Future of Protective Clothing

Intelligent or not?
Valencia, Spain
organized by:

29th, 30th & 31st, May 2012

sponsored by:

abstracts

program committee ESPC board
Chair: Helena Mäkinen – Finish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland Members: Kalev Kuklane – Lund Technical University – Sweden George Havenith – Loughborough University – UK Peter Heffels – BG BAU – Germany Hilde Faerevik– Sintef – Norway René Rossi – EMPA – Switzerland Helmut Eichinger – Dupont – Switzerland Grazyna Bartkowiak – CIOP – Poland Emiel den Hartog – TNO – The Netherlands Henk Vanhoutte – ESF – Belgium Jean Leonard – CENTEXBEL – Belgium Miriam Martinez Albert – Aitex – Spain Liaison persons: R. Barker – NC State University – USA Eunae Kim – Yonsei University – SKR

general information about AITEX
AITEX is a research, Innovation and advanced technical services centre for the textile, clothing and technical textile sectors in Spain. AITEX was created to help all SMEs and professionals whose activities are directly or indirectly involved with the textile field over indirect services and research projects. AITEX is the Notified Body Nº 0161 for the appliance of the Directive 89/686/CEE of 21 December 1989 (D.O.C.E. of 12/30/1989) on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to Personal Protective Equipment. www.aitex.es

abstracts

Preface
From May 29-31, 2012 the 5th European Conference on Protective Clothing (ECPC) is organized in Spain. The objective of the symposium is to serve as a forum for dissemination, exchange and discussion of results from research, development and implementation related to personal protective clothing, with a strong focus on protective properties and the wellbeing of the users of protective clothing. The conference is organized by AITEX with the European Society of Protective Clothing (ESPC) and the “Nordic Coordination Group on Protective Clothing as a Technical Preventive Measure”. This conference, that it is held at the Hotel Primus Valencia (Spain), is intended for researchers, designers, manufacturers, purchasers, product safety experts, human factors experts and public authorities (procurement), end-users, health and safety experts. Well-being of workers is today prominent goal at work reflecting to the health and safety, productivity as well as economy of the company. Protective clothing is the nearest ambient of the user, and is therefore very important part of this goal, but not only at work also in many leisure activities. There are a large number of developments and ongoing projects to achieve protective clothing which serves all the needed functions. The European Union has selected protective clothing as one of the six lead markets in Europe. Union has also funded development projects with special call in the area of protective clothing. Therefore, a conference on research, technology and demonstration with respect to protective clothing is a must for all involved in this intriguing and rapidly growing area.

Organization committee of the 5th ECPC
Raquel Muñoz rmunoz@aitex.es Miriam Martínez mimartinezal@aitex.es Neus Jordá njorda@aitex.es

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Kyunghi Hong. Henk Vanhoutte 17 Development of a new functional PPE system based on protective clothing improvement – challenges and experiences from i-Protect project Piotr Pietrowski 18 New materials and clothing protecting against electromagnetic field of law. dr. Hein Daanen. Krzysztof Łężak 22 Efficacy of microclimate cooling by air and cooling vest for reducing heat strain and chemical contamination while wearing PPE during fuel cell replacement Sirkka Rissanen. Angela Mahr-Erhardt 15 A textile integrated system extending the awareness of an electrician for dangerously high voltages Emma Kaappa. Hilde Færevik 13 Methodology for determining the thermoregulatory effect of PCM containing materials and garments Minna Varheenmaa. Aki Halme. Yejin Lee 26 4 . thermal modelling and materials for Personal Equipment Aernout Oudenhuijzen 11 From concept to product – an integrated approach Tiago Sotto Mayor . Seeberg. Trine M. Guowen Song 25 Ergonomic Pattern Construction for Well-Fitted Buoyant Vest using 3-D Technology Soyoung Kim. & Jukka Vanhala 16 Prospie Project (Protective Responsive Outer Shell for People in Industrial Environments) Prof. Piotr Pietrowski. Hilde Færevik 14 Sensor-based Personal Protective Equipment “HORST” for forestry work with power saws Andreas Schmidt. Hilde Faerevik 24 Analysis for Thermal Performance of Immersion Suits Han Zhang. David Ramos. Hege Torsvik. Kurczewska 19 Some experiences on integration of advanced ICT solutions into smart Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) Jesús María López de Ipiña. Martin Rupp. middle and high frequencies A. Miguel Ribeiro 12 Optimal design for efficient utilization of PCM in protective clothing Arne Røyset. Juha Laitinen and Hannu Rintamäki 23 Work clothing for the petroleum industry in arctic climates Tore Christian Bjorsvik Storholmen.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Table of contents general PPE's session 1 Innovations on methodology. Lorenzo Fiore and Javier Goitia 20 general PPE's session 2 Barrier properties of composites with nanofillers designed for protective clothing and gloves Sylwia Krzemińska. Ole Petter Naesgaard. Maria Suong Tjønnås. Heeran Lee. Jan Beringer.

K. Adriana Petrova 29 Safe@Sea – developing comfortable wear resistant and stain repellent coated materials Ine De Vilder. Claudia Peltonen. Rolf Stämpfli. Tommy Verminck. Enrique Rivas 34 Enprotex.Hewins. Semra Peksoz. René Rossi 43 5 . Bert Jacobson. Simon Annaheim. Panagiotis Kamenidis. New procurement strategies for innovative protective textiles Anton Luiken. Handle with care Havenith George 37 Need for standards for intelligent PPE Helena Mäkinen. Armando Rodrigo. Kyunghi Hong. PhD 42 Pressure distribution on the skin while wearing ballistic vests and other military equipment Patrick Wettenschwiler. Innovative textiles. Ebba Magnusson. Myriam Vanneste. Vicente Fuster. Simonetta Granello. Soyoung Kim. Toan Vu-Khanh 39 End of Service for Protective Workwear Garments with Functional Finishes Anugrah Shaw 40 Effects of the 3D body fit on the pressure distribution and dynamics of personal body armor during movement Heeran Lee. Minna Varheenmaa 30 Safe@Sea – Protective clothing for improved safety and performance in the fisheries Hilde Faerevik 31 A research on the waterproofness of seam lines of protective clothes Sukran Kara. Anders Bergner 28 Exploration of Simultaneous Mobility Assessment for Protective Clothing Huiju Park. Minna Varheenmaa. Aric Warren. Yejin Lee 41 Relating the Current UK body armour standards to real life injuries Malbon Chris. Donna Branson. Sevil Yesilpinar 32 Multifunctional protective clothing for rescue team workers in the Northern areas Claudia Peltonen. Harriet Meinander 33 A new approach to intelligent PPEs regarding electromagnetic interferences due to an electric arc Francisco Magraner.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Dexterity and comfort evaluation of needle puncture resistant gloves Chantal Gauvin. Piotr Pietrowski 38 Durability and performance of protective clothing after multi-stress aging Carlos Arrieta. Dr. Piet Verhage 35 general PPE's session 3 Keynote. Pedro Llovera. Dr. O’Rourke Sarah. Jaime Lara 27 New method for measuring cut resistance in textile fabrics Eva Carlbom.

Richard M.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 CBRNE session Evaluation of wear and tear of CBRN Individual Protective Equipment Saskia de Kant. René M. Helmut Eichinger. Benedicte Valance 46 Development of Next Generation Manikin for Chemical and Biological Protection Research R. a software for the selection of chemical protective gloves Jaime Lara. Michael Schubert and Tom Stachler 48 Prediction of Thermo-physiological Strain in Chemical Protective Clothing: the Impact of Barrier Permeability and Micro-climate Configuration ShuQin Wen. Duffy. Jean Léonard. and particulate hazards Jeffrey O. Charles M. Stull and Grace G. Chuansi Gao. T. Guowen Song. Ingvar Holmér 55 Analysis of the thermal insulation of clothing ensembles using computer generated data Jean Léonard 57 Systematic analysis of heat strain when wearing protective clothing X. Kalev Kuklane. biological. Camenzind. Blanchard. AlisonSyrett. Roger Barker 47 Improved ensembles for fire responder protection against chemical. Martin A. Muntaseer Kainat. Hansen. Stull. L. Miguel Ribeiro 59 Standardization of a sweating torso for the evaluation of the thermo-physiological performance of protective clothing Simon Annaheim. Faming Wang. Hoyt 58 An interlaboratory study on measurements of clothing evaporative resistance with thermal manikins Tiago Sotto Mayor. Is material testing good enough to predict physiological results? Aitor Coca. R. Xu. Emiel denHartog. Bryan Ormond. Grace G. Jung-Hyun Kim 61 6 . André Capt. Endrusick. thermal manikin testing and thermal model predictions. Rossi 60 Relationship between Total Heat Loss test. Agnes Psikuta. Emiel den Hartog 45 A proposal for improved evaluation of chemical protective clothing made of flash spun polyethylene nonwoven or some other nonwoven fabrics or combinations of nonwovens with micropourous films Valerie Pierret. François Zimmermann and Alain Chollot 50 Toxicity-based end points and test procedures to support the use of cumulative permeation for the improved selection of protection clothing against hazardous chemicals Jeffrey O. W. Samer Adeeb 49 ProtecPo. Stull. Stull 51 Prediction of human strain in CBRN Individual Protective Equipment Emiel A Den Hartog 52 comfort session Comfort in PPE’s Miriam Martinez Albert 54 A Comparison of Three Different Calculation Methods for Clothing Evaporative Resistance Faming Wang. Daniel Drolet.

Shawn Deaton. Mark Hepokoski 65 Thermal insulation of 3-layered clothing system in different sizes using 3D body scanner Kirsi Jussila. Nazia Nawaz 75 Thermal Protective Clothing Performance: Hot Liquid Splash and Its Flow Effect on Skin Burn Farzan Gholamreza. Ben Halkon. Guowen Song 76 Improvement of thermal and sweat management in fire fighter suits Andreas Schmidt. Markus Schmid. Ender Yazgan Bulgun. Guira PARK. Sungeun KIM. Leena Simonen. Ksenia Dukchnovskaya. A. Weng wenguo. John Morton-Aslanis 78 Modelling for predicting the performances of thermal protective clothing Sumit Mandal. Miriam Martinez 80 7 . Boris Bauer. Rossi 70 Determining the Performance of Cricket Helmets with the use of a Novel Headform Nikunj Velani. Zhang xiaole. Taner Akkan 73 Prediction of Skin Burn Injury Induced By Thermal Radiation based on Thermal Manikin Experiment and Numerical Computation Fu Ming. Brühwiler and René M. Roger Barker. Han Xuefeng 74 Influence of exercise intensity on thermophysiological responses of firefighters wearing different firefighters protective clothing ensembles Irena Yermakova. Bogerd. Roger Barker. Olga Troynikov. Yavuz Şenol. Andy Harland 71 heat and flame protection session Designing smart garment for firefighters Müge Yılmaz. Dr. Shawn Deaton. Agnes Psikuta. Paul A. A. Keith Blood. Marjukka Kekäläinen.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Method for Determination of Body Conformability and Fit of Skin-Layer Protective Garments Olga Troynikov. Anastasia Nikolaienko. Jan Beringer. Guowen Song 79 Study for the heat transfer in PPE’s against a flash fire Enrique Rivasl. Eunae KIM 64 Further validation of a model-controlled thermal manikin using firefighter turnout gear Richard Burke. Nazia Nawaz 63 Thermal manikin tests for the intelligent cold protection of SMA embedded clothing Jiyeon Lee. Helena Mäkinen 66 Prediction of body temperature in humans using non-invasive measurement methods Reto Niedermann. Silke Küblbeck 77 Advances in Manikin Technology and Methodology for Testing the Thermal Protective Performance of Clothing in Fire Environments Alexander Hummel.measurements on a thermal manikin Tore Kalev Kuklane 69 Heat loss and moisture retention variations of boot membranes and sock fabrics Cornelis P. Mark Ackerman. René Michel Rossi 67 sport area Evaporative resistance of sleeping bags .

Stull. Shinar D. Halldin P. Rossi. Allen Curran. Faming Wang. Kyunghi Hong. Byungcheol Lee. Jiyoung Choi.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Flame engulfment test according to ISO 13506: correlations between burn predictions and total heat transferred René M. Michel Schmid. BirkanYurdakul 82 The thermo-physiological performance of various fire fighter garments evaluated by means of a sweating torso test equipment Simon Annaheim. Yanjun Wu. Deaton 85 Thermo-physiological Modelling of Humans Wearing Firefighter Turnout Gear Mark Hepokoski . Rick Burke. Agnes Psikuta. Woolsgrove C & COST Action TU1101 89 Interlayer moisture effects on heat transfer in firefighter protective clothing and gloves Jeffrey O. Stull and Grace G. Houtenbos M. Rossi 83 Modeling of the parameters of the liquid cooling garment depending on the thermal stress experienced by a subject in the hot environment Grażyna Bartkowiak. Camenzind. Bengi Kutlu. Stull 90 The evaluation of an agility test for discriminating the ergonomic impact of emergency responder footwear Jeffrey O. Shawn Deaton. Willinger R. Martin A. Tomonori Sakoi 93 Heat and moisture transfer through fibrous insulation with thin reflective fibrous interlayers Xianfu WAN and Jintu FAN 94 Development of Safety Webbing System for Well-Fitted Personal Life Jacket using Functional Lines of Non Extension Soyoung Kim. René Rossi 88 COST Action TU1101: Towards safer bicycling through optimization of bicycle helmets and usage Bogerd CP. Agnes Psikuta. Stull and William Candy 91 A Methodology for the Design and Evaluation of PPE using a Human Thermoregulation Modelling Paradigm Mark Hepokoski. Tony Schwenn. Walker I. Otte D. Dr. Roger Barker 86 poster session Evaluation of the evaporative cooling efficiency in protective fabrics Dr. Dr. Helmut Eichinger. Namyim Kim. Yejin Lee 95 Calculation of “true” insulation of protective clothing against cold by means of a physiological model Jean Léonard 96 8 . A. Rossi RM. Martin Camenzind 81 Mathematical Modelling of Heat Transfer Properties of Undergarments for Firefighter’s Clothing Aysun Akşit. Allen Curran. Shaya Jamshidi Brosch 92 Ventilated evaporative cooling as a preventive measure when confronted with a hot climate Chuansi Gao. Barker and Anthony S. Heeran Lee. Tony Schwenn. René M. André Capt. Anna Dąbrowska 84 Balancing Heat Stress and Thermal Protective Performance in Wildland Firefighter Protective Clothing through New Testing Technologies Roger L. Grace G. Simon Annaheim. Corey Packard.

Joanna Lewartowska. Hrynyk. E. Jun Li. Frydrych. Anetta Walawska. Marie-Ange Bueno 102 The effect of air gaps in moist protective clothing on protection from heat and flame Yehu Lu. René Rossi. Bednar 100 Investigation on the Durability of Thermal Insulating Performance of Aluminized Fabric Lu Jin. Youngjin Chae. Grażyna Bartkowiak 104 Maximal oxygen uptake while wearing firefighter personal protective equipment using different treadmill protocols Joo-Young Lee.Stefko. Irzmańska. R. M. Xiaohui Li. Agnes Psikuta. Jung-Hyun Kim. Kee Jong Yoon 101 Distribution of the air gap thickness and contact area in wet underwear Joanna Frackiewicz-Kaczmarek. Pyoung-Kyu Park. Ilham Bakri. Wojciech Czajkowski.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Thermal Protective Performance of Fire fighter’s Turnout Gear Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Thermal Liner Guira Park. A. Eunae Kim 97 Effect of fabric weave structure on micro-climate environment under microdust protective clothing Xiao-Qun Dai and Han-Yu Wu 98 Physiological strain of workers of different ages during physical load in a cold environment in the same set of clothing Anna Marszalek 99 Mechanical properties of chosen basalt fabrics destined for the protective gloves I. and Yutaka Tochihara 105 9 . Wajdi Heni. Guowen Song 103 New generation barrier materials as elements of individual systems protecting against UV radiation emitted by artificial sources Jadwiga Sójka – Ledakowicz.

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 general PPE's session 1 10 .

called TOF+ (Transition Operational to Functional requirements) that allows procurers to obtain the users needs methodologically and to translate the operational needs in related functional and technical requirements. Finally it was found that the system approach has many benefits above currently used methods in PE procurement. conformance with requirements. In the four year during research program TNO focussed on four aspects in order to develop methods/tools and to disclose innovations for PE procurement. TNO used commercially available Quality Function Deployment (QFD) techniques as a tool in PE procurement. cost. TNO build a webbased application. This decision is mostly done using an engineering based judgement. In order to allow procurers to make these decision more methodologically and in order to have a system approach. This research program was carried out for and in close co-operation with the Dutch Ministry of Defence and had the following three objectives: 1. Strangely enough. Material technology: PE material innovations were investigated and monitored and assembled into a material selection tool for PE. TNO finalized a research program on Personal Equipment. 3) human system integration and 4) system engineering. The combined set of resulting methods and related tools were used in various cases. department of Training Performance Innovations Recently. relative humidity). 2. there is more than often insufficient knowledge about the users operational needs. This tool allowed to select PE materials based on functional and technical requirements. availability. various ambient conditions (temperature. Behavioural and Social sciences. Human system integration and system engineering It is more than obvious that any PE should answer to the users operational needs. To develop a method to procure PE as an integral system. sunlight. To disclose PE material innovation for PE procurement. clothing type and layers. Scope Light was developed and verified on its accuracy. thermal modelling and materials for Personal Equipment Aernout Oudenhuijzen * TNO. In order to fill this lack of methods. 11 . Procurers often base their buy/not buy decision on a mix of quality.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Innovations on methodology. 2) thermal modelling. These aspects were: 1) PE material technology. To develop methods and related tools to obtain user operational needs and to translate these in a program with functional/technical requirements. Thermal Modelling: Scope Light is a thermal model that allows simulating personal tasks (exertion). 3. And used in various PE cases within and outside the research program. It also allows for definition of newly to be developed materials of PE.

In line with this. which usually involve considerable resources.g. needs to be shortened. privileging preoptimization of virtual prototypes. are a good match to the tasks required to address developments for other product typologies. which involve contributions from different areas (e. R&D of smart solutions. followed by systematic optimization of the characteristics found relevant for its overall performance.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 From concept to product – an integrated approach Tiago Sotto Mayor 1*. as a consequence of the systematic and detailed optimizations one can conduct using numerical approaches. to a more numerical-based approach. to address R&D activities in highly time-constrained projects. the building-testing cycles of real prototypes). and performance characterization of the final smart product). this asks for a shift from a more experimental-based development. to the final performance evaluation of a new product. Focused is put on a particular project involving the development and integration of smart functionalities. This asks for strategies to accelerate the identification of limiting factors of prototype performance. This needs to be done at the earliest stage of development possible. Portugal * Corresponding author: tsottomayor@centi.Centre for Nanotechnology and Smart Materials. Thus.pt The need to accelerate the pace of innovation. CeNTI . this paper presents an integrated approach followed at CeNTI. together with the changes it promotes in the way R&D tasks are addressed (e. often long before the first prototypes are actually built. the innovation process. and results in better tuned final products. 12 .g. asks for a reduction of the time between the identification of a market opportunity and the actual release of a new product. The benefits of an increased focus on virtual prototype optimization are discussed. design and optimization of virtual prototypes. into protective clothing for extreme environments. Vila Nova de Famalicão. involving building and experimental characterization of a high number of prototypes.e. Such shift allows reducing greatly the experimental “iterations” (i. The R&D tasks discussed here. the shift from a sequential to a concurrent approach). Miguel Ribeiro1 1 Product Characterization Laboratory. In order to illustrate the aforesaid. from the initial design of a prototype. as an answer to increasing competition in a globalized market environment.

and most of the insulation towards the ambient. This work was supported by the Research Council of Norway and the partners of the Coldwear project 188002/I40 (http://www. 3) The duration of phase change can be increased by having PCM concentrated on a smaller area. 4) The duration of the phase change depends on the melting melting/freezing temperature of the PCM. NO-7465 Trondheim. Dept.no/Coldwear). Norway *Corresponding author: arne. The most important design parameters are: 1) What is the optimal melting/freezing temperature of the PCM? 2) How large fraction of the total insulation should be between the PCM and skin? 3) How large part of the body should be covered by PCM? 4) What is the optimal position on the body (body temperature mapping) 5) What is the required latent heat? 6) What is the ambient temperature (low/high/changing) and work intensity (heat production) of the wearer (low/high/changing)? We have constructed a simple model that aims at answering the following questions: 1) How long time does it take before all the PCM has changed phase? 2) How much does the PCM increase or decrease heat loss from the body? 3) How large fraction of the latent heat is used to cool or heat the body. We will also use these findings to discuss the widely used claims that PCM is an intelligent material that adapts to the needs of the body. and not heating or cooling the ambient? The model also reveal some important design guidelines: 1) A high utililization of the latent heat can be achieved by having less insulation between PCM and body. 2) The duration of the phase change is reduced by having less insulation between PCM and body.Maria Suong Tjønnås2. However. and present an easy to use analytical model for optimum design.sintef.no The application of Phase Change Materials (PCM) in protective clothing has appeared as an attractive solution to the challenge posed by a working environment with rapid changes in temperature or workload. Norway SINTEF Technology and Society. Hilde Færevik2 1 2 SINTEF Materials and Chemistry. 13 . A main reason for this is the challenging task of designing a PCM clothing system that is optimal for specific environment temperatures and provides sufficiently reduction in heat stress for a required time.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Optimal design for efficient utilization of PCM in protective clothing Arne Røyset*1. We report results from our investigation on how a clothing system with PCM can be optimally designed. 5) The fraction of latent heat that is heating or cooling the body is not dependent on the PCM melting/freezing temperature. of Health Research. commercial solutions which have demonstrated real benefit for the comfort of the user are scarce. NO-7465 Trondheim.royset@sintef.

Norway * Corresponding author: minna. The special feature of PCM materials is that they require a dynamic change in the environment temperature to release their cooling or heating effect. Korkeakoulunkatu 6.varheenmaa@tut.2007-SME-1) is to develop novel temperature regulating fibers with high amounts of PCM incorporated into fibers. This paper presents the methodology used for determining the PCM effect of textile materials and garments in dynamic test conditions when using the sweating thermal cylinder and thermal manikin in EU-funded NoTeReFiGa project. These traditional tests are normally performed in steady-state ambient temperature conditions. bi-component melt spinning technique for incorporating PCM into fiber core and wet spinning technology for incorporating free PCM directly into cellulose solution and thus into cellulose fibers. Materials Science. SINTEF Technology and Society. Test results and application possibilities for protective clothing are discussed. FI-33720 Tampere.e. However when incorporating PCM (Phase Change Materials) materials into textile structure the assessment of thermal effects becomes more demanding and it requires new approaches to be taken into account.fi The traditional assessment of thermal comfort properties of textile materials and garments can be performed using the standard or in-house textile test methods or using methods that are simulating the human body functions like sweating thermal cylinders and manikins in a predetermined environment or in field tests using human subjects. There are two approaches applied i. The aim of the NoTeReFiGa project (Call ID FP7-NMP.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Methodology for determining the thermoregulatory effect of PCM containing materials and garments Minna Varheenmaa1. Trondheim. 14 . Finland Department of Health Research. Hilde Færevik2 1 2 Tampere University of Technology.

Practical tests have shown that the innovative protective function is stable and reliable even during heavy physical work. Following trials. the sensor-based textile layer can be neither seen nor felt and is also extremely robust. the contacts in the trousers close due to the magnetic field from the chainsaw and a radio signal is sent which stops the saw immediately. a minimum distance of 5 to 10 centimetres between the saw and the trousers was judged to be appropriate and practical. and the system kicks in before there is any risk of even the outer textile layer being damaged. However. In Germany. both trousers and jackets. Martin Rupp. The trousers are also very easy to look after: they can be washed many times without impairing the protective function. This means that. there is no contact at all. conventional cut-protection clothing only provides its wearer with passive protection: the trousers and jacket incorporate cut-protection inserts consisting of several layers of special material made of ultra-strong fibres. Boennigheim. Magnets on the guide bar of the chainsaw and highly sensitive magnetic field sensors (reed switch contacts) incorporated in the textile fabric create a sort of protective electronic field for the forester. However. 15 . both the forester and his clothing would remain untouched. so that the clothing feels lighter and has less of an insulating effect. Angela Mahr-Erhardt Hohenstein Institute.000 people work professionally in forestry. If the saw comes too close. By contrast. in real life. especially at the warmer times of year. it is detected extremely accurately and very fast. As the saw comes closer. the multilayered material results in greater thermal insulation which puts additional physiological stress on the wearer. whether they are forestry workers or private individuals undertaking ever more ambitious tasks. The aim of the development work was to reduce the "passive" cut-protection layers to an absolute minimum and increase the "active" protection. with the newly developed electronic protection system HORST. about half of them in privately-owned woodland. For wearers. This property means that in future manufacturers will be able to use this innovative textile for all types of protective clothing.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Sensor-based Personal Protective Equipment “HORST” for forestry work with power saws Andreas Schmidt. Germany Special cut-protection clothing has been part of the legally prescribed personal protection equipment (PPE) for foresters for many years now. If the chain of the saw comes in contact with the textile. Jan Beringer. it becomes caught in the fabric and therefore stops before the wearer is affected. about 25. That makes it more comfortable to wear while simultaneously reducing the physiological strain on the wearer. A further advantage of the newly developed textiles is that they do not in any way restrict the cutting or manufacture of the garments.

the glove identifies a normal main supply (>230Vac) but in favourable conditions the detection of considerably smaller voltage is also possible. Kankaanpää. cannot compromise on safety. The antenna has been placed on the upper surface of the forefinger. Aki Halme. conducting wire under test is pointed with finger from a safe distance.fi The protective warning glove which identifies the present voltage was developed to improve the electricians' industrial safety. Wearable Technology Research Unit. depending on the conditions. The protective glove has been a few months on usage in the electric power plant and the user feedback has been truly positive. The electronics are powered with Lithium-Polymer battery. The electronics was made as simple as possible to observe the voltage from reliability however to haggle. with the simple electronics the manufacturing costs are made to remain moderate. electronics and battery is integrated between surface material and lining. the warning will take place through red LED-light when the dangerous situation threatens. The battery can be reloaded considering long-term usage.kaappa@tut. The most strategic component of the electronics is a microcontroller (Atmel ATTiny13).5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 A textile integrated system extending the awareness of an electrician for dangerously high voltages Emma Kaappa*. Finland * corresponding author: emma. The signal which comes to the converter from the antenna has been adjusted on the suitable level of sensitivity utilizing the previously mentioned passive components. the microcontroller analyses the input level and makes decision whether voltage is present or not.) are needed. In this version of the protective glove. 16 . The detection of the threatening mains voltage near to the glove is based on the observation of the forming electric field. & Jukka Vanhala Tampere University of Technology. in this case. In the future. Furthermore. the system will be moved from the glove to the cuff of the electrician’s jacket. Department of Electronics. The electronics contains a certain type of antenna to which the inducing voltage is accumulated. As a rule. When testing a cable. The detector operates a few days with the fully charged battery. This voltage is measured with the AD-converter of the microcontroller. The charging takes place with the small portable charger that has been especially manufactured for the glove. The idea of the protective glove is to warn the mechanic in the situation in which the power supply is turned on before the mechanic has been able to finish his work. capacitors etc. The antenna. LED is encased in the upper surface of the glove with silicone. In addition to this only a few passive components of the electronics (resistors. Finally.

For this field tests at different industries are running (including industrial washing) during the last part of the project. 2 1 2 TNO Behavioural and Societal Sciences. this system is compromised when working in protective clothing. to assess the thermal status of the worker. Soesterberg. Sensors in the garments measure relevant physiological data. dr. such as skin temperature. Eventually the worker has to abandon his task due to incompensable heat strain. Prospie aims to supply the worker with personal protective equipment that enables him or her to work longer in protective clothing with less discomfort. The Prospie Project is funded under the EU FP7 program and is a collaboration of 16 partners from 7 different countries. Data are also transferred to industrial safety systems in order to alert rescue workers if needed. relative humidity). Belgium In the Prospie-project a new generation of personal protective equipment (PPE) is developed and produced.Scientific coordinator of Prospie Henk Vanhoutte Consulting. Harelbeke.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Prospie Project (Protective Responsive Outer Shell for People in Industrial Environments) Prof. During the presentation the system will be explained as well as the results obtained so far. The operational benefit of prototypes of the suit are determined in a controlled setting as well as in the industry where protective suits are indispensable. including end users. The body temperature rises and consequently the vigilance and task performance decrease. The physiological signals are used in an algorithm that generates a warning signal when a certain safety threshold is surpassed. heat flux and heart rate. The special feature of the PPE is a heat shield that prevents the worker to become too hot. the Netherlands . Although sweat evaporation is an excellent cooling mechanism for work in the heat. 17 .Henk Vanhoutte. and the environmental conditions (temperature. Hein Daanen1.

The new requirements. as well as legibility and quality of information delivered to the user. The core of the project is integration of the advanced materials and modules applied for the development of multifunctional PPE system. functional nanomaterials for achieving special properties of fabrics (antielectrostatics.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Development of a new functional PPE system based on protective clothing improvement – challenges and experiences from i-Protect project Piotr Pietrowski*. For the achievement of project objectives adequate evaluation criteria and testing methods for the new PPE system should be taken into consideration.pl The main objective of i-Protect project is to develop advanced personal protective equipment (PPE) system that will ensure active protection and information support during rescue activities carried out by fire fighters as well as chemical and mining rescuers. Lodz * corresponding author: pipie@ciop. Special attention should be paid to effectiveness checking and reliability of integration of individual system modules against the user’s safety.in integrating these elements into one functional system. 18 . oxygen level). optical fibres integrated with underwear textiles for monitoring users' health status (body temperature. could determine test methods applied for advanced PPE systems assessment. concentration of toxic gases. optical fibers. covering the end-users’ needs. The interdisciplinary character of the project consists of R&D activities in various fields of science and technology (electronics.lodz. heart rate). The new PPE system should be ergonomically designed and as fully as it possible adapted to end-users’ needs and expected working conditions. Department of Personal Protective Equipment. fabrics and textiles modification. The project approach takes into consideration research and development in the field of microsensors modules integrated with protective clothing for real-time monitoring of risk factors (temperature. ergonomics) and requires expertise – based on different technologies . conductivity) as well as communication module for data transmission. comfort. After laboratory tests the PPE system should be tested in field tests by test subjects in order to assess field functionality. All safety and quality parameters of new PPE solution should be first tested in laboratory conditions in order to assess a proper functioning of each individual element to be elaborated within the project as well as protective properties of modified PPEs used as a basis for integration. 1 Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute. ICT. nano-engineering. The need of specific requirements and test methods could form the basis for future activities to be carried out within relevant standardization committees and aimed at new standard elaboration (including new areas for standardization). accessibility of individual system elements.

Kurczewska Central Institute of Labour Protection National Research Institiut. For this purpose.3 GHz have been developed. mechanical and dimensional resistance. agkur@ciop. This presentation shows designs of fabrics. Warsaw. the test results in the scope of electromagnetic shielding of materials and garment as well as the criteria in terms of meeting the essential requirements of Directive 89/686/EEC.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 New materials and clothing protecting against electromagnetic field of law. low water vapor permeability. Developed materials shields the electromagnetic field. middle and high frequencies A. Developed fabrics and garment can be used for protection against electromagnetic fields for law. 19 .pl One way of reducing the sources of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields is shielding the employee by applying the barriers in the form of protective clothing. and furthermore shows good performance in the scope of flexibility. low surface mass.lodz. Poland Contact person: Agnieszka Kurczewska. a fabric and garment shielding electromagnetic field in the frequency range 50 MHz . medium and high frequencies. Czerniakowska 16.

48008 Bilbao (Spain) (*) Corresponding author: Jesús María López de Ipiña (jesus. 01005 Miñano – Alava (Spain) (2) Central Institute for Labour Protection .Development of technological solutions for safe and efficient integration of pruning and tree felling activities into the electrical grid management – a project funded by the CDTI of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. Under the Dalia project framework . etc). in particular chemical rescue teams. ICT developments include sensory and communication modules aimed at real-time monitoring of environmental parameters (temperature. etc.. 20 .National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB).5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Some experiences on integration of advanced ICT solutions into smart Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) Jesús María López de Ipiña (1). oxygen and gas concentrations. users' health status (body temperature.lopezdeipina@tecnalia. in order to improve safety and productivity issues.U.p. heart rate) and keeping the PPE in working order (end-of-service-life. fire fighters and mine rescuers. Piotr Pietrowski (2). Gardoki 8.A. Via delle Valli 46.A. David Ramos (1). Czerniakowska 16. Parque Tecnológico de Alava.com) The i-Protect project is a 4-year FP7 – NMP 2008 collaborative project funded by the European Commission and aimed to develop new intelligent Personal Protective Equipment systems (PPE) to ensure active protection and information support for personnel in high risk and complex environments.). 00701 Warsaw (Poland) (3) Aero Sekur S. air pressure in compressed units. Leonardo Da Vinci 11. Project outcomes will include prototypes of advanced PPEs with new functionalities such as location of workers & machinery at work area. A non-intrusive interaction between endusers and PPEs will be also guaranteed. The general framework of integration activities is described and some preliminary results are presented. One of the main challenges of the project is to integrate advanced materials and ICT solutions produced by the project into several final PPE prototypes. Industrial Systems Unit. Lorenzo Fiore (3) and Javier Goitia (4) (1) TECNALIA Research and Innovation. a group of Spanish companies are conducting research to integrate ad-hoc embedded systems into PPEs of personnel working in maintenance of power lines.. monitoring of environmental and physiological parameters and surveillance of proper use of PPEs. 04011 Latina (Italy) (4) IBERDROLA Distribución Eléctrica S.

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 general PPE's session 2 21 .

pl. as well as on the polymer itself. the use of which is attempted to reinforce barrier properties of materials. The results of research works aimed at development of modern polymer nanocomposites designed for production of protective clothing and gloves resistant to permeation by chemical substances including in particular mineral oils and solvents are presented. hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HNBR) and carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) containing a nanofiller .lodz. Wierzbowa 48.bentonite modified with various types of ammonium salts. The paper presents the results of tests performed on flat membranes made of butyl rubber (IIR). 90-133 Łódź. e-mail: sykrz@ciop. that the introduction of nanofillers to a polymer leads to differentiation of its barrier properties dependent on the nanofiller type and quantity.pl The health hazard for workers due to contact with mineral oils and solvents is present primarily in chemical. including both polar and non-polar substances. krlez@ciop. Considerable improvement of resistance to permeation by chemicals. 22 . The prerequisite for effective protection provided by the barrier material is the use of appropriate polymer and additional components to produce a polymer mixture. Department of Personal Equipment. Krzysztof Łężak *) *) Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute. The progress in nanotechnology has made it possible to undertake research with the aim to obtain polymer barrier materials containing nanofillers.lodz. which constitute an effective barrier against a wide spectrum of chemicals present in mineral oils. Poland. metallurgical and car industry. The basic prophylactic measures include safeguarding of the human skin with appropriate protective clothing and gloves. machine-building. petrochemical. Results of the research indicate. in view of their specific physical and chemical properties. has been observed in the case of hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber nanocomposites.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Barrier properties of composites with nanofillers designed for protective clothing and gloves Sylwia Krzemińska*).

Mean skin temperature was 33. The mechanics were wearing long sleeved and legged underwear and impermeable protective coverall. The aim of this study was to reduce heat strain as well as chemical contamination during the replacement of fuel tanks.6 ± 1. Finland * Corresponding author: sirkka.9 ± 0.1°C for AIR. Naphthalene concentration on skin decreased at most by 80 % and total exposure to naphthalene in the urine by 30% when AIR was used. respectively. respectively. Finland 3 Institute of Biomedicine. University of Oulu.4 (p<0.3 ± 0. They performed a tank cell replacement simulation in a climatic chamber at ambient temperature of 25 °C. 35. Oulu.fi Replacement of a F-18 fighter aircraft's fuel tank is physically demanding work.2 ± 0. CV and C. 38. In addition. RPE was 15 (hard) for AIR compared to 18 (extremely hard) for CV and C. 23 . Sweat rate was measured. selection of appropriate PPE and constant inspection of the used PPE are crucial for the protection of worker. Kuopio. respectively. The simulation lasted for 50 min. Oulu. the use of air cooling system significantly reduced heat and physiological strain compared to CV and decreased exposure to naphthalene during the tank replacement.2 and 38.rissanen@ttl. At the end of the simulation Tcore was 37. protective gloves and socks. The volume of the tank was 1 m3 and the size of the container was 131x120x92 cm (HxLxW).5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Efficacy of microclimate cooling by air and cooling vest for reducing heat strain and chemical contamination while wearing PPE during fuel cell replacement Sirkka Rissanen1*. Air ventilation enhanced sweat evaporation resulting in dryer underwear and thus more pleasant microclimate inside the protective clothing. concentrations of naphthalene on skin and total exposure to naphthalene in urine were measured during real fuel tank replacements. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. high ambient temperature and high intensity work expose the mechanics to heat stress conditions. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. However.8 ± 1. pneumatic respirator. Six male aircraft mechanics volunteered for the study. Two cooling systems were used 1) air cooling (AIR) and 2) cooling vest with PCM elements (CV). Different cooling strategies were tested. No cooling was used as a control (C). CV and C. small space. Moisture from clothing evaporated by 61 and 18 % (p<0. Core (Tcore) and skin temperatures were measured.05).0°C for AIR. Sweat loss decreased by 22 % for AIR in comparison to C.6 (p<0. Protective equipment.05) for AIR and C. Juha Laitinen2 and Hannu Rintamäki1. Due to adverse health effects of kerosene aircraft mechanics wear personal protective equipment.05).4 ± 1. static postures. Their work was to pack the tank ready for removal trough an opening (30x40 cm).3 1 2 Physical Work Capacity Team.1 and 36. Finland Chemicals at Work Team. In conclusion. and thermal sensation and rate for perceived exertion (RPE) were asked.

sintef. and a prototype demonstrating most of the suggested functionality has been made. snow and ice that can lead to fatigue. work comfort. Essential properties. This study demonstrated that sensors can be integrated in clothing in a way that can provide valuable information about ambient conditions and skin temperatures of a worker during hard work and rest in cold and warm environments. impaired physical and cognitive performance. The cold and harsh climate of the Arctic represents a threat to both safety and performance of the workers. Trine M. gloves and safety shoes.no The petroleum industry is expanding their activities further north into the Arctic. Industrial Design Engineering. Dept. The work clothing must cope with all the different situations and provide adequate comfort and protection during all tasks. These extreme working conditions require customized functional work clothing to ensure the safety. Ole Petter Naesgaard1. Norway 3 Norwegian University of Science and Technology. This work was supported by the Research Council of Norway and the partners of the Coldwear project 188002/I40 (http://www.storholmen@sintef. aesthetics and integration of electronics in the work clothing have been considered and selected. such as insulation value. Moving further north implies that workers will be exposed to extreme weather conditions of cold.christian. NO-7465 Trondheim. NO-0314 Oslo. Seeberg2 Hege Torsvik 3. The workers carry around different items and are also obligated to use other personal protective equipment. performance and comfort of the workers. A demonstrator with integrated electronics has been made to offer live monitoring of the workers physiology and ambient conditions to prevent exposure to dangerous temperature levels. and tasks that require both high and low degree of manual performance. 24 . of Health Research. The aim of the project was to design work clothing for the petroleum industry in arctic climates that ensures the safety. Hilde Faerevik1 1 2 SINTEF Technology and Society. performance and comfort of the workers. functional design solutions and validation of the electronic sensors are discussed in the paper. Trondheim. Materials and functional solutions have been selected to increase comfort and help prevent dangerous situations. Compatibility with this equipment must be ensured. and activities are expected to increase in the years to come. Norway SINTEF Informatics and Communication Technology. Norway * Corresponding author: tore. The Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology. Materials. The work include situations of both high and low activity levels. such as a helmet.no/Coldwear). functionalities.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Work clothing for the petroleum industry in arctic climates Tore Christian Bjorsvik Storholmen1*.

Edmonton. A novel testing apuratus was developed to simulate the underwater environments in order to characterize the fabric and garments properties under conditions with low temperature and high pressure. The size and distribution of air gaps existing between mannequin and selected suits with different sizes and features were measured using a three-dimmensional body scanner. In addition the effects of different layers in immersion suits system on thermal insulation. Canada * corresponding author: guowen. The heat stress and comfort assoicated with wearing these immersion suits were evaluated and predicted based on fabric and garmnets data gained from sweating hotplate and the thermal manikin tests. hot water and liquids. such as flash-fire.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Analysis for Thermal Performance of Immersion Suits Han Zhang1. 1 Department of Human Ecology. flash fire. Guowen Song1*. This research contributes to a better understanding of heat transfer mechanisms in the immersion suits system and aid in the development of effective immersion suits with greater thermal protection and comfort .ualberta. University of Alberta.ca The purpose of this research was to develop an understanding of the performance provided by the current immersion suits used for aircrew when exposed to varous hazards. A instrumented manequin evaluation system was used to investigate garment style and fit on thermal protection towards the hazards. 25 . such as cold water. hot water and liquids.song@ales. which are the common hazards that an aircrew would encounter during the mission. the sensorial and movement comfort of the wearer will be evaluated.

Kyunghi Hong2. In detail. non flexible and basically flat pattern lacking ergonomic aspects of body shape and motion. College of Human Ecology. accidents have been reported due to the separation of the buoyant vest from the body in the water. In order to give comfortable and stable fitting to the users. Yejin Lee2* 1 2 Research Institute of Human Ecology.kr The buoyant vest is an important item in water sports to reduce the possible fatal incidents. Korea *corresponding author: yejin@cnu. The inner fabric pattern was constructed by flatting the 3-D image of human body and the outer fabric pattern was designed by considering the thickness of layered PE foam. 26 . 305-704.5mm thick meeting the standard of buoyancy.ac. the vest pattern was developed by considering 3-dimensional shapes of human body and the thickness of foam flotation materials of each section necessary to the designated buoyancy. It is because the vest currently using in water sports are bulky. The determined curvature was applied to ergonomic design of inner / outer layer as well as the layering of foam sheets that are 1-1. Unfortunately.). Chungnam National University. Daejeon. Heeran Lee2. The methods of pattern making of inner and outer fabric materials considering the 3D contour of body surface and that of thick PE layers were reported.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Ergonomic Pattern Construction for Well-Fitted Buoyant Vest using 3-D Technology Soyoung Kim1. The newly developed vest will give more safety in dynamic water sports activity by increasing the fit and mobility of upper body. INUS Tec. Daejeon. 305-704. Chungnam National University. however. human body was scanned using a 3-D scanner and then the curvature of each part was measured using the 3-D measurement program (RapidForm XOR. Korea Department of Clothing and Textiles.

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10

Dexterity and comfort evaluation of needle puncture resistant gloves
Chantal Gauvin1*, Jaime Lara2
1 2

IRSST, Montreal (QC), Canada University of Montreal, Montreal (QC), Canada

* corresponding author: gauvin.chantal@irsst.qc.ca

Needlestick injuries are associated with an occupational exposure to blood-transmissible infections, which are a major concern for law enforcement, correctional, maintenance and horticultural services. In these sectors, the workers must wear protective gloves that are needle puncture resistant while preserving adequate dexterity and tactile sensitivity. However, there is a limited choice of commercially available needle puncture resistant gloves. In a previous study, the puncture resistance to 25-gauge needles was measured on 58 glove models using the new ASTM F2878-10 standard test method. Twelve models were identified as the most needle puncture resistant. This pilot study intended to subjectively characterize dexterity, tactile sensitivity and comfort provided by these gloves worn by workers performing their specific tasks. Needle puncture resistant gloves made with SuperFabric® and TurtleSkin® protective materials were selected for testing. Three to five glove models were tested by three groups of workers: police officers, garbage collectors and horticulturists. Each group of worker comprised two to six subjects. The subjects performed specific manual tasks in a controlled work environment while wearing the tested gloves. They answered a questionnaire specifically developed for each group of workers, which considers subjective perception on gloves dexterity, tactile sensitivity, grip, flexibility and comfort. For the police officers group, none of the tested gloves were perceived as providing adequate performance for the use of a firearm, which requires fine dexterity and tactile sensitivity. Two glove models showed fair performance with tasks related to defense/control of individuals. These gloves provided sufficient grip level to allow handling of various police equipments. Only one glove model was perceived by garbage collectors to have adequate dexterity and tactile sensitivity for their tasks. Two models were appreciated by horticulturists, but none of the glove models tried were sufficiently waterproof, which is an essential glove characteristic for this group of workers In general, flexible glove models were most appreciated and perceived as offering the best dexterity, tactile sensitivity and comfort. However, these models were also the ones with the least needle puncture resistance. When closing the hand, the majority of the tested glove models created folds that impaired manual performance, and caused skin irritation and discomfort. For all sowed gloves, seams were reported to be uncomfortable and to reduce tactile sensitivity. There is still a need to improve protective gloves that combine needle puncture resistance and human factors.

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5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10

New method for measuring cut resistance in textile fabrics
Eva Carlbom1, Simonetta Granello1, Ebba Magnusson1, Anders Bergner1
1

Swerea IVF AB, Dept. Textiles and Plastics, Box 104, 431 22 Mölndal, Sweden

This study has been performed within the safe@sea project (Call ID FP7-NMP-2008-SME-2): Reducing risk of injury in complex systems through advanced personal protective equipment. The main objective of Safe@Sea project is to develop a new generation of advanced personal protective clothing for the fishing industry that will lead to a significant increase in safety without reducing work performance. The aim of this study has been to find a material combination suitable for both cut resistance and comfort where the design application is a glove. During the investigation it was also concluded that the current method for measuring cut resistance (EN388) was inadequate for intended application. The fabrics were made by knitting of yarns made from aramid, UHMWPE, PVA, PET and stainless steel fibres. Variations in linear yarn densities were evaluated. In the current standard method used for testing protective gloves against mechanical risks (EN388), a sharp rotating wheel is used to cut through the fabric. The method favours materials with a high melting point such as carbon, aramid and glass fibres. A new test method has been developed where a commonly used knife (MORA 511) is fitted to a frame and used to make a straight cut across the fabrics using cork as backing material. The results showed that fabrics made from UHMWPE fibers had the highest cut resistance which could be further improved by adding stainless steel fibers.

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5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10

Exploration of Simultaneous Mobility Assessment for Protective Clothing
Huiju Park1, Donna Branson2, Panagiotis Kamenidis2, Aric Warren3, Bert Jacobson4, Semra Peksoz2 and Adriana Petrova2
1 2

Fiber Science and Apparel Design, Cornell University, Ithaca, US Institute for Protective Apparel Research and Technology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, US 3 School of Applied Health and Educational Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, US 4 School of Educational Studies, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, US

Protective clothing can create restrictions in motion, ultimately compromising work efficiency leading to muscular fatigue, injury, serious health issues, even life threatening situations. Researchers have assessed mobility in those who wear protective clothing to identify problems in the design and to improve mobility of its users. A variety of evaluation methods to assess mobility have been reviewed and classified into three primary research approaches: assessment of 1) range of motion (ROM), 2) work efficiency and 3) exhaustion/fatigue. Authors discussed how each method has been used for specific applications and introduced some recent technologies, but few have explored the benefits of a synchronized assessment approach of these areas. Simultaneous examination of multiple relevant aspects can provide a better insight on the influence of protective clothing on human performance, as opposed to studying various aspects individually. Human subject tests were conducted using motion capture and electromyography (EMG) technologies to explore the potential advantage of a more comprehensive simultaneous mobility assessment. The changes in lower body mobility were examined as a function of body armor weight with balanced and unbalanced load distributions. ROM, and time/distance parameters of walking, muscle activation and fatigue perception were measured. Seven right-handed Reserve Officers Training Corps students performed 5 walking trials per garment condition in laboratory setting. Garment conditions consisted of a weighted vest with 7 different weight and load distributions (T1-0.06kg; T2-9kg; T3, T4 and T5 each -18kg; T6 and T7 each-27kg). Joint motion was analyzed using 22 markers placed on skeletal landmarks (3 on the neck and shoulders; 19 on the pelvis, hip, knee, ankle and foot). Muscle activity was assessed using silver-chloride EMG electrodes placed on four lower extremity muscles of each leg (bicep femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius medialis). Through this approach, we found evidence of decreased work efficiency and possible early exhaustion. An increase in weight magnitude linearly decreased ROM for pelvic rotation and swing phase of gait leading to a shorter stride length. Shorter stride length can lead to more frequent strides, resulting in greater energy expenditure and early muscle fatigue. The negative impacts were greater for an unbalanced weight garment, which was consistent with subjective perceptions about ease of movement. A sharp increase in EMG amplitude for the rectus femoris was measured when the center of gravity shifted from one leg to another (010% and 30-60% of gait cycle), evidence of possible early muscle fatigue with weight increase.

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Finland * corresponding author: ivi@centexbel. improved tear strength and resistance to penetration of sharp objects. The most essential properties. Claudia Peltonen2. scratch and wear resistance and self repair. Belgium Tampere University of Technology. more comfortable material without affecting the existing properties. new design of gloves. The aim is to replace and improve the currently used heavy hard-wearing PVC coatings by a lighter. Of 28. etc. The starting point of the project is an elaborate investigation of the needs of fishermen in Europe. mechanical durability and repellence properties are discussed. Fishing is one of the most dangerous professional occupations.be Safe@Sea is a FP7 project in the call: Reducing risk of injury in complex systems through advanced personal protective equipment. Next to these new textile materials a lightweight buoyancy aid will be incorporated as well as an alarm light and a sensor for detection of fishermen falling overboard (MOB systems. So there is an urgent need to improve the protective clothing for the fishermen in order to diminish the number of accidents. Korkeakoulunkatu 6. cleanability. FI-33720 Tampere. about 24000 fishermen get killed annually and 10% of all fishermen are injured every year. All these features will be incorporated without compromising the ergonomical aspects to allow a good work performance. It unites 14 partners from 8 countries with the common goal to develop new personal protective clothing for fishermen. High performance materials and new technologies will be proposed by the research partners and these new systems will be evaluated by the participating SME’s. weldability. Myriam Vanneste1. Environmental awareness triggered the choice to use water based systems. Some of the features that will be included in the new protective equipment are shock absorbers for head protection. 9052 Zwijnaarde. Man Over Board). Technologiepark 7. 30 . such as waterproofness. Minna Varheenmaa2.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Safe@Sea – developing comfortable wear resistant and stain repellent coated materials Ine De Vilder1*.5 million active fishermen in the world. Textile Functionalisation and Surface Modification. 1 2 Centexbel. waterproofness. This presentation will highlight the newly developed coating with focus on the materials used to achieve the envisaged abrasion resistance (durability). Some test results of the newly developed coated materials will be presented and compared with the reference materials and limit values. Materials Science. Based on these needs a new suit will be designed to improve safety on board of a fishing fleet.

The results of the material testing formed the basis for selection of fabrics to be used in the first prototypes. R&D providers and end-user representatives from the fisheries. work comfort and safety by: 1) implementing solutions for buoyancy and textile integration of MOB emergency warning unit in the work clothing. The concept behind Safe@Sea is to increase functionality. Norway * Corresponding author: Hilde Færevik Fishing is among the most dangerous of all professions. 4) improved ergonomic design capable of resolving the contradictory requirements. Although they work in a harsh and dangerous environment. the buoyancy solution concept and MOB alarm.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Safe@Sea – Protective clothing for improved safety and performance in the fisheries Hilde Færevik Department of Health Research. The first prototypes are of a totally new design. SINTEF Technology and Society. tear and puncture resistance and coatings with better breathability. 31 . The design has recently been finalized. many fishermen neglect to use personal protective clothing and buoyancy aids due to reduced work comfort and unsatisfactory functionality. buoyancy. A participatory design approach that involved key informants in a selection of European fishing nations produced a list of fishermen’s requirements. The Safe@Sea consortium represents the entire value chain and includes SME companies (fabric. with as many as 24000 fishermen around the world losing their lives every year. electronic devices and end-product producers of gloves and work clothing). Concepts for hand. Trondheim. The main objective of the Safe@Sea project (Call ID FP7-NMP-2008-SME-2) is to develop a new generation of advanced personal protective clothing for the fishing industry that will lead to a significant increase in safety without reducing work performance. and the results of the first user performance trials and prototype evaluation will appear in January 2012 and will be presented at the ECPC conference. and incorporate the new fabrics. 3) developing new speciality and highperformance protective materials with improved cut. 2) offering improved solutions for head and hand protection. The performance of existing and new materials and their usability has been thoroughly tested. scratch and dirt repellence. head and work protective clothing concepts have been developed on the basis of these requirements and existing international standards.

biological. for sewn fabrics and 211-292 cm w. When the test results were evaluated statistically.c. These fabrics have high waterproofness however when they are cut and sewn together to form a cloth.8-124 cm w. Protective clothes are expected to show some functional properties such as fire resistance.edu. the influence of seam taping on the waterproofness was investigated in this study. Sevil Yesilpinar* Dokuz Eylul University.yesilpinar@deu. The specimens which were prepared according to the standard were sewn by a Juki DDL-8500-7 model sewing machine. This is considered to be a result of the damage on the seam tape due to higher process temperatures and lower feeding speeds. for seam taped fabrics. Turkey *corresponding author: sevil. the seams were taped along the seam lines by using Pfaff 8302 Weldtronic model hot air sealing machine at 4 different taping temperatures and with 3 different feeding speeds. waterproof or waterproof breathable coated and laminated fabrics are used instead of classical fabrics. nuclear or similar threats. according to their individual end uses. Bursting resistance against the water pressure was found to be changing between 96. Department of Textile Engineering. hazardous liquid chemicals and blood and other metabolic liquids which can cause infection so they prevent these liquids to contact with the skin. their waterproofness shows discontinuities at the seams. Taping increased the waterproofness of the seams by 2-3 times. one of the important shared characteristics of most of these clothes is waterproofness. Buca. resistance to certain chemicals. 32 . By considering the effects of seams on the total waterproofness of the protective clothes. In addition. waterproofness was observed to decrease. special seam finishes are applied. Waterproofness of the sewn and taped specimens were determined according to TSE 257 EN 20811. these clothes serve as a barrier against rain or pressurized water. After sewing. it was found that the taping temperature and feeding speed affected the waterproofness of the sewn fabric. Waterproof breathable laminated polyester fabrics for military applications were used as the raw material.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 A research on the waterproofness of seam lines of protective clothes Sukran Kara. The liquid leaked from the seams contacts with the skin and dramatically impairs the total waterproofness of the garment although being made of high quality fabric. antibacterial properties etc.tr Protective clothes are produced to protect the wearer against hazardous environments and/or chemical. For this purpose.c. Possesing waterproofness. In low feeding speeds and for high taping temperatures. To avoid this sewing problem. The pinholes which are formed during the sewing form hundreds of weak points along the seam line for the leakage of water and hazardous liquids. One of these seam finishes is seam taping. Izmir.

varheenmaa@tut. 33 . operations under the risk of wild land fires and first aid medical personnel potentially exposed to any type of risk. Harriet Meinander1 2 Tampere University of Technology. Finland *Corresponding author: claudia.g. The special features of working in cold climate areas. Physiological reactions of the human body as well as the material properties of protective clothing change according to the temperature and other environmental factors.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Multifunctional protective clothing for rescue team workers in the Northern areas Claudia Peltonen1. like in the Northern areas are discussed here.fi or minna. consist of multiple hazards and extreme weather conditions.peltonen@tut. Working in cold climates normally requires a higher thermal insulation together with protection from wind which may result in bulky and stiff material layers in garments. As a consequence reduced dexterity or freedom of movements when performing the required tasks are confronted. Protection.fi The aim of the EU-funded project SAFEPROTEX (Call ID FP7-NMP. taking into account the changing activity level of the rescue worker and varying climatic conditions. Being exposed to cold weather during rescue work sets certain demands on developing and designing protective clothing. FI-33720 Tampere. Materials Science. Korkeakoulunkatu 6.). Minna Varheenmaa1. etc. Instead of having several different separate protective garments for each hazard the ideal situation is to combine multiple protective properties in one garment without losing its comfort properties.2008-SME-2) is to develop protective uniforms for rescue team workers of three end user cases: emergency operations under extreme weather conditions (floods. Highly demanding working environments. such as rescue work. The aim is to create multifunctional protective clothing by applying the new smart materials e. Challenges confronted in subzero temperatures are such as frost durability and stiffening of the materials. functionality and comfort of the protective clothing system must be ensured in cold. with enhanced mechanical and adequate comfort properties. hail. condensation of moisture inside of the clothing layers and functionality of the components or accessories of the garments.

respectively. due to the intense magnetic field of an arc. On the other hand. Enrique Rivas2 1 2 ITE (Institute of Energy Technology). Paterna (Spain) AITEX (Textile Research Institute). Vicente Fuster1. Juan de la Cierva. Applying these considerations to one of the most dangerous accidents in industry. the intelligent PPE. Plaza Emilio Sala 1. then it would be impossible to find the worker or to know if he is alive or dead. since they are not conscious of data exchange.es Nowadays the field of PPEs is experiencing a change towards new technologies. it will be analyzed the shielding of the electronic device against the 50Hz electromagnetic field of an arc. Pedro Llovera1. Imagine what it would happen if a worker carrying a GPS or a heart beat sensor fail. In this way. Armando Rodrigo1. it will be discussed the induced current in the electronic circuits of the embedded devices. Electronic circuits and devices are embedded in garments and PPEs more and more. which are good conductors of electricity and heat. 03801 Alcoy (Spain) * corresponding author: francisco.magraner@ite. In this paper an initial approach of electric and thermal protection considerations will be analyzed from a theoretical point of view and in some cases by means of finite elements simulation. the heat transfer through the garment is not easy to calculate in the process of garment design. 34 . workers are less responsible for their safety. new specifications must be fulfilled to protect the worker against thermal risk.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 A new approach to intelligent PPEs regarding electromagnetic interferences due to an electric arc Francisco Magraner1*. Assuming that embedded devices are mainly antenna and small electronic circuits. 24. Therefore. which is produced simply by wearing on the garment or PPE. Avda. On the one hand. in order to improve the safety and gather all the exchange of information together in only one device. an electric arc. These devices are composed of metallic parts. the safety depends on the correct functioning of the embedded electronic device and so it is very important to protect it.

Part of this money should be used for the procurement of innovative products. One of the recommendations of the lead market initiative is to give public procurers a much more prominent role. ETSA) on innovations. resulting in innovative products will be bridged. The main goal of Enprotex is to form an European Network for public procurers in protective textiles. New procurement strategies for innovative protective textiles Anton Luiken1. Belgium Abstract In the EU-research programs much money is spent to fundamental research in order to reach breakthroughs in scientific knowledge. Public procurers are in daily contact with end-users and they know quite well which demands end-users have. the gap between EU fundamental and applied research and the use of these results in innovation in the EU industry.nl (author to whom correspondence should be sent) 2 LFR. 35 . the results of the project and the future impact that this approach will have. Public procurers will become the smart specifiers of research needs by the end-user. In order to start discussions between public procurers. Public procurers should act as launching customers for innovations. National Disaster Response Agency. Innovative products would reach the end-users in a much earlier stage. Piet Verhage3 1 Alcon Advies BV. By this the total disconnect between these stakeholders will have to be overcome. De Aa 31. By doing this.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Enprotex. Autex) and Industry (Euratex. EU R&D research programs will become much more efficient and effective. The EU is planning to increase the role of public procurers in all R&D-projects in the next framework programs Horizon 2020 and COSME. In this network public procurers will discuss on the needs of end-users for protective textiles and they will be informed by R&D (Textranet. In most EU-research programs this fundamental knowledge is transferred in prototypes or demonstrators. Anton. coordinated by the EU Technology Platform for Textiles and Clothing. Ministry of Interior. Another goal of the lead market initiative is to make public procurers the voice of the customer. In the lecture. but hardly ever attention is paid to the industrial production of the prototypes into products that become available for end-users.luiken@alconadvies. the Netherlands 3 Civil Security. NL-7642HA Wierden. Public procurers in Europe are spending each year hundreds of millions Euros on protective clothing. ESF. Tommy Verminck2. more information will be given on the background of Enprotex. R&D-institutes and industry. By doing do. Funds will be made available to bridge the gap between fundamental research and industrial implementation through PCPprojects. The EU has started a number of lead market initiatives on topics in which the EU industry is leading in the world. the EU has launched Enprotex. One of the lead market initiatives is on protective textiles.

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 general PPE's session 3 36 .

To do this well it would take a minimum of 25 minutes. i. Ultrafast photonic technology. The purpose of this presentation is to look at available evidence for the functioning of these materials and to evaluate this evidence. Celliant etc etc. websites and accessible reports. Feel free to consult the programme committee and say no if it does not fit the plans.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Keynote Innovative textiles Handle with care Havenith George In recent years many clothing manufacturers are flooded with offers from textile/fabric producers regarding new. but probably 30 minutes incl discussion would be optimal. so I leave it up to you to discuss whether this is a contribution you want/need. materials containing ceramics. this would not fit in a standard talk duration. innovative textiles. For laboratories like ours. scientific publications in refereed journals. More time would allow to discuss more materials. ionising fabrics. Examples of materials that have come to market over the last decade are: phase change materials. that have close links with clothing manufacturers. I understand this falls outside the standard planning.e. This will cover publicly available information only. However. this means we are often asked to assist with assessing such materials. 37 . Ideally 30. Nexus Energy Source.

Intelligent PPE have features which are not covered in the current harmonized standards. Piotr Pietrowski 2 1 2 Finnish Institute of Occupational Health . The starting approach is that the new PPE system is under PPE-directive.g ATEX. There was in the 7th FP specific call for projects concerning intelligent PPE. In the standardization work package our aim is to formulate strategies for standardisation/legislation concerning new aspects of the proposed PPE system and to formulate guidelines for developing pre-normative documents for newly elaborated PPE systems for having reference used in EC type examination process. etc. Nanotechnologies. Poland During the last ten years a lot of developing work has been performed to add intellige to personal protective equipment (PPE). end-of-service-life) Standards for communication network of intelligent PPE The presentation will discuss through the required standardization areas of feasibility.) standards for PPE with features for indicating changes of protection performance (e. I-Protect is one of these ongoing projects on THEME 4 NMP Nanosciences. Scientific coordinator of i-Protect. Materials and New Production Technologies. EMC must be taken into account. In addition parallel the essential requirements of other relevant directives e. Finland Central Institute for Labour Protection. ICT. and must therefore meet all the basic requirements of the directive.g.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Need for standards for intelligent PPE Helena Mäkinen1. oxygen level) standards for PPE with features for measuring human body parameters (body temperature. taking into account the essential requirements of the Directives. 38 . heart rate. gas. Standardization was required to include to the project plans. I protect the project in terms of the new standards would require standards for intelligent PPE with a real-time monitoring and warning systems for the following areas: standards for PPE with features for measuring environmental risk factors (temperature.

mechanical properties such as ultimate strength. In the present work. Canada Abstract The harsh environments to which protective clothing (firefighter’s turnout gear. etc. Nomex®. 1100 Rue Notre-Dame Ouest. A mathematic model based on mechanical properties is formulated to describe the behavior of the materials after exposure to each individual aging stress. humidity and light radiation. cut resistance. The basis of these models is the time temperature superposition principle. A generalized aging model is constructed to estimate the total damage caused by each aging factor and its interactions after a given period of use. polyester and polyamide. Raman and dielectric spectroscopy. namely temperature. tear strength. École de technologie supérieure. The materials included in this study are polymers and fabrics made from high performance fibers such as Kevlar®. etc. strain at break. dielectric spectroscopy. The degradation processes during aging treatments are monitored through several characterization techniques that include thermal analysis. rotational viscosimetry. X-ray diffraction analyses. 39 .. Montreal H3C 1K3. The evolution of the chemical and physical structure is closely analyzed to detect the underlying mechanisms at the molecular level that control the changes of properties on the macroscopic scale.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Durability and performance of protective clothing after multistress aging Carlos Arrieta. Toan Vu-Khanh Research Chair in Protective Materials and Equipments used in Occupational Safety and Health. infrared spectroscopy.) is often exposed in service conditions results in a deterioration of the properties that frequently translates into an impoverished protective performance after a certain amount of time. The proposed model is intended to give an estimation of the residual lifetime of protective materials in real service conditions. This study is aimed at the eventual development of a service lifetime prediction tool that enables a reliable assessment of the condition of protective clothing in service. on the mechanical. are evaluated during the progress of the aging process. On a macroscopic scale. and thermogravimetric analysis. the effect of exposure to three environmental aging factors. protective gloves. physical and chemical properties of different materials used in the manufacturing of protective clothing is characterized and evaluated.

40 . the performance of cotton and cotton blends with fluorochemical finishes may require that no softener be used. softeners and washing in hard water may adversely affect the flame retardant properties of cotton and cotton blends that have been treated with flame retardant finishes. care instructions are often different due to special care required to maintain the performance properties. Unfortunately. The user acceptance of these garments is relatively high as the garments with these finishes often look and feel the same as other workwear. Princess Anne. Improper use and care can affect the performance and thus the service life of protective clothing. if the garment label states that washing with special care is required. it is crucial that a prominent warning label be attached to the garment that informs the user of the negative effects of improper care and also alerts the user of a simple test that can be used as an indicator of end of service for the garment. the garments may not be suitable for regions where washing garments by hand is prevalent. as inadequate rinsing or other variation in the method of washing may affect performance. Similarly. End of service for these garments would be when the garment can no longer provide the required protection. A wear study was conducted by the European Crop Protection Association to determine the performance of protective workwear with a fluorochemical finish. use of bleach. For example. used by pesticide operators.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 End of Service for Protective Workwear Garments with Functional Finishes Anugrah Shaw University of Maryland Eastern Shore. Results of the study validate the importance of proper care. The garments should not be recommended if it has been determined that the care instructions cannot be followed. At the end of the study the pesticide penetration through the garments was measured. The users were asked to maintain a log of the wear and use of the garments. MD 21853. there are no visual indicators that the user can rely on to determine whether adequate protection is being provided by the garment. Although the garments look similar. It is also important to include that information as part of the training so that informed decisions can be made. For example. USA Cotton and cotton blends with functional finishes are used to provide a balance between protection and comfort in protective workwear garments. Therefore.

41 . so that the comfort is maximized under the condition that the weight of clothing is the same. Yejin Lee1 1 Department of Clothing and Textiles. Korea 2 Research Institute of Human Ecology. the weight is concentrated on (some) specific areas causing fatigue and pain. College of Human Ecology. Chungnam National University. Although weight reduction of the body armor is very important for military activities. three-dimensional body shape is used in order to design the protective equipment and clothing that are fitted human body well.kr Current body armor is about 8kg heavy because of ceramic plates and there is a space gap between human body and clothing due to the flat shape of body armor. Kyunghi Hong1 . Therefore. Soyoung Kim2. human body and clothes model are created by the finite element methods (FEM).ac. Actual clothing pressure of two garments as well as the pressure sensation of the wearer were compared and analyzed. Daejeon. Chungnam National University. As experimental. It is because the selection of material and textile is limited to protect the wearer against penetration and impact.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Effects of the 3D body fit on the pressure distribution and dynamics of personal body armor during movement Heeran Lee1. Moreover. it is hard to decrease the weight. Furthermore. And wear test is performed to investigate how much the body-fitted clothing is able to distribute the weight evenly compared to the existing clothing of loose fit.Korea *Corresponding author: khhong@cnu. this study proposes how to distribute the weight of body armor equally using 3D technology. Daejeon. and analytical results from the pressure simulation and the experimental data were compared.

The results of each shot included high speed video footage. BABT can be defined as the spectrum of injuries obtained after a nonpenetrating ballistic impact. With the body armour industry expanding due to the current climate. UK Wayne State University. 42 . the original armours worn by the survivors were procured and if unavailable a new ‘matching’ armour was acquired. Plastilina® is highly durable. (BABT). body armor product and standoff distance were recorded for each test shot on the clay. These incidents were recreated on Roma Plastilina® clay. Where available. NIJ. in conjunction with IACP/DuPontTM Kevlar® Survivors’ Club®. maximum post-static indentation into clay and volume of deformation. The data collected during testing was analyzed and correlated with the injury outcome of the real world gunshot incidents collected thus allowing us to relate the current UK standards to real life injuries. This may come at a cost – an increase in injuries caused by behind armour blunt trauma. more lightweight ‘un-penetrative’ armour. Advances in technology have enabled armour manufacturers to develop thinner. The UK Centre for Applied Science and Technology. angle of shot. the need for ergonomically suitable armour has increased. photographs. The NIJ and CAST. PhD2 1 2 Home Office.. funded a program where Wayne State University. weapon (where possible). The British standard stipulates a maximum level of post-impact static indentation in clay (Plastilina®) of 44mm at the HG1a level and 25mm at the all other levels [3]. 48201. CAST (formally known as The Home Office Scientific Development Branch) and the National Institute of Justice. The CAST standard also stipulates that penciling deformation may not exceed 20mm. These injuries can range from mild bruising to organ damage and death. The aim of this study is to relate the current test standards to real life injuries. Centre for Applied Science and Technology. Twenty cases were identified from the IACP/DuPontTM Kevlar® Survivors Club® database as being suitable for recreation. K. Phone interviews were undertaken and medical and police records for the incident were procured. Information was gathered about each case including the range.Hewins. inexpensive and has the ability to produce repeatable results. strike position. 818 West Hancock. USA Body armour has become an integral part of life in both war and peace time throughout the world. The ammunition. Detroit MI. currently have standards in place to ensure that all soft armour have a uniform level of resistance to BABT. are working to collect information on real-life cases where officers have survived a ballistic trauma due to the body armour they were wearing. ammunition type.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Relating the Current UK body armour standards to real life injuries Malbon Chris1 O’Rourke Sarah1. however its use as a backing material by the CAST and NIJ has been questioned on several occasions due to its inability to predict injury mechanisms with respect to back-face deformation in humans.

EMPA. Switzerland Corresponding author: simon. In order to improve wearing comfort of ballistic vests and increase the work performance.ch * Introduction: Protective clothing preserves the human body from harmful physical impacts.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Pressure distribution on the skin while wearing ballistic vests and other military equipment Patrick Wettenschwiler1. subjects rated their comfort for each body part under investigation. and chest.5 km·h-1 on a treadmill) experiments while the load was measured on shoulder. Both of these characteristics impede the work performance of the wearer. A manikin reduces financial and time expenses and provides data at a much lower variability. A low variability is prerequisite to evaluate adaptations to improve wearing comfort of ballistic vests. No differences were found between the different body parts. Dr. Subjects were performing static and dynamic (marching at 4. Ballistic vests consist of materials like Kevlar® or ceramics and.The anatomical profiles of the regions of interest add complexity. These measurements are very sensitive and the applications of the sensors on a soft basis as the human skin increases their variability even more. Rolf Stämpfli1. therefore.annaheim@empa. Gallen. Methods: We are developing an anatomical model (manikin) equipped with pressure sensors to investigate the load of ballistic vests on body parts at high strain. Results: The load of the ballistic vests was slightly increased during dynamic testing compared to static testing. 43 . Conclusion / Outlook: We recommend the use of manikins to gain a systematic understanding regarding construction and pressure distribution in ballistic vests. the model enables static (standing) and dynamic measurements (marching). The application of ballistic vests on the human body is necessary during the last phase of product development only for final adaptations. Reliability analysis of pressure measurements revealed high coefficients of variation for each body part during standing (Median = 92%) and walking (Median = 58%). St. In addition. the pressure distribution has to be expanded and body areas with high pressure burden have to be relieved. we validated the system against data obtained from human subject trials. This knowledge is prerequisite to adapt construction providing a more uniform pressure distribution without high pressure impact. Discussion: The investigation of the pressure load of ballistic vests on the human body reveals results with high variation and is very time and money consuming. are heavy and rigid garments. The main function of ballistic vests is to absorb high kinetic energies of gun shots. hip. Simon Annaheim1*. René Rossi1 1 Laboratory for Protection and Physiology. In a first step. Dr. As the manikin is able to accomplish vertical movements and frequencies that correspond to marching velocities up to 6 km·h-1.

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 CBRNE session 44 .

nl Over the last few years new concepts for individual protective equipment against CBRN which lower the burden have been developed. Security and Safety. in the textile materials. Therefore it is important to investigate the influence of wear and tear and pollution on the CBRN protective properties of textile materials. Some of these concepts are based on integration of the protection in combat gear. It is expected. 45 . P. Also the effect of wear and tear has been studied at the materials level. Emiel den Hartog Business Unit CBRN Protection.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Evaluation of wear and tear of CBRN Individual Protective Equipment Saskia de Kant. and which aspects need to be improved. for instance when the carbon spheres are locally detached and released from the textile structure. Overall these results give an indication whether todays materials and concepts are ready for more intensive use. Results of these tests will be presented. Effects of wear and tear on both systems level and material level have been investigated on carbon based concepts and membrane based concepts. Rijswijk.O. At a systems level.dekant@tno. The Netherlands Contact person: Saskia. TNO Defence. Similarly.Box 45. The effects of 2 types of wear and tear have been studied. equating to local inactivation of carbon can also simulate the effect of wear and tear on the carbon layer. Also. holes. The pollution. At TNO a start has been made to assess and quantify the influence of wear and tear of CBRN protective systems on protection. 2280AA. the effect of micro-holes in membrane based suits has been studied. this will lead to more operational relevant testing and evaluation of CBRN individual protective equipment and to a more basic knowledge of relevant effects of wear and tear on CBRN protection. For the carbon based suits the effect of pollution was studied additionally. by using currently available technical textile material performance tests and the effects of pollution like dust and clay. that these low burden concepts will be worn more intensively than the heavy and high burden concepts developed and purchased in the past. also due to changing threats. the influence of a hole in the clothing on the overall protection has been investigated. As an initial estimate the effect of wear and tear on CBRN protective materials were simulated by creating small failures.

Luxembourg * corresponding author: benedicte. AlisonSyrett1. Assessments of clothing in terms of comfort and product quality are further very important aspects.valence@lux. according to standardised test methods.* 1 DuPont Protection Technologies.dupont.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 A proposal for improved evaluation of chemical protective clothing made of flash spun polyethylene nonwoven or some other nonwoven fabrics or combinations of nonwovens with micropourous films Valerie Pierret1. Contern. between chemical protective clothing made of flash spun polyethylene nonwoven TYVEK and clothing made of some other nonwoven fabrics or combinations of nonwovens with micropourous films. seams and closure systems to liquids and solid particulates is key for chemical protective clothing. Benedicte Valance1.com The barrier performance of clothing materials. 46 . so that potential users of such clothing shall be provide with more and better information for the selection of the appropriate clothing. DuPont International Operations. A proposal for an improved evaluation of clothing of the various materials is made. A comparison of these performance and quality aspects is carried out.

This research aims to advance the standard articulated manikin technology so that it can be appropriately incorporated into the MIST protocol. This manikin system has been evaluated and compared to human subjects wearing the same ensemble and performing the same exercise motions. The different sizes and shapes of the individuals can affect the garment fit and the volume of air inside the ensemble. North Carolina State University. breathing rate. there are many variables when testing with human subjects that can dramatically affect the perceived performance of the garment. A primary goal of this research was to investigate the variability of human subject testing compared to that of the manikin testing to determine the agreement between the two test methods. The accepted evaluation methods utilize human test subjects to provide the most “true-to-life” simulation of how the garment would be worn in the field. The MIST manikin at TPACC has been given a more realistic range of motion to increase the air movement inside the garment. United States *corresponding author: rbormond@ncsu. All of these factors can have ranging effects on the observed protective performance of an ensemble. Using the manikin subject provides a consistent body size and shape so that the garment should fit the body very similar each time. The physiology specific to each test subject can affect the skin temperature. North Carolina.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Development of Next Generation Manikin for Chemical and Biological Protection Research R. breathing rate. sweating rate. and work load can be monitored and controlled with the more advanced manikins.edu Evaluation of the protective performance of chemical protective clothing in the full ensemble form is a vital part of the overall development process for new protective technologies. To introduce a method of controlling some of these factors articulated sweating manikins can be used as a substitute for human test subjects. Bryan Ormond1*. and work load. The sweating rate. Roger Barker1 1 Center for Research on Textile Protection and Comfort (TPACC). However. 47 . The ASTM F2588 and TOP 10-2-022 standards explain the Man-In-Simulant-Test (MIST) which is the primary method for the evaluation of full ensemble chemical protective clothing. Raleigh. skin temperature.

Phone: +1 937. O. Grace G. Box 92493. and particulate hazards Jeffrey O. and helmet came together. This technology has further showed promise of possible weight reductions and the potential for direct integration into the ensemble. textile-based cover. P. alarms. 1 Innovation Court. specifically in determining overall integrity and functional performance. biological and particulate hazards for first responders. DC 20006 USA.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Improved ensembles for fire responder protection against chemical. OH 45414 USA. Phone: +1 202 737 8484 (rduffy@iaff. A special hood interface. a new self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) based on multiple plastic-lined pressure vessels has been advanced and has been shown to provide significant benefits for wearer profile and center of gravity. gasket.. Stull2 . and coat front closure design were created to permit acceptable levels of wearer mobility and function. The new SCBA design used an array of low profile pressure vessels attached to a flexible manifold and was contained in a soft. Stull1 . Michael Schubert4 and Tom Stachler4 Corresponding author: International Personnel Protection. TX 78709 USA. Fax +1 512 344 9588 (intlperpro@aol. hood.2662 1 Novel ensemble interfaces were developed along with new respirator technology for creating integrated ensembles of clothing and equipment to afford improved protection against chemical. Phone: +1 512 288 8272. In parallel.org) 4 Honeywell First Responder Products. biological. gauge. Inc.com) 2 Same address and contact information above (gracestull@aol. Duffy3. and features have been incorporated into the cover and wearer harness system. The new ensemble features included a magnetic glove system and removable footwear sock extension to address the coupling of outer gloves and footwear. Research has been continued to support the implementation of the new integrated ensemble technology and a number of new test methodologies have been established for its assessment. 1750 New York Avenue. helmet. A number of field studies have identified specific changes for the ensemble and respirator system and have identified remaining design objectives. Richard M.com) 3 International Association of Fire Fighters. high pressure lines. Washington. 48 . Austin. Significant efforts were undertaken to permit a traditional coat and pant arrangement with the minimization of inward leakage through the coat-pant interface and the coat and pant closures. The required SCBA components including the valve. Dayton. The greatest challenge involved establishing effective interface designs for ensemble area where the respirator facepiece.264.

the most concern is the high thermal and evaporative resistance caused by thickness. water vapour is accumulated in the micro-climate until saturation is reached and first drop of liquid water is formed. average air gap size. splash-proof shell and sorptive structures). which is significantly increased to accommodate multiple layers (i. micro-climate air volume. For CPC made of permeable materials. As a result. a Human Solutions® 3D scanner and GeoMagic® software were used on fifteen similar-designed CPC to characterize the microclimate configuration. Sweating thermal manikin tests were conducted to determine the dry and evaporative heat resistance across time on each CPC in full scale. 49 . garment design features. University of Alberta. Guowen Song1. Samer Adeeb2 1 2 Department of Human Ecology. Edmonton. Canada *corresponding author: swen@ualberta. The models provides an efficient and accurate way to predict thermo-physiological strain of CPC based on fabric properties.ca Different barrier materials are used in Chemical protective clothing (CPC). In this research. University of Alberta.e. CPC made of impermeable materials block air and water vapour transport and evaporative heat loss through CPC is impossible.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Prediction of Thermophysiological Strain in Chemical Protective Clothing: the Impact of Barrier Permeability and Microclimate Configuration ShuQin Wen*1. The total air volume in microclimate is thus a crucial factor in predicting the tolerance time for a person before he/she starts accelerated sweating. and distribution along the whole garment as well as the localized regions and opening features. metabolic rate and work intensity. garment design and help identify key parameters associated with physiological burden and improve material and garment engineering. Air gap size plays a very important role in this circumstance as air layers with different sizes contribute differently to thermal insulation due to the presence/absence of convection heat loss. Muntaseer Kainat2. Prediction models on tolerance time in CPC were established which involves factors of fabric properties. Canada Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. including air volume. Localized thermal and moisture transfer properties at different locations from the manikin tests were identified and their relationships to air gap sizes and distribution were developed. Edmonton.

Hansen in Denmark is a tool that allows selecting the best protective glove material when exposed to a single or mixtures of chemicals.jsp?institut=IRSST http://www. Canada University of Montreal. Charles M. Charles M. with the participation of Dr. and thus to propose the one(s) best adapted to the work context. conversely. France *corresponding author: jaime. The predictive software ProtecPo developed in an international collaboration between the IRSST from Quebec-Canada and the INRS in France. 2970 Hørsholm. a software for the selection of chemical protective gloves Jaime Lara.fr/accueil/header/actualites/protecpo. The basic principle is the following: the more soluble a chemical substance in a polymeric material. There are some Databases containing information on permeation tests for a limited number of both chemical substances and glove materials. However. Daniel Drolet1.1. Montreal (QC). developed by Hansen. The software uses the theoretical approach of the solubility of chemical substances in polymers.inrs. It is well known that no polymeric glove material exist that protect against all classes of chemicals.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 ProtecPo.fr/ProtecPo/jsp/Accueil. it is possible to predict whether a protective material will be resistant to a chemical substance or to a mixture of chemical substances.html This paper describes the tridimensional solubility theoretical approach and the algorithm used on the development of ProtecPo. the less resistant the material will be. 50 . Montreal (QC). the higher the material resistance will be.ca The selection of chemical protective gloves is major problem due to the number of chemicals used in industrial operations that is growing day to day and the variety of polymers used in the protective gloves manufacture. Denmark 4 INRS.2*.inrs. Canada 3 Jens Bornøsvej 16. Nancy.lara@umontreal. Also. the less soluble the chemical substance in the polymer. François Zimmermann4 and Alain Chollot4 1 2 IRSST. ProtecPo is on the web since October 2011 and is located at the following website addresses: http://protecpo. this information is limited with respect to the number of single chemicals and mixtures found in industrial operations. With this approach. REACH estimates that there are more than 100 000 chemical substances on the market. Hansen3. glove and protective material manufacturers provide information on their products for a certain number of chemical substances and some mixtures.

Inc. and employ alternative collection techniques to capture all chemical permeating through protective clothing material over the exposure period. The application of the new procedures to several chemical material systems showed more consistent measurements of chemical barrier performance in measuring cumulative permeation as compared with determining breakthrough times. Fax +1 512 344 9588 (intlperpro@aol. establish appropriate exposure conditions. Stull2 Corresponding author: International Personnel Protection. Stull1 and Grace G. TX 78709 USA. The development of specific permeation resistance test practices for measuring cumulative permeation was also undertaken.com) 2 Same address and contact information above (gracestull@aol. The results of the modeling demonstrated that the use of permeation breakthrough times based on relatively low permeation rates resulted in significant overprotection of the wearer. The objective of these changes was to improve the reliability in measuring material permeation resistance. Box 92493. 51 .com) 1 An extensive research project was undertaken to support replacing the determination of permeation breakthrough time with the measurement of cumulative permeation for specifying protective clothing chemical barrier performance.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Toxicity-based end points and test procedures to support the use of cumulative permeation for the improved selection of protection clothing against hazardous chemicals Jeffrey O. Additional work was carried out to translate dermal exposure limits to permeation test method measured cumulative permeation masses. The ratio of these determinations was then applied to the selected respiratory exposure limit for arriving at the analogous dermal exposure limit. though some chemicals did show values of cumulative permeation similar to the acceptable limits established for chemical warfare agents. Phone: +1 512 288 8272. The approach in this research involved the development of a model where readily available chemical property data were used to estimate the skin dose for a number of standard testing and known highly skin toxic chemicals. Austin.. The validity of the model was examined through in vitro skin permeation testing and in vivo animal studies. P. O. For a given occupational exposure limit. a similar determination was made for the associated respiratory dose on each specific chemical. The conventional permeation test procedures were significantly modified to better specify test equipment.

for example.4 to 38°C respectively). Movements were limited by CBRN protective gear. The Netherlands Contact person: Emiel. but for gross motor skills not much different than in other types of protective clothing. The main factors driving these changes were the size. increased ventilation decreased the core temperature 0. obviously mostly due to the loss of dexterity by the gloves and the field of view and auditory restrictions of the gasmask. Moving more towards actual operational performance in experiments with a car-driving and a helicopter simulator and with simulated shooting exercises we found that the CBRN protective equipment did not influence the cognitive performance significantly. performance in CBRN protective clothing decreased 10-20% compared to regular battle dress uniforms. All these experiments together show a somewhat surprising lack of performance decrease in these tasks that were more closely related to short term operational tasks (1 to 2 hours) than the ergonomics tests. TNO.O. P. Heat strain in working environments will add to the discomfort and it is expected to decrease performance over time progressively. sensory deprivation.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Prediction of human strain in CBRN Individual Protective Equipment Emiel A Den Hartog Department of CBRN Protection. Experiments and models that aim to assess actual operational performance decreases should combine the various stressors heat. The conclusion was that the simulated working tasks in our experiments were too short to identify the performance decreases due to pronounced discomfort.nl Over the last few years the interest in the impact of the CBRN protective clothing on the operational performance has grown. depending on climate and activities. Also this ventilation difference lead to a 25-30% longer working duration in warm-dry conditions. On the thermal strain. weight and bulk of the clothing. the changes were small (4% decrease in reaction time).Box 45. In a separate set of ergonomics experiments. Without gasmask and gloves the decrease was comparable to the performance decrease wearing ballistic vests. however. i. 52 . The performance was mostly influenced by adding the gasmask. The thermal strain provides a very high part of the burden to the wearer. more than 2 hours). This was in spite of significant indications of subjective discomfort ratings and 10 to 50% decrease in ergonomics tasks when tested separately. are more strongly influenced by CBRN protective gear. with air permeability-ranging from 15 to 1005 l/m2 @ 100Pa – we could establish direct comparisons of clothing ventilation levels – ranging from 100 to 500 l/min – to increases in rectal temperature (38. the different effects of ventilation on permeable CBRN protective suits versus suits with membranes have been studied. Fine motor skills and situational awareness. In air permeable garments. 2280AA. Rijswijk. At TNO a range of different studies has been performed to assess and quantify the performance decrease due to wearing CBRN protective clothing and equipment. Results shown that. over a prolonged period. Also we studied the ventilation rate in CBRN protective clothing directly.Denhartog@tno. However. CBRN gloves and gasmask decreased the ergonomics performance much more strongly – up to 50%. movement restrictions. The simulation model additionally showed in what range of climates and activities these effects exist.e.7°C.

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 comfort session 53 .

For the searching of comfort. In this presentation and upcoming conferences there are analyzed the two parameters that determine the feeling of the user: the thermal comfort of the user and the comfort that the user feels when he is dressed with the PPE. it when is dressed also has to provide a good sense of touching and this implies the improvement of mechanical properties in many fabrics and pars of the garment. what is thermal comfort? There are a lot of definitions on thermal comfort with a common vision: if we are not comfortable in our environment. and there are a lot of studies on this variable. 54 . Comfort has a great impact on the efficiency of our work and the PPE has a great influence in our thermal comfort. Quantify the comfort of fabrics and ready-made garments it is problem due to there are many properties that characterize the article and many of them can be involved in the comfort of user. Currently. he is uncomfortable and therefore this may influence in the work that he does. our performance decreases. decreasing his concentration and increasing the risk of accident. Two of the most important properties that quantify this comfort are the measurement of comfort based on the feel of the fabric (hand of the fabric) and comfort due to the physiological adaptation of the fabric to the user skin. the manufacturing and design of a PPE is based not only on the protection of the user but now the comfort is one of the most important variable when the user has to choose the right PPE: if he is not comfortable with the garment. the thermal comfort is the primary variable to study.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Comfort in PPE’s Miriam Martinez Albert Humans always have wanted to create a thermal environment where feeling comfortable. Not only temperature will determine the comfort of the user even if thermal comfort is the primary basis of this comfort: the user not only requires a good thermal insulation and breathability when he is wearing a garment. But.

hands and feet. Due to that available standards haven’t commented on how to select one from these calculation options. the evaporative resistances produced by the heat loss option in a serial way were 3-26% higher than those created by the heat loss option in a parallel way. there are still two possible ways to calculate evaporative resistance for each option: the parallel way and the serial way. Sweden Contact person: faming.lth. In order to keep wearers safe. Keywords: evaporative resistance. All experiments were repeated at least twice to ensure a good repeatability (±5%). heat stress. it is useful to compare those methods and give a suggestion on how to choose a reasonable one for different applications. Department of Design Sciences. All test were conducted in a so called isothermal condition (Tmanikin=Ta=Tr=34. Five sets of clothing ensembles were selected for the study. A pre-wetted fabric skin was dressed on a dry heated manikin to simulate sweating. Both ASTM F2370 (2010) and ISO 9920 (2007) give two calculation options: heat loss option and mass loss option. For data obtained on multi-segment sweating thermal manikins.wang@design. heat strain. The results showed that the clothing evaporative resistances by the heat loss option calculated in a serial way were 15 to 46% higher than those by the heat loss option calculated in a parallel method. Ingvar Holmér Thermal Environment Laboratory. Lund 221 00. The conclusion of this study was that clothing evaporative resistances calculated by the same option in the same way are comparable. The isothermal mass loss method is always a correct choice for calculating evaporative resistance when reporting physical values of tested garments.se Abstract Clothing evaporative resistance is an important input for both models dealing with heat stress and heat strain issues and standards. The manikin sweats at 12 segments except the head.0 °C). Faculty of Engineering. In contrast. clothing ensemble.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 A Comparison of Three Different Calculation Methods for Clothing Evaporative Resistance Faming Wang. the heat loss method with a serial way is always a conservative selection to calculate clothing evaporative resistance as an input for heat stress and heat strain models. The fabric skin temperature at each segment was measured by a temperature sensor. the evaporative resistances calculated by the heat loss option in a parallel way were 10-27 % higher than those calculated by the mass loss option in a parallel way. Chuansi Gao. thermal manikin 55 . Similarly. Lund University. Kalev Kuklane.

mass_p.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Appendix Fig. FIRE: firefighting clothing. the heat loss option calculated in a parallel way. the heat loss option calculated in a serial way. heat_s.1 Clothing evaporative resistances calculated by different methods. light clothing. the mass loss option calculated in a parallel way. heat_p. CLM: climber overall with Gore-Tex membrane. 56 . L. HV: high visibility clothing. MIL: military jackets and trousers.

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Analysis of the thermal insulation of clothing ensembles using computer generated data Jean Léonard Centexbel. This study doesn’t take into account the true insulation depending on the physiology. the relationship between serial and parallel models is analyzed using computer generated data.be Thermal insulation of a clothing ensemble is measured using a thermal manikin composed of several zones covering its whole surface. In a first simulation. 57 . serial and parallel models lead to different values of total insulation (with serial insulation higher than parallel insulation). If the temperature of the manikin surface is uniform. Moreover decreasing the number of zones reduces spatial resolution and thus decreases the perceived unevenness.leonard@centexbel. 15 zones as suggested by standard ISO 15831:2004). Consequently the difference between the parallel and the serial models increases with the number of zones. In this study. it is assumed that all zones of the manikin have the same thermal (constant) insulation except one which is varying. This has been done in a second study. This property allows to compare the parallel insulation of different manikins with different numbers of zones (assuming all other things being equal).g. Avenue du Parc 38. Belgium jean. Unfortunately if the distribution of local insulation is uneven. Those simulations confirm of course that serial model gives higher total insulation than the parallel model if the insulation of the clothing ensemble is uneven. A workaround consists to decrease by computation the number of zones of the manikins to obtain a common configuration adopted by all test houses (e. The influence of the number of zones of the manikin is also studied. Taking the inverse of the weighted average of all local thermal conductances is another way to calculate total thermal insulation which corresponds to the so-called parallel model. the local thermal resistances are generated using a lognormal distribution with the variance as a parameter. However from a mathematical point of view. In contrast serial insulation depends on the number of zones and thus prevents the comparison between different manikins with different numbers of zones. This method of calculation corresponds to the so-called serial model. This is a drawback of the serial model. B-4650 Chaineux. it can be shown that total thermal insulation calculated according to the parallel model is not depending on the number of zones. In a second simulation. there is no reason to prefer resistance to conductance. Each zone provides a local thermal resistance. Total insulation can be seen as a weighted average of all local thermal resistances.

Natick. heat strain is the combined results of clothing. The impact of ensembles on ETs was dependent on work rates and environmental conditions.e.. Two ensembles. Effective strategy of heat strain management should include not only ensemble improvement. min) at air temperatures of 25°C.g. activity (i. relative humidities (RH) of 25%. USA *corresponding author: xiaojiang.9 m2PaW-1 for A and 2.. MA.9 m2PaW-1 for B. but also mission planning (e.. and metabolic rates of 300W and 500W. work rates and environmental conditions. ET was the length of time for the core temperature to rise to 39°C and was an indicator of the heat strain level. The measured thermal/vapor resistances were 1. and the differences were less than 40 min at most of the remaining conditions. a normal work uniform (ensemble A) and A plus a biohazardous protective garment (ensemble B). were selected for analysis. A human thermoregulation model was used to predict endurance time (ET. work rates) and environment on human thermal responses. while small differences (<40min) occurred in less stressful environments (e.xu@us. 25°C/RH50%) or in more stressful environments ( e. 35°C and 40°C.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Systematic analysis of heat strain when wearing protective clothing X. Biophysics and Biomedical Modeling Division. the largest difference (274 min) occurred only at 25°C/RH25%.81clo/40.army. Endrusick. This paper uses a thermal manikin and mathematical modeling approach to analyze the impact of clothing. Hoyt US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. reducing heat loss from the body to the environment thus increasing heat strain and risk of heat injury. Xu*. work rate reduction and physiology monitoring). W. In conclusion. 40°C/RH25%).mil Personal protective clothing increases thermal/vapor resistances. Large differences (>150min) occurred in moderate environments (e. Blanchard. the differences in ETs with A and B range from 1 to 274 min. However. 40°C/RH75%). L... At a moderate work rate of 300W. At a high work rate of 500W. 58 .g. 30°C. Traditional efforts to reduce heat strain focus only on clothing while the contributions of physical activity and environment conditions to heat strain are not taken into account.28clo/54. Thermal/vapor resistances were measured on thermal manikin according to applicable ASTM standards. 50% and 75%. the differences in ETs with A and B range from 0 to 222 min.g.g. R. T.

Jean Léonard3. or general purpose jumpsuits). different manikin designs.pt The clothing evaporative resistance is of paramount importance for the thermal comfort perception. in particular in the context of measurements done with mannequins with different number of independent zones. Chaineux. Furthermore. The clothing ensembles include 1-layer underwear.Centre for Nanotechnology and Smart Materials. type of approach used to compute total resistances based on local resistances). Faming Wang2. This is ascribed to various factors such as: different calculation methods. following similar experimental protocols (ASTM F2370-10). for lowpermeability clothing). 2-layers underwear and several professional garments (such as for fishermen.e. Faculty of Engineering. Sweden 3 Centexbel-Verviers. for thermal stress analyses (e. However. obtained at different laboratories.g. particularly in warm environments or during intense physical activity. Seven different clothing ensembles. were tested at the three laboratories. with evaporative resistances ranging from very low to very high values. Department of Design Sciences. several works in the literature report large differences for clothing evaporative resistance values. Belgium * corresponding author: tsottomayor@centi.e. or for comfort studies in general. which imply very low heat losses from the manikins (thus high relative errors). Miguel Ribeiro1 1 2 Product Characterization Laboratory. Portugal Thermal Environment Laboratory. equipped with different sweating manikins. Lund. Belgian Textile Research Centre. chosen to allow the assessment of repeatability and reproducibility limits. The differences between the results obtained at the three laboratories were found to escalate with increasing clothing evaporative resistance. hands and feet] versus upper-body). 59 . Lund University. for complex test conditions (i. the data were further used to assess the influence of the calculation method (i. garbage collectors. two of which of NEWTON kind (although with diverse number of zones). The results were used to study the measurement limits as a function of clothing total evaporative resistance. CeNTI . Knowledge about this parameter is required for body heat balance models. given that the clothing ensembles have diverse body coverage (full-body [except head. an interlaboratory study has been organized between three independent laboratories. The possible causes for the differences found are discussed and analyzed in detail. of the work environment). Vila Nova de Famalicão. In order to study the repeatability and reproducibility limits for measurements of clothing breathability with different thermal manikins. in particular for highly impermeable ensembles.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 An interlaboratory study on measurements of clothing evaporative resistance with thermal manikins Tiago Sotto Mayor 1*. and difficulties in ensuring manikin skin wetness.

However.2. different standards (e. Swiss Association for Standardization. Rossi1. The comparison of standard criteria from the sweating Torso and the outcomes from the more realistic and complex simulation with THS proved the thermo-physiological relevance of standard criteria. Switzerland 3 EMPA – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology Laboratory for Protection and Physiology. René M. the RET-value is not directly related to thermo-physiological performance in realistic situations. THS). therefore. Furthermore. the standardised sweating Torso test protocol provides a simplified method to reliably evaluate standard criteria of clothing systems and. post-sweat cooling). Winterthur.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Standardization of a sweating torso for the evaluation of the thermo-physiological performance of protective clothing Simon Annaheim3. Switzerland DuPont Protection Technologies. as human geometry and the production of liquid sweat are not considered. Therefore. Martin A. sustained cooling. 60 . Switzerland 2 1 corresponding author: René Rossi (rene. St. This method was validated with data obtained from human subject trials in different climatic conditions.* SNV. A more realistic characterisation can be provided by means of sweating manikin tests which usually provide higher reproducibility and reliability than human subject tests. EN 469:2007) stipulate performance requirements regarding RET. DuPont International Operations. Geneva.3. In conclusion. the sweating Torso was coupled with a mathematical model of thermo-physiological responses (Fiala-model) to simulate thermo-physiological responses in static and transient environmental conditions (single-sector thermo-physiological human simulator. Therefore. André Capt2. The proposed experimental protocol consists of three phases to evaluate standard criteria such as thermal insulation (RCT) and cooling behaviour of protective clothing (initial cooling. Gallen.g. a standardised experimental protocol for a sweating Torso is proposed for the characterisation of the thermo-physiological performance of protective clothing.ch) Protective clothing is characterised by a high evaporative resistance (RET) which increases the risk for heat stress for the wearer.rossi@empa. Camenzind3. is suitable for testing according to standard specifications. Agnes Psikuta3. Helmut Eichinger1.

STM testing and thermal model simulation could help understand the real physiological impact of the THL value given by the SHP testing. with the clothing values from the STM testing. the whole PE is tested as it is worn by an individual in which a layer of air is created between the warm surface of the manikin and the clothing that affect the overall heat transfer. Is material testing good enough to predict physiological results? Aitor Coca1*.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Relationship between Total Heat Loss test. 61 . Based on these preliminary results. two PE with the same design but built of materials with different THL values were evaluated. we simulated the responses of humans working while wearing the PE with a thermal simulation model developed by TNO (Lotens. the SHP test is performed on a small piece of PE fabric in a tightly controlled environment. While providing a very accurate measurement of the thermal characteristics of the fabrics. and the simulation showed a ~30% difference for similar environmental conditions. Condensation of moisture (sweat) in the clothing layers is also another factor that is not tested in the SHP test. The aim of this study was to compare THL values from different methodological approaches and to assess if the SHP test-determined THL value is a valid predictor of thermo physiological responses to working wearing PE. during STM testing. Finally. Jung-Hyun Kim1 1 2 NPPTL.gov National Fire Protection Association has provided guidelines on thermal characteristics of fabric (thermal resistance and vapor permeability) used to manufacture protective ensembles (PE). A typical method to determine the thermal characteristics of fabric is the Total Heat Loss (THL. 1993 and Lotens and Havenith. the STM showed only a ~50%. The materials were first tested by an independent laboratory to acquire the SHP THL test value. However. Pittsburgh. but affects the heat transfer between the body and PE. W/m2) test using a sweating hot plate (SHP). The results showed the differences between the PE: the SHP test showed a78% difference. whereas the manikin will maintain overall skin temperature at 35°C. Emiel denHartog2. thermal manikin testing and thermal model predictions. In this study. 1991) (Table 1). The thermal simulation tries to account for the air layer between the skin and clothing and does incorporate and predict moisture absorption and condensation effects of the clothing layers. Netherlands *corresponding author: esq6@cdc. Another factor added into the model simulation is that the skin temperature varies with changing conditions. Then the PE constructed with each of the two materials were tested using a sweating thermal manikin (STM) to predict THL values. PA TNO. These differences could be due to several reasons.

9%) a : Woodcock moisture permeability index (0: totally impermeable – 1:totally permeable).134 0.A. respectively.478 1. 65%RH identical to the test condition of total heat loss (Qt) sweating hot plate testing and the thermal model simulation.3 0. Heat transfer from humans wearing clothing.041 1.025 81. b: the total amount of heat that can be transferred from the manikin to the ambient environment combined from evaporative and dry heat transfer that were separately measured in 35°C.0 128. PhD thesis.227 150.003 909.019 0.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Table 1.4 718.4%) 0. Thermal characteristics of two experimental CBRN ensembles Suit A Sweating Hot Plate Testing Intrinsic thermal resistance (Rcf) [K·m2/W] Intrinsic evaporative resistance (Ref ) [kPa·m /W] Total heat loss (Qt) [W/m2]: Sweating Thermal Manikin Testing Intrinsic thermal resistance (Rcl) [°C·m2/W] Intrinsic evaporative resistance (Recl) [kPa·m2/W] Total insulation (It) [clo] Permeability index (im) [0-1]a Heat loss potential (Qp) [W/m2]b Predicted heat loss potential (Qpredicted) [W/m2]c Thermal Model Simulation Total heat loss (Qt) [W/m2]c: 88 123 35 (28. 40%RH and 20°C. W.170 191.5 58. (1993).270 0.6%) 70.5 (45. Lotens. 233-254 62 . c: the predicted amount of heat that can be transferred from the manikin to the ambient environment for a specified condition of 25°C. W. Delft. Technical University Delft.4 (54.005 0. References Lotens.A.8%) A 2 Suit B THL difference (%) 0. Havenith. Ergonomics 34.150 0.2 0.170 0.1 (78. 40-60%RH.6 68. Calculation of clothing insulation and vapour resistance. G. February 1997. (1991).

drape-ability and others. Ergonomic aspects of comfort relate to the fit and body conformability of the protective ensembles and constituting garments which are in turn depend of mechanical attributes of comprising materials and their assemblies. thickness and drape-ability. A subjective and purely manual assessment of flexibility was performed for comparison with mechanical test results. and also on the construction and ease of the constituting garments. environment and nature of the hazards. subjective and scanning test methods were able to discriminate between textile materials. in-plane sheer. The protective garments often work as an ensemble system and each garment may incorporate various protective layers. The attributes of the protective ensembles relevant to physiological comfort and wearability are as important as their protective properties and become especially important in extreme environments. The results obtained through 3D body scanning utilising the developed method correlate well with the results of modified mechanical drape test. analysed and evaluated. bending. assemblies and garments. Nazia Nawaz School of Fashion and Textiles. The trials demonstrated that it is possible to provide a quantitative assessment of conformability of protective materials incorporated into skin-layer garments giving a reasonable correlation with perceived wearer comfort. The size and distribution of the air gaps in relevant critical zones of the garments were acquired. In order to assess the flexibility and drape-ability the modified mechanical drape test was used. materials and accessories. The 3D scan fit analysis was also assessed. In addition the direct subjective methods involving human subjects are also used. flexibility. their assemblies and garments incorporating these materials. The tested materials were incorporated into a skin-layer protective garment and then its fit and conformability was evaluated using 3D body scanner and a body model mannequin. RMIT University Personnel working in hazardous environments require protective clothing that is designed to the particular requirements of the carried-out tasks. transverse compression. both direct and indirect. 3D body scanning to evaluate the garment fit and air gaps resulting from it. Study design Three samples of the textile materials and their assemblies were chosen which provided a range of assumed flexibility from most flexible (garment body material) to new flexible protective material and old less flexible protective material. Currently different objective and subjective methods. 3D scanning methods to evaluate the drape-ability. Purpose The purpose of this study is a development of an objective method for determination of body conformability and fit of protective garments with zoned construction incorporating protective materials of various mechanical performance attributes such as rigidity. Wearer trials were conducted to a developed protocol with the aim to compare the objective and subjective results.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Method for Determination of Body Conformability and Fit of Skin-Layer Protective Garments Olga Troynikov1. These include various mechanical performance tests such as in-plane tension. Results The results of the study indicated that the mechanical. 63 . are used to assess the conformability of materials.

Three different types of SMA embedded vests were prepared. 50±5% RH according to the ASTM F1291 standard. Also. In this study. 70 cm2 and 41cm2. 35±5% RH and 0±0. we have reported that Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are smart enough to sense and actuate to give thermal insulation by forming the air layer according to the environmental temperature changes. Measurement Technology Northwest. The sweating thermal manikin test was processed in the environmental chamber set at 20±0. Sungeun KIM. Clothing systems with and without SMA and goose down padding were compared. 64 .1˚C at almost no humidity.kr In our previous studies. U. Each thermal insulation (Rt) of three kinds of SMA embedded vests and three types of down ones was also obtained. Department of Clothing & Textiles. humidity. For the dry test.1˚C. The thermal insulation (Rt) of total clothing system including each vest was measured and the moisture permeability index (Im) and clo values were calculated from Rt. Korea * corresponding author: eakim@yonsei. The SMAs analyzed to have the highest deformation with most power were attached to the vest fabric at one per 162cm2.1˚C. Seoul. Yonsei University.) according to the environmental condition. It was demonstrated through the Human-Clothing-Environment (HCE) simulator test and subjective wear trials. the thermal insulation of the clothing system was evaluated using sweating thermal manikin (Newton.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Thermal manikin tests for the intelligent cold protection of SMA embedded clothing Jiyeon Lee.S.A. Guira PARK. The thermal insulation (Rt) and Im value obtained from the manikin test would be analyzed more in detail correlating with thermal. three kinds of vests filling with commercial goose down padding were made as the control sample by controlling the weight to have the same or similar weight of SMA ones. the test was conducted at the 10±0. and comfort sensations of the human subject tests.ac. Eunae KIM* Functional Textile System Research Lab. respectively.

WA USA Textile Protection and Comfort Center (TPACC). The results of this testing demonstrate improved agreement with the human subject data. Ongoing efforts are being directed towards validation of this system in various environments and operational scenarios. but manikin use as human subject simulators is limited by the ability of the manikins to adaptively thermoregulate with sufficient realism to mimic a human subject. Dr. MI. Mark Hepokoski3 1 2 Measurement Technology Northwest (MTNW). North Carolina State University. These prior experiments demonstrated acceptable stability.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Further validation of a modelcontrolled thermal manikin using firefighter turnout gear Richard Burke1. Seattle.. Prior results identified areas for further optimization of the thermoregulatory model and manikin integration. an active thermoregulation model. Roger Barker2. 65 . repeatability. (TAI). NC USA 3 ThermoAnalytics Inc. These optimizations were implemented and the manikin wear trials were rerun for comparison against the prior manikin and human subject data. Keith Blood1. Raleigh. Shawn Deaton2. The Newton thermal manikin has been coupled with ManikinPC2. USA * Corresponding author: rick@mtnw-usa. Calumet.com Abstract: Thermal manikins serve a valuable role as research and product characterization tools. but core temperature transient response could be improved upon relative to the human subject results. and accuracy in skin temperature response. This study builds on previous research comparing the Newton/ManikinPC2 system against human subject exercise trials wearing firefighter turnout gear. A.

FI-90220 Oulu. The results provide valuable information on needed clothing looseness to obtain the highest thermal protection for clothing manufacturers. calf) of each clothing layer in different sizes were taken by a 3D body scanner using the software of Human Solutions ScanWorX: Anthroscan. The thermal insulations of the dry cold protective clothing systems were measured in the climatic chamber of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. 50.Kokkola. 56) according to standard SFS-EN 13402. Finland Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences. Marjukka Kekäläinen2. The base layer was size 50 in all cases. thigh. Leena Simonen2. Another aim was to find out the effect of wind from three different directions on thermal protection. total thermal insulation was higher when the middle and outermost layers were larger in size. FI. When air movement was added by wind or movement of the manikin. middle. Wind had the least effect on total thermal insulation when the body was at a 45° angle against the wind direction and when direct contact surface with the wind was the smallest. Helena Mäkinen1 1 2 Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. The results showed that in calm conditions with a stationary manikin. A total of 31 scanned whole body pictures were taken. The measured clothing system included three layers (base.4 cm). retailers and end users. outermost layer).3 m/s and 8 m/s during the measurements. Aapistie 1. The middle-layer was made of fleece and came in three sizes (46. Movement and posture affect intrinsic clothing insulation and wind decreases the air layer insulation of clothing through convection. 54). 52. The outermost layer was a two-piece system in four sizes (48. hip. Whole body and cross profile pictures from five points (chest. waist. Air movements can also cause ventilation inside the clothing.fi The size of clothing and the thickness of the air layers entrapped between clothing layers affect the thermal insulation of the clothing ensemble. Talonpojankatu 2.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Thermal insulation of 3-layered clothing system in different sizes using 3D body scanner Kirsi Jussila1*. The air velocity was 0. thermal insulation reached its highest value when the outermost layer (looseness of chest measurement 33. The thickness of air layers between layered clothing is traditionally measured by pinching the fabric from several points of the body or by calculating the difference between the clothing measure and the manikin or test subject.9-14. 66 . The objective was to find the optimum size combination of three-layered cold protective clothing using a thermal manikin and 3D body scanner in both calm and windy conditions. Finland * Corresponding author: kirsi. The systems were measured at a temperature of 10 °C.jussila@ttl.4 cm) was a size 52 and the middle layer a size 46-50 (looseness of chest measurement 3. 50.

In this paper. Zurich.niedermann@empa.4 °C in the intestine temperature of the subject determined the duration of the break. other non-invasive methods allowing the prediction of body temperature. are sought. The working phases lasted for 40 minutes. heat flux. Exercise Physiology. firefighters and athletes. 67 . 60 % VO2 peak) on a treadmill interrupted with a break to cool down. The direct measurement of body temperature is an invasive method with little practicability and acceptance in working conditions. The protocol included two tests with and without thermal radiation (about 500 Wm-2) from the front. St. A human subject study in the heat (30 °C) has been conducted to investigate the validity of non-invasive measured parameters to predict body core temperature. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. such as based on skin temperature. we present the results and discuss the validity of the different evaluation methods used. Agnes Psikuta1. heart rate and microclimate data served as a predictor for the body temperature. Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport. Switzerland 2 ETH. heat flux measurements or physiological models.2*.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Prediction of body temperature in humans using non-invasive measurement methods Reto Niedermann1.ch The measurement of body temperature is an important parameter to determine the thermal state of the human body. For industrial workers. A decrease of 0. Gallen. The protocol followed two working phases at different intensities (40 % VO2 peak. Laboratory for Protection and Physiology. The body temperature has been measured with a telemetric pill in the intestine. Thus. Evaluation of skin temperature. this hyperthermia decreases the work performance and can induce a substantial health risk (heat stress). René Michel Rossi1 1 Empa. Switzerland * corresponding author: reto. The heat storage can be observed with an increase in body temperature (hyperthermia).

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 sport area 68 .

Sweden * corresponding author: kalev. Evaporative resistance of the bags varied from about 90 to over 200 m2Pa/W under non-isothermal and from 120 to over 270 m2Pa/W under isothermal conditions if it was calculated based on manikin heat loss. 69 .. The difference between heat and mass loss methods varied depending on thermal conditions. Evaporative resistance of underwear under isothermal conditions was 33 and 47 m2Pa/W based on mass and heat loss.. EAT. and this difference reduced with increased insulation. It was dressed in wet underwear (water content 810±15 g). and compare the testing and calculation methods.4 (underwear was just above that). moisture accumulation in bags may occur during use (Havenith. The whole system was placed on a weighing scale for continuous mass loss recording. The evaporative resistance of the bags varied from about 110 to 230 m2Pa/W under non-isothermal and from 105 to over 250 m2Pa/W under isothermal conditions if it was calculated based on mass loss. sleeping bags. Underwear and 3 sleeping bags out of the standard calibration set (EN 13537) were selected for testing. Water vapour pressure gradient between manikin surface under wet underwear and air was used to calculate evaporative resistance from mass loss based heat loss. Wang 2011). 2002). However. The tests were carried out in non-isothermal (Ta=12 °C) and isothermal conditions (Ta=34 °C). Dept. In the latest years lot of attention has got moisture in clothing. These bags have been described in more detail elsewhere (Kuklane and Dejke. Manikin surface was always kept at 34 °C. 2008. of Design Sciences. and also from recorded manikin heat loss.g.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Evaporative resistance of sleeping bags . The test procedures followed the EN 13537. However. Lab. The aim of this study was to evaluate evaporative resistance of the chosen sleeping bags. The use of the wet underwear reduced total insulation twice at 12 °C. All insulation calculations were carried out according to parallel model of EN 15831. there is lack of data on highly insulating products.kuklane@design. respectively. All tested bags were high quality products. The manikin was equipped with additional humidity and temperature sensors on each zone. 2010). Their permeability index stayed below 0. and testing methods have been developed and improved (Havenith et al. Depending on the application of data there is a need to standardise the test methods and procedures. Lund University. e. The testing and recommendations for sleeping bags are related to comfort or cooling in dry conditions.measurements on a thermal manikin Tore Kalev Kuklane Thermal Env.se Thermal insulation of the sleeping bags can be measured by EN 13537.lth.

2 ± 6. and (iv) wool/polyamide. Rossi1* 1 Empa.6 g/m2/h was calculated for all sweating conditions. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology.ch Heat loss and moisture retention properties were characterized for footwear using a walking thermal manikin foot. In addition.bogerd@upr. The walking rate was 15 step/min and the sweat rates were 9 g/h and 12 g/h. respectively. Gallen. The results indicate little difference among boot membranes. while wool/polyamide retained more moisture compared to polypropylene/polyamide (p=0.si and rene. Institute for Kinesiology Research. CH-9014 St. for boot membrane and sock fabric measurements. the latter membrane configuration retained more moisture in the inlay sole compared to halve OUTDRY (p=0.017). (iii) full OUTDRY. although GORE TEX with IQ TEX resulted in a higher heat loss during walking without sweating compared to the other membrane configurations (p=0. (ii) walking no sweating. In fact. For the first part of this study the same type of military boot was equipped with different membrane configurations: (i) GORE TEX with IQ TEX.015). Paul A. Lerchenfeldstrasse 14. Both boot membranes and sock fabrics were assessed under three conditions: (i) standstill no sweating. 70 . a moisture vapour transmission rate of 61.036).001). No differences in heat loss were found among the sock fabrics. Brühwiler1 and René M. In a separate measurement session a single boot type was used to evaluate four different sock fabric configurations: (i) wool/polypropylene. differences appeared in the location of retained (non-evaporated) moisture. and (iv) OUTDRY with IQ TEX. The GORE TEX with IQ TEX retained more moisture in the sock compared to the other membrane configurations (p<0. Moisture retention was assessed by weighing the footwear components before and after each measurement. Bogerd1. Furthermore. and (iii) walking and sweating. Slovenia *Corresponding authors: niels. the measurements suggest that no pumping-effect takes place in the measured footwear under the present conditions. Finally.2*.rossi@empa. (iii) polypropylene/polyamide. Laboratory for Protection and Physiology. Garibaldijeva 1. (ii) halve OUTDRY. Switzerland 2 University of Primorska. (ii) polypropylene. SI-6000 Koper.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Heat loss and moisture retention variations of boot membranes and sock fabrics Cornelis P.

cases yet exist where players have sustained head injuries that have threatened to end careers. Cricket helmets are designed provide ample protection to batters. UK *Corresponding author: n. the inadequacies.ac. the need for better sports protective equipment has also grown.uk As players continue to develop their skills within sports. Loughborough. limited work has been conducted in the field of cricket helmet performance testing. Andy Harland1 1 Sports Technology Institute.velani@lboro. Leicestershire. in many cases. particularly if the head is impacted. in protective equipment available is unknown until an injury is sustained. or prevented.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Determining the Performance of Cricket Helmets with the use of a Novel Headform Nikunj Velani1*. or suitability. Consequently. In cricket. and fielders alike. A secondary aim of this work. this study aims to further assess cricket helmet performance under game-like scenarios to extend the work that has already been conducted within the field. so that head injury is avoided but. therefore. Unfortunately. Ben Halkon1. 71 . fatalities. despite this. Nevertheless. the injuries endured from ball impact can often lead to significant playing time loss despite protective equipment being worn and. Loughborough University. strives to evaluate a novel headform and mounting design to determine whether it behaves superiorly over the methodologies that have been previously employed. in extreme cases. Previous work has yielded head acceleration values that exceed those that are deemed ‘safe’ but have employed methodologies that may not necessarily best replicate actual game scenarios.

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 heat and flame protection session 72 .

. Faulring. R. This danger is not usually recognized until the last few seconds of protective clothing drying. R. researchers from textile and electronic science have made many interdisciplinary works to measure temperature. 2007. Heat And Flame Protection. 2]. online referencing. the main aim is to protect the life of firefighters within the harsh environment by observing the conditions with related sensors.org/summit/. Department of Electrical and Electronics Eng. Turkey 3 Dokuz Eylul University. Location and Status. humidity. Moreover. Yavuz Şenol2. Evaporation rates increase as a firefighter enters higher temperature and thermal radiation zones near a fire. 73 . As drying occurs. and cooling stops.yilmaz@ogr.. 1017-1033.nist.and abrasion-resistant protective clothing. When firefighters are exposed to high temperatures for the long term. ‘Thermal Performance And Limitations http://fire. Taner Akkan3 1 2 Dokuz Eylul University. Turkey * corresponding author: muge. Steam Burns Moisture Management in Firefighter Protective Clothing. L. Isıya ve Aleve Dayanıklı Koruyucu Giysiler. In recent years. their protective clothing may cause burn injuries.gov/bfrlpubs/fire98/PDF/f98066.. DA Compact Device to Monitor and Report Firefighter Health. Ender Yazgan Bulgun1.edu.deu. Izmir. Ergonomics 2003. Zurich.pdf (1998. the protective clothing dries out. For this purpose an electronic circuit board with some components and a microcontroller was designed and integrated into the firefighter jacket. most often exposed to thermal environment. by use of LED strips on the jacket sleeves the visibility of firefighter is increased in a smoky environment.. producing temperatures inside the garment that will likely cause serious burn injuries [3. [2] Cireli A. [5] Keiser C. Tekstil ve Teknik 2000: 181-187. Turkey Dokuz Eylul University. 4./2005_posters/Kremens%20et%20al.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Designing smart garment for firefighters Müge Yılmaz1* . [6] Kremens.tr Smart Systems and Materials are getting more and more attention in recent years and have a great potential in the field of textiles. ECG and carbon dioxide levels by using electronic detection systems and related sensors to control the body signals [6]. Firefighting and its influence on the body. Department of Textile Eng. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. online referencing http://www. Therefore. 5]. [4] Lawson J. Department of Mechatronics. The smart textile structures which integrate electronics and textile materials and protect the wearer against the physical. J. References [1] Bajaj. the protective clothing temperature may rise very rapidly. A smart firefighter jacket was designed to measure the critical skin temperature and ambient temperature changes. Izmir. chemical and biological dangers have become more efficient and effective. Degree of doctor of sciences. [3] Rossi R. Izmir Vocational School.pdf. providing protection against heat and flame [1. Firefighters may find that evaporative cooling has provided a false sense of security and that it has allowed them to enter an extremely dangerous thermal environment. 46 (10). fire-fighters must wear thermal cut.. Philips. If the evaporation rate of sweat increases without moisture being added to restore the thermal balance. England: Woodhead Publishing Limited. accessed 2010). In this study. 2000. Izmir.iawfonline. Firefighters are occupational group.. Of Bunker Gear’.

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Prediction of Skin Burn Injury Induced By Thermal Radiation based on Thermal Manikin Experiment and Numerical Computation Fu Ming1*. P. the initial and boundary conditions were obtained from skin temperature and heat flux of the manikin. Over the past decades. Han Xuefeng1 1 Department of Engineering Physics. Zhang xiaole1. Using Henriques and Moritz’s burn criterion predictions of the human skin burn were computed. China * corresponding author: fm10@ mails. Based on experiment on thermal manikin “NEWTON” exposure to infrared radiation in a climate chamber.cn Abstract Skin burn induced by thermal radiation is one of common but severe injuries in firefighting and some industry working exposure to intensive radiation. Institute of Public Safety Research.tsinghua. The methods and results introduced in this paper can also be used to research the heat and mass transfer in protective clothing that will promote the performance of the clothing and bring about some new protective clothing designs.edu. considering the effects of blood flow and water diffusion and vaporization on tissue temperature. Tsinghua University. Beijing. In this paper. and experimental studies based on instrumented manikin test subjected to a simulated flash fire or thermal radiation. The results show that the numerical model can be used to predict thermal radiation that is also useful to protective clothing industry design and clothing materials selection for fire service places. researches have been studied on skin burn prediction and evaluation in two ways: numerical computations with advanced physical models based on the Pennes bioheat model. Comparing with previous researches. A finite difference method was used to solve the equations to obtain temperature distributions in multiple layers of skin. a one-dimensional multi-layer model on skin heat and mass transfer was developed.R. , 74 . Weng wenguo1. this model in this paper has good accuracy and feasibility.

skin blood flow. 75 . Wearing ensemble A resulted in a case where not all sweat produced is evaporated with part of is dripping and the sweating process is not being effective. construction and some other attributes. RMIT University. International Scientific Training Centre for Information Technologies and Systems. not permeability and thus the difference in performance is due to these differences not impermeability. During moderate activity cardiovascular and thermoregulatory response indicators considerably increased with significant differences in resultant physiological variables attributed to ensembles A and B.8 m2. Australia Use of human thermoregulatory models for prognosis of thermophysiological responses in extreme conditions has advantage over experiments involving human subjects due to elimination of the possible risk to human health of the participants. skin blood flow. The difference between them is in materials. while wearing two different protective ensembles that differ in their materials and construction. water losses and other physiological parameters that characterize thermal status of firefighters while wearing protective ensembles. Anastasia Nikolaienko. dripping. sweat rate. wind velocity 1m/sec. evaporation. Results indicated that during light activity thermal status of firefighters fell in the range of thermal comfort: heart rate. radiation and other physiological variables outputs were practically within physiological limits and did not differ for each of two protective ensembles. The model allows assessing of the heart rate. Conditions for experimental modeling: Man. blood temperature. Environment: air temperature 30 °C. By the end of experiment total water losses present more than 2% from the body weight which means danger of dehydration. The purpose of this research was to study thermophysiological strain of firefighters performing light and moderate work activities in hot dry environments. Physiological and cardiovascular responses while wearing ensemble B are able to compensate effectively the complex impact on human organism and support thermal status without danger to its health. body surface 1. National Academy of Sciences. Melbourne. Both ensembles are impermeable but perform differently at moderate activity. Multicompartmental computer model was developed to predict transient and steady-state cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses. relative humidity 20%. mean skin temperature. Protective ensembles: A and B. moderate 300W. skin temperatures. Kiev School of Fashion and Textiles. evaporation. Nazia Nawaz Department of Information Technologies in Medicine. Ksenia Dukchnovskaya. activity level – light 100W.It was concluded that the impermeability of firefighter’s protective ensemble worn has significant impact on thermophysiological responses of firefighters performing light and moderate work activities in hot dry environments. blood temperature.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Influence of exercise intensity on thermophysiological responses of firefighters wearing different firefighters protective clothing ensembles Irena Yermakova. total water losses. convection. Olga Troynikov. Ukraine. sweat rate. The multicompartmental computer modeling allows predictive evaluation of the ensembles without the possible risk to human health of the participants during relevant human studies.weight 70 kg.

are a relatively unexplored hazard in the safety clothing industry. Edmonton. weight. and surface finishing. and heat capacity) and the fabric’s air permeability. Increasingly. “Evaluating Heat Transfer through Materials for Protective Clothing upon Contact with a Hot Liquid Splash”) was developed to assess the protection provided by a fabric when exposed to a hot liquid. The preliminary testing demonstrated that mass transfer through the fabric is the main factor contributing to burn injury. In the horizontal exposure. Canada Department of Mechanical Engineering. Analyses of the heat flux and the energy absorbed by the sensors during the cooling period (after the end of the exposure) showed that stored thermal energy contributes significantly to the second and third degree burns.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Thermal Protective Clothing Performance: Hot Liquid Splash and Its Flow Effect on Skin Burn Farzan Gholamreza1.song@ualberta. In the 45 degree position. Guowen Song1* 1 2 Department of Human Ecology. oil or drilling fluid. Canada *Corresponding Author: guowen. University of Alberta.08. University of Alberta. To explore the energy transfer mechanisms a modified apparatus (based on ASTM F 2701. 76 . thermal conductivity. Key factors that determine the level of protection a fabric system provides are: the liquid’s physical and thermal properties (viscosity.ca Hot liquids whether water. drilling mud and canola oil) to gauge the effects of position. hot liquids are being used for material processing or enhanced in-situ recovery of bitumen from oil sands. the upper sensor was exposed directly to the hot liquid while the middle and lower sensors were exposed due to fluid flow parallel to the surface. the prediction of the time required to produce a second degree burn injury. Selected fabrics and systems were exposed in a horizontal position and at an angle of 45 degrees to three hot liquids (hot water. Edmonton. The modified test method allows measurement of the energy absorbed by the sensor. and with the use of a skin model. the middle sensor was exposed directly to the liquid source and the adjacent sensors were used to measure the energy transfer with fluid flow parallel to the surface. The test apparatus was equipped with three skin simulant sensors mounted on the sensor board to catch the flow of the liquid. Traditional materials used for protection against a hydrocarbon flash fire provide little protection against a hot liquid hazard. Mark Ackerman2. The angle of the sensor board with respect to the fluid stream could be varied between horizontal to 45 degrees to determine the test conditions that would provide the best differentiation among fabrics and fabric systems.

In this paper we will present our investigations from a public funded German research project about thermal and moisture management under different climate conditions and activity levels of market relevant fire fighter suits. Aside the construction of the membrane also the placement in the fabric assembly has an high impact on the Ret value. Boennigheim. Furthermore the change of thermal and textile properties after several industrial laundry cycles were determined. 77 . To improve the physiological wearing comfort of fire fighter suits five complete fabric assemblies as well as their single construction elements were investigated. Germany Most cases of death of fire fighters are caused by heat stoke and not by fire. The investigations were carried out with the use of a sweating guarded hot plate. Jan Beringer. Markus Schmid. Also the sweat transport at heavy sensible sweating which is of high concern during a fire fighting call is affected by the placement of the membrane in the fabric assembly. Silke Küblbeck Hohenstein Institute. Boris Bauer.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Improvement of thermal and sweat management in fire fighter suits Andreas Schmidt. Based on the analysis of the obtained data the heat and humidity transport mechanisms inside the clothing system were investigated and suggestions for improvement were made. a thermal manikin and wearing trials with human subjects equipped with temperature and moisture sensors in a climate chamber with additional thermal radiation. This is because of the high thermal and moisture insulating properties of the nowadays highly engineered garments they wear. The thermal insulation is so high that the generated body during a call heat cannot be dissipated through the garment.

TPP and RPP) as well as full garment fire test manikins (PyroMan™). North Carolina State University. United States *corresponding author: achummel@ncsu. The research projects for PyroHands™ and PyroHead™ also featured modifications to the human skin burn model to give burn injury predictions specific to the body regions being analyzed. PyroHead™ was created to evaluate protective headgear. and other industry workers can be better protected from high heat exposures.edu Testing and evaluating the thermal protective performance of clothing in fire environments has been primarily focused on bench level testing (i.e. The high proportion of burn injuries to the hands led to the creation of PyroHands™. This data has led to better development of garments that protect individuals with hazardous occupations. such as military personnel. limitations in these current testing capabilities have led to a series of advances in manikin technology over the past few years. However. North Carolina. investigating movement with fire test manikins.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Advances in Manikin Technology and Methodology for Testing the Thermal Protective Performance of Clothing in Fire Environments Alexander Hummel1*. which tests full garment performance in flash fire conditions. and others. Roger Barker1. 78 . which are used to test flame resistant gloves. such as helmets and balaclavas. refinery workers. Future research projects for TPACC include: the creation of a manikin addressing wildlands firefighter needs. Likewise. Raleigh. The PyroHands™ and PyroHead™ systems were developed by TPACC to provide testing results that current fire test manikins could not achieve. and further human skin burn model improvements. A. Both of these systems were departures from the PyroMan™ system. The full garment manikin testing facilities have provided valuable information on the thermal protective performance of clothing when exposed to high intensity heat. firefighters. Shawn Deaton1. All of these manikin advances will provide analysis tools so that soldiers. firefighters. John Morton-Aslanis1 1 Center for Research on Textile Protection and Comfort (TPACC).

Canada. thickness.. hot surface (conduction). G. and they found out that different fabric properties (weight... P. G. Xu.. S. Guowen Song1* 1 Department of Human Ecology.. C. Till date no prediction model is available to measure the performance of thermal protective textile fabrics. M. Crown. S. G. To protect the firefighters and industrial workers from burn injuries. B. References 1. Thermal protective performance of protective clothing used for low radiant heat protection. a user-friendly model which can predict the thermal protective performance would prove time and cost efficient as well as risk free. Song. and hot water.. Additionally... J.. artificial neural networks and neurofuzy algorithms to predict the breaking elongations of rotor spun yarns. M. D.) affecting the thermal protective performance were statistically identified.. R. Marotta. radiation) using bench scale test (fabric stage) or full scale thermal manikin test (garment stage). M. A. 30: 19-25 (2005). 3. Through characterization of the selected fabric systems in a particular thermal exposure. It was found that the ANN based developed model could quickly and accurately predict the thermal protective performance in various thermal exposures.. K. and Ackerman.. M. and Fortin. T. Characterization of protective textile material for thermal hazards.. and destructive in nature. heat (radiation).song@ualberta. 5. Fire losses in Canada. different fabric systems (single layer. gaseous burns. Majumdar. 79: 227-234 (2009).. Mandal. scalds or chemical burns cause burn injuries to 2% of industrial workers [2].1.. 6. Human Resources and Social Development. In this study. B.weight. and Sarkar. X.0. various factors (fabric properties.000 fire incidences occur and it cause burn injuries to more than 1000 firefighters [1]. time consuming.. P. thermal & vapor resistance etc. steam. 4] measured the performance of thermal protective textiles in various laboratory simulated thermal exposures (convection. M. Canadian Institution for Health Information. slag burns. E. Proceeding of Fiber Society Spring Conference. Therefore. 4. S. University of Alberta. *Corresponding author: guowen.. E. 2. By employing the predominant factors in MATLAB 7. Tao. However. cumbersome.. 81: 311-323 (2011). mainly flame (convection). 6]. K. Paskaluk. Chandra.. Textile Research Journal. C. high performance thermal protective clothing is necessary. Hong Kong. thickness etc. 138 (2009).. Textile Research Journal. M. Application of linear regression.ca Abstract Every year in Canada.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Modelling for predicting the performances of thermal protective clothing Sumit Mandal1. The aim of this paper is to propose effective models for predicting the performances of thermal protective textile fabrics in various thermal exposures. Murrells. these tests demand a lot of safety measures and are very expensive. An artificial neural network model for the prediction of spirality of fully relaxed single jersey fabrics. Among these factors. 1-42 (2007). Major injury in Canada. the predominant factors for a particular exposure were recognised based on relative importance analysis. Laboratory simulations of the various thermal exposures were created to evaluate the thermal protective performance of the selected fabric systems in terms of time required to generate 2nd degree burn. and Cheng. Forte. fire accidents at workplace due to electrical flashes. The developed model will help to engineer optimized thermal protective performance for a fabric with certain properties. A. Textile Research Journal. nearly 60. Dale. Many researchers [3. Majumdar.) affect the thermal protective performance. 23-25 May 2011. It followed a comparison of both the models and it resulted in better prediction accuracy of the ANN model than MLR model. and Song. Sati. S. a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) model and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model were developed for the prediction of performances [5. 79 . Mckeag. bi-layer and multi-layer) that represent the current typical thermal protective clothing were selected. flame burns.

80 . In this moments the study are in the beginning with the data acquisition. AITEX-Textile Research Institute. Spain Comfort department. This first step will give us some idea the how the energy is transmitted in different cotton fabrics. This behavior will be determinant for the self-preservation of the people involved in a flash fire. This study is intended to compare different materials.Country Head. the energy is transferred to the entire environment and to all the items near it.es When a deflagration happens in an explosive atmosphere. etc and in the future can be used like a tool to improve the PPE’s against these risks. This dissipation is very important to avoid the worst damages of the people involved in these accidents. AITEX-Textile Research Institute. Using an instrumented mannequin. designs. We have done some experiments with cotton fabrics changing the weight.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Study for the heat transfer in PPE’s against a flash fire Enrique Rivasl*1. we can evaluate the behavior of different kinds of PPEs who are now in the market and how the energy is dissipated from inside to outside of the body of the worker. Miriam Martinez2 1 2 International Department . From the Personal Protective Equipment point of view is very interesting to know how this energy is transferred to the worker involved in this kind of accident. closures. weights. we can evaluate the probability to have a burn and in the same time using a thermal camera with infrared view. Spain *Corresponding author: erivas@aitex.

Jiang.J. In this paper. et al. 713-717 Torvi. 285-295. highly insulating clothing will induce no 3rd degree burns.. The results show a good correlation for measurements with similar test conditions.rossi@empa. Camenzind.. This skin burn prediction uses a simple skin model with defined thermal characteristics and homogenous thickness and is based on a limited number of experiments with human subjects. 28: p. 787-796 81 . M. Effects of thermal properties and geometrical dimensions on skin burn injuries. Manikin test for flame engulfment evaluation of protective clothing: Historical review and development of a new ISO standard. Gallen. and R. Rossi. S. Dale. 2007. Martin Camenzind1 Empa.A. the exposure time and heat transmission rate (i. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. 1998. However. Dale. This paper investigates the different factors influencing the results of the flame engulfment test and discusses the advantages and drawbacks of the two evaluation methods. Burns. the correlations between burn predictions and total heat transferred are analyzed. the results may be indicated as a total transferred energy. 68(11): p..5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Flame engulfment test according to ISO 13506: correlations between burn predictions and total heat transferred René M.ch 1 The flame engulfment test according to ISO 13506 uses a manikin equipped with heat flux sensors to predict the burn risk of a firefighter or a heat exposed worker when exposed to flames with an intensity of 84 kW/m2. and J. Rossi1*. Fire and Materials. Jiang et al. There have been studies to investigate the influence of parameter variations on the predicted skin burn [Camenzind et al.A. 2002.] or in general on the results of flame engulfment tests with an instrumented manikin [Torvi and Dale]. Effects of Variations in Thermal Properties on the Performance of Flame Resistant Fabrics for Flash Fires. Michel Schmid1. Switzerland * corresponding author: rene. 31(5): p.C. Instead of skin burns. but the amount of total energy transferred can nevertheless greatly vary between different systems. D.e. total clothing insulation and stored energy). D..M. as well as the evaluation time influence the results.D. For example. The chosen skin parameters strongly influence the results of the reported 2nd and 3rd degree burns which are based on a pass/fail criterion for each sensor. Textile Research Journal. St. Laboratory for Protection and Physiology.

Ş. In addition. The main materials to be used to produce knitted underwear structures for firefighters are FR cotton. FR viscose and FR cellulose-synthetic fiber blends. wettability and their protection against intense radiant and convective heat simulating fire conditions will be measured by combinating with an outer layer fabric.) are aimed to combine with FR viscose and FR wool fibers. setting values and thickness of material. yarn counts. Turkey EKOTEN A.cireli@deu.BirkanYurdakul2 1 2 Dokuz Eylul University. Textile Engineering Dept. Buca-Izmir. Bengi Kutlu1.. 82 . In this study. etc.tr The firefighter’s clothing does not only consists of an outer layer. Turkey *corresponding author: aysun. Variables are chosen as fibers and fiber combinations. these designed firefighter underwear fabrics will be used for modelling mathematically underwear’s heat transport behaviour. It shows its thermal protection property with all of the layer of it.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Mathematical Modelling of Heat Transfer Properties of Undergarments for Firefighter’s Clothing Aysun Akşit1*. Faculty of Engineering.edu. To determine characteristics of the fabrics properties such as air permeability.. The most used fibers for underwear of firefighter’s clothing is FR cotton fabrics. synthetic fibers produced by doping with thermal protective particules (such as carbon. type of knitting structure. Torbali-Izmir.

Winterthur.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 The thermo-physiological performance of various fire fighter garments evaluated by means of a sweating torso test equipment Simon Annaheim3. Rossi1. Gallen. 83 . Swiss Association for Standardization. Camenzind3.2. Switzerland DuPont Protection Technologies. as human geometry and the production of liquid sweat are not considered. Therefore.capt@che. However. Geneva. St. The proposed experimental protocol consists of three phases to evaluate standard criteria such as thermal insulation (RCT) and cooling behaviour of protective clothing (initial cooling. Extensive tests on different fire fighter assemblies and garment combinations (including underwear and station uniforms) have shown that a good prediction can be made regarding heat stress and sweat distribution. DuPont International Operations. Therefore. Helmut Eichinger1. In conclusion. A more realistic characterisation can be provided by means of sweating manikin tests which usually provide higher reproducibility and reliability than human subject tests. the RET-value is not directly related to thermo-physiological performance in realistic situations. André Capt2. In addition. This can help to improve the different layers of a fire fighter garment or the complete garment assemblies from the underwear to the outer-shell material.dupont. is suitable for testing according to standard specifications. sustained cooling. therefore. different standards (e. human subject tests are dependent on the individual physiological health of the subjects and are extremely costly. post sweat cooling).3. Martin A. Agnes Psikuta3. EN 469:2005) stipulate performance requirements regarding RET.g.com) Fire fighter garments are complex fabric and garment assemblies and it is therefore difficult to make a prediction of the thermo-physiological performance of those assemblies. Switzerland 3 EMPA – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology Laboratory for Protection and Physiology.* SNV. Switzerland 2 1 corresponding author: Andre Capt (andre. René M. a standardised experimental protocol for a sweating Torso is proposed for the characterisation of the thermo-physiological performance of protective clothing. the standardised sweating Torso test protocol provides a simplified method to reliably evaluate standard criteria of clothing systems and.

In the framework of the research project. By a use of the developed model. This heat exchange model can simulate two variants of situations: the thermal load of the worker on the selected working stand in the hot environment without LQG and the influence of the liquid cooling system on the physiological parameters of the worker.lodz. material of the tubes that distribute the liquid. This model also gives a possibility to analyze cooling system’s parameters (kind of coolant. Poland * corresponding author: grbar@ciop. A reduction of the workers’ thermal load on the hot working stands can be obtained by introducing appropriately designed liquid cooling garment (LQG).pl Many workers in the hot environment are exposed to the overheating that leads to the cardiovascular system’s disorders and results in the occupational diseases. tubes’ diameter and length and liquid flow rate) what results in designing the most optimal operating parameters of the liquid cooling garment that are adjusted to the working conditions in the hot environment.National Research Institute. level of the worker’s metabolism and kind of the protective clothing. 84 . Additional thermal load is caused by the protective clothing. Simulations include climatic conditions on the working stand. a numerical model of the heat exchange between the worker in the protective clothing and the environment was developed. Anna Dąbrowska1 1 Central Institute for Labour Protection . simulations of the cooling process of the worker on the selected stands in the hot environment were conducted.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Modeling of the parameters of the liquid cooling garment depending on the thermal stress experienced by a subject in the hot environment Grażyna Bartkowiak1 *. Warsaw.

College of Textiles.edu Tel: 919-515-6577. North Carolina State University. or total heat loss (THL) and radiant protective performance (RPP).5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Balancing Heat Stress and Thermal Protective Performance in Wildland Firefighter Protective Clothing through New Testing Technologies Roger L. Deaton Center for Research on Textile Protection and Comfort.C. The relationships between the breathability of protective clothing materials and heat stress are being established using an advanced sweating manikin. Fax: 919-515-2294. 85 . Raleigh. Barker and Anthony S. This research is expected to provide an improved technical basis for the NFPA 1977 Standard requirements for heat stress. This presentation describes research that is developing new testing technologies and to produce the knowledge basis needed to overcome these barriers. Abstract Major technical barriers associated with test methods stand in the way of achieving the optimum balance between thermal protective performance and reduced heat stress in wildland firefighter protective clothing. It is coordinated with field trials being conducted by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE). Corresponding Author: Roger_Barker@ncsu. N. These testing methodologies are being used as part of integrated thermal comfort and heat protection studies to optimize the balance between thermal comfort and hazardous for wildland protective gear. A new radiant protective performance (RPP) is providing provided more accurate assessment of protection against radiant heat exposures relevant to wildland firefighting operations.

Inc. Seattle. In order to analyse the behavior of the thermoregulatory model apart from the algorithm and electronics that control the manikin. The predicted physiological results from this analysis are compared against the measured results from both the human subject tests and the manikin tests. Specifically. 86 .5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Thermo-physiological Modelling of Humans Wearing Firefighter Turnout Gear Mark Hepokoski 1*. rather than to limitations in the manikin control technique itself..Hepokoski@thermoanalytics. a test procedure was imposed on the model within a pure virtual setting (i. A. Roger Barker3 1 2 ThermoAnalytics. Allen Curran1. Although the error between the human subject test data and the manikin test data was acceptable. Shawn Deaton3. Tony Schwenn 1. Calumet. the measured skin temperatures and predicted core temperature obtained from the manikin experiments were compared to measurements from identically clothed human subjects undergoing a test protocol involving alternating work/rest cycles. Rick Burke2.e. MI Measurement Technology Northwest. WA 3 Textile Protection and Comfort Center (TPACC). Raleigh. NC * corresponding author: Mark. using simulated boundary conditions and measured firefighter turnout gear properties). the thermal burden imposed by firefighter turnout gear was evaluated by comparing human subject test data to measurements obtained using a physiologically controlled sweating thermal manikin. it was suspected that the disparity between the two data sets was due to limitations in the segmental thermoregulation model. North Carolina State University.com In a previous study.

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 poster session 87 .

We developed a model to investigate evaporative cooling efficiency in protective fabrics. Additionally. Simon Annaheim1*. Methods: In our lab. Dr. This knowledge provides the basis to further improve functional properties of protective clothing and increase working capacity. fibre properties) on the functional characteristics are known. If the sweat is transported in liquid form to outer garment layers. Dr.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Evaluation of the evaporative cooling efficiency in protective fabrics Dr. part of the evaporative heat is taken from the environment instead of the body and cooling efficiency of evaporation is reduced. this set-up allows the prediction of the physiological responses of a worker wearing protective clothing in typical ambient conditions. 50% relative humidity. garments with desired functional characteristics can be produced if the impacts of textile properties (fabric structure. Furthermore. 1m·s-1 multidirectional air-movements). Then. René Rossi1 1 Laboratory for Protection and Physiology. 88 . a high cooling efficiency is prerequisite especially at activities of high intensities. experiments are performed in a climatic chamber on a single-sector torso which is heatable and water can be released to induce evaporative cooling. fibres per yarn. functional characteristics (thermal resistance and cooling efficiency) of fabrics can be evaluated performing a specified protocol (phase with constant surface temperature and others with constant heating power with and without sweating) in well-controlled ambient conditions (20°C air temperature. Hence. Thus. St. deltaT50ev related to deltaT10 reveals if a fabric is more suitable for intermittent or persistent activities. we aim at investigating the effect of textile properties on their functional characteristics. 20°C radiant temperature. functional characteristics are re-evaluated with the torso coupled with a mathematical model for physiological responses. Discussion: The classification of textiles according to their functional characteristics enables to define their optimal application zone. Results: Plotting deltaT50ev against Rct reveals 3 sectors which are assigned to different levels of activity and ambient conditions: low activity in cold condition. From this data. and increase the risk of heat stress. Such fabrics restrict thermoregulation of the human body. EMPA. Gallen.ch * Introduction: Protective clothing often consists of impermeable fabrics with high thermal resistance (Rct) and reduced water vapour transfer. Conclusion / Outlook: In a next step. hyperthermia reduces working capacity. Agnes Psikuta1. Finally. In this case. the evaporative cooling will be reduced. moderate (intermittent) activity in a changeable condition (cool to warm). Switzerland Corresponding author: simon. On the other side. the effect of the fabric on initial (deltaT10) and persistent evaporative (deltaT50ev) cooling as well as the cooling efficiency (etaT50) can be calculated. The cooling effect of sweat evaporation depends on the location where the evaporation takes place. high activity in warm condition.annaheim@empa.

esf.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 COST Action TU1101: Towards safer bicycling through optimization of bicycle helmets and usage Bogerd CP1*. Germany 5 Empa. COST Action TU1101 is divided into four working groups (WG): WG 1: In-depth accident observations and injury statistics WG 2: Traffic psychology WG 3: Impact engineering WG 4: Ergonomics of thermal aspects We welcome everyone with interest in this Action to contact us. coincides with confounding factors which might cancel out the positive effect of helmets on head and brain injury. This multidisciplinary approach respects the complex nature of the issue. the Netherlands 4 Medical School Hannover. Since several fields are important to bicycle helmet optimization. Israel 7 University of Bath. This Action was established in October 2011 and will receive European funding until October 2015. Beer Sheva. It focuses on central coordination of research efforts. the attitudes of cyclists and non-cyclists towards helmets must be considered if helmet usage is to be changed. Additional information is available through our website: http://www. and scientists. Verkehrsunfallforschung. Brussels.cost. Furthermore. UK 8 University of Strasbourg. Woolsgrove C9 & COST Action TU1101 1 2 University of Primorska. Laboratory for Protection and Physiology. and will provide more complete information to legislators.org/domains_actions/tud/Actions/TU1101 89 . Stockholm. cyclists have fewer safety options than car-users. France 9 European Cyclists' Federation. with a helmet being a possible safety device. Nonetheless. so that a given parameter is not optimized at the cost of another. Belgium *Corresponding author: niels. end-users. Halldin P2. an integral approach involving all of these is necessary. Institute for Kinesiology Research. Leidschendam. Sweden 3 SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research. we can still accept new members. Houtenbos M3. Institute of Mechanics of fluids and solids. COST Action TU1101 aims to address these issues with regards to bicyclist traffic safety and helmets. there are strong indications that increasing bicycle helmet usage for cyclists through legislation. Department of Psychology. Bath. Strasbourg. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management. Koper. manufacturers. Gallen. In addition. Walker I7. Division of Neuronic Engineering.si Cycling is an excellent sustainable alternative to car driving for many journeys. Hannover. Slovenia The Royal Institute of Technology. ultimately leading to increased safety for cyclists. Switzerland 6 Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. and to disseminate and provide this knowledge to relevant parties. In addition. Shinar D6. scientific studies indicate that current helmet design is suboptimal. Rossi RM5. the effects of helmets on cyclists’ and noncyclists’ behavior also need more study. However. Willinger R8. St.bogerd@upr. Otte D4.

it has been found that no one predictive model can explain clothing and glove performance under all conditions. 90 . Other conditions exist where material systems with varying levels of moisture. However. its location in the material system. Given the variety of exposure conditions that firefighters face. For the various types of heat transfer. particularly for well documented situations in which firefighters have sustained burn injuries. Inc. Stull2 1 Corresponding author: International Personnel Protection. and the type of materials and their condition during testing. P. the intensity and duration of exposure. These factors have included the amount of water. there is no conclusion that can be generalized for predicting the effect of water on protective clothing and glove materials system thermal insulation. TX 78709 USA. Fax +1 512 344 9588 (intlperpro@aol. Phone: +1 512 288 8272. specific testing has shown several circumstances where appropriately designed tests have been able to emulate field conditions and provide predictions of field performance. particularly those related to where the moisture is located in the multilayer clothing or glove composites..com) 2 Same address and contact information above (gracestull@aol. Several factors have been identified in the literature and through supplemental testing specifically conducted for supporting this research that affect the thermal insulation performance of clothing as affected by moisture. Box 92493. The body of research in the firefighter protective clothing industry demonstrated that some conditions where the tolerance times (time-to-pain and time-to-2nd degree burn) or time to a specific temperature rise favor dry systems over wet systems. Stull1 and Grace G. the type of heat transfer. O.com) An extensive review of industry research for evaluating the thermal insulation of firefighter protective clothing and gloves showed a range of performance for different material systems under both wet and dry conditions. have been shown to provide relatively longer tolerance times or specific times to temperature rise as compared to dry systems. Austin.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Interlayer moisture effects on heat transfer in firefighter protective clothing and gloves Jeffrey O. using both conventional and modified testing procedures.

Preliminary trials were used to make adjustments in the test protocol particularly for the exact layout of the course. MD 21921USA. and design features. L. qualification of acceptable tests. Exceptions included the test’s ability to distinguish differences between leather styles and between two rubber styles of firefighter footwear. Phone: +1 410 392 3600 (wcandy@wlgore. Austin. TX 78709 USA. including two styles of leather footwear and two styles of rubber footwear. 105 Vieve’s Way. poor-fitting rubber hazardous materials response boot. A series of trials were then conducted randomizing the order of the footwear and involving multiple replicates to measure the course completion time in the test subjects wearing each different type of footwear.com) 3 W. P. These results roughly coincided with perceived agility rankings by the firefighter test subjects. either a running or cross training shoe.com) The majority of tests specified in standards for worker footwear address specific measurements issues related to protective performance but generally do not account for the effects of the footwear on the individual’s ability to remain agile and have functional footwear. where individuals were timed in running a 10 x 20 meter course involving obstacles that had to be negotiated for the completion of the course.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 The evaluation of an agility test for discriminating the ergonomic impact of emergency responder footwear Jeffrey O. The majority of these differences were significant at the 95% confidence level. Stull1. Fax +1 512 344 9588 (intlperpro@aol. A total of seven firefighter test subject were fitted with six styles of footwear. All footwear styles were compared with the test subject’s own athletic shoes. Gore & Associates. starting position. O.. low height station boot and in contrast. Phone: +1 512 288 8272. An analysis of the test output showed that the agility test discriminated performance between the different styles of footwear evaluated in the study. validating that the test predicted the effect of the footwear on firefighter agility. Box 92493. methods of timing. Grace G. and other procedures to promote test precision. A specific study was carried out using an agility test primarily used in the sports industry for assessing athletes.com) 2 Same address and contact information above (gracestull@aol. Two other types of footwear were included in the study to represent extremes in footwear performance including a relatively lightweight. weight. Elkton. The percentage difference between the average of the study footwear style and the average of all baseline tests was used to create the principal output of the test – the percentage change from the baseline. 91 . all having different characteristics in terms of construction. Inc. Stull2 and William Candy3 1 Corresponding author: International Personnel Protection. a heavy.

2. Inc. 5. while minimizing the expense and difficulties inherent in human subject testing. 3. Evaluation of the garment prototype performance using traditional human subject test methods. repeatable. Tony Schwenn1. Measurement of the candidate fabric thermal and evaporative resistances using sweating hot plate devices. 4. 6. Simultaneous measurement and evaluation of the garment prototype performance using a physiologically controlled sweating thermal manikin. Calumet. Corey Packard1. and accurate approach to PPE ensemble design and evaluation. Measurement of the garment prototype thermal and evaporative resistances using a sweating thermal manikin. Under such conditions. MI Science Application International Corporation * corresponding author: Mark. Evaluation of the garment prototype performance based on physiological response using a segmental model of thermoregulation. These steps are summarized as follows: 1..5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 A Methodology for the Design and Evaluation of PPE using a Human Thermoregulation Modelling Paradigm Mark Hepokoski1*. This comprehensive process provides a low-cost. A systematic process that starts from candidate fabric swatch testing has been developed for the design and evaluation of a PPE ensemble using a human thermoregulation modelling paradigm. Thermal burden is especially a concern in hot environments in which the evaporation of sweat is the primary thermoregulatory mechanism employed by the body to maintain an acceptable core temperature.Hepokoski@thermoanalytics. Shaya Jamshidi Brosch2 1 2 ThermoAnalytics. 92 . Allen Curran1. Evaluation of the fabric performance based on physiological response using a segmental model of thermoregulation and estimates of air layer thicknesses. the evaporative resistance inherent in most PPE ensembles limits the body’s natural ability to manage metabolic heat generation via the transfer of latent heat to the environment.com Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) design and evaluation typically involves a trade-off study between personal protection from the environment and the thermal burden incurred by the presence of the PPE itself. The procedure involves alternating between material measurement and thermo-physiological modelling so the garment prototype performance can be assessed from predicted physiological response during each step in the design sequence.

the evaporative cooling rate increased 139% and was higher than that of the “nude” sweating manikin. Three conditions were measured: 1) sweating skin. The manikin surface temperature was controlled constant at 34 °C in a climatic chamber (Ta=34 °C. Methods A heated thermal manikin with 17 zones was used for the measurement. A wet and tight fit cotton coverall was worn on the manikin to simulate sweating skin. 3) sweating skin. 2) sweating skin. Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology. Department of Design Sciences.se 2 International Young Researchers Empowerment Center. The method can be used as a personal preventive strategy when confronted with hot climates. ventilation jacket (fan-off) and pants. Shinshu University. However.se Faming.Gao@design. Faculty of Engineering (LTH). Ueda City. A short sleeve jacket made of polyester and equipped with two small fans driven by batteries (AA x 4) for ventilation was worn on top of the “skin”. back. Tokida 3-15-1.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Ventilated evaporative cooling as a preventive measure when confronted with a hot climate Chuansi Gao1.6 and 149. 22100 Lund.ac. Box 118. ventilation jacket (fanon: high) and pants. Chest. particularly vulnerable groups such as elderly people and people with chronic diseases. Va=0. the general public. Sweden Email: Chuansi. Cotton pants were also used in combination of the ventilation jacket. 93 . Japan Email: t-sakoi@shinshu-u. 62.Wang@design. stomach and buttock were included in the calculation for the torso heat loss (cooling effect). Results The torso heat losses in the three test combinations were 131. Nagano 386-8567.7 W/m2.lth. Heat losses of the manikin were recorded at a 10-second interval.jp 1 Introduction Climate change and heat waves pose a threat to workforce.4 m/s). Lund University. Faming Wang1. when the ventilation fans were switched on. RH=60%. When the clothes were worn. Tomonori Sakoi2 Thermal Environment Laboratory.lth. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of personal cooling with ventilation clothes in a hot environment. the torso heat loss was reduced about 50%. Conclusions The findings indicate that the personal ventilated evaporative cooling increased evaporation capacity in the hot environment with moderate humidity and air velocity compared with “nude” and clothed manikin. Protective measures are needed to cope with hot environments and to mitigate adverse impacts on society.9.

since reflective interlayers are generally worse than the bulk fibrous materials in moisture permeability. interlayer. * Corresponding author Email:wanxianfu@dhu. radiative heat transfer 94 . and aircrafts. USA.2* and Jintu FAN2. reflective. This paper combined a previous developed model of heat transfer through fibrous assemblies incorporating reflective interlayers with a simple moisture transfer model. China Institute of Textiles and Clothing. the optimization of the construction of the fibrous insulation is important in maximizing the combined performance of thermal insulation and moisture permeability.Kowloon. thermal insulation. adding thickness can increase thermal insulation. buildings and construction.edu. However. However. Hung Hom. fibrous material. Cornell University.cn Tel: +86-21-67792762 Abstract Fibrous insulation has many applications including functional protective clothing. R. In many applications.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Heat and moisture transfer through fibrous insulation with thin reflective fibrous interlayers Xianfu WAN1. fibrous insulation is required to be not only highly thermal insulated but also moisture permeable. sleeping bags. usually thermal insulation and moisture permeability are two contradictory properties. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. It has been realized that reflective interlayers can be incorporated into the fibrous materials to block radiative heat transfer.3 College of Textiles. Keywords: heat and moisture transfer. Donghua University. while decease the moisture permeability at the same time. for example. Shanghai. P. The model was experimentally verified and applied to predict the optimum constructional parameters of such an assembly for an ideal combination of thermal insulation and moisture permeability. particularly under extreme climatic conditions. Department of Fiber Science and Apparel Design. Hong Kong.

Jiyoung Choi3. 95 .kr A new design scheme for better life jacket was developed by creating safety webbing system which improves the fit between a human body and the jacket as well as motion convenience. it was designed the structure using non-extension lines on the real human body which minimize changes of original fit. allows wearers to move nicely and enhances the efficiency of fit inside and outside of the water. location. The new system.ac. Daejeon. any interruptions of motion and evoking a feeling of pain. Chungnam National University. Yanjun Wu3. Daejeon. Departments of Clothing and Textiles. Chungnam National University. In this study. human body’s 3D shape should be considered accurately and the design structure made correctly. Scanned data of 3D human body and mechanical engineering approach were used to determine appropriate structure. Chungnam National University. Namyim Kim3. Byungcheol Lee2. together with its reconciled design structure. Kyunghi Hong2. it has been hard to get a good fit with the conventional design of life jackets which can lead to the degradation of its function and any inconvenience during the activities both inside and outside of the water. Heeran Lee3. Since the handling difficulty of floating matters inside the life jacket. Yejin Lee2* 1 Research Institute of Human Ecology. Making a complete fit through the safety webbing system. Korea 3 Clothing Comfort Laboratory. the application of safety webbing system was investigated to upgrade the fit of a life jacket as well as comfort. Korea *corresponding author: yejin@cnu. College of Human Ecology.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Development of Safety Webbing System for Well-Fitted Personal Life Jacket using Functional Lines of Non Extension Soyoung Kim1. College of Human Ecology. In order to maximize the function of webbing system. Korea 2 Departments of Clothing and Textiles. Daejeon. width and length of the webbing system.

namely serial or parallel method. global (or true) insulation.leonard@centexbel. total insulations according to the parallel and serial methods and the relative distance of true insulation between the parallel and the serial insulations. Using those results. it can be concluded from this study that from a physiological point of view. In order to select which of both methods is the most representative of reality. 96 . the number of zones was reduced from 26 to 15 by weighted averaging. The true insulation allows to calculate real dry heat loss knowing average skin temperature and ambient (operative) temperature. This result confirms the results based on human measurement obtained in several studies. The physiological model is based on the Stolwijk’s model extended from originally 6 to 15 segments.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Calculation of “true” insulation of protective clothing against cold by means of a physiological model Jean Léonard Centexbel. the true (or global) insulation as defined by standard ISO 9920:2007 was calculated in various situations by means of computer simulations using a multi-node physiological model. The results of those computer simulations showed that true insulation is much closer to total thermal insulation calculated by the parallel method than by the serial method. In order to match the physiological model. the parallel method gives thermal insulations that are much closer to the reality and thus should be preferred to the serial method. The advantages of using such a model over direct measurement on human being is to avoid errors inherent to measurement of thermal insulation on a person and to avoid inaccurate results caused by an insufficiently representative sampling. Avenue du Parc 38. Belgium jean. Thus as far as protective clothing ensembles against cold are concerned. hypothalamus temperature. B-4650 Chaineux. Thermal insulation of 8 protective ensembles against cold was measured on a 26 zone manikin.be Thermal insulation is one of the most important properties of a protective clothing ensemble against cold and it is measured with a full-size thermal manikin composed of several zones covering its whole surface. the conditions of the simulation (metabolism. shivering. In total 64 cases were simulated. duration of experiment and air temperature) were defined on the base of Annex B of standard EN 342:2004. various parameters were calculated as skin temperature. True insulation is calculated from the skin temperatures and heat fluxes predicted by the physiological model. For each simulation. It can be calculated from local thermal insulations associated to individual zone by using two methods.

Clothing & Textiles.kr Smartness or intelligence must be incorporated in the protective clothing for the better protection and better thermo physiological safety of the wearers than the conventional clothing. Eunae Kim* Functional Textile System Research lab. For the determination of sensing and actuating the springs to form air layer. Youngjin Chae. The alloy was made into spring form and attached on the fabric layer. This makes the garment lighter and reduces the thermal stress by better heat and moisture transport through the garment system. not to speak of better thermal protection from fire hazards. Using complete garments. performance of thermal protection. Two way shape memory alloy was applied in the fire fighter’s turnout gear to substitute conventional thermal liner and to give intelligent protection from fire hazard. It senses and actuates to give thermal insulation by making air layer between the two layers of fabrics without power supply.ac. collapse at room temperature and expands at high temperature. Yonsei University. Human-Clothing-Environment Simulator was used. and for the measurement of heat and moisture transport through the fabric system. 97 . will be discussed in detail for the prediction of burn injury.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Thermal Protective Performance of Fire fighter’s Turnout Gear Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Thermal Liner Guira Park. evaluated by flash fire mannequin testing method (ISO 13506). Korea eakim@yonsei.

we focus on fabric materials. and the effect of fabric weave structure on micro-climate environment underneath the clothing is discussed.cn Workwear for workers in electronic factories need to microdust protective and often antistatic as well. the ability to transfer heat and moisture from skin is very poor. The subjects wearing same underwear and each of the ensembles. chest. the temperature and relative humidity at back.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Effect of fabric weave structure on micro-climate environment under microdust protective clothing Xiao-Qun Dai and Han-Yu Wu National laboratory for modern silk. perform series of actions following instructions. The air and vapor permeability of the materials are measured. the materials for such clothing are very tightly-woven polyester fabrics with antistatic fibers fabricated. Three male undergraduates volunteer to participate in the experiments. their thermal comfort feelings are also reported. For such clothing. To achieve the protective function. It’s necessary to develop new materials and design new structure for such clothing to achieve equilibrium between protection. The thermal comfort of such clothing is very crucial. Three type of materials with different weave structures were used to make overall work ensemble. The wear trials are conducted in the environment with consistent temperature and relative humidity. often put workers at high risk from heat(or cold) strain. Soochow university. The temperature and relative humidity change are related to the air and vapor permeability of fabrics. corresponding author: daixqsz@suda. 98 .edu. their air and vapor permeability is very low. China. comfort and durability. Suzhou 215123. In this study. and thigh are recorded.

Differences in heat accumulation were lower in a more severe cold environment. Results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between younger and older participants in their general physiological response to a cold environment. as a consequence. The aim of this study was to assess the physiological response of workers of different ages during work in a cold environment when wearing the same set of clothing. some physiological parameters were measured and subjective ratings of climate and physical load were collected. Because wet clothing decreases of clothing insulation and. e-mail: anmar@ciop. workers wear different lawyers of clothing under outer clothing. In conclusion. As a result.pl According to directive 89/656/EEC workers in cold environments should be equipped with personal protective clothing protecting against chilling of the body. However. In practice this is realized by providing workers with outer clothing but there are numerous individual requirements to maintain thermal comfort. Department of Ergonomics. Warsaw. older participants tended to accumulate more heat and they sweated more than younger ones. Poland. older workers are exposed to a higher risk of hypothermia than younger ones. chills the body more than dry clothing.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Physiological strain of workers of different ages during physical load in a cold environment in the same set of clothing Anna Marszalek Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute. The study was conducted in a climatic chamber in cool and cold environments with younger and older men and women working in similar conditions. 99 . During the study. workers in cold environments should have a set of clothing to regulate individually its thermal insulation to maintain thermal comfort during different physical loads and depending on the morphologic structure of the body.

Bednar3 1 2 Central Institute of Labour protection . alluminized basalt fabrics 100 . Frydrych1. Irzmańska1. M. abrasion. The study was focused on an elaboration of the optimal textile modification designed for use in gloves protecting against the thermal and mechanical risks. three aluminized with the use of Butacoll A+ glue. Totally. A. resistance on puncture. According to the requirements of European standards only one way of combining with the aluminum foil can be used for the protective gloves. There are presented the results of abrasion.National Research Institute Technical University of Lodz 3 Basaltex. These modifications were obtained by glueing the aluminum foil to the basalt fabric by two kinds of glue: Butacoll A+ and Bonatex PU85. fatique bending. and three aluminized with the use of Bonatex PU85 glue. Sumperk Abstract There are presented results of resistance on the mechanical factors for three fabrics made of basalt fibers different in the aspect of mass per square meter and thickness as well as for their aluminized modifications.2. In the paper. basalt fabrics. E. Keywords: tear resistance. 9 basalt fabrics were undergone the measurements: three without aluminum foil. The received results are compared with the requirements for the protective clothing.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Mechanical properties of chosen basalt fabrics destined for the protective gloves I. tear resistance. Hrynyk1. cut resistance and fatigue bending resistance.Stefko1. which are confined in the appropriate standards. cut resistance. The results of measurements are presented in the form of tables and figures. there are confined only the results dealt with the mechanical properties. R.

Pyoung-Kyu Park2. or nonwoven. The durability of thermal protective performance of aluminized fabrics were evaluated by the UV–Vis–NIR(ultraviolet–visible–near infrared) spectrophotometer analysis. heat transmission on exposure to radiant heat test device (ISO 6942). 101 . Korea *Corresponding author: keeyoon@dku.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Investigation on the Durability of Thermal Insulating Performance of Aluminized Fabric Lu Jin1. light transmittance device and heat transmission on exposure to flame heat test device (ISO 9151). Kee Jong Yoon1* 1 2 Department of Fiber System Engineering. knit. Dankook University. we investigate the durability of thermal protective performance of aluminized fabrics in this study. Hence. Korea Technical Research Institute of Sancheong. however the reflective properties rapidly decrease on repeated use. We used dual mirror and single mirror films in combination with various base fabrics which are woven.edu Aluminized fabrics are used for protection against radiant heat. Results shown that dual mirror aluminized fabric exhibited better radiant heat insulating performance than single mirror and the aluminized fabric of nonwoven type shown higher durability of performance than other specimens.

[2. Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. University of Haute Alsace. Marie-Ange Bueno2 1 Laboratory for Protection and Physiology. no. Since this transfer depends on the shape of the air layers within the clothing and the contact between surfaces. The objective of this work was to investigate the distinct changes of the air layer thickness in the various knitted underwear at distinct moisture contents.. “Heat. France *corresponding author: joanna. Fan J. Mulhouse.. St. moisture will be accumulated in the clothing layers. 73. Wajdi Heni2. Chen Y. 2. This approach disregards the non-uniformity of heat. the distribution of the air gap thickness and the contact area in dry and wet garments was investigated. 2. 141-149 102 . Zhang. Our study dealt with an effect of the moisture content in fabric on the distribution of the air gap and the contact area between garment and the human-shape body.frackiewicz@empa. [1] The intensity of thermal effect of wet clothing experienced by the person will vary due to non-uniform distribution of the air gap thickness and the contact area between cloth and skin. W. de Araujo M. Moisture accumulation in protective clothing may be a hazardous factor in harsh environments (steam burns in fire fighters. Gallen. “Clothing thermal insulation during sweating“. Textile Research Journal. 80.2*. no. 3.S. vol. René Rossi1. This knowledge will be applied in modeling of the heat and mass transfer in protective clothing when moisture is present in the system. 2008. 1. Textile Research Journal.ch Heat and moisture transfer from skin to the environment plays a major role in maintaining wearer’s body at thermal comfort. „Simulation of the effect of air gaps between the skin and a wet fabric on resulting cooling flow“. Agnes Psikuta1.3.. Switzerland 2 Laboratory of Physics and Mechanics of Textiles (EAC 7189 CNRS/UHA). If the clothing worn impedes transfer of the vapor and liquid perspiration.5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10 Distribution of the air gap thickness and contact area in wet underwear Joanna Frackiewicz-Kaczmarek1. depletion of insulation). vol. 1488-1497 Hes L. 152-157 Hes L. vol. 2. clothing models assume either a homogenous air gap between the body and a garment or its lack. 2010. 2003. 3] Currently. moisture and air transfer properties of selected woven fabrics in wet state”. At higher activities an excessive heat produced by the body can be disposed through evaporation.. vapour and liquid water transfer. no. 14. Journal of Fiber Bioengineering and Informatics..

5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10

The effect of air gaps in moist protective clothing on protection from heat and flame
Yehu Lu1, 2, Jun Li1, 3, Xiaohui Li1, Guowen Song2*
1 Protective Clothing Research Center, Fashion Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai, China 2 Department of Human Ecology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada 3 Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, China * Corresponding author: guowen.song@ualberta.ca

Abstract
The distribution of air gaps and moisture in thermal protective clothing has a large and complicated impact on thermal protective performance (TPP). The effect of air gap size on the TPP of moist flame resistant fabrics exposed to 84 kW/m2 convective/radiant heat flux was investigated. Air gap sizes from 0 to 24 mm in increments of 3 mm were employed by using an air gap height regulation device. Four fabric moisture preconditions with standard condition, 35%, 65%, and 100% soaked water were prepared, denoted R1–R4. The results showed that the air gap effect was influenced by the amount of moisture added. It was also determined that the moisture in the fabric significantly increased the TPP (p < 0.05). The positive effect of moisture was enhanced by the amount of moisture if the air gap was less than 12 mm; the effect of moisture varied for air gaps larger than 12 mm. The mechanism of heat and mass transfer in moist fabric is discussed. The results suggest that protective clothing design should consider the combined effects of air gap and moisture. Based on the current study, an average air gap of 9–12mm is recommended to achieve maximum thermal protection.

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5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10

New generation barrier materials as elements of individual systems protecting against UV radiation emitted by artificial sources
Jadwiga Sójka – Ledakowicz 1, Joanna Lewartowska1, Wojciech Czajkowski1, Anetta Walawska1, Grażyna Bartkowiak2
1- Textile Research Institute, 2 – Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute

Ultraviolet radiation is one of harmful factors in work environment as excessive exposition onto such radiation can cause damage to eyes and skin and can negatively affect human immunological system. In Textile Research Institute (IW) in Lodz, Poland new generation textile barrier materials against UV radiation – entire UV band - have been developed applying innovative, pro-ecological technologies (patent pending). Newly developed UV absorbers: organic – reactive dye type or inorganic - based on zinc oxide or titanium dioxide were incorporated into textiles. In this way textile fabrics were obtained characterised with high value of barrier factor “W”, which allows to determine the rate /multiplication/ of decreasing the highest admissible intensity for skin under clothing according to newly elaborated criteria. Moreover , new textiles provide good physiological parameters and have no irritating effect onto men and no allergic effect onto animals. New constructions of products for individual protection against UV have been designed making use of new barrier textiles, including garments such as knitted T-shirt (long sleeves), headgears, gloves and hand covers.

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5th ECPC and NOKOBETEF 10

Maximal oxygen uptake while wearing firefighter personal protective equipment using different treadmill protocols
Joo-Young Lee 1,2*, Ilham Bakri 1,3, Jung-Hyun Kim4, and Yutaka Tochihara1
1 2

Department of Human Science, Kyushu University, Japan Department of Clothing and Textiles, Seoul National University, Korea 3 Industrial Engineering Department, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia 4 National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), USA *corresponding author: leex3140@snu.ac.kr

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of firefighters’ personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Ten male students participated in seven VO2max treadmill tests: a Bruce protocol, a modified Balke protocol with three clothing conditions (L, light clothing; B, firefighters PPE with 2.2 kg rubber boots), and a modified CEN protocol with the two conditions (L and B). Values from the Bruce protocol were considered as a reference. Results showed that 1) no difference was found in VO2max among the Bruce, Balke L and CEN L; 2) firefighters’ PPE reduced VO2max by 11% (Balke B) and 12% (CEN B), but significantly accelerated an increasing rate of VO2 per unit time; 3) firefighters’ PPE shortened maximal performance time by 7 ± 1 min (Balke L vs. B) and 11 ± 9 min (CEN L vs. B). These results suggest that upper limits in workload based on values from tests wearing gym suits may jump over the actual maximal performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE.

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