10
800


= 1.78 10
8

b R =
8
6
1.78 10 4000
16 10


= 4.45 ohm
11 v r
2
h
v = Kr
2
h
r = 10, h = 20,
v = k 10
2
20
= 2000k
V
new
= k (20)
2
10
= 4000k
= 2 2000k
= 2V
The answer is C.
12 2094 = 2000k
k =
2094
2000

= 10 047
The answer is B.
13 V
new
= k 5
2
h
= 25hk
But V = 2000k
If V
new
= V
25h = 2000
h =
2000
25

= 80 cm
The answer is E.
14 F
1 t
l m

F
t
l m

F =
k t
l m

The answer is D.
15 R
2
l
d

R =
2
kl
d

l
new
= l + 30% l
= 1.30l
d
new
= d 15% d
= 0.85 d
R
new
=
2
1.30
(0.85 )
k l
d


=
2
1.30
0.7225
k l
d


=
2
1.7993 kl
d


R =
2
kl
d

R
new
= 1.7993 R
R
new
= 179.93% of R
The resistance has increased by
79.93%.
16 F
2
v
R

F =
2
kv
R

a i v
new
= v + 0.10v
= 1.1 v
F
new
=
2
(1.1 ) k v
R


=
2
1.21kv
R

= 1.21F
F
new
= 121% of F
The force increase by 21%.
ii v
new
= v 10% v
= v 0.10 v
= 0.9 v
F
new
=
2
(0.9 ) k v
R


=
2
0.81kv
R

= 0.81F
F
new
= 81% of F
The force decreases by 19%.
b R
new
= R + 0.25R
= 1.25R
F
new
=
2
1.25
k v
R


= 0.8
2
kv
R

= 0.8 F
The force decreases by 20%.
c F
new
= F
=
2
kv
R

v
new
= 1.15v
F
new
=
2
new
(1.15 ) k v
R


=
2
new
1.3225 k v
R


= 1.3225
2
new
kv
R


new
1.3225
R
=
1
R


new
1.3225
R
= R
R
new
= 1.3225 R
R
new
= 132.25% of R
The radius increases by 32.25%.
17 a F
1 2
2
q q
r

F =
1 2
2
kq q
r

b i F
new
=
1 2
2
(2 )
kq q
r

=
1 2
2
4
kq q
r

=
1 2
2
1
4
kq q
r
=
1
4
F
The force is multiplied by
1
.
4

ii F
new
=
1 2
2
2
kq q
r



=
1 2
2
4
kq q
r

=
1 2
2
4kq q
r
= 4F
The force is multiplied by 4.
iii F
new
=
1 2
2
(2 ) k q q
r


=
1 2
2
2kq q
r
= 2F
The force is doubled.
iv F
new
=
1 2
2
(2 )(2 ) k q q
r


=
1 2
2
4kq q
r

= 4F
The force is multiplied by 4.
Exercise 7F Part variation
1 a y = ax
2
+ b
b l = a m +
3
b n
c y =
a
x
+ b
d y = ax
3
+ bz
2

V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 175

2 a Let A = total amount to be paid in dollars
n = number of calls
A = kn + 48
when n = 400, A = 232,
232 = k 400 + 48
k =
23
50

A =
23
48
50
n +
b n = 440
A =
23
440 48
50
+
= 250.40
$250.40 is paid.
3 Let C = Total cost
n = The number of people.
F = The fixed cost.
C = kn + F
a 4500 = 100k + F [1]
5750 = 150k + F [2]
[1] 3: 13 500 = 300k + 3F [3]
[2] 2: 11 500 = 300k + 2F [4]
[3] [4]: 2000 = F
The fixed cost is $2000.
b Substitute F = 2000 into [1]
4500 = 100k + 2000
100k = 2500
k = 25
C = 25n + 2000
c C = 25 120 + 2000
= 3000 + 2000
= 5000
The cost is $5000.
d


4 Let C = total cost.
n = number of loaves made.
F = Fixed cost of bread maker.
C = kn + F
a 243 = k 20 + F
243 = 20 k + F [1]
299 = 100 k + F [2]
5 [1] 1215 = 100 k + 5 F [3]
[3] [2] 916 = 4F
F = 229
The breadmaker costs $229.
b Substitute F = 229 into [1]
243 = 20 k + 229
14 = 20 k
k =
14
20

= 0.7
The cost of flour and other ingredients is 70 cents per
loaf.
c C = 0.7n + 229
C = 0.7 500 + 229
= 350 + 229
= 579
The cost is $579.
d Revenue: R = 2.5n
Profit = R C
2.5n (0.7n + 229) = 0
2.5n 0.7n 229 = 0
1.8n = 229
n =
229
1.8

= 127.2
So 128 loaves need to be sold for a profit.
5 a Let C = cost
n = number of weeks
F = Fixed cost.
C = kn + F
501 = 12 k + F [1]
633 = 18 k + F [2]
[1] 3 1503 = 36k + 3F [3]
[2] 2 1266 = 36k + 2F [4]
[3] [4] 237 = F
Substitute F = 237 into [1]
501 = 12k + 237
12k = 264
k = 22
C = 22n + 237
n = 16, C = 22 16 + 237
= 352 + 237
= 589
The cost is $589.
b 721 = 22n + 237
22n = 484
n = 22
The customer was on the program 22 weeks.
c The joining fee is F, $237.
The weekly fee is k, $22.
6 m = kn + c
A, B and C are not linear
D: 3 =
2 6
10.5
5 5
+
= 4.2 + 1.2
3 5.4
E: 10.5 3 = 2.5 3
7.5 = 7.5
The answer is E.
7 a v =

mt + c
20 = 5m + c [1]
26 = 8m + c [2]
[2] [1] 6 = 3m
m = 2
Substitute m = 2 into [1]
20 = 5 2 + c
= 10 + c
c = 10
v = 2t + 10
b t = 0, v = 2 0 + 10
v = 10 m/s
c t = 28, v = 2 28 + 10
= 56 + 10
v = 66 m/s
d 34 = 2t + 10
2t = 24
t = 12 s
8 a y
2
1
x
x
+
y = ax
2
+
b
x

11 = 4a +
2
b
[1]
A GM1 1 - 7 176 V a r i a t i o n
47.5 = 16a +
4
b
[2]
[2] 2: 95 = 32a +
2
b
[3]
[3] [1]: 84 = 289
a = 3
Substitute a = 3 into [1]
11 = 4 3 +
2
b

= 12 +
2
b


2
b
= 1
b = 2
y = 3x
2

2
x

b i y = 3 5
2

2
3

= 3 25
2
5

= 75 0.4
= 74.6
ii y = 3
2
1 2
1
3
3




= 3
1
9
6
=
1
6
3

=
2
5
3

9 a y x
2
+ 11
y = ax
2
+ 11b
5 = 4a + 11b [1]
2 = a + 11b [2]
[1] [2]: 3 = 3a
a = 1
Substitute a = 1 into [2]
2 = 1 + 11b
1 = 11b
b =
1
11

y = x
2
+ 11
1
11

y = x
2
+ 1
b y =
2
1
1
3

+



=
1
1
9

+



y =
1
1
9

10 m n + n
3

m = an + bn
3

14 = 2a + 8b [1]
5.5 = a b [2]
[2] 2: 11 = 2a 2b [3]
[1] + [3] : 3 = 6b
b =
1
2

Substitute b =
1
2
into [2]
5.5 = a 0.5
5 = a
a = 5
m = 5n +
1
2
n
3

n = 4, m = 5 4 +
1
2
4
3

= 20 +
1
2
64
= 20 + 32
= 52
11 a y
1
x
+ b
y =
a
x
+ b
6 =
5
a
+ b [1]
4.5 =
10
a
+ b [2]
[1] [2]
6 = 0.2a + b
(4.5 = 0.1a + b)
1.5 = 0.1a
a = 15
Substitute a = 15 into [1]
6 =
15
5
+ b
6 = 3 + b
b = 3
y =
15
x
+ 3
b y =
15
x
+ 3
x = 12, y = ?
y =
15
12
+ 3
= 1.25 + 3
= 4.25
c x = ? y = 30
30 =
15
x
+ 3
30 3 =
15
x

27 =
15
x

27x = 15
x =
15
27

=
5
9

12 6.25 = 9 4
4
b
+
6.25 = 2a +
4
b
[1]
17 = 1
1
b
a +
17 = a + b [2]
[2] 2 34 = 2a + 2b [3]
[3] [1] 40.25 =
7
4
b

7b = 161
V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 177

b = 23
Substitute b = 23 into [2]
17 = a 23
a = 6
a The answer is A.
b The answer is D.
c r =
23
6 p
p

p = 25, r =
23
6 25
25

= 6 5 0.92
= 30 0.92
= 29.08
The answer is C.
d 59.77 =
23
6 p
p

p = 36, RHS = 6 6
23
6

=
1
32
6

p = 49, RHS =
23
6 7
49

=
26
41
49

p = 64, RHS = 6 8
23
64

=
41
47
64

p = 81, RHS = 6 9
23
81

=
58
53
81

p = 100, RHS = 6 10
23
100

= 60 0.23
= 59.77
= LHS
The answer is E.
13 a A r + r
2

A = ar + br
2

703.36 = 8a + 64b [1]
942 = 10a + 100b [2]
[1] 10: 7033.6 = 80a + 640b [3]
[2] 8: 7536 = 80a + 800b [4]
[4] [3]: 502.4 = 160b
b = 3.14
Substitute b = 3.14 into [2]
942 = 10a + 100 3.14
= 10a + 314
628 = 10a
a = 62.8
A = 62.8r + 3.14r
2

b i A = 62.8 9 + 3.14 9
2

= 565.2 + 254.34
= 819.54 cm
2

ii A = 62.8 11 + 3.14 11
2

= 690.8 + 379.94
= 1070.74 cm
2

Exercise 7G Transformation of data
1 a


b The graph is not a straight line.
So y is not proportional to x.
The graph resembles a parabola.
So assume y x
2

y = kx
2

k =
2
y
x

1st pair: k =
2
1.76
1

= 1.76
2nd pair: k =
2
7.04
2

=
7.04
4

= 1.76
3rd pair: k =
2
15.84
3

=
15.84
9

= 1.76
4th pair: k =
2
28.16
4

=
28.16
16

= 1.76
5th pair: k =
2
44
5

=
44
25

= 1.76
k is constant and equals 1.76.
y x
2
and y = 1.76x
2
.
2 a


The graph is a hyperbola.
b
1
x
1
1
2
1
4
1
5
1
10

25
2

y 100 50 25 20 10 8

A GM1 1 - 7 178 V a r i a t i o n


The graph is a straight line which could pass through the
origin.
y
1
x

Note: No need to graph y and
2
1
x

c y
1
x

y =
k
x

y =
100
x

3 a


The shape is possibly a parabola or cubic.
So V is not proportional to D.
b
D
2
484 676 900 1156 1444 1764
D
3
10 648 17 576 27 000 39 304 54 872 74 088
V 5575 9203 14 137 20 580 28 731 38 792
If V D
2

V = KD
2

k =
2
V
D

1st pair: k =
5575
484

= 11.52
2nd pair: k =
9203
676

= 13.61
k is not constant, hence V is not propotional to D
2

If V D
3

V = kD
3

k =
3
V
D

1st pair: k =
5575
10648

= 0.5236
2nd pair: k =
9203
17576

= 0.5236
3rd pair: k =
14137
27000

= 0.5236
4th pair: k =
20580
39304

= 0.5236
5th pair: k =
28731
54872

= 0.5236
6th pair: k =
38792
74088

= 0.5236
k is constant, hence V D
3

V = kD
3

V = 0.5236 D
3

4 a From graphics calculator: type of graph is logarithmic.
b y = a log
10
(x) + b
x = 1, y = 5
x = 10, y = 7
y = a log
10
(x) + b
5 = a log
10
(1) + b [1]
5 = b
7 = a log
10
(10) + b [2]
7 = a + b
Substitute b = 5 into [2]
7 = a + 5
7 5 = a
a = 2
a = 2, b = 5
y = 2 log
10
(x) + 5
5 n
1
m
since n versus m is a hyperbola.
The answer is D.
6 If s t
2
, then s versus t is a parabola through the origin.
The answer is B.
7 a The graphics calculator shows that t does not vary directly
as d.
b The graphics calculator shows that:
t does not vary directly as d
2

t varies directly as d
c t d
t = k d when t = 0.0779, d = 3
0.0779 = k 3
k =
0.0779
3

= 0.045
t = 0.045 d
d d = 20 cm
t = 0.045 20
= 0.2012 seconds
Chapter review
Short answer
1 a W d
W = kd
84 = 4k
k = 21
b W = 21d
W = 21 12
= 252 J
c 136.5 = 21d
d =
136.5
21

= 6.5 m
2 a TSA l
2

TSA = kl
2

96 = k 4
2

= 16k
k = 6
V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 179

b TSA = 6l
2

= 6 12
2

= 6 144
= 864 cm
2

c 384 = 6l
2

l
2
= 64
l = 8 cm
3 a k = xy
= 6 8
= 48
b y =
48
x

1st pair: x =
48
19.2

= 2.5
2nd pair: y =
48
5

= 9.6
4th pair: y =
48
12

= 4
x 2.5 5 6 12
y 19.2 9.6 8 4
4 a I
1
A

I =
k
A

If A = 4 8
= 32
0.6 =
32
k

k = 19.2
=
19.2
A

i A = 2
2

= 4
I =
19.2
4

= 4.8 W/m
2

ii A = 7 3
= 21
I =
19.2
21

= 0.91 W/m
2

b 1.2 =
19.2
A

1.2 A = 19.2
A =
19.2
1.2

= 16
But A = x
2
= 16 for a square opening of side length x.
x = 4 m
5 a Joint variation.
b P
W
t

c P =
kW
t

i P
new
=
2
kW
t

=
1
2
kW
t

=
1
2
P
P is halved.
ii P
new
=
3
kW
t

=
1
3
kW
t

=
1
3
P
P as multiplied by
1
.
3

d W = kd
P =
kd
t

i P
new
=
2
2
k d
t


=
kd
t

= P
No change to P.
ii P
new
=
2
1
2
k d
t


= 4
kd
t

= 4P
P is multiplied by 4.
Multiple choice
1 k =
m
n


1
1
m
n
=
2
2
m
n

or m
1
n
2
= n
1
m
2
or
1
1
m
n
=
2
2
m
n
or
2
1
m
m
=
2
1
n
n
or
1
2
n
n
=
1
2
m
m

The answer is A.
2 a b
k =
a
b

=
12
48

=
1
4

a =
4
b

=
10
4

= 2.5
The answer is C.
3 y = kx
y
new
= k(4x)
= 4kx
= 4y
y is quadrupled.
The answer is C.
4 y x
y = k x
k =
y
x

A: k =
6
2
, k =
12
3

A GM1 1 - 7 180 V a r i a t i o n
= 3 = 4, No
B: k =
6
2
, k =
16
4

= 3 = 4, No
C: k =
12
3
, k =
16
4

= 4 = 4
The answer is C.
5 m versus n is a parabola through the origin.
m n
2

The answer is C.
6 TSA s
2

TSA = ks
2

k =
2
TSA
s

=
2
24
2

=
24
4

= 6
TSA = 6s
2

s = 11, TSA = 6 11
2

= 6 121
= 726
The answer is B.
7 a b
3

a = kb
3

a
new
= k(2b)
3

= k 8b
3

= 8kb
3

= 8a
a is multiplied by 8.
The answer is E.
8 a
1
b
is shown in graphs i and ii.
The answer is C.
9 m
1
n

The answer is C.
10 y
1
x

y =
k
x

y
new
=
3
k
x

y =
1
3

k
x

y is divided by 3.
The answer is B.
11 r
2
1
s

r versus s
2
is a straight line
s
2
is on the horizontal axis.
The answer is D.
12 If k = pm = 24, 36, 48
p is not proportional to
1
m
.
If k =
p
m
= 1.5,
4
9
,
3
16

p is not proportional to m.
If k = p m = 12, 12, 12
p
1
m

The answer is E.
13 k = 12 = 3 4
The answer is B.
14 y
2
x z
w

y =
2
kx z
w
A
kx z = w
2
y B
kx =
2
yw
z
C

2
yw
kx
= z D
The answer is E.
15 x b
2
c
3

x = kb
2
c
3

x
new
= k(2b)
2
3
2
c



= k 4b
2

3
8
c

=
1
2
kb
2
c
3

=
1
2
x
The answer is A.
16 h
2
V
r

h =
2
kV
r

5 =
2
15.7
1
k

5 = k 15.7
k =
5
15.7


1
3

The answer is B.
17 A part linear variation between x and y is represented by a
straight line not passing through the origin, that is, graph iii
The answer is C.
18 A, B, C and E are linear relations.
The answer is D.
19 11 = a + b [1]
6 = 2a +
4
b
[2]
[2] 4: 24 = 8a + b [3]
[3] [1]: 35 = 7a
a = 5
Substitute a = 5 into [1]
11 = 5 + b
b = 16
The answer is C.
20 The graph is a parabola.
A straight line is produced by graphing t against p
2
.
The answer is A.
21 If y versus x produces a straight line.
The y versus x is a sideways parabola starting from the
origin and including the top half of the parabola only.
The answer is B.
V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 181

Extended response
1 a M
o e
L
f f

M =
o e
kL
f f

2.508 =
12
52 2.3
k


k =
2.508 52 2.3
12


25
M =
25
o e
L
f f

b M =
25 10
48 3.5


=
250
168

= 1.488
2 l T + c
l = kT + c
a l = 20 + 0.0048
= 20.0048 m.
b l = kT + c
20.0048 = k 20 + c [1]
T = 0, 20 = c
Substitute c = 20 into [1]
20.0048 = 20k + 20
0.0048 = 20k
k = 0.00024
L = 0.00024T + 20
c k = 20
0.00024 = 20
= 0.000 012
= 1.2 10
5

3
x 1 4 9 16 25
x
2
1 16 81 256 625
x 1 2 3 4 5
y
3
20

2
2
5

3
12
20

2
38
5
3
93
4

i


The graph of y versus x appears to be a parabola
passing through the origin.
ii


The graph of y versus x
2
is a straight line through the
origin confirming that y x
2
.
iii


The graph of y versus x is not a straight line.
a y x
2

b y = kx
2


3
20
= k 1
2

k =
3
20

y =
3
20
x
2

4 a From the graphics calculator, type of graph hyperbola.
V =
k
p
Ratio V p = k
1 114 = 114
V =
114
p
2 57 = 114
b 4 28.5 = 114
6 19 = 114
8 14.25 = 114
10 11.4 = 114
c Inversely
5 a


The graph has a hyperbolic shape implying inverse
variation.
b M
1
u

= k
1
u

c k = Mu
1st pair: k = 1 40 = 40
2nd pair: k = 2 20 = 40
3rd pair: k = 4 10 = 40
4th pair: k = 5 8 = 40
k is constant, confirming inverse variation.
d


The graph is a straight line through the origin.
e M varies directly as v.
f M
v
u

M =
kv
u

A GM1 1 - 7 182 V a r i a t i o n
M =
v
u
(since k = 1)
6
E 695 556 772 840 850 124 927 408 1 000 692
E
2
4.84 10
11
5.97 10
11
7.23 10
11
8.60 10
11
1.00 10
12

1
E
1.44 10
5
1.29 10
6
1.18 10
6
1.08 10
6
9.99 10
7

m 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600
a


The graph is a straight line through the origin, therefore m E. No need to graph m versus E
2
and m versus
1
.
E

b k =
m
E

1st pair: k =
1800
695556

= 2.59 10
3

2nd pair: k =
2000
772840

= 2.59 10
3

3rd pair: k =
2200
850124

= 2.59 10
3

4th pair: k =
2400
927408

= 2.59 10
3

5th pair: k =
2600
1000692

= 2.59 10
3

c


The graph is hyperbolic, suggesting inverse variation between m and v.
d
1
v
0.034 0.036 0.038 0.039 0.041
2
1
v
0.001 16 0.001 29 0.001 42 0.001 55 0.001 68
1
v
0.184 0.190 0.195 0.197 0.202
m 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600



V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 183

The graph is not a straight line through the origin. So m is
not proportional to
1
v



The graph is a straight line through the origin,
so m
2
1
.
v

No need to graph m versus
1
.
v

e m varies directly as E and inversely as the square of V.
f m
2
E
v

m =
2
E
k
v

2000 =
2
912040
(30.2)
k

=
912040
912.04

k =
2000 912.04
912040


k = 2
m =
2
2E
v

g v = 135 km/h = 135 3.6 m/s
= 37.5 m/s
m =
2
2 E
v

2100 =
2
2
(37.5)
E

=
2
1406.25
E

2E = 2 953 125
E = 1 476 562.5 J.
7 a R
2
1
d

b R =
2
kl
d

15 =
0.5
4
k


15 4
0.5

= k
k = 120
R =
2
120l
d

=
2
120 0.8
4


= 6
R =
2
120l
d

12 =
120
9
l


12 9
120

= l
l = 0.9
R =
2
120l
d

=
120 3.75
25


= 18
R =
2
120l
d

20 =
2
120 1
d


20d
2
= 120
d
2
= 6
d = 6 (reject negative as were dealing with
length.)
c R =
2
120l
d

d i R =
2
120l
d
l becomes 2l
R
new
=
2
120 2l
d


=
2
240l
d

R is doubled.
ii R =
2
120l
d
d becomes 2d
R
new
=
2
120
(2 )
l
d

=
2
120
4
l
d

=
2
30l
d

R is
1
4
of its original value.
iii R =
2
120l
d

l = 2l
d = 2d
R
new
=
2
120 2
(2 )
l
d


=
2
240
4
l
d

=
2
60l
d

R is halved.
e i R =
2
120l
d

l = 0.8l
d = 0.4d
R =
2
120 0.8
(0.4 )
l
d


=
2
96
0.16
l
d

=
2
600l
d

Increase.
R is 5 times as large.
ii R =
2
120l
d

l = 0.9l
d = 1.2d
A GM1 1 - 7 184 V a r i a t i o n
R =
2
120 0.9
(1.2 )
l
d


=
2
108
1.44
l
d

=
2
75l
d

Decrease.
R is
5
8
of its original value.
f R =
2
120l
d

l = 0.25l
d = xd
R =
2
120 0.25
( )
l
xd


R =
2 2
30l
x d


2
30
x
= 120
30 = 120x
2


30
120
= x
2

x
2
=
1
4

x =
1
2

d must be halved.
Exam practice 2
Short answer
1 =
2(2 1) 5(3 1)
(2 1)(3 1)
x x
x x
+
+

=
4 2 15 5
(2 1)(3 1)
x x
x x
+ +
+

=
7 11
(2 1)(3 1)
x
x x

+

2 ax + by = c (1)
x y = d (2)
multiply (2) by b
bx by = bd (2)
ax + by = c (1)
(1) + (2)
bx + ax = bd + c
x(b + a) = bd + c
x =
bd c
b a
+
+
subs. into (2)
(2) y = x d
y =
bd c
d
b a
+

+

y =
( ) bd c d b a
b a
+ +
+

y =
bd c db da
b a
+
+

y =
c da
b a

+

3 =
1 1
( 2) 2 ( 2) 1

+

=
( 2) 1 ( 2) 2
(( 2) 2) ( 2) 1)
+
+

=
3
2 ( 2) 2( 2) 2

+

=
3
2


=
3
2

4 A =
1
2
r
2
( sin( ))
2 3 3 =
2
1 3
2 3 2
r






2(2 3 3) = r
2 2 3 3
6




12(2 3 3) = r
2
(2 3 3)
r
2
=
12(2 3 3)
(2 3 3)


r = 12
r = 2 3
Multiple choice
1
1
1 3.4
cos
2 5.4




= 24.584
B.
2 Solving 7.2 = k
1
3

gives k = 2.4
Solving 9.8 =
2.4
n

gives n = 0.2449.
A.
3 A =
2
1
( )
2
r
A =
2
1 5
25
2 24


A = 204.53
A.
4 S
10
=
10
(2 3 9 1.5)
2
+
= 97.5
97.5 + 2 = 99.5.
D.
5 Solving 2b + 3m = 10.5
and 3b + 4m = 14.95
for b and m
gives b = 2.85
and m = 1.6
5 2.85 = 14.25
D.
6 (0.8)
2
1.1 = 0.704
C.
Extended response
1 a 50, 75, 100, 1100
Require number of terms
Arithmetic sequence
a = 50
d = 25
1100 = 50 + (n 1)25
1050 = (n 1)25
42 = n 1
n = 43
V a r i a t i o n A GM1 1 - 7 185

b S

=
1
a
r

S

=
85
1 0.85

S

=
85
0.15

S

= 566.67
After the injury + 500, before the injury 1066.7 km; Theo
will not reach Sydney.
2 a

cos(30) =
3.5
x


3
2
=
2
7
x

x =
7 3
km
4


b

= 30 + 45

c

Using cosine rule:
d =
2 2
(3.5) (4.5) 2 3.5 4.5 cos(75) +
Distance is 4.93 km.
d tan(15.2) =
(2 )
y
x +

(2 + x) tan(15.2) = y
y = 2 tan(15.2) + x tan(15.2)
e tan(32.35) =
y
x

x =
tan(32.35 )
y


Substitute into part d.
y = 2tan(15.2) (tan15.2)
tan(32.35)
y
+
2 tan(15.2) tan(32.35) + y tan(15.2) = y tan(32.35)
y =
2tan(15.2) tan(32.35)
tan(32.35) tan(15.2)

y = 0.95156
Therefore vertical height of the lookout from the hotel is
952 m.
A GM1 1 - 8 186 F u r t h e r a l g e b r a
Exercise 8A Polynomial
identities
1 a i Yes
ii 4
b i No
c i Yes
ii 6
d i Yes
ii 2
2 (2a + b)x
3
+ (b c)x
2
+ (a + 2c)x + 5
= 3x
3
5x
2
+ 10x + 5
Equating coefficients gives
2a + b = 3 [1]
b c = 5 [2]
a + 2c = 10 [3]
From [1] b = 3 2a
From [2] 3 2a c = 5
2a + c = 8
c = 8 2a sub into [3]
a + 2(8 2a) = 10
a + 16 4a = 10
3a = 6
a = 2
b = 3 2 2
b = 1
c = 8 2 2
c = 4
Hence, a = 2, b = 1, c = 4
3 x
3
+ 2x
2
13x + 16
= (x 2)(ax
2
+ bx + c) + 6
RHS = ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx 2ax
2
2bx
2c + 6
= ax
3
+ (b 2a)x
2
+ (c 2b)x
2c + 6
Hence a = 1
b 2a = 2
b 2 = 2
b = 4
c 2b = 13
c 8 = 13
c = 5
hence a = 1, b = 4, c = 5
4 2x
3
5x
2
+ 10 = (x 2)
2
(2x + a)
+ bx + c
RHS = (x
2
4x + 4)(2x + a) + bx + c
= 2x
3
+ ax
2
8x
2
4xa + 8x
+ 4a + bx + c
= 2x
3
+ (a 8)x
2
+ (8 + b
4a)x + 4a + c
hence a 8 = 5
a = 3
8 + b 4a = 0
8 + b 12 = 0
b = 4
4a + c = 10
12 + c = 10
c = 2
hence a = 3, b = 4, c = 2
5 m
4
+ 25 = (m
2
+ am + 5)(m
2
+ bm + 5)
RHS = m
4
+ bm
3
+ 5m
2
+ am
3
+ abm
2

+ 5am + 5m
2
+ 5bm + 25
= m
4
+ (b + a)m
3
+ (10 + ab)m
2

+ (5a + 5b)m + 25
hence b + a = 0 b = a
10 + ab = 0 10 a
2
= 0
so, a
2
= 10
a = 10
a = 10, b = 10 or
a = 10, b = 10
6 x
2
= a(x + 1)
2
+ b(x + 1) + c
= ax
2
+ 2ax + a + bx + b + c
= ax
2
+ (2a + b)x + a + b + c
Equating coefficients
a = 1
2a + b = 0
b = 2
a + b + c = 0
1 2 + c = 0
c = 1
hence, a = 1, b = 2, c = 1
7 ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d = (2x 1)
2
(mx + n)
RHS = (4x
2
4x + 1)(mx + n)
= 4mx
3
+ 4nx
2
4mx
2
4nx
+ mx + n
= 4mx
3
+ (4n 4m)x
2

+ (m 4n)x + n
hence
a = 4m [1]
b = 4n 4m [2]
c = m 4n [3]
d = n [4]
Sub [1] and [4] into [2]
b = 4d a
From [3]
4n = m c
4d = m c
From [1]
m =
4
a

4d =
4
a
c
16d = a 4c
a = 16d + 4c
Since b = 4d a
b = 4d (16d + 4c)
b = 4d 16d 4c
b = 12d 4c
8 (x 2)(x
2
+ ax + b) = x
3
+ 3x
2
16x
+ 12
x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx 2x
2
2ax 2b
= x
3
+ 3x
2
16x + 12
x
3
+ (a 2)x
2
+ (b 2a)x 2b
= x
3
+ 3x
2
16x + 12
hence a 2 =3
a = 5
b 2a = 16
b 10 = 16
b = 6
So the other factor is x
2
+ 5x 6
9 (x + 1)(x
2
+ ax + b) = x
3
x
2
+ x +3
x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx + x
2
+ ax + b
= x
3
x
2
+ x + 3
x
3
+ (a + 1)x
2
+ (a + b)x + b
= x
3
x
2
+ x + 3
hence a + 1 = 1
a = 2
a + b = 1
2 + b = 1
b = 3
So factor is x
2
2x + 3
10 2x
3
+ 7x
2
7x 5
= (2x + 1)(ax
2
+ bx + c)
= 2ax
3
+ 2bx
2
+ 2cx + ax
2
+ bx + c
= 2ax
3
+ (2b + a)x
2
+ (2c + b)x + c
By equating eoefficients
a = 1
c = 5
2b + a = 7
2b + 1 = 7
2b = 6
b = 3
So the other factor is x
2
+ 3x 5
Exercise 8B Partial fractions
1 a
2 3
1
x
x

+
=
2( 1) 5
1
x
x
+
+

=
5
2
1 x

+

b
4 7
2
x
x
+

=
4( 2) 15
2
x
x
+


=
15
4
2 x
+


c
7
2 1
x
x
+

=
1 15
(2 1)
2 2
2 1
x
x
+


=
1 15
2 2(2 1) x
+


d
3 4
2 2
x
x

+
=
3
(2 2) 7
2
2 2
x
x
+
+

=
3 7
2 2 2 x

+

2 a
6
( 1)( 4)
x
x x
+
+
=
1 4
A B
x x
+
+

x + 6 = A(x 4) + B(x + 1)
x + 6 = Ax 4A + Bx + B
x + 6 = (A + B)x 4A + B
A + B = 1, B = 1 A
4A + B = 6
4A + 1 A = 6
5A = 5
A = 1, B = 2

2 1
4 1 x x

+

b
2
5
5 6
x
x x

+
=
5
( 3)( 2)
x
x x



=
3 2
A B
x x
+


x 5 = A(x 2) + B(x 3)
x 5 = (A + B)x 2A 3B
A + B = 1, B = 1 A
2A 3B = 5
2A 3(1 A) = 5
Chapter 8 Further algebra
F u r t h e r a l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 8 187
2A 3 + 3A = 5
A = 2, B = 3

3 2
2 3 x x



c
2
2 1
8 9
x
x x

+
=
2 1
( 9)( 1)
x
x x

+

=
9 1
A B
x x
+
+

2x 1 = A(x 1) + B(x + 9)
2x 1 = Ax A + Bx + 9B
2x 1 = (A + B)x A + 9B
A + B = 2, A = 2 B
A + 9B = 1
(2 B) + 9B = 1
2 + B + 9B = 1
10B = 1
B =
1
,
10
A =
19
10


19 1
10( 9) 10( 1) x x
+
+

d
2
3 2
2 9 7
x
x x
+
+
=
3 2
(2 7)( 1)
x
x x
+


=
2 7 1
A B
x x
+


3x + 2 = A(x 1) + B(2x 7)
3x + 2 = (A + 2B)x A 7B
A + 2B = 3, A = 3 2B
A 7B = 2
(3 2B) 7B = 2
3 + 2B 7B = 2
5B = 5
B = 1
A = 5

5 1
2 7 1 x x



3 a
2
1
( 2)
x
x

+
=
2
2 ( 2)
A B
x x
+
+ +

x 1 = A(x + 2) + B
x 1 = Ax + 2A + B
A = 1
2A + B = 1, B = 3

2
1 3
2 ( 2) x x

+ +

b
2
4
6 9
x
x x

+
=
2
4
( 3)
x
x


=
2
3 ( 3)
A B
x x
+


x 4 = A(x 3) + B
x 4 = Ax 3A + B
A = 1
3A + B = 4
3 + B = 4
B = 1

2
1 1
3 ( 3) x x



c
2
2 14
( 1)( 3)
x
x x
+
+

=
2
1 3 ( 3)
A B C
x x x
+ +
+ +

2x + 14 = A(x + 3)
2
+ B(x 1)
(x + 3) + C(x 1)
2x + 14 = Ax
2
+ 6Ax + 9A + Bx
2

+ 2Bx 3B + Cx C
2x + 14 = (A + B)x
2
+ (6A + 2B
+ C)x + 9A 3B C
A + B = 0, A = B
6A + 2B + C = 2
6B + 2B + C = 2
4B + C = 2 [1]
9A 3B C = 14
9A 3B C = 14
12B C = 14 [2]
[1] + [2]
16B = 16
B = 1, A = 1
9 + 3 C = 14
C = 2

2
1 1 2
1 3 ( 3) x x x

+ +

d
2
3 5
( 2)( 1)
x
x x

+

=
2
2 1 ( 1)
A B C
x x x
+ +
+ +

3x 5 = A(x + 1)
2
+ B(x 2)(x + 1)
+ C(x 2)
3x 5 = Ax
2
+ 2Ax + A + Bx
2
Bx
2B + Cx 2C
3x 5 = (A + B)x
2
+ (2A B + C)x
+ A 2B 2C
A + B = 0, B = A
2A B + C = 3
2A + A + C = 3
3A + C = 3 [1]
A 2B 2C = 5
A + 2A 2C = 5
3A 2C = 5 [2]
[1] [2]
3C = 8
C =
8
3


8
3
3
A+ = 3
3A =
1
3

A =
1
,
9
B =
1
9


2
1 1 8
9( 2) 9( 1) 3( 1) x x x
+
+ +

4 a
2
2
3 18
( 1)( 2 5)
x x
x x x
+ +
+ +

=
2
1 2 5
A Bx C
x x x
+
+
+ +

x
2
+ 3x + 18 = A(x
2
2x + 5)
+ (Bx + C)(x + 1)
x
2
+ 3x + 18 = Ax
2
2Ax + 5A
+ Bx
2
+ Bx + Cx + C
A + B = 1, B = 1 A
B 2A + C = 3
1 A 2A + C = 3
1 3A + C = 3
C 3A = 2 [1]
C + 5A = 18 [2]
[2] [1]
8A = 16
A = 2, B = 1
1 6 + C = 3
C = 8

2
2 8
1 2 5
x
x x x

+
+ +

b
2
2
5
( 3 1)
x
x x x
+
+ +
=
2
3 1
A Bx C
x x x
+
+
+ +

x
2
+ 5 = A(x
2
+ 3x + 1) + x(Bx + C)
x
2
+ 5 = (A + B)x
2
+ (3A + C)x + A
A + B = 1
3A + B = 0
A = 5
B = 4
C = 15

2
5 4 15
3 1
x
x x x
+


+ +

c
2
2
( 5 5)( 2) x x x +

=
2
2 5 5
A Bx C
x x x
+
+
+

2 = A(x
2
5x + 5) + (Bx + C)
(x 2)
2 = Ax
2
5Ax + 5A + Bx
2
2Bx
+ Cx 2C
A + B = 0, B = A
C 5A 2B = 0
C 5A + 2A = 0
C 3A = 0, C = 3A
5A 2C = 2
5A 6A = 2
A = 2
B = 2, C = 6

2
2 2 6
2 5 5
x
x x x

+
+

d
2
3
5 1
27
x x
x
+

=
2
2
5 1
( 3)( 3 9)
x x
x x x
+
+ +

=
2
3 3 9
A Bx C
x x x
+
+
+ +

x
2
+ 5x 1 = A(x
2
+ 3x + 9) +
(Bx + C)(x 3)
= Ax
2
+ 3Ax + 9A + Bx
2

3Bx + Cx 3C
= (A + B)x
2
+ (3A 3B + C)x
+ 9A 3C
A + B = 1, B = 1 A
3A 3B + C = 5
3A 3(1 A) + C = 5
3A 3 + 3A + C = 5
6A + C = 8 [1]
9A 3C = 1 [2]
[1] 3 + [2]
27A = 23
A =
23
,
27
B =
4
27


23
9 3
27
C = 1
3C =
23
1
3

A GM1 1 - 8 188 F u r t h e r a l g e b r a
3C =
26
3


C =
26
9


2
2
23 4
27( 3) 27( 3 9)
26
9( 3 9)
x
x x x
x x
+
+ +
+
+ +

5 a
2
3 1
2
x x
x
+ +
+


2
2
1
2 3 1
2
1
2
1
x
x x x
x x
x
x
+
+ + +
+
+
+



1
1
2
x
x
+
+

b
3
2 3
4
x x
x
+



2
3 2
3 2
2
2
4 18
4 0 2 3
4
4 2
4 16
18 3
18 72
69
x x
x x x x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+ +
+ +



2
69
4 18
4
x x
x
+ + +


c
3 2
2
3 2 4 5
6
x x x
x x
+ +
+ +


2 3 2
3 2
2
2
3 1
6 3 2 4 5
3 3 18
22 5
6
21 11
x
x x x x x
x x x
x x
x x
x

+ + + +
+ +
+

+


2
11 21
3 1
6
x
x
x x

+
+ +

d
3
3
2 1
x
x
+



2
3 2
3 2
2
2
1 1 1
2 4 8
2 1 0 0 3
1
2
1
0
2
1 1

2 4
1
3
4
1 1

4 8
25

8
x x
x x x x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
+ +
+ + +



2
1 25
2 4 8 8(2 1)
x x
x
+ + +


Exercise 8C Simultaneous
equations
1 a y = x [1]
y = x
2
+ 5x + 4 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
+ 5x + 4 = x
x
2
+ 4x + 4 = 0
(x + 2)
2
= 0
x = 2
Substitute x = 2 into [1]
y = 2
Solution is (2, 2)
b y = x [1]
y = x
2
+ 3x + 4 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
+ 3x + 4 = x
x
2
+ 4x + 4 = 0
(x + 2)
2
= 0
x = 2
Substitute x = 2 into [1]
y = (2)
= 2
Solution is (2, 2)
c y = 2x [1]
y = x
2
+ 4x + 1 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
+ 4x + 1 = 2x
x
2
+ 2x + 1 = 0
(x + 1)
2
= 0
x = 1
Substitute x = 1 into [1]
y = 2x 1
= 2
Solution (1, 2)
d y = 3x [1]
y = x
2
+ 8x + 6 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
+ 8x + 6 = 3x
x
2
+ 5x + 6 = 0
(x + 2) (x + 3) = 0
x = 2 or x = 3
Substitute x = 2 and x = 3 into [1]
x = 2, y = 3x 2
= 6
x = 3, y = 3x 3
= 9
Solution is (2, 6) or (3, 9)
e y = 2x [1]
y = x
2
2x 1 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
2x 1 = 2x
x
2
1 = 0
(x 1)(x + 1) = 0
x = 1 or x = 1
Substitute 2 into [1]
x = 1, y = 2 [1]
= 2
x = 1, y = 2(1)
= 2
Solution is (1, 2) or (1, 2)
f y = x + 5 [1]
y = x
2
4x + 11 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
4x + 11 = x + 5
x
2
5x + 6 = 0
(x 2)(x 3) = 0
x = 2 or x = 3
Substitute x into [1]
x = 2, y = 2 + 5 = 7
x = 3, y = 3 + 5 = 8
Solution is (2, 7) or (3, 8)
g y + x = 1
or y = 1 x [1]
y = 3x
2
+ 2x 1 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
3x
2
+ 2x 1 = 1 x
3x
2
+ 3x 2 = 0
a = 3, b = 3, c = 2
x =
2
3 (3) 4(3) ( 2)
2 3
+


=
3 9 24
6
+

=
3 33
6


Substitute x into [1]
x =
3 33
6


y =
3 33
1
6


=
6 3 33
6
+

=
9 33
6


x =
3 33
6

,
y =
3 33
1
6


=
6 3 33
6
+ +

=
9 33
6
+

Solution is

3 33 9 33
,
6 6

+



or

3 33 9 33
,
6 6

+




h 2x + 3y = 6
3y = 6 2x
y =
2
2
3
x [1]
y =
2
4
2
x
[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]

2
4
2
x
=
2
2
3
x
(6) 3x
2
24= 12 4x
3x
2
+ 4x 36 = 0
a = 3, b = 4, c = 36
x =
2
4 (4) 4(3)( 36)
2 3


=
4 16 432
6
+

F u r t h e r a l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 8 189
=
4 448
6


=
4 8 7
6


=
2 4 7
3


Substitute x into [1]
x =
2 4 7
,
3


y =
2 2 4 7
2
3 3






=
4 8 7
2
9 9
+
=
22 8 7
9


x =
2 4 7
,
3


y =
2 2 4 7
2
3 3






=
4 8 7
2
9 9
+ +
=
22 8 7
9
+

Solution is


2 4 7 22 8 7
,
3 9

+



2 4 7 22 8 7
or ,
3 9

+




i 2x 4y = 12
x 2y = 6
2y = x 6
y =
1
3
2
x [1]
y = 2x
2
+ x + 6 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
2x
2
+ x + 6 =
1
3
2
x
4x
2
+ 2x + 12 = x 6
4x
2
+ x + 18 = 0
a = 4, b = 1, c = 18
x =
2
1 1 4( 4)(18)
2 4



=
1 1 288
8
+


=
1 289
8


=
1 17
8


=
16 18
or
8 8


=
9
2 or
4

Substitute x into [1]
x = 2, y =
1
( 2) 3
2

= 4
x =
9
4
, y =
1 9
3
2 4




=
9
3
8

=
15
8


Solution is (2, 4) or
9 15
,
4 8




j 2y + 6x = 4
y + 3x = 2
y = 2 3x [1]
y = 4 3x
2
[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
4 3x
2
= 2 3x
3x
2
3x 2 = 0
a = 3, b = 3, c = 2
x =
2
3 ( 3) 4(3)( 2)
2 3


=
3 9 24
6
+

=
3 33
6


Substitute x into [1]
x =
3 33
6
+

y =
3 33
2 3
6

+




=
3 33
2
2
+

=
1 33
2 2

x =
3 33
6


y =
3 33
2 3
6





=
3 33
2
2





=
1 33
2 2
+
Solution is
3 33 1 33
,
6 2

+




or
3 33 1 33
,
6 2

+




2 a y = x [1]
y
2
+ x
2
= 1 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
+ x
2
= 1
2x
2
= 1
x
2
=
1
2

x =
1
2

=
2
2

Substitute x into [1]
x =
2
2
, y =
2
2

x =
2
2

, y =
2
2


Solution is
2 2 2 2
, or ,
2 2 2 2






b y = x [1]
y
2
+ x
2
= 1 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
+ x
2
= 1
2x
2
= 1
x
2
=
1
2

x =
2
2

Substitute x into [1]
x =
2
2
, y =
2
2

x =
2
2
, y =
2
2

Solution is
2 2 2 2
, or ,
2 2 2 2






c y = 2x [1]
x
2
+ y
2
= 4 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
+ (2x)
2
= 4
x
2
+ 4x
2
= 4
5x
2
= 4
x
2
=
4
5

x =
2
5

=
2 5
5

Substitute x into [1]
x =
2 5
,
5
y =
2 5
2
5

=
4 5
5

x =
2 5
5

, y =
2 5
2
5


=
4 5
5


Solution is
2 5 4 5
,
5 5





or
2 5 4 5
,
5 5






d y = 1 x [1]
4 = y
2
+ x
2
[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
4 = (1 x)
2
+ x
2
4 = 1 2x + x
2
+ x
2
or 2x
2
2x 3 = 0
a = 2, b = 2, c = 3
x =
2
2 ( 2) 4(2) ( 3)
2 2


A GM1 1 - 8 190 F u r t h e r a l g e b r a
=
2 4 24
4
+

=
2 28
4


=
2 2 7
4


=
1 7
2


Substitute x into [1]
x =
1 7
2
+
, y =
1 7
1
2
+

=
1 7
2


x =
1 7
2

, y =
1 7
1
2


=
1 7
2
+

Solution is
1 7 1 7
,
2 2

+




or
1 7 1 7
,
2 2

+




e x + y = 2
or y = 2 x [1]
x
2
+ y
2
9 = 0 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
+ (2 x)
2
9 = 0
x
2
+ 4 4x + x
2
9 = 0
2x
2
4x 5 = 0
a = 2, b = 4, c = 5
x =
2
4 ( 4) 4(2)( 5)
2 2


=
4 16 40
4
+

=
4 56
4


=
4 2 14
4


=
2 14
2


Substitute x into [1]
x =
2 14
2

, y =
2 14
2
2


=
2 14
2


x =
2 14
2

, y =
2 14
2
2


=
2 14
2
+

Solution is
2 14 2 14
,
2 2

+




or
2 14 2 14
,
2 2

+




f y x 3 = 0
y = x + 3 [1]
(x + 3)
2
+ y
2
= 16 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
(x + 3)
2
+ (x + 3)
2
= 16
2(x + 3)
2
= 16
(x + 3)
2
= 8
x + 3 = 8
= 2 2
x = 3 2 2
Substitute x into [1]
x = 3 + 2 2 , y = 3 + 2 2 + 3
= 2 2
x = 3 2 2 , y = 3 2 2 + 3
= 2 2
Solution is (3 + 2 2 , 2 2 )
or (3 2 2 , 2 2 )
g y = 1
2
x
[1]
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
1 = 0 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
(x 2)
2
+
2
1
2
x



1 = 0
x
2
4x + 4 + 1 x +
2
4
x
1 = 0
(4) 4x
2
16x + 16 + 4 4x
+ x
2
4 = 0
5x
2
20x + 16 = 0
a = 5, b = 20, c = 16
x =
2
20 ( 20) 4(5)(16)
2 5


=
20 400 320
10


=
20 80
10


=
20 4 5
10


=
10 2 5
5


Substitute x into [1]
x =
10 2 5
5
+
, y =
1 10 2 5
1
2 5

+



=
5 5
1
5


=
5
5

x =
10 2 5
5

,
y =
1 10 2 5
1
2 5





=
5 5
1
5
+

=
5
5

Solution is
10 2 5 5
,
5 5

+



or

10 2 5 5
,
5 5





h y + 2 = 3x
or y = 3x 2 [1]
(x 1)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
= 4 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
(x 1)
2
+ (3x 2 + 3)
2
= 4
(x 1)
2
+ (3x + 1)
2
= 4
x
2
2x + 1 + 9x
2
+ 6x + 1 = 4
10x
2
+ 4x + 2 = 4
10x
2
+ 4x 2 = 0
5x
2
+ 2x 1 = 0
a = 5, b = 2, c = 1
x =
2
2 2 4(5)( 1)
2 5


=
2 24
10


=
2 2 6
10


=
1 6
5


Substitute x into [1]
x =
1 6
5
+
,
y =
1 6
3 2
5

+




=
3 3 6 10
5 5


=
13 3 6
5


x =
1 6
5

,
y =
1 6
3 2
5






=
3 3 6 10
5 5


=
13 3 6
5


Solution is
1 6 13 3 6
,
5 5

+ +




or
1 6 13 3 6
,
5 5






i 2x + 4y = 4
4y = 4 2x
y = 1
2
x
[1]
x
2
+ (y + 1)
2
= 25 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]

2
2
1 1
2
x
x

+ +


= 25

2
2
2
2
x
x

+


= 25
x
2
+ 4 2x +
2
4
x
= 25
or 4x
2
+ 16 8x + x
2
= 100
5x
2
8x 84 = 0
a = 5, b = 8, c = 84
x =
2
8 ( 8) 4(5)( 84)
2 5


F u r t h e r a l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 8 191
=
8 64 1680
10
+

=
8 1744
10


=
8 4 109
10


=
4 2 109
5


Substitute x into [1]
x =
4 2 109
,
5
+

y =
1 4 2 109
1
2 5

+




=
2 109
1
5
+

=
3 109
5


x =
4 2 109
,
5
+

y =
1 4 2 109
1
2 5





=
2 109
1
5


=
3 109
5
+

Solution is
4 2 109 3 109
,
5 5

+



or
4 2 109 3 109
,
5 5

+




j 6x 3y = 12
2x y = 4
or y = 2x 4 [1]
(x 2)
2
+ (y 1)
2
36 = 0 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
(x 2)
2
+ (2x 4 1)
2
36 = 0
(x 2)
2
+ (2x 5)
2
36 = 0
x
2
4x + 4 + 4x
2
20x + 25 36 = 0
5x
2
24x 7 = 0
a = 5, b = 24, c = 7
x =
2
24 ( 24) 4(5) ( 7)
2 5


=
24 576 140
10
+

=
24 716
10


=
24 2 179
10


=
12 179
5


Substitute x into [1]
x =
12 179
,
5
+

y =
12 179
2 4
5

+




=
24 2 179
4
5
+


=
4 2 179
5
+

x =
12 179
,
5


y =
12 179
2 4
5





=
24 2 179
4
5


=
4 2 179
5


Solution is
12 179 4 2 179
,
5 5

+ +




or
12 179 4 2 179
,
5 5






3 a y = 2x [1]
y =
2
1 x
[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
2x =
2
1 x

2x(x 1) = 2
2x
2
2x = 2
2x
2
2x 2 = 0
x
2
x 1 = 0
a = 1, b = 1, c = 1
x =
2
1 ( 1) 4(1)( 1)
2 1


=
1 1 4
2
+

=
1 5
2


Substitute x into [1]
x =
1 5
2
+
, y =
1 5
2
2

+




= 1 + 5
x =
1 5
2

, y =
1 5
2
2





= 1 5
Solution is
1 5
, 1 5
2

+
+




or
1 5
, 1 5
2





b y = x + 1 [1]
y =
4
2 x
[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x + 1 =
4
2 x

(x + 1)(2 x) = 4
2x x
2
+ 2 x = 4
x
2
+ x + 2 = 4
x
2
+ x 2 = 0
a = 1, b = 1, c = 2
x =
2
1 ( 1) 4( 1) ( 2)
2 1



=
1 7
2


No real solutions.
c y = 3x 4 [1]
y =
4
1 2x
[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
3x 4 =
4
1 2x

(3x 4)(1 2x) = 4
3x 6x
2
4 + 8x = 4
6x
2
+ 11x 4 = 4
6x
2
+ 11x 8 = 0
a = 6, b = 11, c = 8
x =
2
11 11 4( 6) ( 8)
2 6



=
11 121 192
12


=
11 71
12


No real solutions.
d y = 1 2x [1]
y =
1
1
2 x

+
[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
1 2x =
1
1
2 x

+

(1 2x)(x + 2) = 1 1(x + 2)
x + 2 2x
2
4x = 1 x 2
2x
2
3x + 2 = x 1
2x
2
2x + 3 = 0
a = 2, b = 2, c = 3
x =
2
2 ( 2) 4( 2) (3)
2 2



x =
2 4 24
4
+


=
2 28
4


=
2 2 7
4


=
1 7
2


=
1 7
2


Substitute x into [1]
x =
1 7
2
+
, y =
1 7
1 2
2

+



= 1 + 1 7
= 2 7
x =
1 7
2

, y =
1 7
1 2
2






= 1 + 1 + 7
= 2 + 7
Solution is
1 7
, 2 7
2

+





or
1 7
, 2 7
2


+




A GM1 1 - 8 192 F u r t h e r a l g e b r a
e 2y x = 6
2y = x + 6
y =
6
2
x +
[1]
y 3 =
2
1 x
[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]

6
2
x +
3 =
2
1 x

or x + 6 6 =
4
1 x

(x + 6)(x 1) 6(x 1) = 4
x
2
+ 6x x 6 6x + 6 = 4
x
2
x = 4
x
2
x 4 = 0
a = 1, b = 1, c = 4
x =
2
1 ( 1) 4(1) ( 4)
2 1
+


=
1 17
2


Substitute x into [1]
x =
1 17
2
+
, y =
1 17
6
2
2
+
+

=
13 17
2
2
+

=
13 17
4
+

x =
1 17
2

, y =
1 17
6
2
2

+

=
13 17
2
2


=
13 17
4


Solution is
1 17 13 17
,
2 4

+ +




or
1 17 13 17
,
2 4






f 2x + 4y 8 = 0
4y = 8 2x
y = 2
2
x
[1]
y + 1 =
3
2 x
[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
2
2
x
+ 1 =
3
2 x

3
2
x
=
3
2 x

or 6 x =
6
2 x

6(2 x) x(2 x) = 6
12 6x 2x + x
2
= 6
x
2
8x + 6 = 0
a = 1, b = 8, c = 6
x =
2
8 ( 8) 4(1)(6)
2 1


=
8 40
2


=
8 2 10
2


= 4 10
Substitute x into [1]
x = 4 + 10,
y = 2
1
2
(4 + 10)
= 2 2
10
2

=
10
2


x = 4 10,
y = 2
1
2
(4 10)
=
10
2 2
2
+
=
10
2

Solution is
10
4 10,
2

+



or
10
4 10,
2





g x 3 = 2y
or y =
3
2
x
[1]
y =
2
1 x
[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]

3
2
x
=
2
1 x

(x 3)(x 1) = 2 2
x
2
4x + 3 = 4
x
2
4x 1 = 0
a = 1, b = 4, c = 1
x =
2
4 ( 4) 4(1)( 1)
2 1


=
4 20
2


=
4 2 5
2


= 2 5
Substitute x into [1]
x = 2 5 + , y =
2 5 3
2
+

=
1 5
2
+

x = 2 5 , y =
2 5 3
2


=
1 5
2


Solution is
1 5
2 5,
2

+
+



or
1 5
2 5,
2





h x = 2y 4 [1]

2
3x
1 y = 0 [2]
F u r t h e r a l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 8 193
Substitute [1] into [2]

2
1
3(2 4) y

y = 0

2
1
6 12 y

y = 0
2 1(6y 12) y(6y 12) = 0
2 6y + 12 6y
2
+ 12y = 0
6y
2
+ 6y + 14 = 0
a = 6, b = 6, c = 14
y =
2
6 6 4( 6)(14)
2 6



=
6 372
12


=
6 2 93
12


=
3 93
6


=
3 93
6


Substitute y into [1]
y =
3 93
,
6
+

x =
3 93
2 4
6

+




=
3 93
4
3
+

=
9 93
3
+

y =
3 93
,
6


x = 2
3 93
4
6




=
3 93
4
3


=
9 93
3


Solution is
9 93 3 93
,
3 6

+ +



or
9 93 3 93
,
3 6






i 4x 3y = 12
3y = 4x 12
y =
4 12
3
x
[1]

1
4
3 2 x

= y [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]

4 12
3
x
=
1
4
3 2 x



4 12
3
x


(3x 2) = 4(3x 2) 1
(4x 12)(3x 2) = 12(3x 2) 3
12x
2
8x 36x + 24 = 36x 24 3
12x
2
44x + 24 = 36x 27
12x
2
80x + 51 = 0
a = 12, b = 80, c = 51
x =
2
80 ( 80) 4(12) (51)
2 12


=
80 6400 2488
24


=
80 3952
24


=
80 4 247
24


=
20 247
6


Substitute x into [1]
x =
20 247
,
6


y =
20 247
4 12
6
3

+





=
80 4 247
12
6
3
+


=
40 2 247 36
3 3
3
+


=
4 2 247
9
+

x =
20 247
6

,
y =
20 247
4 12
6
3




=
80 4 247
12
6


=
40 2 247 36
3 3
3


=
4 2 247
9


Solution is
20 247 4 2 247
,
6 9

+ +




or
20 247 4 2 247
,
6 9






j x + y = 5
or y = 5 x [1]

1
4 3x
= y + 2 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
5 x + 2 =
1
4 3x

7 x =
1
4 3x

(7 x)(4 3x) = 1
28 21x 4x + 3x
2
= 1
3x
2
25x + 27 = 0
a = 3, b = 25, c = 27
x =
2
25 ( 25) 4(3) (27)
2 3


=
25 625 324
6


A GM1 1 - 8 194 F u r t h e r a l g e b r a
=
25 301
6


Substitute x into [1]
x =
25 301
,
6
+

y =
25 301
5
6
+

=
5 301
6


x =
25 301
,
6


y =
25 301
5
6


=
5 301
6
+

Solution is
25 301 5 301
,
6 6

+




or
25 301 5 301
,
6 6

+




4 x + y = 6
y = 6 x [1]
y = 3x
2
+ 12x + 10 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
3x
2
+ 12x + 10 = 6 x
3x
2
+ 13x + 4 = 0
(3x + 1)(x + 4) = 0
x =
1
3
, x = 4
Substitute x into [1]
x =
1
3
, y = 6
1
3


= 6
1
3

x = 4, y = 6 4
= 10
Solution is
1 1
, 6
3 3



or (4, 10)
The answer is E.
5 y = x [1]
x
2
+ y
2
= 1 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
+ x
2
= 1
2x
2
= 1
x
2
=
1
2

x =
1
2

=
2
2

Substitute x into [2]
x =
2
2
, y =
2
2

x =
2
2
, y =
2
2

By symmetry y = x intersects with x
2
+ y
2
= 1 at
x =
2
2
, y =
2
2

and
x =
2
2
, y =
2
2

Using
2
2
0.71:
The coordinates of the four holes are:
(0.71, 0.71), (0.71, 0.71), (0.71, 0.71) and (0.71, 0.71)
Chapter review
Short answer
1 x
4
+ 7x
3
+ 12x
2
+ x 1 = (x
2
+ ax + 1)(x
2
+ bx 1)
LHS = x
4
+ bx
3
x
2
+ ax
3
+ abx
2
ax + x
2
+ bx 1
= x
4
+ (a + b)x
3
+ abx
2
+ (b a)x 1
Equating coefficients
b + a = 7
ab = 12
b a = 1
Hence a = 3 and b = 4
2 x
3
+ x
2
11x + 10 = (x 2)(x
2
+ ax + b)
RHS = x
3
+ ax
2
+ bx 2x
2
2ax 2b
= x
3
+ (a 2)x
2
+ (b 2a)x 2b
Hence a 2 = 1, a = 3
b 2a = 11
b 6 = 11
b = 5
Factor is x
2
+ 3x 5
3
2
22
8 20
x
x x




22
( 10)( 2)
x
x x

+
=
10 2
A B
x x
+
+

x 22 = A(x + 2) + B(x 10)
x 22 = Ax + 2A + Bx 10B
x 22 = (A + B)x + 2A 10B
A + B = 1
B = 1 A
2A 10B = 22
2A 10(1 A) = 22
2A 10 + 10A = 22
12A = 12
A = 1
B = 2

2 1
2 10 x x

+

4
3 2
2
2 1
2
x x x
x
+



2 3 2
3 2
2
2
2
2 2 1
0 2
2 3 1
2 0 4
3 5
x
x x x x
x x x
x x
x x
x

+

+
+ +



2
3 5
2
2
x
x
x


5 5x =
15
2 x

5x(x 2) = 15
5x
2
10x 15 = 0
5(x
2
2x 3) = 0
5(x 3)(x + 1) = 0
(3, 15)(1, 5)
6 x = 4 x
2

x
2
+ x 4 = 0
F u r t h e r a l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 8 195
x =
1 1 (4 1 4)
2


x =
1 17
2



1 17 1 17
,
2 2

+ +



or
1 17 1 17
,
2 2






Multiple choice
1 2x
3
+ 7x
2
16x + 6 = (2x 1)(ax
2
+ bx + c)
RHS = 2ax
3
+ 2bx
2
+ 2cx ax
2
bx c
= 2ax
3
+ (2b a)x
2
+ (2c b)x c
Hence a = 1,
2b a = 7
2c b = 16
c = 6
12 b = 16
b = 4
Hence the answer is C.
2 2x
2
5x 3 = a(x b)(x c)
RHS = a(x
2
cx bx + bc)
= ax
2
(ca + ba)x + abc
a = 2
2c + 2b = 5, 2b = 5 2c
2bc = 3
c(5 2c) = 3
5c 2c
2
= 3
2c
2
5c 3 = 0
(2c + 1)(c 3) = 0
c = 3 or c =
1
2

6 + 2b = 5
2b = 1
b =
1
2

If c =
1
2
then b = 3
Hence the answer is D.
3
4 2
( 2)( 4)
x
x x
+
+
=
2 4
A B
x x
+
+

4x + 2 = A(x 4) + B(x + 2)
4x + 2 = Ax 4A + Bx + 2B
4x + 2 = (A + B)x 4A + 2B
A + B = 4, A = 4 B
4A + 2B = 2
4(4 B) + 2B = 2
16 + 4B + 2B = 2
16 + 6B = 2
6B = 18
B = 3, A = 1
Hence the answer is A.
4
2
3 2
5 12
2 4
x x
x x x
+ +
+ +
=
2
2 4
A Bx C
x x x
+
+
+ +

5x
2
+ x + 12 = A(x
2
+ 2x + 4) + x(Bx + C)
RHS = Ax
2
+ 2Ax + 4A + Bx
2
+ Cx
= (A + B)x
2
+ (2A + C)x + 4A
A = 3, B = 2
2A + C = 1
6 + C = 1
C = 5
Hence the answer is E.
5 y = 1.5x [1]
y =
23
2.71
20( 4) x
+

[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
1.5x =
23
2.71
20( 4) x
+


1.5x 20(x 4) = 23 + 2.71 20(x 4)
30x(x 4) = 23 + 54.2(x 4)
30x
2
120x = 23 + 54.2x 216.8
30x
2
174.2x + 193.8 = 0
a = 30, b = 174.2, c = 193.8
x =
2
174.2 ( 174.2) 4(30) (193.8)
2 30


=
174.2 30 345.64 23 256
60


=
174.2 7089.64
60


x =
174.2 84.2
60


=
258.4
60
or
90
60

=
3
2
or
323
75

x =
3
2
, Substitute x =
3
2
into [1]
y =
3
1.5
2

=
4.5
2

=
9
4

A solution is
3 9
,
2 4




The answer is D.
6 y = 1
4
x
[1]
(y 1)
2
+ (x 3)
2
= 9 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]

2
1 1
4
x



+ (x 3)
2
= 9

2
2
( 3) 9
4
x
x

+ =




2
16
x
+ x
2
6x + 9 = 9

2
17
6
16
x
x = 0
a =
17
,
16
b = 6, c = 0
The answer is B.
Extended response
1 a y = x [1]
y =
2
6
3 1 x
+

[2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x =
2
6
3 1 x
+


x(3x 1) = 2 + 6(3x 1)
3x
2
x = 2 + 18x 6
3x
2
19x + 4 = 0
a = 3, b = 19, c = 4
A GM1 1 - 8 196 F u r t h e r a l g e b r a
x =
2
19 ( 19) 4(3)(4)
2 3


=
19 361 48
6


=
19 313
6


= 6.12 or 0.22
Substitute x into [1]
x = 0.22, y = 0.22
x = 6.12, y = 6.12
Solutions are (0.22, 0.22) or (6.12, 6.12)
b y = x [1]
(y + 1)
2
+ x
2
4 = 0 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
(x + 1)
2
+ x
2
4 = 0
x
2
+ 2x + 1 + x
2
4 = 0
2x
2
+ 2x 3 = 0
a = 2, b = 2, c = 3
x =
2
2 2 4(2)( 3)
2 2


=
2 28
4


=
2 2 7
4


=
1 7
2
+
or
1 7
2


= 0.82 or 1.82
Substitute x into [1]
x = 1.82, y = 1.82
x = 0.82, y = 0.82
Solutions are (1.82, 1.82) or (0.82, 0.82)
2 a x
2
+ y
2
= 4
r
2
= 4
r = 2
The radius is 2
b A is (2, 0)
F is (0, 2)
K is (2, 0)
P is (0, 2)
c y = x [1]
x
2
+ y
2
= 4 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x
2
+ x
2
= 4
2x
2
= 4
x
2
= 2
x = 2 (positive for I)
Substitute x into [1]
y = 2
I is ( 2, 2 )
d Using symmetry:
C is ( 2, 2 )
R is ( 2, 2 )
N is ( 2, 2 )
e y =
1
x
[1]
y = x [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]
x =
1
x

x
2
= 1
x = 1
(positive root for H)
Substitute x = 1 into [2]
y = 1
so it is (1, 1)
f By symmetry:
D is (1, 1)
S is (1, 1)
M is (1, 1)
g G, J, T, Q
h y =
1
x
[1]
x
2
+ y
2
= 4 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]

2
2
1
x
x

+


= 4

2
2
1
x
x
+ = 4
x
4
+ 1 = 4x
2

x
4
4x
2
+ 1 = 0
Let z = x
2

z
2
4z + 1 = 0
a = 1, b = 4, c = 1
z =
2
4 ( 4) 4(1)(1)
2 1


=
4 12
2


z =
4 2 3
2


= 2 3
x
2
= 2 3
x = 2 3
x = 1.93 or 0.52
Substitute x into [1]
x = 1.93, y =
1
1.93
= 0.52
x = 0.52, y =
1
0.52
= 1.93
G is (0.52, 1.93) (1st quadrant)
J is (1.93, 0.52) (1st quadrant)
T is (1.93, 0.52) (3rd quadrant)
Q is (0.52, 1.93) (3rd quadrant)
i B, E, O, L
y =
1
x
[1]
x
2
+ y
2
= 4 [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]

2
2
1
x
x

+


= 4

2
2
1
x
x
+ = 4
x
4
+ 1 = 4x
2

x
4
4x
2
+ 1 = 0
Same equation as part h
x = 1.93 or 0.52
Substitute x into [1]
x = 1.93, y =
1
1.93


= 0.52
x = 0.52, y =
1
0.52


= 1.93
F u r t h e r a l g e b r a A GM1 1 - 8 197
j B is (1.93, 0.52)
E is (0.52, 1.93) (2nd quadrant)
O is (0.52, 1.93)
L is (1.93, 0.52) (4th quadrant)
3 a Point B:
h =
2
3
10
16
d + [1]
h =
2
3
3 16
16
d d + [2]
Substitute [1] into [2]

2
3
3 16
16
d d + =
2
3
10
16
d +

2 2
3 3
3 16 10
16 16
d d d + + = 0

2
3
3 6
8
d d + = 0
d =
3
3 9 4 6
8
3
2
8




=
3
3
4
= 4
h =
2
3
(4) 10
16
+
= 3 + 10
= 7
Point B: (4, 7)
b Lowest point belongs to section BC.
d = 8; h =
2
3
(8) 3(8) 16
16
+
h = 12 24 + 6
h = 4 m
c Since the lowest point of AB is 7 m (at B), again we
consider section BC.
h = 6; 6 =
2
3
3 16
16
d d +

2
3
3 10
16
d d + = 0
Using the quadratic formula, d = 11.27 m and d = 4.73 m
d Point C is the point of intersection of BC and CDE.
h =
2
3
3 16
16
d d + [1]
h = 0.02d
3
1.25d
2
+ 25d 147.56 [2]
Using the graphics calculator, point of intersection is:
C: (12, 7).
e Using the table of values on the graphics calculator
h = 0.02d
3
1.25d
2
+ 25d 147.56.
Find the coordinates of the point with the highest (local)
value.
D =
2
16 , 14.48
3




f d = 30; h = 0.02(30)
3
1.25(30)
2
+ 25(30) 147.56
= 17.44 m
g First intersection is with BC; solve simultaneously

2
3
3 16
16
d d + = 0.4d + 4

2
3
3.4 12
16
d d + = 0
d =
2
3
3.4 (3.4) 4 12
16
3
2
16




d = 4.8;
Substitute into h = 0.4d + 4
h = 0.4 4.8 + 4
h = 5.92
So the first point is 5.29 m above the ground.
The three other points of intersection with CDE
0.02d
3
1.25d
2
+ 25d 147.56 = 0.4d + 4
0.02d
3
1.25d
2
+ 24.6d 151.56 = 0
Using the graphics calculator, the points are:
(12.62, 90.5), (20.31, 12.12) and (29.57, 15.83)
The four points are 5.92 m, 9.05 m, 12.12 m and
15.83 m above the ground.
A GM1 1 - 9 198 A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c
Exercise 9A Statements
(propositions), connectives
and truth tables
1 To determine classification of
statement, place It is true that in
front of the sentence.
a That was the best movie of 2009.
This is an opinion.
b That movie won the most Oscar
nominations in 2009. This is a
statement that could be either
True or False.
c When the power fails, candles are
a good source of light and heat.
This is a statement that is true.
d Why did you use that candle?
This is a question.
e Collingwood hasnt won a Grand
Final for almost 15 years. This
is a statement that is true.
f Collingwood hasnt won a Grand
Final because they have too few
good players. This is an
opinion.
g Please go to the store before it
closes. This is an instruction.
h The store closes at 6.00 pm.
This is a statement that could be
either True or False.
i A dingo is considered a native
Australian mammal. This is a
statement that is False.
j Mary is tall for her age. This is
a near statement.
2 a The car has 4 seats.
The car has air conditioning.
b The Department of Finance was
over budget in 2006.
The Department of Defence was
over budget in 2006.
c Bob went to the hotel.
Carol went to the hotel.
Ted went to the hotel.
Alice went to the hotel.
d To be a best-seller a novel must
be interesting to the reader.
To be a best-seller a novel must
be relevant to the reader.
e Sam will win the trophy.
Nancy will win the trophy.
f You can choose vanilla ice-cream
for dessert.
You can choose strawberry ice-
cream for dessert.
You can choose fruit for dessert.
g There are some statements which
cannot be proved to be true.
There are some statements which
cannot be proved to be false.
h Most of my friends studied
Mathematics.
Most of my friends studied
Physics.
Most of my friends studied
Engineering.
Most of my friends studied Law.
Most of my friends studied Arts.
3 a John and Mary rode their bicycles
to school.
b The book you want is in row 3 or
4.
c The weather is cold and cloudy.
d Many people read novels or
history.
e In a recent poll 80% preferred
jazz or classical music.
f Two is an even prime number.
Or,
Two is the only even prime
number.
4 Because of and, both p and q must
be true for the statement p q to be
true
1 way
The answer is B.
5 Because of or only one of the
statements need to be true for the
compound statement to be true

p q p q
T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F
3 ways
The answer is D.
6 a 3 single statements 2
3

= 2 2 2
= 8 ways.
p q r
T T T
T T F
T F T
T F F
F T T
F T F
F F T
F F F
b 4 single statements 2
4

= 2 2 2 2
= 16 ways.
p q r s p q r s
T T T T F T T T
T T T F F T T F
T T F T F T F T
T T F F F T F F
T F T T F F T T
T F T F F F T F
T F F T F F F T
T F F F F F F F
c 5 single statements 2
5

= 2 2 2 2 2
= 32 ways.

p q r s t p q r s t p q r s t p q r s t
T T T T T T F T T T F T T T T F F T T T
T T T T F T F T T F F T T T F F F T T F
T T T F T T F T F T F T T F T F F T F T
T T T F F T F T F F F T T F F F F T F F
T T F T T T F F T T F T F T T F F F T T
T T F T F T F F T F F T F T F F F F T F
T T F F T T F F F T F T F F T F F F F T
T T F F F T F F F F F T F F F F F F F F
Chapter 9 Algebra and logic
A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c A GM1 1 - 9 199
7 a The flight from Sydney was on
time and the flight from Perth
was fully booked.
p = Sydney on time
q = Perth fully booked
p q
No. of ways: 2
2
= 4 rows.
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F
b John and Zia and David passed
General Mathematics
p = John passed
q = Zia passed
r = David passed
p q r
No. of ways: 2
3
= 8 rows.
p q r p q r
T T T T
T T F F
T F T F
T F F F
F T T F
F T F F
F F T F
F F F F
c Either Alice and Renzo, or Carla
will have to do the dishes.
p = Alice does dishes
q = Renzo does dishes
r = Carla does dishes
(p q) r
No. of ways: 2
3
= 8 rows.
p q r (p q) r
T T T T
T T F T
T F T T
T F F F
F T T T
F T F F
F F T T
F F F F
d The committee requires two new
members.

One must be a female, and the


other must be either a student or a
professor.
p = female member
q = student member
r = professor member
p (q r)
No. of ways: 2
3
= 8 rows.
p q r p (q r)
T T T T
T T F T
T F T T
T F F F
F T T F
F T F F
F F T F
F F F F
8 p p because of and both
must be true for p p to be true
only 2 ways because
If p is true p must be false.
If p is false p must be true.
p ~p p p
T F F
F T F
9 a p q
No. of ways: 2
2
= 4 rows.
Because of , both statements
must be true for p q to be true.
p q q p q
T T F F
T F T T
F T F F
F F T F
So if q is true then q is false.
b p q
No. of ways: 2
2
= 4 rows.
p q p q p q
T T F F F
T F F T F
F T T F F
F F T T T
both p and q must be True
for p q.
Therefore only 1 correct solution.
c (p q) r
All parts must be true for final
true statement only 1 true
solution.
No. of rows: 2
3
= 8 rows.
p q r (p q) r
T T T T
T T F F
T F T F
T F F F
F T T F
F T F F
F F T F
F F F F
d p q
Only one part needs to be true for
final statement to be true 3
possible true solutions.
No. of rows: 2
2
= 4 rows.
p q q p q
T T F T
T F T T
F T F F
F F T T
e p q
Only one part needs to be true for
final statement to be true 3
possible true solutions.
No. of rows: 2
2
= 4 rows.
p q p q p q
T T F F F
T F F T T
F T T F T
F F T T T
f (p q) r
Only one part needs to be true for
final statement to be true.
No. of rows: 2
3
= 8 rows.
7 ways of being true, only 1
way of being false
(F, F, F)
p q r (p q) r
T T T T
T T F T
T F T T
T F F T
F T T T
F T F T
F F T T
F F F F
10 Let p = It is raining
q = I bring my umbrella.
Therefore p = It is not raining
a p q


and


It is raining and I bring my
umbrella.
b p q


or


It is raining or I bring my
umbrella.
c p q


not and


It is not raining and I bring my
umbrella.
11 Let p = Peter likes football
q = Quentin likes football
Therefore q = Quentin does not
like football.
A GM1 1 - 9 200 A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c
a p q


and


Peter likes football and Quentin
likes football.
b p q


or


Peter likes football or Quentin
likes football.
c p q


or not


Peter likes football or Quentin
does not like football.
12 Show that (p q) (p q) is
equivalent.
Part 1 (p q)
p q (p q) (p q)
T T T F
T F T F
F T T F
F F F T
Part 2 (p q)
p q p q (p q)
T T F F F
T F F T F
F T T F F
F F T T T
Since
(p q)
F
F
F
T
and
(p q)
F
F
F
T
Then (p q) (p q).
13 Is (p q) p q?
Part 1 (p q)
Step 1 define p, define q
Step 2 define p or q (only 1
part needs to be true).
Step 3 if (p q) = T then
(p q) = F.
p q p q (p q)
T T T F
T F T F
F T T F
F F F T
Part 2 p q
Step 1. define p, define q
Step 2. define p, define q
Step 3. define p q (only 1
part needs to be true).
p q p q p q
T T F F F
T F F T T
F T T F T
F F T T T
Compare tables.
(p q) p q
F F
F T
F T
T T
Since tables not the same,
(p q) is not equivalent to
p q.
14 a Is
(p q) p (p q) p?
Part 1 (p q) p
p q p q p (p q) p
T T T F T
T F F F F
F T F T T
F F F T T
Part 2 (p q) p
p q p q p (p q) p
T T T F F
T F T F F
F T T T T
F F F T F
Since final columns are not the
same (p q) p is not
equivalent to (p q) p.
b Is
(p q) p p p
Part 1 (p q) p
p q (p q) p (p q) p
T T T F T
T F T F T
F T T T T
F F F T T
Part 2 p p
p p p p
T F T
F T T
Since final columns are all true
then (p q) p is equivalent to
p p
15 (p q) r
p q r (p q) (p q) r
T T T T T
T T F T T
T F T F T
T F F F F
F T T F T
F T F F F
F F T F T
F F F F F
p (q r)
p q r (q r) p (q r)
T T T T T
T T F T T
T F T T T
T F F F F
F T T T F
F T F T F
F F T T F
F F F F F
Since final columns are not the
same, statements are not equivalent,
therefore brackets alter the
expression.
16 a (p q) r
p q r (p q) (p q) r
T T T T T
T T F T F
T F T F F
T F F F F
F T T F F
F T F F F
F F T F F
F F F F F
p (q r)
p q r (q r) p (q r)
T T T T T
T T F F F
T F T F F
T F F F F
F T T T F
F T F F F
F F T F F
F F F F F
Since final columns are the same,
statements are equivalent,
therefore brackets did not alter the
expression.
A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c A GM1 1 - 9 201
b (p q) r
p q r (p q) (p q) r
T T T T T
T T F T T
T F T T T
T F F T T
F T T T T
F T F T T
F F T F T
F F F F F
p (q r)
p q r (q r) p (q r)
T T T T T
T T F T T
T F T T T
T F F F T
F T T T T
F T F T T
F F T T T
F F F F F
Since final columns are the same,
statements are equivalent.
Therefore brackets did not alter
the expression.
c In conclusion:
If the expression contains just one
type of operator, all as in (p
q) r or all as in (p q) r
then brackets do not alter the
expression.
(p q) r p (q r)
and (p q) r p (q r).
But if the expression contains a
mixture of and
(p q) r then brackets will alter
the expression.
(p q) r is not equivalent to p
(q r).
Exercise 9B Valid and
invalid arguments
1 Is (p q) (q p)
(p q)
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T T
F F T
(q p)
p q q p q p
T T F F T
T F T F F
F T F T T
F F T T T
Since final column is the same, then
(p q) is equivalent to (q p).
2 Show (p q) is not equivalent to
(p q).
(p q)
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T T
F F T
(p q)
p q p q p q
T T F F T
T F F T T
F T T F F
F F T T T
Since final column values are not the
same, then (p q) is not equivalent
to (p q).
3 Let p = It is bread, q = It is made
with flour.
Implication If it is bread then it is
made with flour.
Converse If it is made with flour,
then it is bread.
Contrapositive If it is not made
with flour, then it is not bread.
Inverse If it is not bread then it is
not made with flour.
4 If a child is playing quietly, then it is
doing something bad. The
contrapositive is If a child is not
doing something bad then it is not
playing quietly.
The answer is C.
5 The inverse of if you are not
careful, then you will get hurt is if
you are careful, then you will not get
hurt.
The answer is A.
6 a
Premise All cats are fluffy.
Premise My pet is a cat.
Conclusion My pet is fluffy.
b
Premise
All even numbers are
divisible by themselves
and 2.
Premise
Prime numbers are
divisible by themselves
and 1.
Conclusion
Two is the only even
prime number.
c
Premise
Growing apples depends
on good water.
Premise
Good water depends on
good irrigation.
Conclusion
Growing apples depends
on good irrigation.
7 a If you are a mathematician then
you can do algebra.
p = You are a mathematician
q = You can do algebra
p q

p
q

Yes this is a valid form for an
argument.
b All footballers are fit.
p = I am a footballer
q = I am fit.
p q

p
q


Not a valid argument.
c If it is a native Australian
mammal, then it is a marsupial
p = It is a native Australian
mammal
q = It is a marsupial
p q

p
q

Valid argument
d Cant be put into this form of
argument because of the word
some, therefore the entire
argument is not valid.
e If a musician, then I can read
music
p = I am a musician
q = I can read music
p q

q
p

This is not a valid argument.
8 b All footballers are fit
David is not fit.
David is not a footballer.
e All musicians can read music.
Louise is a musician. Louise can
read music.
9 In logic,
A an argument must have a
conclusion
B an argument consists of premises
and a conclusion
C An If..then.. compound
statement is called a conditional
statement.
All three statements are true.
The answer is E.
10 p q

p
q


p q p q p
T T T F
T F T F
F T T T
F F F T
Premises all true in row 3, since
conclusion is also true, argument is
valid.
11 a p q

q r
p r

A GM1 1 - 9 202 A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c
p q r p q q r p r
T T T T T T
T T F T F F
T F T F T T
T F F F T F
F T T T T T
F T F T F T
F F T T T T
F F F T T T
Premises are true in row 1, 5, 7 and 8. As the conclusion (p r) is also true in these rows the argument is valid.
b p q

q
p


p q p q ~q ~p
T T T F F
T F F T F
F T T F T
F F T T T
The premises p q and q are true in row 4. Since the conclusion p is also true in this row the argument is valid.
c p q r s

p r
q s


p q r s p q r s p q r s p r q s
T T T T T T T T T
T T T F T F F T F
T T F T T T T F T
T T F F T T T F F
T F T T F T F T F
T F T F F F F T F
T F F T F T F F F
T F F F F T F F F
F T T T T T T F T
F T T F T F F F F
F T F T T T T F T
F T F F T T T F F
F F T T T T T F F
F F T F T F F F F
F F F T T T T F F
F F F F T T T F F
The premises p q r s and p r are both true in row 1 only. Since the conclusion q s is also true in this row the
argument is valid.
12 a Let p = you clean up your room
q = you will not watch any television tonight
Disjunctive syllogism

p q
p
q


b If you help your mother with the dishes then I will take you to the football game tomorrow.
Let p = you help your mother with the dishes
q = I will take you to the football game tomorrow.


p q
Modus tollens q
p


c If you study statistics then you will understand what standard deviation means.
Let p = you study statistics.
A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c A GM1 1 - 9 203
q = you will understand what standard deviation
means.


p q
Modus ponens p
q


13 Let p John plays for us on Saturday
q we win on Saturday
r we come in first place on the ladder
s we play our first final at home.
p q
q r

r s
p s


The answer is C.
14 a p q

p
q


p q p q ~p ~q
T T T F F
T F F F T
F T T T F
F F T T T
Since premises are both true in row 3 and 4, but
conclusion is false in row 3 then this is not a valid
argument.
b If elected with a majority, my government will introduce
new tax laws.
Let p = If elected with a majority.
q = my government will introduce new tax laws.
p q

(my government was not elected with a majority)

(my government will not introduce new tax laws)
p
q


15 a Let p = If you work hard.
q = you will become rich.

(you don't work hard)

(therefore you will not become rich)
p q
p
q


b
p q ~p ~q p q
T T F F T
T F F T F
F T T F T
F F T T T
Premises are both true in rows 3 and 4, but conclusion is
false in row 3 therefore this is not a valid argument.
16 a p q

r q
p r


p q r p q r ~q p ~r
T T T T F F
T T F T T T
T F T F T F
T F F F T T
F T T T F T
F T F T T T
F F T T T T
F F F T T T
Premises are both true in rows 2, 6, 7 and 8 conclusion is
also true in row 2, 6, 7 and 8 therefore argument is valid.
b ~p q

r p
r


p q r ~p ~q r p
T T T F T
T T F F T
T F T F T
T F F F T
F T T F F
F T F F T
F F T T F
F F F T T
Premises only true in row 8, but conclusion false in row
8, so argument is invalid.
c ~p ~q

p
q

p q p q p q
T T F F T
T F F T T
F T T F F
F F T T T
Premises true in row 1 and 2, but conclusion false in
row 2, so argument is invalid.
17 a Let p = If a dog
q = then it has 5 legs
r = five-legged creatures are called chickens
p q (all dogs have 5 legs)

(all five-legged creatures are called chickens)

(Therefore all dogs are called chickens)
q r
p r


This is a valid argument based on hypothetical
syllogism.
b Let p = all dogs
q = have 5 legs
r = all chickens
then
p q (all dogs have 5 legs)

(all chickens have 5 legs)

(all dogs are chickens)
r q
p r

Invalid.
c Let p = you deposit money in the bank
q = you will earn interest
p q (if you deposit money in the bank, then you
will earn interest)

q
p

(you did not earn interest)


(Therefore you did not deposit any money
in the bank)

Valid argument based on Modus tollens form.
d Let p = I want an easy course
q = I choose Human Development
r = I want an interesting course
s = I choose General Mathematics

valid argument based on constructive

dilemma.
p q r s
p r
q s



e Let p = The team plays well
q = The offence was good
r = The defence was good
p (q r)

q p
r


Since not based on one of the 5 forms given, construct a
truth table to test validity.
A GM1 1 - 9 204 A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c
p q r (q r) p (q r) q p r
T T T T T F F
T T F T T F T
T F T T T F F
T F F F F F T
F T T T T F F
F T F T T F T
F F T T T T F
F F F F T T T
Premises are true in rows 7 and 8, but conclusion is false in row 7 so argument is invalid.
Exercise 9C Techniques of proof
1 If she plays well she will win or she will lose.
Let p = she plays well
q = she wins
q = she loses.
p q p q q (p q) q
T T T F T
T F F T T
F T T F T
F F T T T
Since final column values are all True statement is a tautology.
2 Let p = she plays well
p = she plays poorly
q = she wins
q = she loses
If she plays well she will win or if she plays poorly she will lose
(p q) (p q).
p q p q p q p q (p q) (p q)
T T T F F T T
T F F F T T T
F T T T F F T
F F T T T T T
Since final column values are all True statement is a tautology.
3 Either she plays well and wins or she will lose
p = she plays well
q = she wins
q = she loses
(p q) q.
p q p q q (p q) q
T T T F T
T F F T T
F T F F F
F F F T T
Since the final column contains a False statement. The original statement is not a tautology.
4
p q r p q q r (p q) (q r) p r (p q) (q r) (p r)
T T T T T T T T
T T F T F F F T
T F T F T F T T
T F F F T F F T
F T T T T T T T
F T F T F F T T
F F T T T T T T
F F F T T T T T
Since the last column is always true, this is a tautology and the original argument is valid.
A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c A GM1 1 - 9 205
5 a p q

q r
p r


p q r p q q r (p q) (q r) p r (p q) (q r) (p r)
T T T T T T T T
T T F T T T T T
T F T T T T T T
T F F T F F T T
F T T F T F T T
F F T T T T T T
F F F T F F F T
Since the last column is always true, this is a tautology and the original argument is valid.
b p q

q r
p r


p q r p q q r (p q) (q r) p r (p q) (q r) (p r)
T T T F F F F T
T T F F T F T T
T F T T T T F F
T F F T T T T T
F T T T F F T T
F T F T T T T T
F F T T T T T T
F F F T T T T T
Since the last column contains a false this is not a tautology and therefore the original argument is invalid.
c p q

q
p

p q p q (p q) q (p q) q p
T T T T T
T F T F T
F T F F T
F F T F T
Since the final column contains all True values, this is a tautology and the original argument is valid.
d p q

p
q

p q p q (p q) p (p q) p q
T T T T F
T F T T T
F T T F T
F F F F T
Since the final column has one false answer, this is not a tautology and this is an invalid argument.
6 a p = You are a loser
q = You trained hard
r = You were distracted
If you are a loser, you didnt train hard enough
If you didnt train hard enough, you were distracted
Therefore, if you are a loser, then you were distracted
p q


q r
p r


b p = It is raining
q = I will wash my car
If it is not raining, then I will wash my car
It is raining

A GM1 1 - 9 206 A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c
Therefore, I will not wash my car

p q
p
q


c p = It is cloudy
q = I bring my umbrella
If it is cloudy, then I do not bring my umbrella
I did bring my umbrella
Therefore, it is not cloudy



p q
q
p


d p = The hard drive is working
q = The program will work
r = The printer will work
If the hard drive is not working, then the program will
not work
If the program is not working, then the printer will not
work
Therefore, if the hard drive isnt working, the printer will
not work

p q
q r
p r




7
p q p q q p p q p q q p
T T T T F F T T
T F F T

F T T

F
F T T

F T F F T

F F T T T T T T
All missing truth values were true T, T, T, T
The answer is D.
8 If a number, x, is even, then x
2
is even.
If x
2
is even then write x = 2n
so (2n)
2
= 4n
2
.
If a number is multiplied by 4 then it is even.
Let p = x is an even number (2n)
q = x
2
is therefore equal to 4n
2

r = a number multiplied by an even number is even.

p q
q r
p r


9 Prove that 24
2
is even.
Proof based on If a number, x, is even then x
2
is even.
24 is even, therefore 24
2
is even.
Let p = 24 is an even number
q = an even number squared is even
r = 24
2
is even

p q
q r
p r


10 Prove If n
2
is odd then n is odd
Let p = n
2
is odd
q = n is odd
q p If n is not odd then n
2
is not odd.
If n is not odd, it is even (or 0) and can be represented by
2x, where x is any integer.
Let n = 2x
Then n
2
= (2x)
2

= 4x
2

A number multiplied by an even number must be even, so
n
2
must be even.
As n is not odd and n
2
= 4x
2
is even, it is not odd.
11 a If ax = bx and x 0 then a = b.
Let p = ax = bx (x 0)
q = a = b
q p
Assume a b. Multiply both sides by x.
Therefore ax bx
b If n
2
> 4, then n > 2
Let p = n
2
> 4
q = n > 2
q p
Assume n < 2
2 x < 2
(2 x)
2
< 4
c If n
2
is divisible by 2, then n is divisible by 2.
Let p = n
2
is divisible by 2
q = n is divisible by 2
q p
Assume n is not divisible by 2, therefore it is odd.
n = 2x + 1
n
2
= (2x + 1)
2

An odd number squared = an odd number.
n
2
is also not divisible by 2.
12 The product of a negative number and a positive number is
negative.
Let a = a negative number
b = a positive number
Assume that a b is positive
The magnitude of a b = |ab|
= |a| |b|
Let c = a = |a| since a is negative
c b = |c| |b|
|c| = |a|
c b = |a| |b|
= a b
c = a
Contradiction, so a b is negative.
A positive multiplied by a negative is negative.
13 Prove, by contradiction that there is no smallest positive
real number
Assume that a is the smallest positive real number.
Let x =
2
a

Since a > 0, then x > 0 and x < a (property of division).
This contradicts the assumption that a is the smallest
positive number.
14 Assume 2 is rational, so that 2 =
a
b
, where a and b
are integers that have no common factors.
Therefore 2 =
2
2
,
a
b
or a
2
= 2b
2
.
Therefore a
2
is a multiple of 2 and therefore a is a multiple
of 2 (from a
2
= a a)
Since it is a multiple of 2, write a = 2x.
Therefore a
2
= 4x
2
= 2b
2
.
Therefore b
2
= 2x
2
and is thus a multiple of 2.
Therefore both a and b are multiples of 2 and have a
common factor of 2.
This contradicts our initial statement, so it must be false.
15 Assume n is the largest possible integer.
Let x = n + 1.
Therefore x > n, which contradicts our initial statement.
16 Prove x
2
= 4 has only one solution is false
Let x = 2, then x
2
= 4, let x = 2 then x
2
= 4
(By counter-example)
17 Prove by counter-example the set of all prime numbers are
odd 2 is a prime number and even, it is divisible by itself and 1.
18 Continue pattern of substitution until a counter-example can
be found
A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c A GM1 1 - 9 207
When n = 10 p = 10
2
+ 10 + 11
p = 121
121 isnt a prime number but a
perfect square 11
2
= 121.
19 If a + b = 180, then PQ is parallel
to RS.
Let p = a + b = 180
q = PQ is parallel to RS.
q p: If PQ is not parallel to
RS, then a + b 180.
If PQ is not parallel to RS, then PQ
and RS will meet at some point.
a and b will form 2 angles in a
triangle.


a + b < 180
a + b 180
Since contrapositive statement is
shown, the original argument
must be true.
If a + b = 180, then PQ is
parallel to RS.
20


Show that x y + z
Assume that x > y + z


For x, y and z to form a triangle the
shortest distance from A to C must
be a straight line. This is not
possible if x > y + z.
x y + z.
21 a 1 + 3 + 5 +

+ (2n 1) = n
2
When n = 1 1 = 1 = 1
2
When n = 2 1 + 3 = 4 = 2
2
When n = 3 1 + 3 + 5 = 9 = 3
2
The statement is clearly true in
each of these three cases.
Assume the statement is true for
n, and test for the next number in
the series, n + 1.
1 + 3 + 5 +

+ (2n 1) + (2n + 1)
= n
2
+ (2n + 1)
= n
2
+ 2n + 1
= (n + 1)
2
perfect square.
Clearly this is the same formula
as the one we assumed true.
b (1 + x)
n
(1 + xn) for n 1 and
x > 0
For n = 1 and x = 1,
LHS = (1 + 1)
1

= 2
1
= 2
RHS = (1 + 1 1)
= 1 + 1
= 2
In this case, (1 + x)
n
= (1 + xn)
For n = 2 and x = 1,
LHS = (1 + 1)
2

= 2
2
= 4
RHS = (1 + 1 2)
= 1 + 2
= 3
In this case, (1 + x)
n
> (1 + xn)
So we have seen that
(1 + x)
n
(1 + xn)
Is the statement true for the next
term n + 1?
That is,
is (1 + x)
n + 1
(1 + x(n + 1))?
(1 + x)
n
(1 + x)
1
(1 + xn + x)
If it is true that (1 + x)
n
1 + xn,
then it is only necessary to prove
that 1 + x is not less than x, which
is clearly the case, since x is
positive
So, (1 + x)
n
(1 + xn) for n 1
and x > 0.
c a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
Pythagoras theorem can be
proved, but not by mathematical
induction.
d n(n + 1) is an even number for
any integer value of n.
For n = 1, 1(1 + 1) = 1 2 = 2
(even)
For n = 2, 2(2 + 1) = 2 3 = 6
(even)
Assume: n(n + 1) is even and look
for the next term in the series,
n + 1.
(n + 1)[(n + 1) + 1]
= (n + 1)(n + 2)
= n(n + 1) + 2(n + 1)
= even from above + 2 any
integer
= even + even
= even
So, n(n + 1) is an even number for
any integer value of n.
e 2
n
n
2
for all integers 4
For n = 4 LHS = 2
4
RHS = 4
2
= 16 = 16
In this case, 2
n
= n
2
For n = 5 LHS = 2
5
RHS = 5
2
= 32 = 25
In this case, 2
n
> n
2
Assume that 2
n
> n
2
is true
Look at the next term (n + 1).
2
n + 1
(n + 1)
2
2
n
2
1
n
2
+ 2n + 1
2 2
n
n
2
+ 2n + 1
2
n
+ 2
n
n
2
+ 2n + 1
We know that 2
n
n
2
also that 2
n
> 2n + 1 for n 4
2
n
+ 2
n
n
2
+ 2n + 1
that is 2
n + 1
(n + 1)
2
So 2
n
n
2
for all integers 4.
f (a + b + c)
3
is always divisible
by 3.
a, b and c are three consecutive
integers.
Let a = n
b = n + 1
c = n + 2
(a + b + c)
3
= (n + n + 1 + n + 2)
3
= (3n + 3)
3
= [3(n + 1)]
3
Since 3 is a factor of this
expression, it is always divisible
by 3.
Test for the next term, n + 3
(a + b + c)
3
= (n + 1 + n + 2
+ n + 3)
3
= (3n + 6)
3
= [3(n + 2)]
3
Again, since 3 is a factor of this
expression, it is always divisible
by 3.
So, the cube of the sum of three
consecutive integers is always
divisible by 3.
g x =
2
4
2
b b ac
a


From the quadratic equation,
ax
2
+ bx + c = 0, the given
formula can be proved, but not by
mathematical induction.
h Prove that a polygon of n sides
can be composed of (n 2)
triangles.
The smallest polygon consists of
3 sides and is a triangle.

When n = 3, n 2 = 3 2
= 1
That is, 1 triangle is formed.

When n = 4, n 2 = 4 2
= 2
2 triangles are formed
The formula is true in both cases.
Consider the next term (n + 1).
The number of triangles formed is
(n + 1 2) = n 1.
A triangle with 3 sides forms 1
triangle, while the next sized
polygon with 4 sides forms 2
triangles (one more). We have
seen that a polygon with n sides
forms n 2 triangles. So, the next
biggest polygon would form one
more triangle. The value of n 1 is
indeed one more than n 2, so the
statement is true for all polygons.
i 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 +
....
+ 2
n
= 2
n + 1
1
2
0
+ 2
1
+ 2
2
+ 2
3
+
....
+ 2
n
= 2
n + 1
1
When n = 0 2
0
= 2
0 + 1
1
1 = 2
1
1
1 = 2 1
1 = 1
A GM1 1 - 9 208 A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c
When n = 1 2
0
+ 2
1
= 2
1 + 1
1
1 + 2 = 2
2
1
3 = 4 1
3 = 3
So, the statement is true for n = 0
and n = 1. Consider the next term
in the series, 2
n + 1
Prove that: 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 +
...
+ 2
n
+ 2
n + 1
= 2
(n + 1) + 1
1
2
0
+ 2
1
+ 2
2
+ 2
3
+

+ 2
n
+ 2
n + 1
= 2
n + 2
1
1 + 2 + 4 + 8 +

+ 2
n
+ 2
n + 1
= 2
n + 1
1 + 2
n + 1

= 2 2
n + 1
1
= 2
1
2
n + 1
1
= 2
n + 1 + 1
1
= 2
n + 2
1
So, the statement is true for
integer values of n.
j Prove 4
n
n
4
for all integers 2
For n = 2 LHS = 4
2
RHS = 2
4
= 16 = 16
4
n
= n
4
when n = 2
For n = 3 LHS = 4
3
RHS = 3
4
= 64 = 81
In this case, 4
n
is not greater than
or equal to n
4
.
For n = 4, 4
4
= 4
4
The statement is true when n = 4.
The statement appears to be true
for values of n 5.
However, 4
n
n
4
is not true for all
integers 2.
22 a Mathematical induction is used
particularly for sums of series.
b The values of n are restricted to
integer values.
c The researcher is trying to
convince that everyone is cured
by Drug X. This is an invalid
conclusion with scientific
research, particularly, there are
always exceptions to the rule.
23 Answers will vary. Proof by
induction has a limited application.
Exercise 9D Sets and
Boolean algebra
1 A (B C)


(A B) C


A (B C) and (A B) C
represent the same area in the Venn
diagram,
A (B C) = (A B) C.
2 A (B C) = (A B) (A C)
A (B C)


(A B) (A C)


3 A false statement about sets is All
sets must have at least one member.
The answer is .
4 a A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18}
b B = {4, 8, 12, 16.}
c C = {2}
d D = {Jack, Queen, King}
e E = { }
f F = {9, 8, 7, 6, 5}
5 Finite sets A, C, D, E.
6 A = {11, 13, 15, 17, 19.}
B = {16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81}
A B = {25, 49, 81}



7 A = {10, 12, 14, 16, 18.}
B = {11, 22, 33, 44, 55, 66, 77, 88, 99}
A B = {22, 44, 66, 88}



8 a


A B
b


A B (that is the region of the
Venn diagram which does not
include A or B).
c


A (B C)
9 Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10},
B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, C = {1, 4, 9}
a (B C) = {4}
b A (B C)
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
c (A B)
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
d (A C)
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
e (A B) (A C)
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
The same as the set in part b
A (B C) = (A B) (A C)
10 Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10},
B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, C = {1, 4, 9}
A (B C) = (A B) (A C)
a B C = {1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10}
b A (B C) = {1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10}
c A C = {1, 4, 9}
d (A B) = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
e (A B) (A C)
= {1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10}
Part e = Part b
A (B C) = (A B) (A C)
11 If A + B is to also be the
complement of A B, then
(A B) + (A + B) = 1 and
(A B) + (A + B) = O
Part 1: Show that
(A B) + (A + B) = I
(A B) + (A + B)
= (A + A + B) (B + A + B)
= (I + B) (A + I)
= (I) (I)
= I QED
Part 2: Show that
(A B) (A + B) = O
(A B) (A + B)
= A B A + A B B
= O B + A O
= O + O
= O QED
12 a A + A B + A B
= A + B (A + A)
= A + B I
= A + B
b (A + B + A) + B
= (A + A + B) + B
= (I + B) + B
= I + B
= I
c A + A B
= A + B
d A B (A + C)
= A B A + A B C
= A B + A B C
= A B(I + C)
= A B I
= A B
13 a (A + B) A = A
A + B

A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c A GM1 1 - 9 209
(A + B) A

(A + B) A = A
b (A + B) B = A
A + B

(A + B) B

(A + B) B = A
c A + B A = A + B
B A

A + B A


A + B A = A + B
14 (p q) p p p
(P Q) P P P
(P P) Q = O
= O Q
= O QED
15 a A + B + A + B = I
A + A + B + B = I
I + I = I
I = I
b (A + B) A B = O
A A B + B A B = O
O B + O A = O
O + O = O
O = O
c (A + B) (A + B) = A
(A + B) A + (A + B) B = A
A + A = A
A = A
d A B + C (A + B) = A B + C
A B + C (A B) = A B + C
A B + C = A B + C
Exercise 9E Digital logic
1 For current to run from P Q, both switches would need
to be down
x y
As shown by truth table:
x y Q
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
2 The above circuit can be written as a Boolean expression
Q = x y
The answer is C.
3 a and b Construct a truth table to show each situation, but
clearly from observation for current to flow from P Q,
there are two situations.
Q = x y
or Q = z
Q = (x y) + z
x y z Q
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
4 a
x y Q
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1
b System used where there are 2 people who can activate
the light separately.
Light switch at one spot can be classified off but light
still on.
5 For light to be on (Q = 1), x and y must be on or x and y
must be off.
x y + x y.
The answer is D.
6


Truth table:
x y Q
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
7
a b a + b c Output
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 1
0 1 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 1
1 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1
Q = (a + b) + c.
A GM1 1 - 9 210 A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c
8
a b c b + c a (b + c) [a (b + c)]
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 1 0
1 1 0 1 1 0
1 1 1 1 1 0
Q = [a (b + c)]
9 A as shown in truth table in question 8.
B as this is the dual expression of A.
C as this is the expansion of B.
he answer is E.
10 a
a b c a b a c (a b) (a c) (a b) (a c)
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
b Comparing values for a, b and c, and final output column
is the same
this circuit is equivalent to the circuit in question 8.
11
a b c d b d
and
a b
and
c d
or
(a b) + (c d)
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1
0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

12 a
(S
1
) (S
2
) (S
2
)
and
(a b)
and
(a c)
S
1
S
2
a b c Q R
0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 0 1 0
b When Q = 1 safe can be unlocked. This occurs when
S
1
and S
2
are both 1.
When R = 1 alarm will ring. This occurs when
S
1
= 1 and S
2
= 0
When S
1
= 0 the system is disabled. The safe cannot be
opened.
13 a a b = (a + b)
de Morgans Law
(A B)= A + B
a b = (a + b)
= (a b) (double negative)
= a b QED
b (a + b)
Two inputs a and b.


14 NAND = and followed by a not



a a
0 1
1 0




a a
and
a a
(a a)
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1
1 1 1 0
1 1 1 0
When a = 1, a = 0 as shown by both truth tables.
a = 0, a = 1
15 Q = a (b + c)
Three inputs a, b, c
Let v = (b + c)
Q = a v


v = (b + c)
b + c





16 The circuit in question 15, we have a OR followed by a
NOT. This sequence can be replaced by NOR.


17 Q = a b + a c.
Three inputs a, b, c
Let u = b and v = c
Q = a u + a v
Let w = a u
x = a . v
Q = w + x
A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c A GM1 1 - 9 211
Working backwards


w = a u where u = b
Two inputs via AND gate


x = a v where v = c two inputs a and c via AND gate however a must be not, so and followed by a not can use a NAND
gate.


18 a i a b
a b b a b
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0
ii a b
a b a a b
0 0 1 0
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 1 0 0
iii a + b
a b a a + b
0 0 1 1
0 1 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 1 0 1
iv
a b b a + b a + b a a + b a b a + b a b b
0 0 1 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 1 1 1 0
1 1 0 1 1 0 0
The statement which has the same truth table as a b is a + b (iii).
b a b can be represented by the circuit a + b


c b a (b + a) circuit b + a


d (a b) a
a + b a = a a + a b
= 0 + a b
= a b
e (a b) a b
= (a + b) a b
= (a a + a b) b
= (0 + a b) b
= a b b
= (a b) + b
A GM1 1 - 9 212 A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c
f Result from part e (a b) + b
Let u = a b
Let w = u
Then Q = w + b (two inputs joined by or)
w = u so use a not gate however u = a b which is
and, so overall use a Nand (and followed by a Not).


To establish validity construct a truth table for the
circuit.
a b
and
a b
not
(a b)
or
(a b) + b
0 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1 1
1 0 0 1 1
1 1 1 0 1
The final column values are all 1, therefore validity is
established.
Chapter review
Short answer
1 a Melpomeni and Jacques purchased new bicycles.
m = Melpomeni purchased a new bicycle.
j = Jacques purchased a new bicycle.
m j
b Either it is cold or it is warm and sunny.
c = It is cold
w = It is warm
s = It is sunny
c (w s)
c The dinner was late and expensive and poorly cooked.
l = The dinner was late
e = The dinner was expensive
p = The dinner was poorly cooked
l e p
2 (p q) (p q)
p q (p q) p q (p q) (p q) (p q)
T T T F F F T
T F F F T F F
F T F T F F F
F F F T T T T
3 Converse = If she sends her children to good schools, the
politician is intelligent.
Contrapositive = If she doesnt send her children to good
schools, the politician is not intelligent.
Inverse = If a politician isnt intelligent she doesnt send her
children to good schools.
4 r = The bicycle is red
I = The bicycle is Italian
g = The bicycle is green
r I g r I I g r I
T T T T T T F *
T T F T T T F *
T F T T T T T
T F F T F T T
F T T T T F F
F T F T T F F
F F T F T F T
F F F F F F T
The conclusion, column 7, is false when the premises,
columns 4, 5 and 6, are all true (*). Invalid argument.
5 Let: a =
1
;
x
multiply both sides by x.
ax = 1
a(x
1
) = 1 = x
0
(Definition of x
0
)
a =
0
1
x
x
= x
1
(Definition of division of indices)
6 Assume x < x
x < x
2
(Square both sides)
1 < x (Divide both sides by x)
This contradicts the initial condition, so the assumption is
wrong.
7 A = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53,
59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 91, 97}
B = {10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 31, 41, 51,
61, 71, 81, 91}
C = {16, 25, 34, 43, 52, 61, 70}
a A B = {11, 13, 17, 19, 31, 41, 61, 71, 91}
b B C = {16, 61}
A (B C) = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 16, 17, 23, 29, 31,
37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73,
79, 83, 89, 91, 97}.
c A B C = {61}
8 (A + A B) (B + B C)
= (A + A B) (B I + B C) {B I = B}
= (A + A B) B(I + C) {Distributive law}
= (A + A B) B I {I + C = I}
= A B I + A B B I {Distributive law}
= A B + A B {B I = B, B B = B}
= (A + A) B {Distributive law}
= I B {A + A = I}
= B QED
9 Q = [A (B C)] + [A (B C)]
Three inputs a, b, c
Let u = b c
Let w = b c
Q = (a w) + (a u)
Let x = a w
Let z = a u
Q = x + z
Working backwards
Q = x + z (or)


x = a w (and)
z = a u (and)


w = b c
u = b c


10 Q = [A (B C)] + [A (B C)]
can be simplified to:
Q = A [(B + C) + B C]
Still 3 inputs a, b, c
Let u = (b + c)
Let w = b c
Q = a [u + w]
Let u + w = z
A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c A GM1 1 - 9 213
Q = a z
Working backwards
Q = a z (and)


z = u + w (or)


w = b c (and)
u = (b + c) (or followed by NOT)


Multiple choice
1 The 3 sentences are examples of statements.
The answer is A.
2 6 statements 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 64
The answer is E.
3 A p q
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F
B p q
p q p q
T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F
C p q
p q q p q
T T F T
T F T T
F T F F
F F T T
D p q
p q p p q
T T F T
T F F F
F T T T
F T T T
E p q
p q q p q
T T F F
T F T T
F T F F
F F T F
The given truth table represents p q
The answer is C.
4 h = I like ham for breakfast
s = I like steak for breakfast
e = I like eggs for breakfast
I like ham or steak and eggs for breakfast
h (s e)
The answer is D.
5 Inverse to If I buy a new coat then I am happy is
If I dont buy a new coat then I am not happy.
The answer is A.
6 If a lawyer is honest then you should hire him.
You shouldnt hire John Smith.
John Smith is not honest.

p q
q
p


Modus tollens
The answer is D.
7 Argument is an example of Modus tollens.
The answer is D.
8 If she sinks that putt she will either win or lose the
tournament is a tautology because it is always true.
The answer is B.
9 By proving q p, you have proved p q is an example
of proof by contrapositive
The answer is C.
10 A

B A B


C A B


D A B


E (A B)


The answer is C.
11 A I = A I
= A
The answer is A.
12


Q = [(a b) + c] + d
The answer is D.
A GM1 1 - 9 214 A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c
13

x or y and z
(x + y) z
The answer is B.
Extended response
1 a If we want to reduce greenhouse gases, we should use more nuclear power and if we wish to reduce nuclear accidents we
should use conventional power.
g = reduce greenhouses gases
n = use nuclear power
a = reduce nuclear accidents
c = use conventional power
S
1
= (g n) (a c)
We will either not use nuclear power or not use conventional power.
S
2
= n c
Therefore, we will either not reduce greenhouse gases or we will not reduce the risk of nuclear accidents.
S
3
= g a
b
g n a c g n a c S
1
n c S
2
= n c g a S
3
= g a
T T T T T T T F F F F F F
T T T F T F F F T T F F F
T T F T T T T F F F F T T
T T F F T T T F T T F T T
T F T T F T F T F T F F F
T F T F F F F T T T F F F
T F F T F T F T F T F T T
T F F F F T F T T T F T T
F T T T T T T F F F T F T
F T T F T F F F T T T F T
F T F T T T T F F F T T T
F T F F T T T F T T T T T
F F T T T T T T F T T F T
F F T F T F F T T T T F T
F F F T T T T T F T T T T
F F F F T T T T T T T T T
c S
3
= g a
Premises (S
1
, S
2
) are all true in rows 4, 12, 13, 15, 16.
Conclusion (S
3
) is true in rows 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.
Conclusion is true when premises are true, so this is a valid argument.
d a b



b c
d a
c
d


a b c d a b b c d d a c
T T T T T T F T F
T T T F T T T T F
T T F T T F F T T
T T F F T F T T T
T F T T F T F T F
T F T F F T T T F
T F F T F T F T T
T F F F F T T T T
F T T T T T F T F
F T T F T T T F F
F T F T T F F T T
F T F F T F T F T
F F T T T T F T F
F F T F T T T F F
F F F T T T F T T
F F F F T T T F T
A l g e b r a a n d l o g i c A GM1 1 - 9 215
All premises are true in row 15 and conclusion is also true
in row 15.
Argument is valid.
2 a
a b a b a b
T T T T
T F F F
F T T F
F F T T
b For equivalence a b and b a
c The following implication is also equivalent because
a b and
b a.
If a positive integer is even, then it is divisible by 2.
a = a positive integer is even
b = it is divisible by 2.
d Equivalences a b are constructed on implications
a b and b a
e i A positive is not divisible by 2, if and only if it
is odd.
an equivalence.
ii If a number is positive, its square root can also be
negative.
not an equivalence.
iii A negative number can also be positive when squared.
not an equivalence.
iv A triangle has 3 equal sides if it has three equal angles
of 60 each.
an equivalence.
v All squares are rectangles, but not all rectangles are
squares.
not an equivalent.
vi x
3
is odd if and only if x is odd.
an equivalence.
vii Only one statement needs to be true for p q to be
true.
not an equivalence.
viii p q is true if and only if two statements p and q are
true.
an equivalence.
ix Both statements do not have to be true for p q to be
true.
not an equivalence.
x Not all valid arguments are sound.
not an equivalence.
3 a There are 4 inputs w, x, y, z.
b There are 2 outputs Q, R
c
w x y z Q R
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 1
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0 1 1
0 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
d i w = 1 x = 0 y = 1 Q = 0 R = 1
ii w = 0 x = 0 y = 1 z = 0 Q = 0 R = 0
e No, z is independent of w x y
f i Q = (wx + xy) (wy + xy)
ii Q = (xy + wx) (xy + wy) Commutative Law
= xy + (wx + wy) Distributive Law
= xy + wxy Recall wx wy wxy
= xy(I + w) Identity
= xy
g i R = wy + xy + z
ii R = wxy + z
h


4 a to d
a b Q R S T
0 0 1 0 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 1 0
1 1 0 0 0 1
e This circuit decodes or distinguishes the inputs, which
are 00, 01, 10 and 11. Only one of the outputs = 1 for each
of the 4 possible inputs.
f 3 bit: 3 NOT, 8 AND
4 bit: 4 NOT and 16 AND
n bit: n NOT and 2
n
AND.
A GM1 1 - 1 0 216 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s
Exercise 10A The circle
1 a x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

x
2
+ y
2
= 49
x
2
+ y
2
= 7
2

Centre (0, 0)
r
2
= 7
2

r = 7


b x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

x
2
+ y
2
= 4
2

Centre (0, 0)
r
2
= 4
2

r = 4


c x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

x
2
+ y
2
= 36
x
2
+ y
2
= 6
2

Centre (0, 0)
r
2
= 6
2

r = 6


d x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

x
2
+ y
2
= 81
x
2
+ y
2
= 9
2

Centre (0, 0)
r
2
= 9
2

r = 9


e x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

2x
2
+ 2y
2
= 50
x
2
+ y
2
=
50
2
| |
|
\ .

x
2
+ y
2
= 25
x
2
+ y
2
= 5
2

Centre (0, 0)
r
2
= 5
2

r = 5


f x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

9x
2
+ 9y
2
= 100
x
2
+ y
2
=
100
9

x
2
+ y
2
=
2
10
3
| |
|
\ .

Centre (0, 0)
r
2
=
2
10
3
| |
|
\ .

r =
10
3



2 a (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

(x 1)
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 5
2

Centre (1, 2)
r
2
= 5
2

r = 5


b (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

(x + 2)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
= 6
2

Centre (2, 3)
r
2
= 6
2

r = 6


c (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

(x + 3)
2
+ (y 1)
2
= 49
(x + 3)
2
+ (y 1)
2
= 7
2

Centre (3, 1)
r
2
= 7
2

r = 7


d (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

(x 4)
2
+ (y + 5)
2
= 64
(x 4)
2
+ (y + 5)
2
= 8
2

Centre (4, 5)
r
2
= 8
2

r = 8


e (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

x
2
+ (y + 3)
2
= 4
(x 0)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
= 2
2

Centre (0, 3)
r
2
= 2
2
r = 2


f (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

(x 5)
2
+ y
2
= 100
(x 5)
2
+ (y 0)
2
= 10
2

Centre (5, 0)
r
2
= 10
2

r = 10


3 a (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

x
2
+ 4x + y
2
+ 8y + 16 = 0
(x
2
+ 4x + 4) 4 + (y
2
+ 8y + 16)
16 + 16 = 0
(x + 2)
2
+ (y + 4)
2
4 = 0
(x + 2)
2
+ (y + 4)
2
= 4
(x + 2)
2
+ (y + 4)
2
= 2
2

Centre (2, 4)
r
2
= 2
2

r = 2


b (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

x
2
10x + y
2
2y + 10 = 0
(x
2
10x + 25) 25 + (y
2
2y + 1)
1 + 10 = 0
(x 5)
2
+ (y 1)
2
16 = 0
(x 5)
2
+ (y 1)
2
= 16
(x 5)
2
+ (y 1)
2
= 4
2

Centre (5, 1)
r
2
= 4
2

r = 4


Chapter 10 Linear and non-linear graphs
L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 217
c (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

x
2
14x + y
2
+ 6y + 9 = 0
(x
2
14x + 49) 49 + (y
2
+ 6y + 9)
9 + 9 = 0
(x 7)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
49 = 0
(x 7)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
= 49
(x 7)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
= 7
2

Centre (7, 3)
r
2
= 7
2

r = 7


d (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

x
2
8x + y
2
12y 12 = 0
(x
2
+ 8x + 16) 16 +
(y
2
12y + 36) 36 12 = 0
(x + 4)
2
+ (y 6)
2
64 = 0
(x + 4)
2
+ (y 6)
2
= 64
(x + 4)
2
+ (y 6)
2
= 8
2

Centre (4, 6)
r
2
= 8
2

r = 8


e (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

x
2
+ y
2
18y 19 = 0
x
2
+ (y
2
18y + 81) 81 19 = 0
(x 0)
2
+ (y 9)
2
100 = 0
(x 0)
2
+ (y 9)
2
= 100
(x 0)
2
+ (y 9)
2
= 10
2

Centre (0, 9)
r
2
= 10
2

r = 10


f (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

2x
2
4x + 2y
2
+ 8y 8 = 0
x
2
2x + y
2
+ 4y 4 = 0
(x
2
2x + 1) 1 + (y
2
+ 4y + 4)
4 4 = 0
(x 1)
2
+ (y + 2)
2
9 = 0
(x 1)
2
+ (y + 2)
2
= 9
(x 1)
2
+ (y + 2)
2
= 3
2

Centre (1, 2)
r
2
= 3
2

r = 3


4 (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

(x 2)
2
+ (y + 5)
2
= 4
(x 2)
2
+ (y + 5)
2
= 2
2

Centre (2, 5)
r
2
= 2
2

r = 2
The answer is D.
5 (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

(x + 1)
2
+ (y 3)
2
= 4
(x + 1)
2
+ (y 3)
2
= 2
2

Centre (1, 3)
r
2
= 2
2

r = 2
The answer is B.
6 Centre (5, 3)
Radius = x
2
x
1

= 9 5
= 4
(x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

(x 5)
2
+ (y 3)
2
= 4
2

(x 5)
2
+ (y 3)
2
= 16
Exercise 10B The ellipse
1 a
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2 2
100 49
x y
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
10 7
x y
+ = 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 10 and b = 7
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
7
2
= 10
2
(1 e
2
)
49 = 100(1 e
2
)
49 = 100 100e
2

51 = 100e
2


51
100
= e
2


51
100
= e

51
10
= e
Foci are (ae, 0)

51
10 , 0
10
| |

|
|
\ .

( 51, 0)
Directrices are at x =
a
e

x =
51
10
10

x =
100
51

x =
100 51
51

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
100 51
51



b
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2 2
25 4
x y
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
5 2
x y
+ = 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 5 and b = 2
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
2
2
= 5
2
(1 e
2
)
4 = 25(1 e
2
)
4 = 25 25e
2

21 = 25e
2


21
25
= e
2


21
25
= e

21
5
= e
Foci are (ae, 0)

21
5 , 0
5
| |
|
|
\ .

( 21, 0)
Directrices are at x =
a
e

x =
21
5
5

x =
25
21

x =
25 21
21

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
25 21
21



c
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2 2
64 36
x y
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
8 6
x y
+ = 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 8 and b = 6
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
6
2
= 8
2
(1 e
2
)
36 = 64(1 e
2
)
36 = 64 64e
2

28 = 64e
2


28
64
= e
2


7
16
= e
A GM1 1 - 1 0 218 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s

7
4
= e
Foci are (ae, 0)

7
8 , 0
4
| |
|
|
\ .

( 2 7, 0)
Directrices are at x =
a
e

x =
7
8
4

x =
32
7

x =
32 7
7

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
32 7
7



d
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2 2
121 81
x y
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
11 9
x y
+ = 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 11 and b = 9
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
9
2
= 11
2
(1 e
2
)
81 = 121(1 e
2
)
81 = 121 121e
2

40 = 121e
2


40
121
= e
2


40
121
= e

2 10
11
= e
Foci are (ae, 0)

2 10
11 , 0
11
| |
|
|
\ .

( 2 10, 0)
Directrices are at x =
a
e

x =
2 10
11
11

x =
121
2 10

x =
121 10
20

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
121 10
20



e
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2
2
2
x
y
a
+ = 1

2 2
16 1
x y
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
4 1
x y
+ = 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 4 and b = 1
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
1
2
= 4
2
(1 e
2
)
1 = 161(1 e
2
)
1 = 16 16e
2

15 = 16e
2


15
16
= e
2


15
16
= e

15
4
= e
Foci are (ae, 0)

15
4 , 0
4
| |
|
|
\ .

( 15, 0)
Directrices are at x =
a
e

x =
15
4
4

x =
16
15

x =
16 15
15

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
16 15
15



f
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1
x
2
+ 4y
2
= 4 Divide both
sides by 4

2 2
4 1
x y
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
2 1
x y
+ = 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 4 and b = 1
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
1
2
= 2
2
(1 e
2
)
1 = 4(1 e
2
)
1 = 4 4e
2

3 = 4e
2


3
4
= e
2


3
4
= e

3
2
= e
Foci are (ae, 0)

3
2 , 0
2
| |
|
|
\ .

( 3, 0)
Directrices are at x =
a
e

x =
3
2
2

x =
4
3

x =
4 3
3

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
4 3
3



2 a
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

+ = 1

2 2
( 1) ( 2)
9 4
x y +
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
( 1) ( 2)
3 2
x y +
+ = 1
Centre (h, k)
Hence the centre is (1, 2)
a = 3 and b = 2
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
2
2
= 3
2
(1 e
2
)
4 = 9(1 e
2
)
4 = 9 9e
2

5 = 9e
2


5
9
= e
2


5
9
= e

5
3
= e
Foci are (ae, h, k)

5
3 1, 2
3
| |
+
|
|
\ .

L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 219
( 5 1, 2) +
Hence the foci are (1 5, 2)
and (1 5, 2) +
Directrices are at x =
a
h
e
+
x =
5
3 1
3
+
x =
9
1
5
+
x =
9 5
1
5
+
Hence, the equations of the
directrices are:
x =
9 5
1
5
=
5 9 5
5


and
x =
9 5
1
5
+ =
5 9 5
5
+



b
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

+ = 1

2 2
( 5) ( 2)
25 16
x y +
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
( 5) ( 2)
5 4
x y +
+ = 1
Centre (h, k)
Hence the centre is (5, 2)
a = 5 and b = 4
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
4
2
= 5
2
(1 e
2
)
16 = 25(1 e
2
)
16 = 25 25e
2

9 = 25e
2


9
25
= e
2


9
25
= e

3
5
= e
Foci are (ae, h, k)

3
( 5 5, 2)
5

( 3 5, 2)
Hence the foci are (2, 2) and
(8, 2)
Directrices are at x =
a
h
e
+
x =
3
5 5
5

x =
25
5
3

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are:
x =
10
3
and x =
40
3



c
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

+ = 1

2 2
( 5) ( 1)
49 25
x y + +
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
( 5) ( 1)
7 5
x y + +
+ = 1
Centre (h, k)
Hence the centre is (5, 1)
a = 7 and b = 5
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
5
2
= 7
2
(1 e
2
)
25 = 49(1 e
2
)
25 = 49 49e
2

24 = 49e
2


24
49
= e
2


24
49
= e

2 6
7
= e
Foci are (ae, h, k)

2 6
( 7 5, 1)
7

( 2 6 5, 1)
Hence the foci are ( 2 6 5, 1)
and (2 6 5, 1)
Directrices are at x =
a
h
e
+
x =
2 6
7 5
7

x =
49
5
2 6

x =
49 6 60
12 12

x =
49 6 60
12


Hence, the equations of the
directrices are:
x =
49 6 60
12

5
and
x =
49( 6 60)
12

15


d
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

+ = 1

2 2
( 2) ( 3)
169 25
x y
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
( 2) ( 3)
13 5
x y
+ = 1
Centre (h, k)
Hence the centre is (2, 3)
a = 13 and b = 5
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
5
2
= 13
2
(1 e
2
)
25 = 169(1 e
2
)
25 = 169 169e
2

144 = 169e
2


144
169
= e
2


144
169
= e

12
13
= e
Foci are (ae, h, k)

12
( 13 2, 3)
13
+
(12 + 2, 3)
Hence the foci are (10, 3) and
(14, 3)
Directrices are at x =
a
h
e
+
x =
12
13 2
13
+
x =
169
2
12
+
x =
169 24
12 12
+
Hence, the equations of the
directrices are:
x =
169 24
12
+
=
193
12
=
1
16
12

and
x =
169 24
12
+
=
145
12


=
1
12
12



e
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

+ = 1

2
2
( 5)
36
x
y

+ = 1

2 2
2 2
( 5) ( 0)
6 1
x y
+ = 1
Centre (h, k)
Hence the centre is (5, 0)
a = 6 and b = 1
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
1
2
= 6
2
(1 e
2
)
1 = 36(1 e
2
)
A GM1 1 - 1 0 220 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s
1 = 36 36e
2

35 = 36e
2


35
36
= e
2


35
36
= e

35
6
= e
Foci are (ae + h, k)

35
6 5, 0
6
| |
+ |
|
\ .

( 35 5, 0) +
Hence the foci are ( 35 5, 0) +
and ( 35 5, 0) +
Directrices are at x =
a
h
e
+
x =
35
6 5
6
+
x =
36
5
35
+
x =
36 35 175
35 35
+
Hence, the equations of the
directrices are:
x =
175 36 35
35


and
x =
175 36 35
35
+



f
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

+ = 1
x
2
+ 9(y + 2)
2
= 9

2 2
( 2)
9 1
x y +
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
( 0) ( 2)
3 1
x y +
+ = 1
Centre (h, k)
Hence the centre is (0, 2)
a = 3 and b = 1
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
1
2
= 3
2
(1 e
2
)
1 = 9(1 e
2
)
1 = 9 9e
2

8 = 9e
2


8
9
= e
2


8
9
= e

2 2
3
= e
Foci are (ae + h, k)

2 2
( 3 , 2)
3

( 2 2, 2)
Hence the foci are (2 2, 2) and
( 2 2, 2)
Directrices are at x =
a
h
e
+
x =
2 2
3 0
3
+
x =
9
2 2

x =
9 2
4

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are:
x =
9 2
4
and x =
9 2
4



3 Directrices are expressed as
x =, therefore E is not true.
The answer is E.
4 Centre is (3, 0). This rules out A.
With the domain extending
6 units, a = 3 and when the range
extending 4 units, b = 2.

2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

+ = 1

2 2
2 2
( 3)
3 2
x y +
+ = 1
The answer is C.
5 Centre (0, 0)
a = 1 b = 1.4

2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
1 1.4
x y
+ = 1
x
2
+
2
2
1.4
y
= 1
Exercise 10C The parabola
1 a y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 4x
y
2
= 4(1)x
Vertex (0, 0)
a = 1
Focus (a, 0)
Focus at (1, 0)
Directrix at x = a
x = 1


b y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 16x
y
2
= 4(4)x
Vertex (0, 0)
a = 4
Focus (a, 0)
Focus at (4, 0)
Directrix at x = a
x = 4


c y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 20x
y
2
= 4(5)x
Vertex (0, 0)
a = 5
Focus (a, 0)
Focus at (5, 0)
Directrix at x = a
x = 5


d y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 24x
y
2
= 4(6)x
Vertex (0, 0)
a = 6
Focus (a, 0)
Focus at (6, 0)
Directrix at x = a
x = 6


e y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 6x
y
2
=
6
4
4
x

Vertex (0, 0)
a =
3
2

Focus (a, 0)
Focus at (
3
2
, 0)
Directrix at x = a
x =
3
2



f y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 10x
y
2
=
10
4
4
x

Vertex (0, 0)
a =
5
2

Focus (a, 0)
L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 221
Focus at
5
, 0
2
| |
|
\ .

Directrix at x = a
x =
5
2



g y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 9x
y
2
=
9
4
4
x

Vertex (0, 0)
a =
9
4

Focus (a, 0)
Focus at (
9
4
, 0)
Directrix at x = a
x =
9
4



h y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 7x
y
2
=
7
4
4
x

Vertex (0, 0)
a =
7
4

Focus (a, 0)
Focus at
7
, 0
4
| |
|
\ .

Directrix at x = a
x =
7
4



2 a (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 8(x 3)
y
2
= 4 2(x 3)
Hence h = 3 and k = 0
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (3, 0)
a = 2
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (2 + 3, 0)
Focus at (5, 0)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 2 + 3
x = 1


b (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 4(x 1)
y
2
= 4 1(x 1)
Hence h = 1 and k = 0
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (1, 0)
a = 1
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (1 + 1, 0)
Focus at (2, 0)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 1 + 1
x = 0


c (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 12(x + 1)
y
2
= 4 3(x + 1)
Hence h = 1 and k = 0
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (1, 0)
a = 3
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (3 1, 0)
Focus at (2, 0)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 3 1
x = 4


d (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 16(x + 4)
y
2
= 4 4(x + 4)
Hence h = 4 and k = 0
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (4, 0)
a = 4
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (4 4, 0)
Focus at (0, 0)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 4 4
x = 8


e (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 1)
2
= 4(x 2)
(y 1)
2
= 4 1(x 2)
Hence h = 2 and k = 1
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (2, 1)
a = 1
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (1 + 2, 1)
Focus at (3, 1)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 1 + 2
x = 1


f (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 3)
2
= 12(x 5)
(y 3)
2
= 4 3(x 5)
Hence h = 5 and k = 3
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (5, 3)
a = 3
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (3 + 5, 3)
Focus at (8, 3)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 3 + 5
x = 2


g (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y + 3)
2
= 20(x + 1)
(y + 3)
2
= 4 5(x + 1)
Hence h = 1 and k = 3
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (1, 3)
a = 5
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (5 1, 3)
Focus at (4, 3)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 5 1
x = 6


h (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y + 6)
2
= 8(x + 3)
(y + 6)
2
= 4 2(x + 3)
Hence h = 3 and k = 6
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (3, 6)
a = 2
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (2 3, 6)
Focus at (1, 6)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 2 3
x = 5


i (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 2)
2
= 4(x 0)
(y 2)
2
= 4 1(x 0)
Hence h = 0 and k = 2
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (0, 2)
a = 1
A GM1 1 - 1 0 222 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (1 + 0, 2)
Focus at (1, 2)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 1 + 0
x = 1


j (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 7)
2
= 12(x 0)
(y 7)
2
= 4 3(x 0)
Hence h = 0 and k = 7
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (0, 7)
a = 3
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (3 + 0, 7)
Focus at (3, 7)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 3 + 0
x = 3


k (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y + 5)
2
= 6(x 0)
(y + 5)
2
=
6
4
4
(x 0)
Hence h = 0 and k = 5
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (0, 5)
a =
3
2

Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at
3
0, 5
2
| |
+
|
\ .

Focus at
3
, 5
2
| |

|
\ .

Directrix at x = a + h
x =
3
2
+ 0
x =
3
2



l (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y + 4)
2
= 10(x 0)
(y + 4)
2
=
10
4
4
(x 0)
Hence h = 0 and k = 4
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (0, 4)
a =
5
2

Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at
5
0, 4
2
| |
+
|
\ .

Focus at
5
, 4
2
| |

|
\ .

Directrix at x = a + h
x =
5
0
2
+
x =
5
2



3 a y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 4x
y
2
= 4(1)x
Vertex (0, 0)
a = 1
Focus (a, 0)
Focus at (1, 0)
Directrix at x = a
x = 1


b y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 8x
y
2
= 4(2)x
Vertex (0, 0)
a = 2
Focus (a, 0)
Focus at (2, 0)
Directrix at x = a
x = 2


c y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 10x
y
2
=
10
4
4
x

Vertex (0, 0)
a =
5
2

Focus (a, 0)
Focus at
5
, 0
2
| |

|
\ .

Directrix at x = a
x =
5
2



d y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 6x
y
2
=
6
4
4
x

Vertex (0, 0)
a =
3
2

Focus (a, 0)
Focus at
3
, 0
2
| |

|
\ .

Directrix at x = a
x =
3
2



e (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 12(x + 1)
y
2
= 4 (3)(x + 1)
Hence h = 1 and k = 0
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (1, 0)
a = 3
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (3 1, 0)
Focus at (4, 0)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = (3) 1
x = 2


f (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 20(x + 3)
y
2
= 4 (5)(x + 3)
Hence h = 3 and k = 0
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (1, 0)
a = 5
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (5 3, 0)
Focus at (8, 0)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = (5) 3
x = 2


g (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 14(x 2)
y
2
=
14
4
4

(x 2)
Hence h = 2 and k = 0
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (2, 0)
a =
7
2

Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at
7
2, 0
2
| |
+
|
\ .

L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 223
Focus at
3
, 0
2
| |

|
\ .

Directrix at x = a + h
x =
7
2
2
+
x =
1
5
2



h (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 2(x 4)
y
2
=
2
4
4

(x 4)
Hence h = 4 and k = 0
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (4, 0)
a =
1
2

Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at
1
4, 0
2
| |
+
|
\ .

Focus at
1
3 , 0
2
| |
|
\ .

Directrix at x = a + h
x =
1
4
2
+
x =
1
4
2



i (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 1)
2
= 8(x + 3)
(y 1)
2
= 4 (2)(x + 3)
Hence h = 3 and k = 1
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (3, 1)
a = 2
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (2 3, 1)
Focus at (5, 1)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 2 3
x = 1


j (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 2)
2
= 16(x + 5)
(y 2)
2
= 4 (4)(x + 5)
Hence h = 5 and k = 2
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (5, 2)
a = 4
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (4 5, 2)
Focus at (9, 2)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 4 5
x = 1


k (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y + 2)
2
= 18(x 1)
(y + 2)
2
=
18
4
4

(x 1)
Hence h = 1 and k = 2
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (1, 2)
a =
9
2

Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at
9
1, 2
2
| |
+
|
\ .

Focus at
1
3 , 2
2
| |

|
\ .

Directrix at x = a + h
x =
9
1
2
+
x =
1
5
2



l (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y + 5)
2
= 10(x + 2)
(y + 5)
2
=
10
4
4

(x + 2)
Hence h = 2 and k = 5
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (2, 5)
a =
5
2

Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at
5
2, 5
2
| |

|
\ .

Focus at
1
4 , 5
2
| |

|
\ .

Directrix at x = a + h
x =
5
2
2

x =
1
2



4 Given focus = (4, 0)
directrix = (2)
And vertex is midway between focus
and directrix,
Then x =
2 4
2
+

x = 1
Vertex = (1, 0)
Hence h = 1, k = 0
and 4 = a + h
4 = a + 1
3 = a
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 4(3)(x 1)
y
2
= 12(x 1)
The answer is E.
5 (y + 1)
2
= 4x
(y + 1)
2
= 4(1)(x 0)
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
a = 1
k = 1
h = 0
Vertex = (0, 1)
Directrix at x = a + h
= 1 + 0
= 1
Focus (a + h, k)
(1, 1)
The answer is C.
6 a Is open to the right with the
vertex on the x-axis, it can only
be ii as the coefficient of x is
positive.
b Is open to the right with its vertex
not on the x-axis, it can only be
iv as it also has a positive
coefficient with the x.
c Must be iii with its opening to the
left and the x-coefficient negative.
d Must be i.
7 a Given focus = (2, 0)
directrix = (2)
And vertex is midway between
focus and directrix,
Then x =
2 2
2
+

x = 0
Vertex = (0, 0)
Hence h = 0, k = 0
and 2 = a + h
2 = a + 0
2 = a
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 4(2)(x 0)
y
2
= 8x


b Given focus = (2, 0)
directrix = (3)
And vertex is midway between
focus and directrix,
Then x =
3 2
2
+

x =
1
2

Vertex =
1
, 0
2
| |

|
\ .

A GM1 1 - 1 0 224 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s
Hence h =
1
2
, k = 0
and 2 = a + h
2 =
1
2
a

1
2
2
= a
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
=
5 1
4
2 2
x
| || |
+
| |
\ .\ .

y
2
=
1
10
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .



c Given focus = (4, 0)
directrix = (2)
And vertex is midway between
focus and directrix,
Then x =
2 4
2
+

x = 3
Vertex = (3, 0)
Hence h = 3, k = 0
and 4 = a + h
4 = a + 3
1 = a
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 4(1)(x 3)
y
2
= 4(x 3)


d Given focus = (6, 0)
directrix = (2)
And vertex is midway between
focus and directrix,
Then x =
2 6
2
+

x = 2
Vertex = (2, 0)
Hence h = 2, k = 0
and 6 = a + h
6 = a + 2
4 = a
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 4(4)(x 2)
y
2
= 16(x 2)


e Given focus = (2, 0)
Directrix = (4)
And vertex is midway between
focus and directrix,
Then x =
4 2
2


x = 1
Vertex = (1, 0)
Hence h = 1, k = 0
and 2 = a + h
2 = a + 1
3 = a
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 4(3)(x 1)
y
2
= 12(x 1)


f Given focus = (4, 0)
Directrix = (1)
And vertex is midway between
focus and directrix,
Then x =
4 1
2


x =
5
2

Vertex =
5
, 0
2
| |

|
\ .

Hence h =
5
2
, k = 0
and 4 = a + h
4 =
5
2
a

1
1
2
= a
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
=
3 5
4
2 2
x
| || |
+
| |
\ .\ .

y
2
=
5
6
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .



g Given focus = (1, 2)
Directrix = (1)
And vertex is midway between
focus and directrix,
Then x =
1 1
2
+

x = 0
Vertex = (0, 2)
Hence h = 0, k = 2
and 1 = a + h
1 = a + 0
1 = a
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 2)
2
= 4(1)(x + 0)
(y 2)
2
= 4x


h Given focus = (2, 3)
Directrix = (2)
And vertex is midway between
focus and directrix,
Then x =
2 2
2
+

x = 0
Vertex = (0, 3)
Hence h = 0, k = 3
and 2 = a + h
2 = a + 0
2 = a
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 3)
2
= 4(2)(x + 0)
(y 3)
2
= 8x


Exercise 10D The hyperbola
1 a
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
16 9
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
4 3
x y
= 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 4 and b = 3
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
3
2
= 4
2
(e
2
1)
9 = 16(e
2
1)
9 = 16e
2
16
25 = 16e
2


25
16
= e
2


25
16
= e

5
4
= e
Foci are (ae, 0)

5
4 , 0
4
| |

|
\ .

(5, 0)
Directrices are at
x =
a
e

x =
5
4
4

x =
16
5

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x = 3.2
Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
3
4
| |

|
\ .
x
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
y =
3
4
| |
+
|
\ .
x and
y =
3
4
| |

|
\ .
x
L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 225


b
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
144 25
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
12 5
x y
= 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 12 and b = 5
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
5
2
= 122(e
2
1)
25 = 144(e
2
1)
25 = 144e
2
144
169 = 144e
2


169
144
= e
2


169
144
= e

13
12
= e
Foci are (ae, 0)

13
12 , 0
12
| |

|
\ .

(13, 0)
Directrices are at
x =
a
e

x =
13
12
12

x =
144
13

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
144
13

Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
5
12
| |

|
\ .
x
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
y =
5
12
| |
+
|
\ .
x and
y =
5
12
| |

|
\ .
x


c
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
4 4
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
2 2
x y
= 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 2 and b = 2
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
2
2
= 2
2
(e
2
1)
4 = 4(e
2
1)
4 = 4e
2
4
8 = 4e
2


8
4
= e
2

2 = e
Foci are (ae, 0)
( 2 2, 0)
( 2 2, 0)
Directrices are at
x =
a
e

x =
2
2

x = 2
Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x = 2
Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
2
2
| |

|
\ .
x
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
y = +x and
y = x


d
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
9 9
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
3 3
x y
= 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 3 and b = 3
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
3
2
= 3
2
(e
2
1)
9 = 9(e
2
1)
9 = 9e
2
9
18 = 9e
2


18
9
= e
2

2 = e
Foci are (ae, 0)
( 3 2, 0)
( 3 2, 0)
Directrices are at
x =
a
e

x =
3
2

x =
3 2
2

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
3 2
2

Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
3
3
| |

|
\ .
x
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
y = +x and y = x


e
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
64 64
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
8 6
x y
= 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 8 and b = 6
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
6
2
= 8
2
(e
2
1)
36 = 64(e
2
1)
36 = 64e
2
9
100 = 64e
2


100
64
= e
2


100
64
= e

5
4
= e
Foci are (ae, 0)

5
( 8 , 0)
4

( 10, 0)
Directrices are at
x =
a
e

x =
5
8
4

A GM1 1 - 1 0 226 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s
x =
2
6
5

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
2
6
5

Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
6
8
| |

|
\ .
x
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
y =
3
4
| |
+
|
\ .
x and
y =
3
4
| |

|
\ .
x


f 4x
2
9y
2
= 36
x
2

9
4
y
2
= 9

2 2
9 4
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
2 2
3 2
x y
= 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 3 and b = 2
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
2
2
= 3
2
(e
2
1)
4 = 9(e
2
1)
4 = 9e
2
9
13 = 9e
2


13
9
= e
2


13
9
= e

13
3
= e
Foci are (ae, 0)

13
3 , 0
3
| |

|
|
\ .

( 13 , 0)
Directrices are at
x =
a
e

x =
9
13

x =
9 13
13

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
9 13
13

Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
2
3
| |

|
\ .
x
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
y =
2
3
| |
+
|
\ .
x and
y =
2
3
| |

|
\ .
x


2 a
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x k y k
a b

= 1

2 2
( 1) ( 0)
16 9
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
( 1) ( 0)
4 3
x y
= 1
Centre (h, k)
h = 1, k = 0
Centre (1, 0)
a = 4 and b = 3
Vertices (a + h, k)
(4 + 1, 0)
(4 + 1, 0)
(5, 0)
(4 + 1, 0)
(3, 0)
Vertices at (3, 0) and (5, 0)
asymptotes
y k =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
(x h)
y =
3
4
| |
+
|
\ .
(x 1)
4y = +3(x 1)
4y = 3x 3
4y 3x + 3 = 0
y =
3
4
| |

|
\ .
(x 1)
4y = 3(x 1)
4y = 3x + 3
4y + 3x 3 = 0
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
4y 3x + 3 = 0 and
4y + 3x 3 = 0


b
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

= 1

2 2
( 3) ( 0)
144 25
x y +
= 1

2 2
2 2
( 3) ( 0)
12 5
x y +
= 1
Centre (h, k)
h = 3, k = 0
Centre (1, 0)
a = 12 and b = 5
Vertices (a + h, k)
(12 3, 0)
(12 3, 0)
(9, 0)
(12 3, 0)
(15, 0)
Vertices at (15, 0) and (9, 0)
Asymptotes
y k =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
(x h)
y =
5
12
| |
+
|
\ .
(x + 3)
12y = +5(x + 3)
12y = 5x + 15
12y 5x 15 = 0
5x 12y + 15 = 0
y =
5
12
| |

|
\ .
(x + 3)
12y = 5x (x + 3)
12y = 5x 15
5x + 12y + 3 = 0
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
5x 12y + 15 = 0 and
5x + 12y + 15 = 0


c
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

= 1

2 2
( 0) ( 2)
9 9
x y +
= 1

2 2
2 2
( 0) ( 2)
3 3
x y +
= 1
Centre (h, k)
h = 0, k = 2
Centre (0, 2)
a = 3 and b = 3
Vertices (a + h, k)
(3 + 0, 2)
(3, 2)
L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 227
(3 + 0, 2)
(3, 2)
Vertices at (3, 2) and (3, 2)
Asymptotes
y k =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
(x h)
y + 2 =
3
3
| |

|
\ .
(x 0)
y + 2 = x
x y 2 = 0
y + 2 =
3
3
| |

|
\ .
(x 0)
y + 2 = x
x + y + 2 = 0
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
x y 2 = 0 and
x + y + 2 = 0


d x
2
(y 3)
2
= 4

2 2
( 0) ( 3)
4 4
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

= 1

2 2
2 2
( 0) ( 3)
2 2
x y
= 1
Centre (h, k)
h = 0, k = 3
Centre (0, 3)
a = 2 and b = 2
Vertices (a + h, k)
(2 + 0, 3)
(2, 3)
(2 + 0, 3)
(2, 3)
Vertices at (2, 3) and (2, 3)
Asymptotes
y k =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
(x h)
y 3 =
2
2
| |
+
|
\ .
(x 0)
y 3 = x
x y + 3 = 0
y 3 =
2
2
| |

|
\ .
(x 0)
y 3 = x
x + y 3 = 0
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
x y + 3 = 0 and
x + y 3 = 0


e
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

= 1

2 2
( 1) ( 2)
64 36
x y +
= 1

2 2
2 2
( 1) ( 2)
8 6
x y +
= 1
Centre (h, k)
h = 1, k = 2
Centre (1, 2)
a = 8 and b = 6
Vertices (a + h, k)
(8 1, 2)
(8 1, 2)
(7, 2)
(8 1, 2)
(9, 2)
Vertices at (9, 2) and (7, 2)
Asymptotes
y k =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
(x h)
y 2 =
6
8
| |
+
|
\ .
(x + 1)
y 2 =
3
4
| |
+
|
\ .
(x + 1)
4y 8 = 3x + 3
3x 4y + 11 = 0
y 2 =
6
8
| |

|
\ .
(x + 1)
y 2 =
3
4
| |

|
\ .
(x + 1)
4y 8 = 3x 3
3x + 4y 5 = 0
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
3x + 4y 5 = 0 and
3x 4y + 11 = 0


f 4(x 5)
2
9(y + 3)
2
= 36
(x 5)
2

9
4
| |
|
\ .
(y + 3)
2
= 9

2 2
( 5) ( 3)
9 4
x y +
= 1

2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

= 1

2 2
2 2
( 5) ( 3)
3 4
x y +
= 1
Centre (h, k)
h = 5, k = 3
Centre (5, 3)
a = 3 and b = 2
Vertices (a + h, k)
(3 + 5, 3)
(3 + 5, 3)
(8, 3)
(3 + 5, 3)
(2, 3)
Vertices at (9, 2) and (7, 2)
Asymptotes
y k =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
(x h)
y + 3 =
2
3
| |
+
|
\ .
(x 5)
3y + 9 = 2x 10
2x 3y 19 = 0
y + 3 =
2
3
| |

|
\ .
(x 5)
3y + 9 = 2x + 10
2x + 3y 1 = 0
Hence the equations of the
asymptotes are
2x 3y 19 = 0 and
2x + 3y 1 = 0


3 a i From the graph;
The distance between the
vertices is 6.
Hence a = 3.
The gradient of the asymptote
is
2
3
| |
|
\ .
which is equal to
b
a
| |
|
\ .
.
b = 2, a = 3
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
2
2
= 3
2
(e
2
1)
4 = 9(e
2
1)
4 = 9e
2
9
13 = 9e
2


13
9
= e
2


13
9
= e

13
3
= e
ii Foci are at (ae + h, k)
h = 0, k = 0, a = 3 and e =
13
3

3
13
3
= 13
Foci are ( 13 , 0) and
( 13 , 0)
iii Directrices are at x =
a
e

A GM1 1 - 1 0 228 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s
x =
13
3
3

x =
9
13

x =
9 13
13

Hence, the directrices are
x =
9 13
13

iv Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
2
3
| |

|
\ .
x
b i From the graph;
The distance between the
vertices is 10.
Hence a = 5.
The gradient of the asymptote is
1
5
which is equal to
b
a
| |
|
\ .
.
b = 1, a = 5
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
1
2
= 5
2
(e
2
1)
1 = 25(e
2
1)
1 = 25e
2
25
26 = 25e
2


26
25
= e
2


26
25
= e

26
5
= e
ii Foci are at (ae + h, k)
h = 0, k = 0, a = 5 e =
26
5


26
5
5
= 26
Foci are ( 26, 0) and
( 26, 0)
iii Directrices are at x =
a
e
| |

|
\ .

x =
26
5
5

x =
25
26

x =
25 26
26

Hence, the directrices are
x =
25 26
26

iv Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
1
5
| |

|
\ .
x
c i From the graph;
The distance between the
vertices is 10.
Hence a = 5.
The gradient of the asymptote
is
2
5
which is equal to
b
a
.
b = 2, a = 5
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
2
2
= 5
2
(e
2
1)
4 = 25(e
2
1)
4 = 25e
2
25
29 = 25e
2


29
25
= e
2


29
25
= e

29
5
= e
ii Foci are at (ae + h, k)
h = 0, k = 0, a = 5 and e =
29
5


29
5
5
= 29
Foci are ( 29, 0) and
( 29, 0)
iii Directrices are at x =
a
e
| |

|
\ .

x =
29
5
5

x =
25
29

x =
25 29
29

Hence, the directrices are
x =
25 29
29

iv Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
2
5
x
4 Given the distance between the
vertices is 8 then a = 4.
Also given the asymptotes
y =
1
2
x =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
then b = 2.
As the centre is (0, 0) then

2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
2 2
4 2
x y
= 1

2 2
16 4
x y
= 1
The answer is D.
5 Given the distance between the two
vertices is 4 then a = 2.
Foci are (ae, 0) (2.5, 0)
Then
2.5 = ae
2.5 = 2 e
1.25 = e
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
b
2
= 2
2
(1.25
2
1)
b
2
= 4(1.5625 1)
b
2
= 4(0.5625)
b
2
= 2.25
b = 1.5
Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
1.5
2
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
3
4
x
The answer is B.
6 Given the distance between the
vertices is 8 then a = 4.
Foci are (ae, 0) (5, 0)
Then
5 = ae
5 = 4 e
1.25 = e
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
b
2
= 4
2
(1.25
2
1)
b
2
= 16(1.5625 1)
b
2
= 16(0.5625)
b
2
= 9
b = 3
As the centre is (0, 0) then

2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
2 2
4 3
x y
= 1

2 2
16 9
x y
= 1
The answer is C.
7 Given
Foci are (ae, 0)
(3 2 , 0)
And e = 2
Then
3 2 = ae
3 2 = a 2
a = 3
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
b
2
= 3
2
( 2 1)
b
2
= 9(2 1)
b
2
= 9(1)
b
2
= 9
b = 3
So the equation could be

2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
2 2
3 3
x y
= 1

2 2
9 9
x y
= 1
L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 229
8 Given the distance between the two
vertices is 10 then a = 5.
Given the directrices are (4)
and directrices are at x =
a
e
:

5
e
= 4
5 = 4e

5
4
= e
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1.25
2
1)
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
b
2
=
2
2
5
5 1
4
| |
| |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

b
2
=
25
25 1
16
| |

|
\ .

b
2
=
9
25
16
| |
|
\ .

b
2
=
225
16

b =
15
4

So the equation could be

2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
2 2
5
x y
b
= 1

2 2
2
25
x y
b
= 1

2
2
2
25
15
4
y
x
| |
|
\ .
= 25

2
2
25
225
16
y
x
| |
|
\ .
= 25

2
2
25 16
225
y
x

= 25

2
2
16
9
y
x = 25
9x
2
16y
2
= 225
9 Given the distance between the
vertices is 40, then a = 20.
Foci are (ae, 0) h = 0, k = 0
(30, 0)
Then
30 = ae
30 = 20 e
e = 1.5
since b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
b
2
= 20
2
(1.5
2
1)
b
2
= 400(2.25 1)
b
2
= 400 1.25
b
2
= 500
So,

2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
400 500
x y
= 1
Exercise 10E Polar
coordinates
1 a Plot [2, 0]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Extend the line 2 units in the
positive direction along the
x-axis.
b Plot [5, 180]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Extend the line 5 units in the
negative direction along the
x-axis.
c Plot [0.5, 270]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate 270 anticlockwise.
Extend the line 0.5 units.
d Plot [3, 90]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate 90 anticlockwise.
Extend the line 3 units.


2 a Plot [1,
3

]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate
3

anticlockwise.
Extend the line 1 unit.
b Plot [1,
3

]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate
3

clockwise.
Extend the line 1 unit.
c Plot [1,
2
3

]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate
2
3

clockwise.
Extend the line 1 unit.
d Plot [1,
5
3

]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate
5
3

clockwise.
Extend the line 1 unit.


3 a Locate [3, 45]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate 45 anticlockwise.
Extend the line 3 units.
b Locate [4, 100]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate 100 anticlockwise.
Extend the line 4 units.
c Locate [1, 300]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate 300 anticlockwise.
Extend the line 1 unit.
d Plot [2.5, 30]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate 30 clockwise.
Extend the line 2.5 units.


4 a Convert to Cartesian [2, 45]
x = r cos( )
x = 2 cos(45)
x =
2
2
2

x = 2
y = r sin( )
y = 2 sin(45)
y =
2
2
2

y = 2
Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are ( 2 , 2 ).
b Convert to Cartesian [5, 30]
x = r cos( )
x = 5 cos(30)
x =
3
5
2

x =
5 3
2

y = r sin( )
y = 5 sin(30)
y =
1
5
2

y = 2.5
Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are
5 3
, 2.5
2
| |
|
|
\ .
.
c Convert to Cartesian [3, 60]
x = r cos( )
x = 3 cos(60)
x =
1
3
2

x = 1.5
y = r sin( )
y = 3 sin(60)
y =
3
3
2

y =
3 3
2

Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are
3 3
1.5,
2
| |
|
|
\ .
.
d Convert to Cartesian [2.7, 90]
x = r cos( )
x = 2.7 cos(90)
x = 0
A GM1 1 - 1 0 230 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s
y = r sin( )
y = 2.7 sin(90)
y = 2.7
Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are (0, 2.7).
e Convert to Cartesian [1.5, 120]
x = r cos( )
x = 1.5 cos(120)
x =
1
1.5
2
| |

|
\ .

x = 0.75
y = r sin( )
y = 1.5 sin(120)
y =
3
1.5
2

y =
3 3
4

Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are
3 3
0.75,
4
| |
|
|
\ .
.
f Convert to Cartesian [12, 210]
x = r cos( )
x = 12 cos(210)
x = 6 3
y = r sin( )
y = 12 sin(210)
y =
1
12
2
| |

|
\ .

y = 6
Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are ( 6 3, 6).
g Convert to Cartesian [2.6,
2

]
x = r cos( )
x = 2.6cos
2
| |
|
\ .

x = 0
y = r sin( )
y = 2.6sin
2
| |
|
\ .

y = 2.6
Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are (0, 2.6).
h Convert to Cartesian [7.8, ]
x = r cos( )
x = 7.8 cos( )
x = 7.8
y = r sin( )
y = 7.8 sin(x)
y = 0
Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are (7.8, 0).
i Convert to Cartesian [10,
3

]
x = r cos( )
x = 10cos
3
| |
|
\ .

x =
1
10
2

x = 5
y = r sin( )
y = 10sin
3
| |
|
\ .

y =
3
10
2

y = 5 3
Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are (5, 5 3 ).
j Convert to Cartesian [9.1,
5
3

]
x = r cos( )
x =
5
9.1cos
3
| |
|
\ .

x =
1
9.1
2
| |

|
\ .

x = 4.55
y = r sin( )
y =
5
9.1sin
3
| |
|
\ .

y =
3
9.1
2
| |

|
|
\ .

y =
91 3
20

Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are
91 3
4.55,
20
| |
|
|
\ .
.
k Convert to Cartesian [25, 5.8
c
]
x = r cos( )
x = 25 cos (5.8
c
)
x = 25 0.8855
x = 22.14
y = r sin( )
y = 25 sin(5.8
c
)

y = 25 (0.4646)
y = 11.62
Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are (22.14, 11.62)
l Convert to Cartesian [1.6, 4
c
]
x = r cos( )
x = 1.6 cos(4
c
)
x = 1.6 (0.6536)
x = 1.05
y = r sin( )
y = 1.6 sin(4
c
)
y = 1.6 (0.7568)
y = 1.21
Hence, the Cartesian coordinates
are (1.05, 1.21).
5 a Convert to Polar coordinates.
(5, 0)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
5 0 +
r =
2
5
r = 5
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
0
5

tan( ) = 0
(5, 0) is positive on the x-axis.
Hence = 0
Hence the Polar coordinates are
[5, 0]
b Convert to Polar coordinates.
(0, 4.3)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
0 4.3 +
r =
2
4.3
r = 4.3
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
4.3
0

tan( ) = undefined
(0, 4.3) is positive on the y-axis.
Hence = 90
Hence the Polar coordinates are
[4.3, 90]
c Convert to Polar coordinates.
(30, 0)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
( 30) 0 +
r =
2
30
r = 30
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
0
30

tan( ) = 0
(30, 0) is negative on the x-axis.
Hence = 0
Hence the Polar coordinates are
[30, 180]
d Convert to Polar coordinates.
(0, 9)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
0 ( 9) +
r =
2
9
r = 9
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
9
0

tan( ) = undefined
(0, 9) is negative on the y-axis.
Hence = 270
Hence the Polar coordinates are
[9, 270]
e Convert to Polar coordinates.
(6, 6)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
6 6 +
r = 72
r = 6 2
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
6
6

tan( ) = 1
(6, 6) is in the first quadrant.
L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 231
Hence = 45
Hence the Polar coordinates are
[6 2, 45]
f Convert to Polar coordinates.
(4, 3)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
( 4) 3 +
r = 16 9 +
r = 25
r = 5
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
3
4

tan( ) = 0.75
(4, 3) is in the second quadrant.
Hence use ( )
0.6435 = 2.5
c

Hence the Polar coordinates are
[5, 2.5
c
]
g Convert to Polar coordinates.
(5, 12)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
( 5) ( 12) +
r = 25 144 +
r = 169
r = 13
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
12
5

tan( ) = 2.4
(4, 3) is in the third quadrant.
Hence use ( + )
+ 1.176 = 4.32
c

Hence the Polar coordinates are
[13, 4.32
c
]
h Convert to Polar coordinates.
(6, 8)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
(6) ( 8) +
r = 36 64 +
r = 100
r = 10
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
8
6

tan( ) =
4
3

tan( ) = 1.33
(6, 8) is in the fourth quadrant.
Hence use (2 )
2 0.9273 = 5.36
c

Hence the Polar coordinates are
[10, 5.36
c
]
i Convert to Polar coordinates.
(1, 3 )
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
( 1) ( 3) +
r = 1 3 +
r = 4
r = 2
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
3
1

(1, 3) is in the second quadrant.
Hence use ( )

3

=
2
3


Hence the Polar coordinates are
[2,
2
3

]
j Convert to Polar coordinates.
(2, 2)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
( 2) ( 2) +
r = 4 4 +
r = 8
r = 2 2
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
2
2

tan( ) = 1
(2, 2) is in the third quadrant.
Hence use ( + )
+
4

=
5
4


Hence the Polar coordinates are

5
2 2,
4
(
(


k Convert to Polar coordinates.
(2 3, 2)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
(2 3) ( 2) +
r = 12 4 +
r = 16
r = 4
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
2
2 3

tan( ) =
1
3

(2 3, 2) is in the fourth quadrant.
Hence use (2 )
2
6

=
11
6


Hence the Polar coordinates are

11
4,
6
(
(


l Convert to Polar coordinates (5, 6)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
5 6 +
r = 25 36 +
r = 61
r = 7.81
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
6
5

(5, 6) is in the first quadrant
Hence = 0.88
c

Hence the Polar coordinates are
[7.81, 0.88
c
]
Exercise 10F Polar
equations
1 a Transform to Polar, x = 3
Since
x = r cos( )
Then
3 = r cos( )

3
cos( )
= r
b Transform to Polar, y = 2
Since
y = r sin( )
Then
2 = r sin( )

2
sin( )
= r
c Transform to Polar, x
2
+ y
2
= 9
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then
(r cos( ))
2
+ (r sin( ))
2
= 9
r
2
cos
2
( ) + r
2
sin
2
( ) = 9
r
2
(cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( )) = 9
r
2
= 9
Since cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( ) = 1
r = 3
d Transform to Polar, x
2
+ y
2
= 36
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then
(r cos( ))
2
+ (r sin( ))
2
= 36
r
2
cos
2
( ) + r
2
sin
2
( ) = 36
r
2
(cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( )) = 36
r
2
= 36
Since cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( ) = 1
r = 6
e Transform to Polar, y = 5x
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then
5r cos( ) = r sin( )
5 =
sin( )
cos( )
r
r


5 = tan( )
= tan
1
(5)
= 7841
f Transform to Polar, y = x
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then
A GM1 1 - 1 0 232 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s
r cos( ) = r sin( )
1 =
sin( )
cos( )
r
r


1 = tan( )
= tan
1
(1)
=
4

(or 45)
g Transform to Polar, 3x 4y = 1
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then
3r cos( ) 4r sin( ) = 1
r(3 cos( ) 4 sin( )) = 1
r =
1
3cos( ) 4sin( )

h Transform to Polar, 5x + y = 7
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then
5r cos( ) + r sin( ) = 7
r(5 cos( ) + sin( )) = 7
r =
7
5cos( ) sin( ) +

i Transform to Polar,
x
2
+ y
2
10x + 6y = 0
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then
(r cos( ))
2
+ (r sin( ))
2

10r cos( ) + 6r sin( ) = 0
r
2
cos
2
( ) + r
2
sin
2
( )
r(10 cos( ) 6 sin( )) = 0
r
2
(cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( )) r(10 cos( )
6 sin( )) = 0
r
2
r(10 cos( ) 6 sin( )) = 0
Since
cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( ) = 1
r (10 cos( ) 6 sin( )) = 0
(divide both sides by r)
r = 10 cos( ) 6 sin( )
j Transform to Polar,
x
2
+ y
2
+ 6x + 8y = 0
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then
(r cos( ))
2
+ (r sin( ))
2
+ 6r cos( )
+ 8r sin( ) = 0
r
2
cos
2
( ) + r
2
sin
2
( ) + r(6 cos( )
+ 8 sin( )) = 0
r
2
(cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( )) + r(6 cos( )
+ 8 sin( )) = 0
r
2
+ r(6 cos( ) + 8 sin( )) = 0
Since
cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( ) = 1
r + (6 cos( ) + 8 sin( )) = 0
(divide both sides by r)
r = 6 cos( ) 8 sin( )
k Transform to Polar,
x
2
+ y
2
12y = 0
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then
(r cos( ))
2
+ (r sin( ))
2

12r sin( ) = 0
r
2
cos
2
( ) + r
2
sin
2
( )
r(12 sin( )) = 0
r
2
(cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( ))
r(12 sin( )) = 0
r
2
r(12 sin( )) = 0
Since
cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( ) = 1
r r(12 sin( )) = 0 (divide both
sides by r)
r = 12 sin( )
l Transform to Polar,
x
2
+ y
2
2x = 0
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then
(r cos( ))
2
+ (r sin( ))
2

2r cos( ) = 0
r
2
cos
2
( ) + r
2
sin
2
( )
r(2 cos( )) = 0
r
2
(cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( ))
r(2cos( )) = 0
r
2
r(2 cos( )) = 0
Since
cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( ) = 1
r r(2 cos( )) = 0 (divide both
sides by r)
r = 2 cos( )
m Transform to Polar,
2 2
9 4
x y
+ = 1
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then

2 2
( cos( )) ( sin( ))
9 4
r r
+ = 1

2 2 2 2
cos ( ) sin ( )
9 4
r r
+ = 1

2 2 2 2
4 cos ( ) 9 sin ( )
36
r r +
= 1
4r
2
cos
2
( ) + 9r
2
sin
2
( ) = 36
r
2
(4 cos
2
( ) + 9 sin
2
( )) = 36
r
2
=
2 2
36
4cos ( ) 9sin ( ) +

n Transform to Polar,
2 2
4 25
x y
+ = 1
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then

2 2
( cos( )) ( sin( ))
4 25
r r
+ = 1

2 2 2 2
cos ( ) sin ( )
9 4
r r
+ = 1

2 2 2 2
25 cos ( ) 4 sin ( )
100
r r +
= 1
25r
2
cos
2
( ) + 4r
2
sin
2
( ) = 100
r
2
(25 cos
2
( ) + 4 sin
2
( )) = 100
r
2
=
2 2
100
25cos ( ) 4sin ( ) +

2 a Convert to Cartesian form, r = 2
r
2
= 4
Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

Then
x
2
+ y
2
= 4
b Convert to Cartesian form, r = 5
r
2
= 25
Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

Then
x
2
+ y
2
= 25
c Convert to Cartesian form,
r = 6 sin( )
r
2
= 6r sin( )
Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
and y = r sin( )
Then
x
2
+ y
2
= 6y
x
2
+ y
2
6y = 0
x
2
+ y
2
6y + 9 9 = 0
x
2
+ (y 3)
2
= 9
d Convert to Cartesian form,
r = 2 cos( )
r
2
= 2r cos( )
Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
and x = r cos( )
Then
x
2
+ y
2
= 2x
x
2
2x + y
2
= 0
x
2
2x + 1 1 + y
2
= 0
(x 1)
2
+ y
2
= 1
e Convert to Cartesian form,
tan( ) = 3
Since

y
x
= tan( )
Then

y
x
= 3
y = 3x
f Convert to Cartesian form,
tan( ) = 4
Since

y
x
= tan( )
Then

y
x
= 4
y = 4x
g Convert to Cartesian form,
=
4


tan
4
| |
|
\ .
= 1
Then

y
x
= 1
y = x
h Convert to Cartesian form,
=
3
4



3
tan
4
| |
|
\ .
= 1
Then

y
x
= 1
y = x
i Convert to Cartesian form,
r cos( ) = 4
Since
x = r cos( )
x = 4
L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 233
j Convert to Cartesian form,
r sin( ) = 1
Since
y = r sin( )
y = 1
k Convert to Cartesian form,
r = 4 sin( ) 2 cos( )
r
2
= 4r sin( ) 2r cos( )
Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
, x = r cos( ) and
y = r sin( )
x
2
+ y
2
= 4y 2x
x
2
+ y
2
+ 2x 4y = 0
l Convert to Cartesian form,
r = 6 sin( ) + 8 cos( )
r
2
= 6 r sin( ) + 8r cos( )
Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
, x = r cos( ) and
y = r sin( )
x
2
+ y
2
= 6y + 8x
x
2
+ y
2
8x 6y = 0
m Convert to Cartesian form,
r =
3
1 sin( ) +

r(1 + sin( )) = 3
r + r sin( ) = 3
Since
y = r sin( )
Then
y + r = 3
r = 3 y
r
2
= (3 y)
2

Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

x
2
+ y
2
= (3 y)
2

x
2
+ y
2
= 9 6y + y
2

x
2
= 9 6y
9 x
2
= 6y
y =
2
9
6
x

n Convert to Cartesian form,
r =
4
1 cos( )

r(1 cos( )) = 4
r r cos( ) = 4
Since
x = r cos( )
Then
r x = 4
r = x + 4
r
2
= (x + 4)
2

Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

x
2
+ y
2
= (x + 4)
2

x
2
+ y
2
= x
2
+ 8x + 16
y
2
= 8x + 16
y
2
16 = 8x
x =
2
16
8
y

Exercise 10G Polar graphs
1 a r =


b r =


c r = 2


d r =
1
2



2 a r = 2


b r = 4


c r = 1.5


d r = 2


3 a r = sin( )


b r = 1.5 sin( )


c r = 3 sin( )


d r = 4 sin( )


e r = 5 sin( )
r = a sin( ) is a circle, centre at
0,
2
a | |
|
\ .
and radius =
2
a

Centre at (0, 2.5) radius = 2.5


4 a r = cos( )


b r = 2 cos( )


c r = 3 cos( )


d r = 4 cos( )


e r = 0.5 cos( )
r = a cos( ) is a circle, centre at
, 0
2
a | |
|
\ .
and radius =
2
a

Centre at (0.25, 0) and
radius = 0.25
A GM1 1 - 1 0 234 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s


5 a Circle


r = 3 sin( ) + 4 cos( )
r
2
= 3r sin( ) + 4r cos( )
r
2
= x
2
+ y
2
and x = r cos( ),
y = r sin( )
x
2
+ y
2
= 3
y
r
r
+ 4
x
r
r

x
2
+ y
2
= 3y + 4x
x
2
4x + y
2
3y = 0
(x
2
4x + 4) 4 + (y
2
3y
+ 2.25) 2.25 = 0
(x 2)
2
+ (y 1.5)
2
6.25 = 0
(x 2)
2
+ (y 1.5)
2
= 6.25
b i y-intercepts occur when x = 0
(2)
2
+ (y 1.5)
2
= 6.25
4 + (y 1.5)
2
= 6.25
(y 1.5)
2
= 2.25
y 1.5 = 1.5
y 1.5 = 1.5 and
y 1.5 = 1.5
y = 3 and y = 0
ii x-intercepts occur when y = 0
(x 2)
2
+ (1.5)
2
= 6.25
(x 2)
2
+ 2.25 = 6.25
(x 2)
2
= 4
x 2 = 2
x 2 = 2 and x 2 = 2
x = 4 and x = 0
iii and iv
The diameter is twice the
radius
From the equation, the radius
is 6.25, radius is 2.5, so the
diameter is 5.
v (x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

centre is (h, k)
So the coordinates of the
centre are (2, 1.5).
vi The Cartesian equation of the
curve is
(x 2)
2
+ (y 1.5
2
) = 6.25
6 r = 5 sin( ) + 12 cos( )
a Circle


r = 5 sin( ) + 12 cos( )
r
2
= 5r sin( ) + 12r cos( )
r
2
= x
2
+ y
2

x = r cos( )
y = r sin( )
x
2
+ y
2
= 5
y
r
r
+ 12
x
r
r

x
2
+ y
2
= 5y + 12x
x
2
12x + y
2
5y = 0
(x
2
12x + 36) 36 + (y
2
5y
+ 6.25) 6.25 = 0
(x 6)
2
+ (y 2.5)
2
42.25 = 0
(x 6)
2
+ (y 2.5)
2
= 42.25
A circle
b i The y-intercepts occur when
x = 0
(6)
2
+ (y 2.5)
2
= 42.25
36 + (y 2.5)
2
= 42.25
(y 2.5)
2
= 6.25
y 2.5 = 2.5
y 2.5 = 2.5 and
y 2.5 = 2.5
y = 5 and y = 0
ii The x-intercepts occur when
y = 0
(x 6)
2
+ (2.5)
2
= 42.25
(x 6)
2
+ 6.25 = 42.25
(x 6)
2
= 36
x 6 = 6
x 6 = 6 and x 6 = 6
x = 12 and x = 0
iii iv and v
(x h)
2
+ (y k)
2
= r
2

radius = r and centre is (h, k)
The diameter is twice the
radius = 2 42.25 = 13
The radius is 42.25 = 6.25
The centre is (6, 2.5)
vi The Cartesian equation of the
curve is
(x 6)
2
+ (y 2.5)
2
= 42.25
7 r = 1 cos( ) 0 2


a r = cos( ) 1


b r = 1 sin( )


c r = 4(sin( ) 1)


8 r = 1 + 2 sin( ) 0 2


a r = 1 + 3 sin( )


b r = 1 + 6 sin( )


c r = 2 + 6 sin( )


d r = 1 + 2 cos( )


e r = 1 2 sin( )


f r = 1 3 cos( )


9 r = sin(2 ) 0 2


a r = sin(3 )


L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 235
b r = sin(4 )


c r = cos(2 )


d r = 2 sin(3 )


e r = 2 sin(3 )


f r = 4 cos(3 )


10 r = 2 4 sin( ) and r = 2 4 sin( )
The graphs are identical


11 a If a = b a cardioid results. If a < b,
the limacon contains an inner
loop. If a > b, there is no inner
loop (a simple results)





b a is the radius of each petal. b is
the number of petals if b is odd.
(If b is even, then there will be 2b
petals)




c Increasing the a value increases
the size of the resulting cardioid
in all directions.


d The graph enters a spiral about
the centre from the chosen a
value. Horizontal asymptote at a
value


e The loop passes through the
horizontal axis at the chosen a
value


f The value of a is the length of one
petal (lie on the horizontal axis).


g The a value helps to determine
the position of the horizontal
asymptote.


Exercise 10H Review of
complex numbers and polar
form of complex numbers
1 a 3w = 3(3 + i) = 9 + 3i
b 2z = 2(2 3i) = 4 6i
c
1
3
w =
3
3
i +
= 1 +
1
3
i
d 2w + z = 2(3 + i) + (2 3i)
= 8 i
e 4 w z = (3 + i) 4(2 3i)
= 5 + 13i
f wz = (3 + i)(2 3i)
= 6 9i + 2i 3i
2

= 6 7i + 3
= 9 7i
g w
2
= (3 + i)
2
= 9 + 6i + i
2

= 9 + 6i 1 = 8 + 6i
h w = 3 i
i ww = (3 + i)(3 i) = 9 i
2

= 9 + 1 = 10
j z z = (2 3i)(2 + 3i) = 4 9i
2

= 4 + 9 = 13
2 a w =
2 2
(2) (2) + = 8 = 2 2
b 3 i =
2 2
3 (1) + = 9 1 +
= 10
c 3(2 ) i = 6 3i
=
3 2
(6) (3) +
= 36 9 +
= 45
= 3 5
d
1
(1 )
3
i + =
2 2
1 1
3 3
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .
=
2
9

=
2
3
.
3 a z = 1 i (4
th
quadrant).
z =
2 2
1 (1) + = 2
tan( ) = 1 =


z =

2 cis
4
| |
|
\ .

b z = 2i (z lies on Im(z) axis)
z = 2
=
2


z = 2 cis
2
| |
|
\ .

c z = 3 (z lies on Re(z) axis)
z = 3
=
z = 3 cis()
d z =
1 1
2 2
i + (z lies in 1
st

quadrant)
z =
2 2
1 1
2 2
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

A GM1 1 - 1 0 236 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s
=
1
2

=
1
2

=
2
2

tan( ) = 1
=
4


z =
2
cis
2 4
| |
|
\ .

e z = 2 3 + 2i (z lies in 1
st

quadrant)
z =
2 2
(2 3) 2 +
= 12 4 +
= 4
tan( ) =
2
2 3
=
1
3

=
6


z = 4cis
6
| |
|
\ .

f z = 1 3 i (z lies in 4
th

quadrant)
z =
2 2
1 ( 3) +
= 4
= 2
tan( ) = 3
=


z =

2cis
3
| |
|
\ .

4 a z = 2cis
4
| |
|
\ .

= 2 cos sin
4 4
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

=
1 1
2
2 2
i
| |
+
|
\ .

= 2 2 i +
z = 2 2i +
b z = 3 cis()
z = 3(cos() + i sin())
= 3(1 + 0i)
= 3
z = 3
c z =
2
3cis
3
| |
|
\ .

=
2 2
3 cos sin
3 3
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

=
1 3
3
2 2
i
| |
+ |
|
\ .

=
3 3 3
2 2
i +
z =
3 3 3
2 2
i +
d z = 3cis
6
| |
|
\ .

= 3 cos sin
6 6
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

=
3 1
3
2 2
i
| |
+ |
|
\ .

=
3 3
2 2
i +
z =
3 3
2 2
i +
e z = cis
2
| |
|
\ .

= cos sin
2 2
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

= 0 + i
z = i
f z =
5
2cis
6
| |

|
\ .

=
5 5
2 cos sin
6 6
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

=
3 1
2
2 2
i
| |
+ |
|
\ .

= 3 i
z = 3 i
5 a
2
2cis 3cis
5 10
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

=
2
6cis
5 10
| |
+
|
\ .

=
4
6cis
10 10
| |
+
|
\ .

= 6cis
2
| |
|
\ .

= 6 cos sin
2 2
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

= 6i
b 2cis 4cis
6 12
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

= 8cis
6 12
| |
+
|
\ .

= 8cis
4
| |
|
\ .

= 8 cos sin
4 4
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

=
2 2
8
2 2
i
| |
+ |
|
\ .

=
2(1 )
8
2
i +

= 4 2 (1 + i)
c
3 7
4cis 3cis
5 5
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

=
3 7
12cis
5 5
| |
+
|
\ .

= 12 cis(2)
= 12 cis(0)
= 12
d
2
cis
6
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

= cis cis
6 6
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

= cis
6 6
| |
+
|
\ .

= cis
3
| |
|
\ .

= cos sin
3 3
i
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

=
1 3
2 2
i +
=
1 3
2
i +

e
2
3cis
5
9
2cis
10

| |
|
\ .
| |
|
\ .

=
3 2 9
cis
2 5 10
| |
|
\ .

=
3 5
cis
2 10
| |
|
\ .

=
3
cis
2 2
| |
|
\ .

=
3
cos sin
2 2 2
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

=
3
(0 (1))
2
i +
=
3
2
i

f
8 cis
6
5
32 cis
6

| |
|
\ .
| |
|
\ .

=
1 5
cis
2 6 6
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

=
1
cis( )
2

=
1
(cos( ) sin( ))
2
i +
=
1
(1 0)
2
+
=
1
2

g
5
12 cis
3
20 cis
6

| |
|
\ .
| |
|
\ .

=
3 5
cis
3 6 5
| |
|
\ .

=
15 3
cis
5 2
| |
|
\ .

L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 237
=
15
cis
5 2
| |
|
\ .

=
15
cos sin
5 2 2
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

=
15
(0 (1))
5
i +
=
15
5
i

h

6cis
4

18 cis
2

| |
|
\ .
| |
|
\ .

=
2
cis
4 2 2
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

= 2 cis
4
| |
|
\ .

= 2 cos sin
4 4
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

=
1 1
2
2 2
i
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

= 2
(1 )
2
i +

= 1 + i
Exercise 10I Addition of
ordinates, reciprocals and
squares of simple graphs
1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


Chapter review
Short answer
1 a x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

x
2
+ y
2
= 9
x
2
+ y
2
= 3
2

Centre (0, 0)
r
2
= 3
2

r = 3


b (x h)
2
+ (y h)
2
= r
2

(x 2)
2
+ (y + 1)
2
= 16
Centre (2, 1)
r
2
= 4
2

r = 4


c
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2
2
2
x
y
a
+ = 1

2 2
4 1
x y
+ = 1

2 2
2
1 2
x y
+ = 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 2 and b = 1
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
1
2
= 2
2
(1 e
2
)
1 = 4(1 e
2
)
1 = 4 4e
2

3 = 4e
2


3
4
= e
2


3
4
= e

3
2
= e
Foci are ( ae, 0)
(2
3
2
, 0)
( 3 , 0)
Directrices are at x =
a
e

x =
3
2
2

x =
4
3

x =
4 3
3

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
4 3
3



d
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

+ = 1

2 2
( 3) ( 1)
9 4
x y + +
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
( 3) ( 1)
3 2
x y + +
+ = 1
Centre (h, k)
Hence the centre is (3, 1)
a = 3 and b = 2
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
2
2
= 3
2
(1 e
2
)
4 = 9(1 e
2
)
4 = 9 9e
2

5 = 9e
2


5
9
= e
2

A GM1 1 - 1 0 238 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s

5
9
= e

5
3
= e
(3
5
3
3, 1)
( 5 3, 1)
Hence the foci are ( 5 3, 1)
and ( 5 3, 1)
Directrices are at x =
a
e
+ h
x =
5
3 3
3

x =
9
3
5

x =
9 5 15
5 5

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are:
x =
9 5 15
5


and
x =
9 5 15
5




e y
2
= 8x
y
2
= 4ax
y
2
= 4(2)x
Vertex (0, 0)
a = 2
Focus (a, 0)
Focus at (2, 0)
Directrix at x = a
x = 2


f (y + 2)
2
= 16(x 5)
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y + 2)
2
= 4 4(x 5)
Hence h = 5 and k = 2
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (5, 2)
a = 4
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (4 + 5, 2)
Focus at (9, 2)
Directrix at x = a + h
x = 4 + 5
x = 1


g
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
64 36
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
8 6
x y
= 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 8 and b = 6
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
6
2
= 8
2
(e
2
1)
36 = 64(e
2
1)
36 = 64e
2
64
100 = 64e
2


100
64
= e
2


100
64
= e

10
8
= e
Foci are ( ae, 0)
(8
5
4
, 0)
(10, 0)
Directrices are at x =
a
e

x =
5
8
4

x =
32
5

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are x = 6.4
Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
3
4
| |

|
\ .
x


h
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

= 1

2 2
( 4) ( 1)
32 18
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
( 4) ( 1)
(4 2) (3 2)
x y
= 1
Centre (h, k)
h = 4, k = 1
Centre (4, 1)
a = 4 2 and b = 3 2
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
(3 2 )
2
= (4 2 )
2
(e
2
1)
18 = 32(e
2
1)
18 = 32e
2
32
50 = 32e
2


50
32
= e
2


25
16
= e

5
4
= e
Asymptotes
y k =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
(x h)
y 1 =
3 2
4 2
| |
+ |
|
\ .
(x 4)
y 1 =
3
4
| |
+
|
\ .
(x 4)
y 1 =
3
4
x 3
y =
3
4
x 2
y 1 =
3 2
4 2
| |
|
|
\ .
(x 4)
y 1 =
3
4
| |

|
\ .
(x 4)
y 1 =
3
4
x + 3
y =
3
4
x + 4
Directrices are at
x =
a
e
+ h
x =
5
4 2 4
4
+
x =
16 2
4
5

+
x =
16 2 20
5 5
+
x =
16 2 20
5
+

x =
16 2 20
5 5
+
or
x =
16 2 20
5
+


2 a i
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2 2
25 16
x y
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
5 4
x y
+ = 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 5 and b = 4
Major axis length = 2a
= 2 5 = 10
L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 239
ii Major axis length = 2b
= 2 4 = 8
iii x-intercept when y = 0

2 2
0
25 16
x
+ = 1

2
25
x
= 1
x
2
= 25
x = 5 ( 5, 0)
y-intercept when x = 0

2 2
0
25 16
y
+ = 1

2
16
y
= 1
y
2
= 16
y = 4 (0, 4)
iv Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
4
2
= 5
2
(1 e
2
)
16 = 25(1 e
2
)
16 = 25 25e
2

9 = 25e
2


9
25
= e
2


9
25
= e

3
5
= e
v Foci are ( ae, 0)
( 5
3
5
, 0)
( 3, 0)
vi Directrices are at x =
a
e

x =
3
5
5

x =
25
3

b


3 a i (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 0)
2
= 4(x + 1)
y
2
= 4 1(x + 1)
Hence h = 1 and k = 0
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (1, 0)
ii a = 1
Focus (a + h, k)
Focus at (1 1, 0)
Focus at (0, 0)
iii Directrix at x = a + h
x = 1 1
x = 2
b


4 a
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
144 25
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
12 5
x y
= 1
Centre (0, 0)
i a = 12 and b = 5
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
5
2
= 12
2
(e
2
1)
25 = 144(e
2
1)
25 = 144e
2
144
169 = 144e
2


169
144
= e
2


169
144
= e

13
12
= e
ii Vertices at (a, 0)
(12, 0)
iii Foci are (ae, 0)
(12
13
12
, 0)
(13, 0)
iv Directrices are at x =
a
e

x =
13
12
12

x =
144
13

Hence, the equations of the
directrices are
x =
144
13

v Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
5
12
x
b


5 a Plot [2,
6

]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate
6

anticlockwise.
Extend the line 2 units.
b Plot [3, 120]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate 120 anticlockwise.
Extend the line 3 units.
c Plot [1, ]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate anticlockwise.
Extend the line 1 unit.
d Plot [5, 50]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate 50 clockwise.
Extend the line 5 units.
e Plot [1,
5
4

]
Draw the positive x-direction.
Rotate
5
4

anticlockwise.
Extend the line 1 unit.


6 a Convert to Polar coordinates.
(1, 1)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
1 1 +
r = 2
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
1
1

tan( ) = 1
(1, 1) is in the first quadrant.
Hence =
4


Hence the Polar coordinates are
[ 2,
4

]
b Convert to Polar coordinates.
(0, 3)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
0 3 +
r = 9 = 3
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
3
0
= undefined
(0, 3) is on the positive y-axis.
Hence =
2

.
Hence the Polar coordinates are
[3,
2

].
c Convert to Polar coordinates.
( 3, 1)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2
2
3 ( 1) +
r = 4 = 2
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
3
1

A GM1 1 - 1 0 240 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s
tan( ) = 1 ( 3, 1) is in the
fourth quadrant. Hence =
6

.
Hence the Polar coordinates are
[2,
6

].
d Convert to Polar coordinates.
(2, 1)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
( 2) ( 1) +
r = 5
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
1
2

=
1
2

(2, 1) is in the third quadrant.
Hence = 3.61
c
.
Hence the Polar coordinates are
[ 5, 3.61
c
].
e Convert to Polar coordinates.
(5, 12)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
( 5) 12 +
r = 169 = 13
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
12
5

(5, 12) is in the second quadrant.
Hence = 1.97
c
. Hence the Polar
coordinates are [13, 1.97
c
].
7 a Convert to Cartesian form, r = 2
r
2
= 4
Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

Then
x
2
+ y
2
= 4
b Transform to Polar, =
4


Since
x = cos
4
r
| |

|
\ .
=
2
2
r
| |
|
|
\ .

And
y = sin
4
r
| |

|
\ .
=
2
2
r
| |
|
|
\ .

Then y = x
c Convert to Cartesian form,
6 = r cos( )
Since
x = r cos( )
Then x = 6
d Convert to Cartesian form,
r =
3
1 sin( ) +

r(1 + sin( )) = 3
r + r sin( ) = 3
Since
y = r sin( )
Then
y + r = 3
r = 3 y
r
2
= (3 y)
2

Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2

x
2
+ y
2
= (3 y)
2

x
2
+ y
2
= 9 6y + y
2

x
2
= 9 6y
9 x
2
= 6y
y =
2
9
6
x

8 a Transform to Polar, x
2
+ y
2
= 25
Since
y = r sin( ) and x = r cos( )
then
(r cos( ))
2
+ (r sin( ))
2
= 25
r
2
cos
2
( ) + r
2
sin
2
( ) = 25
r
2
(cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( )) = 25
r
2
= 25
Since
cos
2
( ) + sin
2
( ) = 1
r = 5
b Transform to Polar, x = 2
Since x = r cos( )
Then 2 = r cos( )

2
cos( )
= r
r cos( ) = 2
c Transform to Polar, y = 2x
Since x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then 2r cos( ) = r sin( )
2 =
sin( )
cos( )
r
r


2 = tan( )
= tan
1
(2)
= 1.11
c

d Transform to Polar, 2x 3y = 5
Since x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
then
2r cos( ) 3r sin( ) = 5
r(2 cos( ) 3 sin( )) = 5
r =
5
2cos( ) 3sin( )

9 a r = 3


b =
6




c r = 3 3 cos( )


d r =
1
2
sin(3 )


e r = 3 cos(2 )


f r = 1 + 4 sin( )


g r =
2




h r = 5 cos( )


10 2 cis
4
| |
|
\ .

= 2 cos sin
4 4
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

=
1 1
2
2 2
i
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .

= 1 i
11
1
z = 3 i +
1
(z in second
quadrant)

1
z =
2 2
( 3) 1 +
= 2
tan( ) =
1
3

=
6


=
5
6



1
z =
5
2cis
6
| |
|
\ .

=
5 5
2 cos sin
6 6
i
| | | | | |
+
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

=
1
2
2 2
i
| |
3 | |
+ |
|
|
\ .
\ .

= 3 i +
L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 241
12 a


b


Multiple choice
1 (x h)
2
+ (y h)
2
= r
2

(x 1)
2
+ (y + 3)
2
= 5
2

Centre (h, k)
Centre (1, 3)
The answer is C.
2 Centre (1, 0), r = 4
Centre (h, k)
(x h)
2
+ (y h)
2
= r
2

(x + 1)
2
+ y
2
= 4
2

(x + 1)
2
+ y
2
= 16
The answer is D.
3
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2 2
16 4
x y
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
4 2
x y
= 1
a = 4 and b = 2
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
2
2
= 4
2
(1 e
2
)
4 = 16(1 e
2
)
4 = 16 16e
2

12 = 16e
2


12
16
= e
2


3
4
= e

3
2
= e
The answer is B.
4
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2 2
25 9
x y
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
5 3
x y
= 1
a = 5 and b = 3
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
3
2
= 5
2
(1 e
2
)
9 = 25(1 e
2
)
9 = 25 25e
2

16 = 25e
2


16
25
= e
2


16
25
= e

4
5
= e
Foci are (ae, 0)
(5
4
5
, 0)
(4, 0)
The answer is A.
5 (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 1)
2
= 12(x 0)
(y 1)
2
= 4 3(x 0)
Hence h = 0 and k = 1
Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (0, 1)
The answer is C.
6 Vertex (h, k)
Vertex (2, 3)
(y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
(y 3)
2
= 4a(x 2)
Directrix at x = a + h
4 = a + 2
a = 2
(y 3)
2
= 4 (2)(x 2)
The answer is D.
7
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
25 9
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
5 3
x y
= 1
a = 5 and b = 3
Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
3
5
| |

|
\ .
x
The answer is D.
8
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
16 9
x y
= 1
Hyperbola, either A, D or E

2 2
2 2
4 3
x y
= 1
a = 4 and b = 3
Asymptotes
y =
b
a
| |

|
\ .
x
y =
3
4
| |

|
\ .
x
The answer is E.
9
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
16 9
x y
= 1

2 2
2 2
4 3
x y
= 1
Centre (0, 0)
a = 4 and b = 3
Since
b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1)
3
2
= 4
2
(e
2
1)
9 = 16(e
2
1)
9 = 16e
2
16
25 = 16e
2


25
16
= e
2


25
16
= e

5
4
= e
Directrices are at
x =
a
e

x =
5
4
4

x =
16
5

The answer is A.
10 Convert to Cartesian coordinates
[6,
3

]
x = r cos( )
x = 6cos
3
| |
|
\ .

x =
1
6
2
| |

|
\ .

x = 3
y = r sin( )
y = 6sin
3
| |
|
\ .

y =
3
6
2

y = 3 3
Hence, the Cartesian coordinates are
(3, 3 3).
The answer is B.
11 Convert to Polar coordinates.
(3, 0)
r =
2 2
x y +
r =
2 2
( 3) 0 +
r =
2
3
r = 3
tan( ) =
y
x

tan( ) =
0
3

tan( ) = 0
(3, 0) is negative on the x-axis,
hence = 0
Hence the Polar Coordinates are
[3, ].
The answer is C.
12 Convert to Cartesian form,
r = 3 sin( )
r
2
= 3r sin( )
Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
and y = r sin( )
A GM1 1 - 1 0 242 L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s
Then
x
2
+ y
2
= 3y
x
2
+ y
2
3y = 0
The answer is D.
13 Transform to Polar, x + y = 0
Since
x = r cos( ) and y = r sin( )
Then
r cos( ) + r sin( ) = 0
r(cos( ) + sin( )) = 0
cos( ) = sin( )
=
4


The answer is C.
14 3 cos(4 ) reaches a maximum
8 times in a rotation of 2 therefore
there must be eight leaves.
The answer is E.
15 Maximum value is 5.


The answer is B.
16 If z = 2 3i then z =
2 2
2 ( 3) +
= 13
Hence the answer is D.
17 u = 7cis
4
| |
|
\ .
v = a cis(b)
uv = 7 cis
4
a b
| |
+
|
\ .
= 42cis
20
| |
|
\ .

so 7a = 42, hence a = 6

4
b

+ =
20


b =
20 4


=
4
20


=
5


Hence the answer is A.
18 The line y = x and the y-axis
become asymptotes. Choose a
variety of points and add the
ordinates. Option C is the best
match.
The answer is C.
Extended response
1 Left parabola: vertex (h, k)
h =
9
2
, k = 0
Directrix: x = a + h
a
9
2
= 6
a =
3
2

Equation: (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
y
2
=
9
6
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .

Right parabola: vertex (h, k)
h =
1
2
, k = 0
Directrix: x = a + h
a +
1
2
= 3
a =
5
2

Equation: (y k)
2
= 4a(x h)
y
2
=
1
10
2
x
| |

|
\ .

At the point of interection, Left
parabola = Right parabola

9
6
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .
=
1
10
2
x
| |

|
\ .

6x + 27 = 10x + 5
16x = 22
x =
11
8

Substituting x =
11
8
into
y
2
=
9
6
2
x
| |
+
|
\ .

y
2
=
11 9
6
8 2
| |
+
|
\ .

y
2
=
75
4

y =
75
4

y =
5 3
2

Points of intersection are

11 5 3
A ,
8 2
| |
|
|
\ .

11 5 3
B ,
8 2
| |
|
|
\ .

2 a Using the origin (0, 0) and the
given point (1, 1) gradients are 1
and 1.
b y = x and y = x
c General equation of asymptotes is
y =
bx
a
. Hence a = b.
d b
2
= a
2
(e
2
1) and since a = b
b
2
= b
2
(e
2
1)
1 = (e
2
1)
e
2
= 2
e = 2
e Directrix: x =
a
e
= 1
a = 2
b = 2 since b = a
Equation:
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
= 1

2 2
2 2
x y
= 1
3 a


b Centre (h, k) is given by

2 2
,
2 2
a b b + | |
|
\ .

Centre (a + 1, 0)
Length of semi-major axis
=
2 2
2
a
= a 1.
Length of semi-minor axis = b.
Equation is
2 2
2 2
( ( 1)) ( 0)
( 1)
x a y
a b
+
+

= 1
=
2 2
2 2
( 1)
( 1)
x a y
a b

+

= 1
c Using the relationship
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
), we note in this case
the semi-major axis is a 1, so we
solve
b
2
= (a 1)
2
(1 e
2
)
(1 e
2
) =
2
2
( 1)
b
a

e
2
=
2
2
1
( 1)
b
a


e =
2
2
1
( 1)
b
a


4 a
PF
PD
= e

30
PD
= 0.8
PD =
30
0.8

PD = 37.5 metres
b Distance from focus to centre of
ground = ae = 100 0.8 = 80 metres.
Distance from player F to
boundary = 100 80
= 20 metres.
c
FB
BD
= e

20
BD
= 0.8
BD =
20
0.8

BD = 25 metres.
Distance from boundary to goal
posts = PD BD
= 37.5 25
= 12.5 metres.
Hence, distance required for
player F to score = 20 12.5
= 7.5 metres.
5 a
FP
PD
= 0.6

30
PD
= 0.6
L i n e a r a n d n o n - l i n e a r g r a p h s A GM1 1 - 1 0 243
PD =
30
0.6

= 50 metres.
b Length of semi-major axis
= 0.5 FF + FP
= 0.5 300 + 30
= 180 metres.
c Let OP = a and OQ = b
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
b
2
= 180
2
(1 0.6
2
)
b
2
= 20 736
b = 144 metres.
d Equation:
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
180 144
x y
+ = 1

2 2
32400 20736
x y
+ = 1
e Less than 0.6 since the outer ellipse becomes more
circular (less eccentric).
f Semi-major axis = 180 + 50
= 230 metres.
Semi-minor axis = 144 + 50
= 194 metres.
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
194
2
= 230
2
(1 e
2
)
e
2
= 0.2885
e = 0.537.
g Equation:
2 2
2 2
x y
a b
+ = 1

2 2
2 2
230 194
x y
+ = 1

2 2
52900 37636
x y
+ = 1
6 a The graph is confined to the first
2 quadrants.
b Various answers are possible.
c The graph consists of an
n-sided figure where step =
n

and n > 2.
d step is infinitely small, that is step 0.
7 Convert to Cartesian form,
r = 4 cos( )
r
2
= 4r cos( )
Since
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
and x = r cos( )
then
r
2
= 4x
x
2
+ y
2
= 4x
x
2
4x + y
2
= 0
x
2
4x + 4 4 + y
2
= 0
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
= 4
Circle has centre (2, 0) and
radius = 2.
The ellipse will have a centre of
(2, 0) and vertices at (6, 0) and
(2, 0)
Major axis length = 8 = 2 4 = 2a
Minor axis length = 4 = 2 2 = 2b

2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) x h y k
a b

+ = 1

2 2
2 2
( 2)
4 2
x y
+ = 1

2 2
( 2)
16 4
x y
+ = 1
Since
b
2
= a
2
(1 e
2
)
2
2
= 4
2
(1 e
2
)
4 = 16(1 e
2
)
4 = 16 16e
2

12 = 16e
2


12
16
= e
2


12
16
= e

2 3
4
= e
Foci are ( ae + h, 0)
(4
2 3
4
+ 2, 0)
(2 3 + 2, 0)
Directrices are at x =
a
e
+ h
x =
2 3
4 2
4
+
x =
16
2
2 3
+
x =
8 3
2
3
+
x =
8 3 6
3
+
and x =
6 8 3
3





A GM1 1 - 1 1 244 L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g
Exercise 11A Graphs of
linear inequations
1 a y 2; means closed
solid line
Test: use y = 3
sub. 3 into y 2
3 2 (Correct)
Correctshade side where y = 3
isnt.


b y 0; means closed
solid line
Test: use y = 4
sub. 4 into y 0
4 0 (False)
Falseshade side where y = 4 is.


c y > 1; > means open
dotted line
Test: use y = 2
sub. 2 into y > 1
2 > 1 (Correct)
Correctshade side where y = 2
isnt.


d y < 6; < means open
dotted line
Test: use y = 3
sub. 3 into y < 6
3 < 6 (Correct)
Correctshade side where y = 3
isnt.


e y > 0; > means open
dotted line
Test: use y = 2
sub. 2 into y > 0
2 > 0 (Correct)
Correctshade side where y = 2
isnt.


f y 6; means closed
solid line
Test: use y = 2
sub. 2 into y 6
2 6 (False)
Falseshade side where y = 2 is.


g x 4; means closed
solid line
Test: use x = 1
sub. 1 into x 4
1 4 (False)
Falseshade side where x = 1 is.


h x 0; means closed
solid line
Test: use x = 3
sub. 3 into x 0
3 0 (False)
Falseshade side where x = 3 is.


i x > 2; > means open
dotted line
Test: use x = 1
sub. 1 into x > 2
1 > 2 (Correct)
Correctshade side where x = 1
isnt.


j x < 1; < means open
dotted line
Test: use x = 2
sub. 2 into x < 1
2 < 1 (False)
Falseshade side where x = 2 is.


k x > 0; > means open
dotted line
Test: use x = 3
sub. 3 into x > 0
3 > 0 (Correct)
Correctshade side where x = 3
isnt.


l x 1; means closed
solid line
Test: use x = 2
sub. 2 into x 1
2 1 (False)
Falseshade side where x = 2 is.


2 a x < 7 b.s. by 1
1 x < 1 7 reverse inequality
x > 7 > means open
dotted line
Test: use x = 1
sub. 1 into x > 7
1 > 7 (Correct)
Correctshade side where x = 1
isnt


b y 2 b.s. by 1
1 y 1 2 reverse
inequality
y 2 means closed
solid line
Chapter 11 Linear programming
L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g A GM1 1 - 1 1 245
Test: use y = 1
sub. 1 into y 2
1 2 (False)
Falseshade side where y = 1 is.


c x > 3 b.s. by 1
1 x > 1 3 reverse
inequality
x < 3 < means open
dotted line
Test: use x = 2
sub. 2 into x < 3
2 < 3 (False)
Falseshade side where x = 2 is.


d x 5 b.s. by 1
1 x 1 5 reverse inequality
x 5 means closed
solid line
Test: use x = 1
sub. 1 into x 5
1 5 (Correct)
Correctshade side where x = 1
isnt.


e y > 4 b.s. by 1
1 y > 1 4 reverse inequality
y < 4 < means open
dotted line
Test: use y = 2
sub. 2 into y < 4
2 < 4 (Correct)
Correctshade side where y = 2
isnt.


f y 3 b.s. by 1
1 y 1 3 reverse inequality
y 3 means closed
solid line
Test: use y = 1
sub. 1 into y 3
1 3 (Correct)
Correctshade side where y = 1
isnt.


g x + 2 > 0
x > 2 > means open
dotted line
Test: use x = 1
sub. 1 into x > 2
1 > 2 (Correct)
Correctshade side where x = 1
isnt.


h y 3 0
y 3 means closed
solid line
Test: use y = 4
sub. 4 into y 3
4 (False)
Falseshade side where y = 4 is.


i x 8 < 0
x < 8 < means open
dotted line
Test: use x = 3
sub. 3 into x < 8
3 < 8 (Correct)
Correctshade side where x = 3
isnt.


j x + 4 0
x 4 b.s. by 1
1 x 1 4 reverse
inequality
x 4 means closed
solid line
Test: use x = 2
sub. 2 into x 4
2 4 (Correct)
Correctshade side where x = 2
isnt.


k y 2 < 3
y < 5 < means open
dotted line
Test: use y = 6
sub. 6 into y < 5
6 < 5 (False)
Falseshade side where y = 6 is.


l y 6 2
y 8 b.s. by 1
1x y 1 8 reverse inequality
y 8 means closed
solid line
Test: use y = 1
sub. 1 into y 8
1 8 (Correct)
Correctshade side where y = 1
isnt.


3 y > 8 > means open
dotted line
Test: use y = 3
sub. 3 into y > 8
3 > 8 (False)
Falseshade side where y = 3 is.



The answer is E.
4 a y 2x 4
Then y 2x = 4
x-intercept let y = 0
0 2x = 4
2x = 4
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept let x = 0
y 2 0 = 4
y = 4 (0, 4)
means solid line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
A GM1 1 - 1 1 246 L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g
into y 2x 4
0 2 0 4
0 4
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


b y + x 1
Then y + x = 1
x-intercept, let y = 0
0 + x = 1
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y + 0 = 1
y = 1 (0, 1)
means solid line
Test: sub (0, 0)
into y + x 1
0 + 0 1
0 1
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


c 4x + 4y 16
Then 4x + 4y = 16
x-intercept, let y = 0
4x + 4 0 = 16
4x = 16
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
4 0 + 4y = 16
4y = 16
y = 4 (0, 4)
means solid line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into 4x + 4y 16
4 0 + 4 0 16
0 + 0 16
0 16
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


d y x 0
Then y x = 0
x-intercept, let y = 0
0 x = 0
x = 0 (0, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y 0 = 0
y = 0 (0, 0)
Use x = 1 y 1 = 0
y = 1 (1, 1)
means solid line
Test: sub. (3, 4)
into y x 0
4 3 0
1 0
Falseshade side where (3, 4) is.


e y x + 2
Then y = x + 2
x-intercept, let y = 0
0 = x + 2
2 = x
2 = x (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y = 0 + 2
y = 2 (0, 2)
means solid line
Test: sub (0, 0)
into y x + 2
0 0 + 2
0 2
Falseshade side where (0, 0) is.


f y > 2x 14
Then y = 2x 14
x-intercept, let y = 0
0 = 2x 14
14 = 2x
7 = x (7, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y = 2 0 14
y = 14 (0, 14)
> means dotted line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into y > 2x 14
0 > 2 0 14
0 > 14
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


g y < 6x 24
Then y = 6x 24
x-intercept, let y = 0
0 = 6x 24
24 = 6x
4 = x (4, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y = 6 0 24
y = 24 (0, 24)
< means dotted line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into y < 6x 24
0 < 6 0 24
0 < 24
Falseshade side where (0, 0) is.


h y 7x + 21
Then y = 7x + 21
x-intercept, let y = 0
0 = 7x + 21
21 = 7x
3 = x (3, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y = 7 0 + 21
y = 21 (0, 21)
means solid line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into y 7x + 21
0 7 0 + 21
0 21
Falseshade side where (0, 0) is.


i x + y > 0
Then x + y = 0
x-intercept, let y = 0
x + 0 = 0
x = 0 (0, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
0 + y = 0
y = 0 (0, 0)
Use x = 1
1 + y = 0
y = 1 (1, 1)
> means dotted line
Test: sub. (1, 2)
into x + y > 0
1 + 2 > 0
3 > 0
Correctshade side where (1, 2)
isnt.


j y x + 7
Then y = x + 7
x-intercept, let y = 0
L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g A GM1 1 - 1 1 247
0 = x + 7
7 = x (7, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y = 0 + 7
y = 7 (0, 7)
means solid line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into y x + 7
0 0 + 7
0 7
Falseshade side where (0, 0) is.


k x > y 2
Then x = y 2
x + 2 = y
x-intercept, let y = 0
x + 2 = 0
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
0 + 2 = y
2 = y (0, 2)
> means dotted line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into x > y 2
0 > 0 2
0 > 2
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


l y > 12x 24
Then y = 12x 24
x-intercept, let y = 0
0 = 12x 24
24 = 12x
2 = x (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y = 12 0 24
y = 24 (0, 24)
> means dotted line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into y > 12x 24
0 > 12 0 24
0 > 24
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


m 3y x + 12
Then 3y = x + 12
x-intercept, let y = 0
3 0 = x + 12
0 = x + 12
12 = x (12, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
3y = 0 + 12
3y = 12
y = 4 (0, 4)
means solid line
Test: sub. (0, 0) into
3y x + 12
3 0 0 + 12
0 0 + 12
0 12
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


n 2y 4x + 6
Then 2y = 4x + 6
x-intercept, let y = 0
2 0 = 4x + 6
0 = 4x + 6
6 = 4x

1
1
2
= x
1
1 , 0
2




y-intercept, let x = 0
2y = 4 0 + 6
2y = 6
y = 3 (0, 3)
means solid line
Test: sub. (0, 0) into
2y 4x + 6
2 0 4 0 + 6
0 0 + 6
0 6
Falseshade side where (0, 0) is.


o x y < 10
Then x y = 10
x-intercept, let y = 0
x 0 = 10
x = 10 (10, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
0 y = 10
y = 10
y = 10 (0, 10)
< means dotted line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into x y < 10
0 0 < 10
0 < 10
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


p y < x 4
Then y = x 4
x-intercept, let y = 0
0 = x 4
4 = x (4, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y = 0 4
y = 4 (0, 4)
< means dotted line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into y < x 4
0 < 0 4
0 < 4
Falseshade side where (0, 0) is.


q 2y > 4x 8
Then 2y = 4x 8
x-intercept, let y = 0
2 0 = 4x 8
0 = 4x 8
8 = 4x
2 = x (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
2y = 4 0 8
2y = 8
y = 4 (0, 4)
> means dotted line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
Into 2y > 4x 8
2 0 > 4 0 8
0 > 0 8
0 > 8
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


r 4x 2y 8
Then 4x 2y = 8
x-intercept, let y = 0
4x 2 0 = 8
4x = 8
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
4 0 2y = 8
2y = 8
y = 4 (0, 4)
means solid line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into 4x 2y 8
A GM1 1 - 1 1 248 L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g
4 0 2 0 8
0 0 8
0 8
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


s 2x y > 1
Then 2x y = 1
x-intercept, let y = 0
2x 0 = 1
2x = 1
x =
1
2

1
, 0
2




y-intercept, let x = 0
2 0 y = 1
y = 1
y = 1 (0, 1)
> means dotted line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into 2x y > 1
2 0 0 > 1
0 0 > 1
0 > 1
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


t y x 4 < 0
Then y x 4 = 0
x-intercept, let y = 0
0 x 4 = 0
x 4 = 0
x = 4
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y 0 4 = 0
y 4 = 0
y = 4 (0, 4)
< means dotted line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
Into y x 4 < 0
0 0 4 < 0
4 < 0
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


u y + 2x 6 0
Then y + 2x 6 = 0
x-intercept, let y = 0
0 + 2x 6 = 0
2x 6 = 0
2x = 6
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y + 2 0 6 = 0
y 6 = 0
y = 6 (0, 6)
means solid line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into y + 2x 6 0
0 + 2 0 6 0
0 + 0 6 0
6 0
Falseshade side where (0, 0) is.


v 2y + 8x + 4 0
Then 2y + 8x + 4 = 0
x-intercept, let y = 0
2 0 + 8x + 4 = 0
0 + 8x + 4 = 0
8x + 4 = 0
8x = 4
x =
1
2

1
, 0
2




y-intercept, let x = 0
2y + 8 0 + 4 = 0
2y + 4 = 0
2y = 4
y = 2 (0, 2)
means solid line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into 2y + 8x + 4 0
2 0 + 8 0 + 4 0
0 + 0 + 4 0
4 0
Falseshade side where (0, 0) is.


w 9x + 9y + 9 0
Then 9x + 9y + 9 = 0
x-intercept, let y = 0
9x + 9 0 + 9 = 0
9x + 9 = 0
9x = 9
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
9 0 + 9y + 9 = 0
9y + 9 = 0
9y = 9
y = 1 (0, 1)
means solid line.
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into 9x + 9y + 9 0
9 0 + 9 0 + 9 0
0 + 0 + 9 0
9 0
Correctshade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


x 5x + 2y 10 > 0
Then 5x + 2y 10 = 0
x-intercept, let y = 0
5x + 2 0 10 = 0
5x 10 = 0
5x = 10
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
5 0 + 2y 10 = 0
2y 10 = 0
2y = 10
y = 5 (0, 5)
> means dotted line
Test: sub. (0, 0)
into 5x + 2y 10 > 0
5 0 + 2 0 10 > 0
0 + 0 10 > 0
10 > 0
Falseshade side where (0, 0) is.


5 y 2x
Then y = 2x
x-intercept, let y = 0
0 = 2x
0 = x (0, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y = 2 0
y = 0 (0, 0)
use x = 1:
y = 2 1
y = 2 (1, 2)
means solid line
Test: sub (1, 2) into
y 2x
2 2 1
2 2
Correctshade side where (1, 2)
isnt.


The answer is B.
L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g A GM1 1 - 1 1 249
6 12x + 10y 60 < 0
then 12x + 10y 60 = 0
x-intercept let y = 0
12x + 10 0 60 = 0
12x 60 = 0
12x = 60
x = 5 (5, 0)
y-intercept let x = 0
12 0 + 10y 60 = 0
10y 60 = 0
10y = 60
y = 6 (0, 6)
< means dotted line
Test: sub. (0, 0) into
12x + 10y 60 < 0
12 0 + 10 0 60 < 0
0 + 0 60 < 0
60 < 0
Correct-shade side where (0, 0)
isnt.


The answer is D.
Exercise 11B Graphs of
simultaneous linear
inequations
1 a x 0
x + 4y 0
For , means solid line (shade
left of line).
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
x + 4y = 0
x + 4(0) = 0
x = 0 (0, 0)
Find y-intercept, let x = 0
x + 4y = 0
0 + 4y = 0
4y = 0
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1.
x + 4y = 0
1 + 4y = 0
4y = 1
y =
1 1
1,
4 4





For , means solid line (shade
above line)
x = 0
x + 4y = 0
Solve: sub. into
x + 4y = 0
0 + 4y = 0
4y = 0
y = 0.
The solution set is (0, 0)


b y 2
x + y 1
For , means solid line (shade
below line).
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
x + y = 1
x + 0 = 1
x = 1 (1, 0)
Find y-intercept, let x = 0
x + y = 1
0 + y = 1
y = 1 (0, 1)
For , means solid line (shade
above line)
y = 2
x + y = 1
Solve: sub. into
x + y = 1
x + 2 = 1
x = 1
The solution set is (1, 2)


c x 1
x y 2
For , means solid line
(shade right of line).
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
x y = 2
x 0 = 2
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
x y = 2
0 y = 2
y = 2
y = 2 (0, 2)
For , means solid line
(shade below line)
x = 1
x y = 2
Solve: Sub into
x y = 2
1 y = 2
y = 1
y = 1
The solution set is (1, 1)


d y 2x
y 3x
For , means solid line (shade
above line).
For , means solid line (shade
above line).
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0.
y = 2x
0 = 2x
0 = x (0, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y = 2x
y = 2(0)
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
y = 2x
y = 2(1)
y = 2(1, 2)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
y = 3x
0 = 3x
0 = x (0, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
y = 3x
y = 3(0)
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
y = 3x
y = 3(1)
y = 3 (1, 3)
y = 2x
y = 3x
Solve: sub. into
y = 3x
(2x) = 3x
0 = 5x
0 = x
The solution set is (0, 0).


e y 6
5x + 10y 20
For , means solid line (shade
above line).
For , means solid line (shade
above line).
y = 6
5x + 10y = 20
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
5x + 10y = 20
5x + 10(0) = 20
5x = 20
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
5x + 10y = 20
5(0) + 10y = 20
10y = 20
y = 2 (0, 2)
Solve: sub. into
5x + 10y = 20
5x + 10(6) = 20
5x + 60 = 20
5x = 40
x = 8
A GM1 1 - 1 1 250 L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g
The solution set is (8, 6).


f y 3
3x 4y 24
For , means solid line (shade
below line).
For , means solid line (shade
below line).
y = 3
3x 4y = 24
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
3x 4y = 24
3x 4(0) = 24
3x = 24
x = 8 (8, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
3x 4y = 24
3(0) 4y = 24
4y = 24
y = 6 (0, 6)
Solve: sub. into
3x 4y = 24
3x 4(3) = 24
3x + 12 = 24
3x = 36
x = 12
The solution set is (12, 3)


2 a 2x 3y 0
x + 2y 0
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
2x 3y = 0
x + 2y = 0
For find x-intercept, let y = 0
2x 3y = 0
2x 3(0) = 0
2x = 0
x = 0 (0, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
2x 3y = 0
2(0) 3y = 0
3y = 0
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
2x 3y = 0
2(1) 3y = 0
2 3y = 0
3y = 2
y =
2
3

2
1,
3




For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
x + 2y = 0
x + 2(0) = 0
x = 0 (0, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0.
x + 2y = 0
0 + 2y = 0
2y = 0-
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
x + 2y = 0
1 + 2y = 0
2y = 1
y =
1
2

1
1,
2




Solve: to eliminate x,
2
2(x + 2y = 0)
2x 4y = 0
then, +
(2x 3y) + (2x 4y) = 0 + 0
2x 2x 3y 4y = 0
7y = 0
y = 0
Sub. y = 0 into
2x 3(0) = 0
2x = 0
x = 0
The solution set is (0, 0).


b 2x + 4y 8
3x + y 3
For , means solid line
For , means solid line
2x + 4y = 8
3x + y = 3
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
2x + 4y = 8
2x + 4(0) = 8
2x = 8
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
2x + 4y = 8
2(0) + 4y = 8
4y = 8
y = 2 (0, 2)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
3x + y = 3
3x + 0 = 3
3x = 3
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
3x + y = 3
3(0) + y = 3
y = 3 (0, 3)
Solve: to eliminate y,
4.
4(3x + y = 3)
12x 4y = 12
then +
(2x + 4y) + (12x 4y) = 8 + (12)
2x 12x + 4y 4y = 8 + (12)
10x = 8 12
10x = 4
x =
4
10

=
2
5

sub. x =
2
5
into
2x + 4y = 8

2
2 4
5
y

+


= 8

4
4
5
y + =
8
1

4y =
40 4
5 5

4y =
36
5

y =
36 1
5 4

y =
9
5

The solution set is
2 9
,
5 5



.


c 4x + 3y 12
x + 4y 4
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
4x + 3y = 12
x + 4y = 4
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
4x + 3y = 12
4x + 3(0) = 12
4x = 12
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
4x + 3y = 12
4(0) + 3y = 12
3y = 12
y = 4 (4, 0)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
x + 4y = 4
x + 4(0) = 4
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0,
x + 4y = 4
0 + 4y = 4
4y = 4
y = 1 (0, 1)
Solve: to eliminate x,
4
4(x + 4y = 4)
4x 16y = 16
then +
(4x + 3y) + (4x 16y) = 12 + (16)
4x 4x + 3y 16y = 12 16
13y = 4
y =
4
13

L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g A GM1 1 - 1 1 251
sub. y =
4
13
into
x + 4y = 4

4
4
13
x

+


= 4

16
13
x + =
4
1

x =
52 16
13 13

x =
36
13

The solution set is
36 4
,
13 13



.


d x + y 10
x y 10
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
x + y = 10
x y = 10
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
x + y = 10
x + 0 = 10
x = 10 (10, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
x + y = 10
0 + y = 10
y = 10 (0, 10)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
x y = 10
x 0 = 10
x = 10 (10, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
x y = 10
0 y = 10
y = 10
y = 10 (0, 10)
Solve: to eliminate y,
+
(x + y) + (x y) = 10 + 10
x + x + y y = 20
2x = 20
x = 10
sub. x = 10 into
x + y = 10
10 + y = 10
y = 0
The solution set is (10, 0)


e 5x + 4y 20
x y 5
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
5x + 4y = 20
x y = 5
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
5x + 4y = 20
5x + 4(0) = 20
5x = 20
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
5x + 4y = 20
5(0) + 4y = 20
4y = 20
y = 5 (0, 5)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
x y = 5
x 0 = 5
x = 5 (5, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
x y = 5
0 y = 5
y = 5
y = 5 (0, 5)
Solve: to eliminate y,
4
4(x y = 5)
4x 4y = 20
then, +
(5x + 4y) + (4x 4y) = 20 + 20
9x = 40
x =
40
9

sub. x =
40
9
into
x y = 5

40
9
y =
5
1

y =
45 40
9 9

y =
5
9

y =
5
9

The solution set is
40 5
,
9 9






f 3x + 2y 6
3x 2y 6
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
3x + 2y = 6
3x 2y = 6
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
3x + 2y = 6
3x + 2(0) = 6
3x = 6
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
3x + 2y = 6
3(0) + 2y = 6
2y = 6
y = 3 (0, 3)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
3x 2y = 6
3x 2(0) = 6
3x = 6
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
3x 2y = 6
3(0) 2y = 6
2y = 6
y = 3 (0, 3)
Solve: to eliminate y,
+
(3x + 2y) + (3x 2y) = 6 + 6
3x + 3x + 2y 2y = 12
6x = 12
x = 2
Sub. x = 2 into
3x + 2y = 6
3(2) + 2y = 6
6 + 2y = 6
2y = 0
y = 0
The solution set is (2, 0).


g 5x + 2y 15
3x + 6y 18
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
5x + 2y = 15
3x + 6y = 18
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
5x + 2y = 15
5x + 2(0) = 15
5x = 15
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
5x + 2y = 15
5(0) + 2y = 15
2y = 15
y =
1
7
2

1
0, 7
2




For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
3x + 6y = 18
3x + 6(0) = 18
3x = 18
x = 6 (6, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
3x + 6y = 18
3(0) + 6y = 18
6y = 18
y = 3 (0, 3)
Solve: to eliminate y,
3
3(5x + 2y = 15)
15x 6y = 45
then +
(3x + 6y) + (15x 6y) = 18 + (45)
3x 15x + 6y 6y = 18 45
A GM1 1 - 1 1 252 L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g
12x = 27
x =
27
12


x =
9
4

Sub. x =
9
4
into
5x + 2y = 15

9
5
4



+ 2y =
15
1


45
4
+ 2y =
60
4

2y =
60 45
4 4

2y =
15
4

y =
15 1
4 2

y =
15
8

The solution set is
9 15
,
4 8



.


h 4x 6y 12
2x + 2y 10
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
4x 6y = 12
2x + 2y = 10
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
4x 6y = 12
4x 6(0) = 12
4x = 12
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
4x 6y = 12
4(0) 6y = 12
6y = 12
y = 2 (0, 2)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
2x + 2y = 10
2x + 2(0) = 10
2x = 10
x = 5 (5, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
2x + 2y = 10
2(0) + 2y = 10
2y = 10
y = 5 (0, 5)
Solve: to eliminate y,
3
3(2x + 2y = 10)
6x + 6y = 30
then +
(4x 6y) + (6x + 6y) = 12 + 30
4x + 6x 6y + 6y = 42
10x = 42
x =
42
10

x =
21
5

Sub. x =
21
5
into
2x + 2y = 10

21
2 2
5
y

+


=
10
1


42
2
5
y + =
50
5

2y =
50 42
5 5

2y =
8
5

y =
8 1
5 2

y =
4
5

The solution set is
21 4
,
5 5






i 7x y 14
3x + 4y 9
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
7x y = 14
3x + 4y = 9
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
7x y = 14
7x 0 = 14
7x = 14
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
7x y = 14
7(0) y = 14
y = 14
y = 14 (0, 14)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
3x + 4y = 9
3x + 4(0) = 9
3x = 9
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
3x + 4y = 9
3(0) + 4y = 9
4y = 9
y =
9 9
0,
4 4




Solve: to eliminate y,
4
4(7x y = 14)
28x 4y = 56
then, +
(3x + 4y) + (28x 4y) = 9 + 56
31x = 65
x =
65
31

Sub. x =
65
31
into
3x + 4y = 9

65
3
31



+ 4y =
9
1


195
31
+ 4y =
279
31

4y =
279 195
31 31

4y =
84
31

y =
84 1
31 4

y =
21
31

The solution set is
65 21
,
31 31



.


j 4x y 8
14x + 2y 14
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
4x y = 8
14x + 2y = 14
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
4x y = 8
4x 0 = 8
4x = 8
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
4x y = 8
4(0) y = 8
y = 8
y = 8 (0, 8)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
14x + 2y = 14
14x + 2(0) = 14
14x = 14
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
14x + 2y = 14
14(0) + 2y = 14
2y = 14
y = 7 (0, 7)
Solve: to eliminate y,
2
2(4x y = 8)
8x 2y = 16
then, +
(14x + 2y) + (8x 2y) = 14 + 16
22x = 30
x =
30
22

x =
15
11

L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g A GM1 1 - 1 1 253
Sub. x =
15
11
into
4x y = 8

15
4
11
y



=
8
1


60
11
y =
88
11

y =
88 60
11 11

y =
28
11

y =
28
11

The solution set is
15 28
,
11 11






k 2x + 2y 6
x y 4
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
2x + 2y = 6
x y = 4
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
2x + 2y = 6
2x + 2(0) = 6
2x = 6
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
2x + 2y = 6
2(0) + 2y = 6
2y = 6
y = 3 (0, 3)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
x y = 4
x 0 = 4
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
x y = 4
0 y = 4
y = 4
y = +4 (0, 4)
Solve: to eliminate y,
2
2(x y = 4)
2x 2y = 8
then +
(2x + 2y) + (2x 2y) = 6 + (8)
4x = 2
x =
1
2

sub. x =
1
2
into
x y = 4

1
2
y =
4
1


y =
8 1
2 2

+
y =
7
2


y =
7
2

The solution set is
1 1
, 3
2 2






l 6x + y 12
6x 3y 6
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
6x + y = 12
6x 3y = 6
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
6x + y = 12
6x + 0 = 12
6x = 12
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
6x + y = 12
6(0) + y = 12
y = 12 (0, 12)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
6x 3y = 6
6x 3(0) = 6
6x = 6
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
6x 3y = 6
6(0) 3y = 6
3y = 6
y = 2 (0, 2)
Solve: to eliminate x,
+
(6x + y) + (6x 3y) = 12 + 6
6x + 6x + y 3y = 18
2y = 18
y = 9
sub. y = 9 into
6x + y = 12
6x 9 = 12
6x = 21
x =
21
6

=
1
3
2

The solution set is
1
3 , 9
2







m 4x y 2
4x + y 2
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
4x y = 2
4x + y = 2
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
4x y = 2
4x 0 = 2
4x = 2
x =
1
2

1
, 0
2




y-intercept, let x = 0
4x y = 2
4(0) y = 2
y = 2
y = 2 (0, 2)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
4x + y = 2
4x + 0 = 2
4x = 2
x =
1
2

1
, 0
2




y-intercept, let x = 0
4x + y = 2
4(0) + y = 2
y = 2 (0, 2)
Solve: to eliminate y,
+
(4x y) + (4x + y) = 2 + 2
4x + 4x y + y = 4
8x = 4
x =
1
2

sub. x =
1
2
into
4x + y = 2

1
4
2
y

+


= 2
2 + y = 2
y = 0
The solution set is
1
, 0
2



.


n 3x + 3y 3
2x + y 1
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
3x + 3y = 3
2x + y = 1
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
3x + 3y = 3
3x + 3(0) = 3
3x = 3
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
3x + 3y = 3
3(0) + 3y = 3
3y = 3
y = 1 (0, 1)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
2x + y = 1
2x + (0) = 1
A GM1 1 - 1 1 254 L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g
2x = 1
x =
1
2

1
, 0
2




y-intercept, let x = 0
2x + y = 1
2(0) + y = 1
y = 1 (0, 1)
Solve: to eliminate y,
3
3(2x + y = 1)
6x 3y = 3
then, +
(3x + 3y) + (6x 3y) = 3 + 3
3x = 6
x = 2
sub. x = 2 into
3x + 3y = 3
3(2) + 3y = 3
6 + 3y = 3
3y = 9
y = 3
The solution set is (2, 3)


o x 5y 10
4x + 2y 12
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
x 5y = 10
4x + 2y = 12
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0.
x 5y = 10
x 5(0) = 10
x = 10 (10, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
x 5y = 10
0 5y = 10
5y = 10
y = 2 (0, 2)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
4x + 2y = 12
4x + 2(0) = 12
4x = 12
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
4x + 2y = 12
4(0) + 2y = 12
2y = 12
y = 6 (0, 6)
Solve: to eliminate x,
4
4(x 5y = 10)
4x + 20y = 40
then, +
(4x + 2y) + (4x + 20y) = 12 + (40)
22y = 28
y =
28
22


y =
14
11

sub. y =
14
11
into
x 5y = 10

14
5
11
x




=
10
1


70
11
x + =
110
11

x =
110 70
11 11

x =
40
11

The solution set is
40 14
,
11 11






p 6x 3y 3
3x + 4y 4
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
6x 3y = 3
3x + 4y = 4
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
6x 3y = 3
6x 3(0) = 3
6x = 3
x =
1
2

1
, 0
2




y-intercept, let x = 0
6x 3y = 3
6(0) 3y = 3
3y = 3
y = 1 (0, 1)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
3x + 4y = 4
3x + 4(0) = 4
3x = 4
x =
4
3

4
, 0
3




y-intercept, let x = 0
3x + 4y = 4
3(0) + 4y = 4
4y = 4
y = 1 (0, 1)
Solve: to eliminate x,
2
2(3x + 4y = 4)
6x 8y = 8
then, +
(6x 3y) + (6x 8y) = 3 + (8)
11y = 11
y = 1
sub. y = 1 into
6x 3y = 3
6x 3(1) = 3
6x 3 = 3
6x = 0
x = 0
The solution set is (0, 1)


q 8x + 4y 8
x
2
y
1
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
8x + 4y = 8
x
2
y
= 1
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
8x + 4y = 8
8x + 4(0) = 8
8x = 8
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
8x + 4y = 8
8(0) + 4y = 8
4y = 8
y = 2 (0, 2)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0

2
y
x = 1

0
2
x = 1
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0

2
y
x = 1
0
2
y
= 1
y = 2
y = 2 (0, 2)
Solve: to eliminate y,
8
8 1
2
y
x

=



8x 4y = 8
then +
(8x + 4y) + (8x 4y) = 8 + 8
16x = 0
x = 0
sub. x = 0 into
8x + 4y = 8
8(0) + 4y = 8
4y = 8
y = 2
The solution set is (0, 2)


r
2 3
x y
2

3 2
x y
+ 2
L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g A GM1 1 - 1 1 255
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.

2 3
x y
= 2

3 2
x y
+ = 2
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0

2 3
x y
= 2

0
2 3
x
= 2

2
x
= 2
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0.

2 3
x y
= 2

0
2 3
y
= 2

3
y
= 2
y = 6 (0, 6)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0

3 2
x y
+ = 2

0
3 2
x
+ = 2

3
x
= 2
x = 6 (6, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0

3 2
x y
+ = 2

0
3 2
y
+ = 2

2
y
= 2
y = 4 (0, 4)
Solve: to eliminate y,
3, 2
3 2
2 3
x y
=




3
2
x
y = 6
2 2
3 2
x y
+ =




2
3
x
y + = 4
Then +

3 2
2 3
x x
y y

+ +


= 6 + 4

3 2
2 3
x x
+ = 2

9 4
6
x x +
= 2
13x = 12
x =
12
13

sub. x =
12
13
into

2 3
x y
= 2

12 1
13 2 3
y



= 2

6
13 3
y
=
2
1



3
y
=
26 6
13 13

+

3
y
=
20
13


y =
20 3
13 1


y =
60
13

The solution set is
12 60
,
13 13






3 a y 3
x + 2y 6
For , means solid line.
For , means solid line.
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0.
x + 2y = 6
x + 2(0) = 6
x = 6 (6, 0)
y-intercept, let x = 0
x + 2y = 6
0 + 2y = 6
2y = 6
y = 3 (0, 3)
Solve: sub. to
x + 2y = 6
x + 2(3) = 6
x + 6 = 6
x = 0
The solution set is (0, 3)
The answer is B.


b 24x 12y 12
12x + 16y 10
For and , means solid
line.
24x 12y = 12
12x + 16y = 10
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
24x 12y = 12
24x 12(0) = 12
24x = 12
x =
1
2

1
, 0
2




y-intercept, let x = 0
24x 12y = 12
24(0) 12y = 12
12y = 12
y = 1 (0, 1)
For , find x-intercept, let y = 0
12x + 16y = 10
12x + 16(0) = 10
12x = 10
=
5
, 0
6




x =
5
6

y-intercept, let x = 0
12(0) + 16y = 10
16y = 10
y =
5
8

5
0,
8




Solve: to eliminate x,
2
2(12x + 16y = 10)
24x 32y = 20
Then, +
(24x 12y) + (24x 32y) = 12 + (20)
12y 32y = 32
44y = 32
y =
32
44


y =
8
11

sub. y =
8
11
into
24x 12y = 12

8
24 12
11
x



=
12
1



96
24
11
x =
132
11


24x =
132 96
11 11

+
24x =
36
11


24x =
36 1
11 24


x =
3
22

The solution set is
3 8
,
22 11






The answer is A.
Exercise 11C Graphs of
systems of linear inequations
1 a x 0
y 0
x 3
y 4
A GM1 1 - 1 1 256 L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g
All of the above are solid lines
shade left of line.
shade below line.
shade left of line.
shade above line.


b x 0
y 0
x 2
y 6
All of the above are solid lines
shade left of line.
shade below line.
shade left of line.
shade below line.


c x 0
y 0
x 5
y 7
All of the above are solid lines.
shade right of line.
shade above line.
shade right of line.
shade below line.


d 2x + 3y 3
x 2
y 2
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
2x + 3y = 3
2x + 3(0) = 3
2x = 3
x =
3
2

3
, 0
2




y-intercept, x = 0
2x + 3y = 3
2(0) + 3y = 3
3y = 3
y = 1 (0, 1)
For , shade above line.


e 6x + 5y 30
x 1
y 3
All of the above are solid lines
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , find x-intercept, y = 0
6x + 5y = 30
6x + 5(0) = 30
6x = 30
x = 5 (5, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
6x + 5y = 30
6(0) + 5y = 30
5y = 30
y = 6 (0, 6)
For shade above line.


f 2x 4y 8
x 4
y 2
All of the above are solid lines
shade right of line.
shade above line.
For , find x-intercept, y = 0
2x 4y = 8
2x 4(0) = 8
2x = 8
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
2x 4y = 8
2(0) 4y = 8
4y = 8
y = 2 (0, 2)
For , shade above line


g 4x + y 4
2x + y 4
y 0
All of the above are solid lines.
shade below line
For , x-intercept, y = 0
4x + y = 4
4 + 0 = 4
4x = 4
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
4x + y = 4
4(0) + y = 4
y = 4 (0, 4)
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, let y = 0
2x + y = 4
2x + 0 = 4
2x = 4
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
2x + y = 4
2(0) + y = 4
y = 4 (0, 4)
shade above line.


h 4x + 6y 12
3x + y 9
x 0
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
4x + 6y = 12
4x + 6(0) = 12
4x = 12
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
4x + 6y = 12
4(0) + 6y = 12
6y = 12
y = 2 (0, 2)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
3x + y = 9
3x + 0 = 9
3x = 9
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
3x + y = 9
3(0) + y = 9
y = 9 (0, 9)
shade above line.


i 8x 4y 4
y x
x 0
y 6
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
8x 4y = 4
8x 4(0) = 4
8x = 4
x =
1
2

1
, 0
2




L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g A GM1 1 - 1 1 257
y-intercept, x = 0
8x 4y = 4
4y = 4
y = 1 (0, 1)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
y = x
x = 0 (0, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
y = x
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
y = x
y = 1 (1, 1)
shade below line.


j x + y 1
x y 1
x 2
y 2
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x + y = 1
x + 0 = 1
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
x + y = 1
0 + y = 1
y = 1 (0, 1)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x y = 1
x 0 = 1
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
x y = 1
0 y = 1
y = 1
y = 1 (0, 1)
shade above line.


k 2x y 2
x 2y 1
x 3
y 1
All of the above are solid lines.
shade right of line.
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
2x y = 2
2x 0 = 2
2x = 2
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
2x + y = 2
2(0) y = 2
y = 2
y = 2 (0, 2)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x + 2y = 1
x + 2(0) = 1
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
x + 2y = 1
0 + 2y = 1
2y = 1
=
1
0,
2




y =
1
2

shade below line.


l x 3y 1
2x y
x
1
2

y 0
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x 3y = 1
x 3(0) = 1
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
x 3y = 1
0 3y = 1
3y = 1
y =
1
3

1
0,
3




shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
2x = y
2x = 0
x = 0 (0, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
2x = y
2(0) = y
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
2x = y
2(1) = y
y = 2 (1, 2)
shade above line.


m 4x + 3y 12
2x + 5y 10
x 1
y 1
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
4x + 3y = 12
4x + 3(0) = 12
4x = 12
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
4x + 3y = 12
4(0) + 3y = 12
3y = 12
y = 4 (0, 4)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
2x + 5y = 10
2x + 5(0) = 10
2x = 10
x = 5 (5, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
2x + 5y = 10
2(0) + 5y = 10
5y = 10
y = 2 (0, 2)
shade above line.


n 2x 3y 0
x + 2y 0
x 5
y 0
All of the above are solid lines.
shade right of line.


shade above line.
For , x-intercept, let y = 0
2x 3y = 0
2x 3(0) = 0
2x = 0
x = 0 (0, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
2x 3y = 0
2(0) 3y = 0
3y = 0
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
2x 3y = 0
2(1) 3y = 0
2 3y = 0
3y = 2
=
2
1,
3




y =
2
3

shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x + 2y = 0
x + 2(0) = 0
A GM1 1 - 1 1 258 L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g
x = 0 (0, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
x + 2y = 0
0 + 2y = 0
2y = 0
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
x + 2y = 0
1 + 2y = 0
2y = 1
y =
1
2

1
1,
2




shade above line.


o 3x + 2y 6
3x 2y 6
x 0
y 0
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
3x + 2y = 6
3x + 2(0) = 6
3x = 6
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
3x + 2y = 6
3(0) + 2y = 6
2y = 6
y = 3 (0, 3)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
3x 2y = 6
3x 2(0) = 6
3x = 6
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
3x 2y = 6
3(0) 2y = 6
2y = 6
y = 3 (0, 3)
shade below line.


p 4x 2y 2
4x + y 2
x 2
y 2
All of the above are solid lines.
shade right of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
4x 2y = 2
4x 2(0) = 2
4x = 2
x =
1
2

1
, 0
2




y-intercept, x = 0
4x 2y = 2
4(0) 2y = 2
2y = 2
y = 1 (0, 1)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
4x + y = 2
4x + 0 = 2
4x = 2
x =
1
2

1
, 0
2




y-intercept, x = 0
4x + y = 2
4(0) + y = 2
y = 2 (0, 2)
shade below line.


q 3x + 3y 3
2x + y 1
x 1
y 1
All of the above are solid lines.
shade right of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
3x + 3y = 3
3x + 3(0) = 3
3x = 3
x = 1 (1, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
3x + 3y = 3
3(0) + 3y = 3
3y = 3
y = 1 (0, 1)
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
2x + y = 1
2x + 0 = 1
2x = 1
=
1
, 0
2




x =
1
2

y-intercept, x = 0
2x + y = 1
2(0) + y = 1
y = 1 (0, 1)
shade below line.


r 6x + 3y 12
4x + 2y 16
x 0
y 0
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
6x + 3y = 12
6x + 3(0) = 12
6x = 12
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
6x + 3y = 12
6(0) + 3y = 12
3y = 12
y = 4 (0, 4)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
4x + 2y = 16
4x + 2(0) = 16
4x = 16
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
4x + 2y = 16
4(0) + 2y = 16
2y = 16
y = 8 (0, 8)
shade above line.


s 5x + 10y 15
6x 2y 9
x 0
y 0
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
5x + 10y = 15
5x + 10(0) = 15
5x = 15
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
5x + 10y = 15
5(0) + 10y = 15
10y = 15
y =
1
1
2

1
0, 1
2




shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
6x 2y = 9
6x 2(0) = 9
6x = 9
x =
1
1
2

1
1 , 0
2




y-intercept, x = 0
6x 2y = 9
6(0) 2y = 9
2y = 9
L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g A GM1 1 - 1 1 259
y =
1
4
2

1
0, 4
2




shade below line.


t x + 2y 16
2x + 5y 15
x 5
x 0
y 0
All of the above are solid lines.
shade right of line.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x + 2y = 16
x + 2(0) = 16
x = 16 (16, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
x + 2y = 16
0 + 2y = 16
2y = 16
y = 8 (0, 8)
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
2x + 5y = 15
2x + 5(0) = 15
2x = 15
x =
1
7
2

1
7 , 0
2




y-intercept, x = 0
2x + 5y = 15
2(0) + 5y = 15
5y = 15
y = 3 (0, 3)
shade below line.


u 3x + 5y 15
x + y 8
x 5
x 0
y 0
All of the above are solid lines.
, shade left of lines.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
3x + 5y = 15
3x + 5(0) = 15
3x = 15
x = 5 (5, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
3x + 5y = 15
3(0) + 5y = 15
5y = 15
y = 3 (0, 3)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x + y = 8
x + 0 = 8
x = 8 (8, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
x + y = 8
0 + y = 8
y = 8 (0, 8)
shade above line.


v 6x + 3y 18
3x y 6
x 4
x 0
y 0
All of the above are solid lines.
shade right of line.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
6x + 3y = 18
6x + 3(0) = 18
6x = 18
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
6x + 3y = 18
6(0) + 3y = 18
3y = 18
y = 6 (0, 6)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
3x y = 6
3x 0 = 6
3x = 6
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
3x y = 6
3(0) y = 6
y = 6
y = 6 (0, 6)
shade above line.


w x + y 9
8x 3y 24
y
1
2
x
x 0
y 0
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x + y = 9
x + 0 = 9
x = 9 (9, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
x + y = 9
0 + y = 9
y = 9 (0, 9)
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
8x 3y = 24
8x 3(0) = 24
8x = 24
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
8x 3y = 24
8(0) 3y = 24
3y = 24
y = 8 (0, 8)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
y =
1
2
x
0 =
1
2
x
0 = x (0, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
y =
1
2
x
y =
1
2
(0)
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
y =
1
2
x
y =
1
2
(1)
y =
1
2

1
1,
2




shade above line


x 7x + 3y 21
y 3x
y 7
x 0
y 0
All of the above are solid lines.
, shade both above lines.
shade right of line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
7x + 3y = 21
7x + 3(0) = 21
7x = 21
x = 3 (3, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
7x + 3y = 21
7(0) + 3y = 21
3y = 21
y = 7 (0, 7)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
A GM1 1 - 1 1 260 L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g
y = 3x
0 = 3x
0 = x (0, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
y = 3x
y = 3(0)
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
y = 3x
y = 3(1)
y = 3 (1, 3)
shade below line.
Note: there is no feasible region.


2 x 0
y 0
7x + 5y 35
2x + y 8
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
7x + 5y = 35
7x + 5(0) = 35
7x = 35
x = 5 (5, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
7x + 5y = 35
7(0) + 5y = 35
5y = 35
y = 7 (0, 7)
shade above line
For , x-intercept, let y = 0
2x + y = 8
2x + 0 = 8
2x = 8
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
2x + y = 8
2(0) + y = 8
y = 8 (0, 8)
shade below line.


The answer is B.
3 x 0
y 0
3x 8y 35
x +
1
2
y 4
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
3x 8y = 35
3x 8(0) = 35
3x = 35
x =
35
3

2
11 , 0
3




y-intercept, x = 0
3x 8y = 35
3(0) 8y = 35
8y = 35
y =
35
8

3
0, 4
8




shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x +
1
2
y = 4
x +
1
2
(0) = 4
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
x +
1
2
y = 4
0 +
1
2
y = 4

1
2
y = 4
y = 8 (0, 8)
shade below line.


The answer is E.
4 For , has points (9, 0), (0, 9)
gradient =
9 0
0 9

=
9
9
= 1
y y
1
= m(x x
1
) using (9, 0)
y 0 = 1(x 9)
y = x + 9
y + x = 9
But is shaded above, therefore
y + x 9 (solid line)
For , has points (0, 6), (12, 0)
gradient =
0 6
12 0

=
6
12

=
1
2

y y
1
= m(x x
1
) using (12, 0)
y 0 =
1
2
(x 12)
2y = x 12
2y x = 12
2y + x = 12
But is shaded below line,
therefore 2y + x 12 (solid line).
x 0, solid line and feasible region
is right of y-axis.
y 0, solid line and feasible region
is above x-axis.
The answer is D.
5 For , has points (12, 0), (0, 8)
gradient =
8 0
0 12

=
8
12
=
2
3

y y
1
= m(x x
1
) using (12, 0)
y 0 =
2
3
(x 12)
3y = 2x + 24
3y + 2x = 24
But, is shaded above line,
therefore 3y + 2x 24 (solid line).
For , has points (6, 0), (0, 6)
gradient =
6 0
0 ( 6)


=
6
6
= 1
y y
1
= m(x x
1
) using (0, 6)
y 6 = 1(x 0)
y 6 = x
y x = 6
2y 2x = 12
2x 2y = 12
But, is shaded above line,
therefore 2x 2y 12 (solid line).
x 0, solid line and feasible region
is right of y-axis.
y 0, solid line and feasible region
is above x-axis.
The answer is B.
Exercise 11D Maximising
and minimising linear
functions
1 a i x 0
y 0
x 4
y 6
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade above line.
shade right of line.
shade above line.


ii O(0, 0), A(0, 6),
B(4, 6), C(4, 0).
iii z = x y
y = x z
sub z = 0, y = x
(gradient is 1)
Maximum occurs at C(4, 0)
z(max) = x y
= 4 0
= 4
b i x 0
y 0
y x
y 7
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
0 = x (0, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
y = 1 (1, 1)
shade below line.
L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g A GM1 1 - 1 1 261


ii O(0, 0), A(0, 7)
sub. into
y = x y = 7 B(7, 7)
iii z = x + 3y

1
3
(z x) = y (gradient is
1
3
)
Minimum occurs at O(0, 0)
z(min) = x + 3y
= 0 + 3(0)
= 0
c i x 0
y 0
y x
x 5
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
shade above line.
shade right of line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
y = x
0 = x (0, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
y = 0 (0, 0)
sub. x = 1
y = 1 (1, 1)


ii O(0, 0), B(5, 0)
sub. into
y = x
y = 5 A(5, 5)
iii z = x + 2y

1
2
(z x) = y (gradient is
1
2
)
Maximum occurs at A(5, 5).
z(max) = x + 2y
= 5 + 2(5)
= 15
d i x 0
y 0
x + y 4
3y + 8y 24
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x + 0 = 4
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
0 + y = 4
y = 4 (0, 4)
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
3x + 8y = 24
3x + 8(0) = 24
3x = 24
x = 8 (8, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
3(0) + 8y = 24
8y = 24
y = 3 (0, 3)
shade above line.


ii O(0, 0), A(0, 3), C(4, 0)
Solve: to eliminate x,
3
3(x + y = 4)
3x 3y = 12
Then +
(3x + 8y) + (3x 3y) = 24 + (12)
5y = 12
y =
12
5

sub. y =
12
5
into
x +
12
5
= 4
x =
20 12
5 5

x =
8
5

Solution set is B
8 12
,
5 5




iii z = 4x + 6y
y =
1
6
(z 4x)
gradient is
2
3

Maximum occurs at

8 12
B ,
5 5




z(max) = 4x + 6y
=
8 12
4 6
5 5

+



=
32 72
5 5
+
=
104
5
=
4
20
5

e i x 0
y 0
2x + 2y 8
6x + 8y 30
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
2x + 2(0) = 8
2x = 8
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
2(0) + 2y = 8
2y = 8
y = 4 (0, 4)
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
6x + 8(0) = 30
6x = 30
x = 5 (5, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
6(0) + 8y = 30
8y = 30
y =
3
3
4

3
0, 3
4




shade above line.


ii O(0, 0) A
3
0, 3
4



C(4, 0)
To find B, solve to eliminate x.
3,
3(2x + 2y = 8)
6x 6y = 24
Then +
(6x + 8y) + (6x 6y) = 30 + (24)
2y = 6
y = 3
sub y = 3 into
2x + 2(3) = 8
2x + 6 = 8
2x = 2
x = 1
Solution set is B(1, 3)
iii z = 3x 6y
6y = 3x z
y =
1 1
2 6
x z
sub. z = 0, y =
1
2
x .
Gradient is
1
2
.
Minimum occurs at
3
0, 3
4




z(min) = 3(0)
3
6 3
4




=
1
22
2

f i x 0
y 0
x 4y 10
2x + 7y 28
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x 4(0) = 10
x = 10 (10, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
0 4y = 10
A GM1 1 - 1 1 262 L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g
y =
1
2
2

1
0, 2
2




shade below line
For , x-intercept, y = 0
2x + 7(0) = 22
2x = 28
x = 14 (14, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
2(0) + 7y = 28
y = 4 (0, 4)
shade above line.


ii O(0, 0) A(0, 4) C(10, 0)
To find B, solve to eliminate x.
2,
2(x 4y = 10)
2x + 8y = 20
Then, +
(2x + 7y) + (2x + 8y) = 28 + (20)
15y = 8
y =
8
15

sub. y =
8
15
into

8
4
15
x



=
10
1


32
15
x =
150
15

x =
150 32
15 15
+
x =
182
15

Solution set is
182 8
B ,
15 15




iii z = 0.8x + 1.2y
y =
0.8
1.2
z x

y =
2
1.2 3
z
x
sub. z = 0, y =
2
3
x
Gradient is
2
3

Maximum occurs at

182 8
B ,
15 15




z(max) =
182 8
0.8 1.2
15 15
+
= 10.35
g i x 0
y 0
2x + 3y 18
3x + 4y 30
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
2x + 3(0) = 18
2x = 18
x = 9 (9, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
2(0) + 3y = 18
3y = 18
y = 6 (0, 6)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
3x + 4y = 30
3x + 4(0) = 30
3x = 30
x = 10 (10, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
3(0) + 4y = 30
y =
1
7
2

1
0, 7
2




shade above line.


ii A(0, 6) B(0, 7
1
2
)
C(10, 0) D(9, 0)
iii z = 9x + 3y
3y = z 9x
y =
3
z
3x
sub z = 0, y = 3x
Gradient is 3.
Minimum occurs at A(0, 6)
z(min) = 9x + 3y
= 9(0) + 3(6)
= 18
h i x 0
y 0
5x + 2y 20
x 3
y 9
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
shade right of line.
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
5x + 2y = 20
5x + 2(0) = 20
5x = 20
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
5(0) + 2y = 20
2y = 20
y = 10 (0, 10)
shade below line.


ii B(3, 9)
sub into
5x + 2(9) = 20
5x = 2
x =
2
5

2
A , 9
5




sub. into
5(3) + 2y = 20
2y = 5
y =
1
2
2

1
C 3, 2
2




iii z = 3x + y
y = 3x + z
sub. z = 0, y = 3x
Gradient is 3.
Maximum occurs at
2
A , 9
5




z(max) = 3x + y
=
2
3 9
5

+



=
4
7
5

i i x 0
y 0
2x + y 3
6x 3y 12
3x + 3y 15
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
x + (0) = 3
2x = 3
x =
1
1
2

1
1 , 0
2




y-intercept, x = 0
2(0) + y = 3
y = 3 (0, 3)
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
6x 3(0) = 12
6x = 12
x = 2 (2, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
6(0) 3y = 12
y = 4 (0, 4)
shade below line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
3x + 3(0) = 15
3x = 15
x = 5 (5, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
3(0) + 3y = 15
y = 5 (0, 5)
shade above line.
L i n e a r p r o g r a mmi n g A GM1 1 - 1 1 263


ii O(0, 0) A(0, 3) D(2, 0)
To find B; solve: to eliminate
y, 3 +
3(2x + y) + (3x + 3y) =
3(3) + 15
+ 6x 3y + 3x + 3y = 9 + 15
9x = 6
x =
2
3

sub. x =
2
3
into

2
2
3
y

+ +


= 3

4
3
y + = 3
y =
1
5
3

Solution set is
2 1
B , 5
3 3




To find C,
solve: to eliminate y, +
(6x 3y) + (3x + 3y) = 12 + 15
9x = 27
x = 3
sub. x = 3 into
3(3) + 3y = 15
9 + 3y = 15
3y = 6
y = 2
Solution set is C(3, 2)
iii z = x + y
y = x + z
sub. z = 0, y = x
Gradient is 1.
The minimum occurs at
O(0, 0)
z(min) = 0 + 0
= 0
j i x 0
y 0
2x + y 9
3x 5y 12
x 6
y 10
All of the above are solid lines.
shade left of line.
shade below line.
shade right of line.
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
2x + 0 = 9
2x = 9
x =
1
4
2

1
4 , 0
2




y-intercept, x = 0
2(0) + y = 9
y = 9 (0, 9)
shade above line.
For , x-intercept, y = 0
3x 5(0) = 12
3x = 12
x = 4 (4, 0)
y-intercept, x = 0
3(0) 5y = 12
y =
12
5

12
0,
5