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Table of Contents

How to Use Your Anthology.................................................................... x

Unit 1: English in Your Life


Chapter 1, Topic 1: Making New Friends ............................... 4
Lesson 1: Introductions ........................................................................... 6 First Day of School ............................................................................ 10 Lesson 2: Personal Information .......................................................... 14 Estebans Interview ........................................................................... 18 Lesson 3: Activities with Friends ....................................................... 22 Lunch in the Courtyard ..................................................................... 26

Chapter 1, Topic 2: Time for Class ........................................... 30


Lesson 4: Objects in the Classroom .................................................. 32 Interview with a Teacher ................................................................. 36 Lesson 5: Supplies We Use ................................................................. 40 Map Time .............................................................................................. 44 Lesson 6: Activities in the Classroom ............................................... 48 The New Student ............................................................................... 52

Chapter 2, Topic 3: School Days ............................................... 56


Lesson 1: Types of Classes .................................................................. 58 A Phone Call from a Friend ............................................................. 62 Lesson 2: Places Inside a School ....................................................... 66 Tonys Visit ........................................................................................... 70 Lesson 3: Extracurricular Activities ................................................... 74 Making Plans ....................................................................................... 78

iv

Chapter 2, Topic 4: Family Ties .................................................. 82


Lesson 4: Family Members ................................................................... 84 The Parker Family Reunion .............................................................. 88 Lesson 5: Describing the Family ......................................................... 92 Cousins Catch Up ............................................................................... 96 Lesson 6: Comparing the Family ....................................................... 100 The Family Photo Album ................................................................ 104

Chapter 3, Topic 5: Home Sweet Home .............................. 108


Lesson 1: Rooms Inside a Home ....................................................... 110 A New House .................................................................................... 114 Lesson 2: Chores .................................................................................. 118 Moving In and Cleaning Up ........................................................... 122 Lesson 3: Furniture ............................................................................... 126 A Month in the New House .......................................................... 130

Chapter 3, Topic 6: Getting Around Town ......................... 134


Lesson 4: Places in a Town ............................................................... 136 Lost! ..................................................................................................... 140 Lesson 5: Transportation .................................................................... 144 Finding the Way ................................................................................ 148 Lesson 6: Emergency Needs ............................................................. 152 Emergency! ........................................................................................ 156

Unit 2: English in Your World


Chapter 1, Topic 7: Shop til You Drop! ................................ 162
Lesson 1: Money ................................................................................... 164

2
Science

A Bike for Jin ..................................................................................... 168 Lesson 2: Clothing Store .................................................................... 172 Shopping for Clothes ....................................................................... 176 Lesson 3: Grocery Store ..................................................................... 180 At the Grocery Store ...................................................................... 184

Chapter 1, Topic 8: Out to Eat! ................................................ 188


Lesson 4: Food and Drink .................................................................... 190 Looking for Lunch ............................................................................. 194 Lesson 5: Place Settings .................................................................... 198 At the Table ........................................................................................ 202 Lesson 6: At a Restaurant ................................................................. 206 A Delicious Lunch! ........................................................................... 210

Chapter 2, Topic 9: Back to Nature ...................................... 214


Lesson 1: Weather ................................................................................. 216 Watching the Weather .................................................................. 220 Lesson 2: Plants ................................................................................... 224 Planting a Garden............................................................................. 228 Lesson 3: Animals ................................................................................ 232 Garden Animals ............................................................................... 236

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Chapter 2, Topic 10: Vacation! ................................................ 240


Lesson 4: Packing Your Bags ............................................................ 242 Excited about the Vacation .......................................................... 246 Lesson 5: In the Mountains ............................................................... 250 Mountain Hike ................................................................................... 254 Lesson 6: On the Beach ..................................................................... 258 A Day at the Beach ........................................................................ 262

Chapter 3, Topic 11: Body Works ............................................ 266


Lesson 1: Parts of the Body .............................................................. 268 At the Doctors Ofce .................................................................... 272 Lesson 2: Health ................................................................................... 276 Training at the Gym ......................................................................... 280 Lesson 3: Describing the Body ........................................................ 284 The Race Is On! ............................................................................... 288

Chapter 3, Topic 12: Time to Celebrate ............................... 292


Lesson 4: Reasons to Celebrate ....................................................... 294 Party Plans ........................................................................................ 298 Lesson 5: At a Party ........................................................................... 302 Surprise!.............................................................................................. 306 Lesson 6: How to Celebrate ............................................................... 310 What a Party!..................................................................................... 314

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3
Social Studies

Unit 3: What makes a great explorer?


Chapter 1: New Sights to See.................................................... 320
The Quest for Gold
John deLuna HISTORICAL FICTION........................

328

I Am Captured! from Gullivers Travels Jonahan Swift NOVEL EXCERPT ............................................................... 332 A Walk on the Moon
Alice Cook HISTORICAL FICTION .......................... Sean Dolan BIOGRAPHY ...........

340 344

Matthew Henson: Arctic Explorer

Chapter 2: Breaking New Ground ........................................... 346


Neenas Invention Kitchen The Time Machine Invention Sensation
Nika Reyes NARRATIVE POETRY................

354 358 366 370

H.G. Wells SCIENCE FICTION .................................. Olga Gomez BIOGRAPHY ..................................... Andy Grifths HUMOROUS FICTION ..............

In the Shower with Andy

Chapter 3: Unearthing the Past................................................. 372


In the Valley of the Kings Digging Up Bones
Molly Smith HISTORICAL FICTION................

380 384 392 396

Natalie Lunis EXPOSITORY....................................... Javier Moreno REALISTIC FICTION ....................

The Archaeology Club Discovery in Egypt

Jonny Zucker REALISTIC FICTION.............................

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Unit 4: What can we do to protect the worlds natural resources?


Chapter 1: Too Much Trash ......................................................... 400
Talking Trash Garbage!
Thomas Walsh EXPOSITORY .............................................

4
Science

408 412 420

Evan and Janet Hadingham EXPOSITORY ................................... Ellen A. Goodenow EXPOSITORY ............................

The Recycle Cycle

Kory Johnson: An Environmentalist for Life Phillip Hoose BIOGRAPHY ....................................................................... 424

Chapter 2: The Effects of Fossil Fuels .................................. 426


Long Ago Leftovers Are Going Fast
Dee Wallace EXPOSITORY WITH TEXT FEATURES .........................................

434 438 446 450

Weather Gone Wild A Warming World Oil Spill!

Kristi Lew ARTICLE .............................................

P. John Wolf EXPOSITORY .......................................

Melvin Berger EXPOSITORY .......................................................

Chapter 3: Steps in the Right Direction ............................... 452


Renewable Resources
Phillip Chen EXPOSITORY ................................ Emily Sohn INFORMATIVE TEXT ............

460 464 472 476

Revving Up Green Machines Build It Green! Cool School

Theodore Greenberg EXPOSITORY ...................................

Emily Costello ARTICLE .......................................................

Glossary .................................................................................................... 478 Index of Authors and Titles ............................................................... 480 Further Reading ..................................................................................... 482 California Language Arts Content Standards ............................... 484 Acknowledgements .............................................................................. 488

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How to Use Your Anthology


In California Gateways Units 1 and 2, you will learn to speak, read, and write in English by

UNIT 1

CHAPTER

English in Your Life

connecting to life and world topics.

School Days

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MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 2 SCHOOL DAYS

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

listening to vocabulary phrases, then reading and practicing the phrases with helpful photographs.

1
The auditorium is big. The cafeteria is loud.

2
The gym is clean. The hallway is long.

3
The library is quiet. The classroom is small.

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Step 1: Making Connections


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Units 1 and 2

CHAPTER TOPIC : SCHOOL DAYS LESSON FOCUS : PLACES INSIDE A SCHOOL

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#15
Roberto: Excuse me. Where is the main entrance? Judy: Do you have a map of the school? Roberto: No, I do not. Judy: OK. Go down the hallway. The hallway is short. Roberto: Where do I go next? Judy: Turn left by the classroom. Roberto: What does the classroom look like? Judy: The classroom door is red.

Dialogue

#16
Gwen: I am lost. Brian: What are you looking for? Gwen: I am looking for the main entrance. Brian: The main entrance is at the end of the hallway. Gwen: What is near it? Brian: The main entrance is near the gym. The gym is loud. You can hear the gym class. Gwen: Is the main entrance large? Brian: Yes, the main entrance is large. It is hard to miss.

listening to dialogues with detailed illustrations, then reading and practicing the dialogues with a partner.

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Step 2: Developing Oral Language

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READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 2

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

CT_Labels main entrance classroom gym

Tonys
stage

hallway

auditorium

Visit
Louisa Hernandez
#15

cafeteria

Tony went to visit Shawn at Shawns new school. Shawn told Tony to meet him at the main entrance. Tony walked into the school through the back door. He did not know where the main entrance was. He asked a student standing in the hallway.
library

Excuse me. Where is the main


entrance? Tony asked.

ofce librarian

Do you have a map of the school? asked the student. No, I do not, answered Tony. OK. Go down the hallway. The hallway is short, the student said. Where do I go next? asked Tony. Turn left by the classroom, said the student. What does the classroom look like? Tony asked. The classroom door is red, answered the student.

reading texts that include the vocabulary and dialogues you practice each day and by reviewing the labels and bold words to prepare for reading each text.

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Step 3: Reading for Understanding

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xi

How to Use Your Anthology


In Units 3 and 4, you will learn to use the English taught in Units 1 and 2 to improve your reading and writing skills by

UNIT 3

CHAPTER

What makes a great explorer?

connecting to science and social studies topics.

 7gZV`^c\c CZl<gdj Y
Analyzing Visuals
How might this man have been a great explorer? How might an inventor be a great explorer?

346

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UNIT 3

In the Shower With Andy


Ever since Ive been old enough to take showers, Ive been trying to nd a way to ll a shower cubicle up with water.

Andy Griffiths Illustrated by Judy Love

CHAPTER 2

At last! Im through!

listening to texts read aloud with helpful illustrations and photographs.

I pick it up and begin bashing the tap with it. That should loosen it.

The ceiling caves in.

370

371

Step 1: Making Connections


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Units 3 and 4

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 5

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

laboratory
A laboratory is a room or a building where scientists do research and experiments. These scientists work in a laboratory.

Dialogue

#83
Lucy: I cant believe the mess Andy made! Wesley: I know. I would get in so much trouble if I did that. Lucy: Hearing that story makes me want to invent something. Wesley: Me, too! Maybe we could invent a new food.

natural
Natural things exist in nature and were not made by people. The natural arches in these rocks took thousands of years to form.

Lucy: I would like to work with natural foods. Wesley: Thats a good idea. Lucy: We dont have anywhere to work, though. Wesley: Thats an obstacle. Lucy: Maybe we could use the school laboratory. Wesley: Well probably make a bigger mess than Andy!

obstacle
An obstacle is something in your way that makes it hard to get where youre going or to do what you want to do. These cows are obstacles for the car driving on the road.

learning and talking about vocabulary that is used in the dialogues and texts you read and by practicing the dialogues to help prepare for reading texts.
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Step 2: Developing Oral Language

INVENTION SENSATION

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

Sensation
Olga Gomez
Where do inventors get their ideas? For Kavita Shukla, her family played a big part. Kavitas rst invention was for her mom. She had lost three gas caps from her car. She forgot to screw the caps back on. Kavita came up with the Smart Lid. The Smart Lid signals when it is not screwed on. Kavita got a patent for the Smart Lid. A patent says that an invention is new and different. It says that no one can make that invention without an OK from the inventor. The idea for Kavitas next invention began when she was 12. She was visiting her grandmother in India. The tap water there was full of bacteria. Kavita drank some while brushing her teeth. She thought she would get sick. My grandmother gave me yellow curry powder. She said, Take this, and youll be ne, Kavita said. I didnt think it would work, but I didnt get sick. The powder had fenugreek in it. Fenugreek is a spice. Kavita soon went home to the United States. She wondered if fenugreek kills germs. So she did some tests. First Kavita got dirty pond water. She added fenugreek to it. Later Kavita checked on the water. She thought that it would look like water mixed with fenugreek, but it didnt. The fenugreek and the bacteria had made clumps. Kavita scooped out the clumps. Then the water was clean. Kavita made her next discovery by chance. She had forgotten about one jar of water. That water had fenugreek in it. Later, Kavita found the water. No new bacteria had grown in it.

invention

reading and talking about texts with helpful labels and denitions and by answering focus questions as a class.

Kavita

beaker

What gave Kavita the idea to experiment with fenugreek?

rotten fruit

bacteria germs

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Step 3: Reading for Understanding

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xiii

How to Use Your Anthology


Here are a few things to watch for as you use your Anthology.
This symbol tells when a text will be read aloud by your teacher.
In the last 100 years, Earths average temperature has gone up almost 1 degree.

Weather Gone Wild


1

Captions like these are part of the text read aloud. Follow along when your teacher raises his or her hand.

All that adds up to larger poison ivy plants that have more potent poison.

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xiv

THE ARCHAEOLOGY CLUB

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 3

Look at those markings, Mr. Ramirez said. Thats not just any clay pot. Thats a clay pot of the Yurok tribe! You mean we did it? Sonja asked. You mean we found what weve been looking for? asked Nora. Mr. Ramirez smiled. You kids just found evidence that the Yurok Indians once settled this area!

The young archaeologists cheered, danced around, and hugged. It looked like the new mall would have to wait. There were still plenty more artifacts for the Archaeology Club to discover rst.

When you see this symbol, stop and wait for your teacher to ask a question.

What makes the Archaeology Club great explorers?

Some texts end with a focus question that you will discuss as a class.

clay pot

Use labels to help you prepare for reading text.

evidence

proof

In some texts, the meaning of bold words can be found at the bottom of the page. You can also nd denitions in the Glossary.
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xv

UNIT

English in Your Life


Chapter

Chapter 1
First Day of School Estebans Interview Lunch in the Courtyard Interview with a Teacher Map Time The New Student 10 18 26 36 44 52

Chapter

Chapter 2
A Phone Call from a Friend Tonys Visit Making Plans The Parker Family Reunion Cousins Catch Up The Family Photo Album 62 70 78 88 96 104

Chapter

Chapter 3
A New House Moving In and Cleaning Up A Month in the New House Lost! Finding the Way Emergency! 114 122 130 140 148 156

UNIT 1

CHAPTER

English in Your Life

w e N g n i k Ma Friends

1
I am a student.

2
Mr. Perez is a teacher.

3
Liz is a friend.

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 1 MAKING NEW FRIENDS

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

4
We are a class.

5
Paula, Erin, and Holly are teammates.

6
Ms. Gilbert is a coach.

CHAPTER TOPIC : MAKING NEW FRIENDS LESSON FOCUS : INTRODUCTIONS

Dialogue

#1
Marco: Hello. My name is Marco. Beth: Hi. I am Beth. Marco: It is nice to meet you. Beth: It is nice to meet you, too. Marco: Are you a new student? Beth: Yes, I am a new student. Marco: Welcome to our class.

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#2
Mrs. Williams: Hello. My name is Mrs. Williams. I am a new teacher. Mr. Carter: Hello. I am Mr. Carter. It is nice to meet you. Mrs. Williams: It is nice to meet you, too. Mr. Carter: How are you? Mrs. Williams: I am ne. How are you? Mr. Carter: I am great. Thank you.

classroom door CT_Labels teacher coach team

class

football player

soccer

Anita friends

teammates student

Esteban soccer player

desk

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READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 1

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

First Day
of

School
Michael Holdenberg
#1

It was Estebans rst day of school. He walked into his new classroom. He did not know where to sit. Then a girl got up from her desk. She walked up to Esteban and smiled.

Hello. My name is Anita, the girl said. Hi. I am Esteban. It is nice to meet you, Anita said. It is nice to meet you, too, said Esteban. Are you a new student? Anita asked. Yes, I am a new student, Esteban answered. Welcome to our class, Anita said.

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Anita

Esteban sat down at a desk in front of Anita. The other students turned and smiled at him. Anita said, This is Esteban. He is a new student. The other students waved at Esteban. Hello, they said. Anita said, This is my teammate Heather. We play soccer.

friends

teammates student

Esteban soccer player

desk

There is Mr. Lopez. He is our coach, Anita said. I play soccer, too, Esteban said. You can join our team, Anita said.
coach team

soccer

12

FIRST DAY OF SCHOOL

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Anita pointed at two boys. There are Ben and Dan. They are good friends. Ben is a football player, Heather said.

football player

friends

door

A man walked through the door. He saw Esteban and smiled.


#2

teacher

Hello. My name is Mr. Martin. I am a new teacher. Hello. I am Esteban. It is nice to meet you. It is nice to meet you, too, Mr. Martin said. How are you? Esteban asked. I am ne. How are you? Mr. Martin asked. I am great. Thank you, Esteban said. Esteban made many new friends. He knew he would like his new school.

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1
Erika

What is your name? It is Erika.


Erika

2
What is your nationality? It is American.

3
What is your city? It is San Diego.

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MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 2 MAKING NEW FRIENDS

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

4
What is your state? It is California.

5
What is your birth date? It is May 1, 1997.

Irvine Street

6
What is your street? It is Irvine Street.

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CHAPTER TOPIC : MAKING NEW FRIENDS LESSON FOCUS : PERSONAL INFORMATION

Dialogue

#3
Bobby: Hi. I am Bobby. What is your name? Leena: It is Leena. Bobby: What is your nationality? Leena: It is Moroccan. Bobby: Where do you live? Leena: I live here in the city. Bobby: Where are you from? Leena: Im from Morocco.

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DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#4
Jenny: What is your name? Karen: It is Karen. Jenny: When did you move here? Karen: I moved here last month. Jenny: Where do you live? Karen: I live near the grocery store. Jenny: What is your street? Karen: It is 1st street.

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CT_Labels

city

birth date street state school

address camera photographer

name

nationality

school newspaper

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READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 2

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Estebans Interview
Michael Holdenberg
#3

Isabel was writing a story for the school newspaper. The story was about new students. Isabel asked Esteban questions for her story.

Hi. I am Isabel. What is your name? It is Esteban. What is your nationality? asked Isabel. It is Mexican, Esteban said. Where do you live? Isabel asked. I live here in the city, Esteban answered. Where are you from? Isabel asked. Im from Mexico City, said Esteban.

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What is your address? Isabel asked. 1511 Bayside Street, Esteban said. The state is California, of course. What is your birth date? Isabel asked. My birth date is May 5TH, Esteban said.

birth date

state

address

school

Do you like your new school? Isabel asked. Yes, everyone is friendly, Esteban said. What grade are you in? asked Isabel. I am in seventh grade, said Esteban.

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ESTEBANS INTERVIEW

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

A boy walked over to Esteban and Isabel. He had a camera. This is the photographer for the school newspaper. Can he take your picture? Isabel asked. Yes, said Esteban. The photographer took a picture of Esteban. Isabel said, The photographer is also a new student. He moved here in March.

camera photographer

Esteban looked at the photographer. He looked familiar.


#4
street

grocery store name

What is your name? Esteban asked. It is Taylor. When did you move here? Esteban asked. I moved here last month, Taylor said. Where do you live? Esteban asked. I live near the grocery store, Taylor answered. What is your street? Esteban asked. It is Bayside Street.

Esteban and Taylor lived on the same street. That was why Taylor looked familiar to Esteban.

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1
Mark is playing a game.

2
Ghana is reading a book.

3
Tanisha is listening to music.

22

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 3 MAKING NEW FRIENDS

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

4
Alex is singing a song.

5
Mai is eating a meal.

6
Sara is walking to school.

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CHAPTER TOPIC : MAKING NEW FRIENDS LESSON FOCUS : ACTIVITIES WITH FRIENDS

Dialogue

#5
Sara: Excuse me. Carlos: Hello. Sara: What are you doing? Carlos: I am reading a book. Sara: May I join you? Carlos: Sure. Sara: Thank you. Carlos: Youre welcome.

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DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#6
Will: Hello. Roxanne: Are you listening to music? Will: No, I am playing a game. Roxanne: That looks like fun. Will: What are you doing? Roxanne: I am not doing anything. Will: Would you like to join me? Roxanne: Thank you.

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courtyard

CT_Labels

cafeteria

listening to music

picnic table

eating a meal

reading a book

writing a letter

sleeping playing a game

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READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 3

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Courtyard
Michael Holdenberg
#5

Lunch in the

It was time for lunch. Esteban went to the cafeteria. He got his food and went outside. There were many picnic tables in the courtyard. Esteban saw Isabel. He went to talk to her.

Excuse me, Esteban said. Hello, Isabel smiled. What are you doing? Esteban asked. I am eating a meal, Isabel said. May I join you? Esteban asked. Sure, Isabel said. Thank you, Esteban said. Youre welcome, said Isabel.

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Esteban sat down at the picnic table. He and Isabel were eating their meals. Then Esteban looked around the courtyard. The students were doing many different activities. What do the students at this school do during lunch? Esteban asked.

picnic table

eating a meal

listening to music

Thats Devon. He is reading a book, Isabel said. What is that girl doing? Tae-Song is listening to music.

reading a book

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LUNCH IN THE COURTYARD

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

writing a letter

Is that person sleeping? Esteban asked. Yes, Isabel laughed. Thats Georgia. She is sleeping. Isabel pointed to the girl next to Georgia. Thats Georgias friend Lucia, said Isabel. Lucia is writing a letter.

sleeping

Isabel and Esteban nished their lunches. Isabel saw her friend Jade. She and Esteban went over to talk to her.
#6

playing a game

Hello, Jade said. Are you listening to music? Isabel asked. Jade answered, No, I am playing a game. That looks like fun, Isabel said. What are you doing? Jade asked. I am talking to Esteban, Isabel answered. Would you like to join me? Jade asked. Thank you, Isabel and Esteban said. Esteban, Isabel, and Jade played a game until lunch ended.

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UNIT 1

CHAPTER

English in Your Life

s s a l C r o Time f

30

31

1
I work at the desk.

2
I draw on the board.

3
I look at the clock.

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MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 4 TIME FOR CLASS

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

4
I type on the computer.

5
I read by the map.

6
I listen in the chair.

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CHAPTER TOPIC : TIME FOR CLASS LESSON FOCUS : OBJECTS IN THE CLASSROOM

Dialogue

#7
Brenda: Excuse me. Can I ask you a question? Mr. Morales: Yes, you may. Brenda: What do you do when you teach? Mr. Morales: I work at a desk. Brenda: What else do you do? Mr. Morales: I type on a computer. Brenda: I use a computer, too. Mr. Morales: Computers are very helpful.

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DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#8
Ms. Stevens: Look at the clock. It is time for class. Brandon: Do I sit at the computer now? Ms. Stevens: No, sit at a desk. Brandon: Do I need a pen? Ms. Stevens: Yes, you need a pen. I will use a marker to write on the board. Brandon: OK, I am ready for class.

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Social Studies map CT_Labels board picture globe clock

chair

desk

computer

pen

marker

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READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 4

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Interview
with a

Teacher
Samantha Johnson
#7

Jasmine went to Social Studies. Mrs. Cho was her teacher. Jasmine wanted to teach Social Studies one day. She went to class early. She asked Mrs. Cho about being a teacher.

Excuse me. Can I ask you a question? Jasmine asked. Yes, you may, said Mrs. Cho. What do you do when you teach? Jasmine asked. I work at a desk, Mrs. Cho said. What else do you do? asked Jasmine. I type on a computer, Mrs. Cho said. I use a computer, too, said Jasmine. Computers are very helpful, Mrs. Cho said.

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Do you like to teach? asked Jasmine. I do. I teach with maps. I also use globes, said Mrs. Cho. I like using maps. Maps help me nd places, said Jasmine.

map

globe

board

picture

What if a student has questions? asked Jasmine. First I listen to the student. He explains the problem. Then I help him, said Mrs. Cho. What if the student still has questions? asked Jasmine. I draw on the board, said Mrs. Cho. Pictures help a lot. That is true. Pictures help me learn, said Jasmine.

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INTERVIEW WITH A TEACHER

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

What do you do between classes? Jasmine asked. I write lessons, said Mrs. Cho. Where do you write? Jasmine asked. I write in my chair, Mrs. Cho answered.

chair

clock

board pen marker

#8

computer desk

Look at the clock. It is time for class, Mrs. Cho said. Do I sit at the computer now? asked Jasmine. No, sit at a desk, Mrs. Cho answered. Do I need a pen? asked Jasmine. Yes, you need a pen. I will use a marker to write on the board, Mrs. Cho said. OK, I am ready for class, Jasmine said.

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1
Felix measures with a ruler.

2
She erases with an eraser.

3
Carla writes with a pencil.

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MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 5 TIME FOR CLASS

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

4
Rashad uses the paper.

5
He closes the textbook.

6
Jeremy opens the notebook.

41

CHAPTER TOPIC : TIME FOR CLASS LESSON FOCUS : SUPPLIES WE USE

Dialogue

#9
Mr. Gonzales: Today you need paper and a pencil. Mandy: I do not have paper. Mr. Gonzales: I have paper in a notebook. I save it for projects. Mandy: May I use the paper? Mr. Gonzales: Of course! We share supplies in this class. Mandy: Thank you, Mr. Gonzales.

42

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#10
Hiker: I ripped the map! Ranger: Oh no! You hold the paper together. I need tape. Hiker: The tape is on the table. Ranger: I do not see the tape. I see a stapler. Hiker: The tape is next to the stapler. Ranger: I see it now! I will x the map. Hiker: Thank you.

43

CT_Labels bookcase directions map textbooks

paper

notebook

table

supplies eraser

pencil

stapler tape

ruler

44

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 5

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Map
#9

Time
Samantha Johnson
Today you need paper and a pencil, said Mrs. Cho. A boy named Ray raised his hand. I do not have paper, Ray said. I have paper in a notebook. I save it for projects, Mrs. Cho said. May I use the paper? asked Ray. Of course! We share supplies in this class, Mrs. Cho said. Thank you, Mrs. Cho, said Ray.

Mrs. Cho planned a project for her class. She wrote directions on the board. Then she spoke to the class.

45

Do we use the textbooks today? asked a student. No, the textbooks stay in the bookcase, said Mrs. Cho. What is the project? asked a student. You will make a map of the classroom, said Mrs. Cho.

bookcase

map textbooks

Can I work with a friend? asked Jasmine. Yes, Mrs. Cho answered. Jasmine and Ray worked together. They began making the map. I made a mistake! said Ray. Erase it with an eraser. That is why we use pencils ! said Jasmine.
eraser

pencil

46

MAP TIME

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Jasmine tried to draw a desk. She wanted to make the lines straight. I use a ruler to draw lines, Ray said. That is a good idea, said Jasmine. Jasmine found a ruler. She drew more on the map.
ruler

Jasmine and Ray nished the map. Ray stood up to give the map to Mrs. Cho. The map ripped.
#10

paper

map

I ripped the map ! said Ray. Oh no! You hold the paper together. I need tape, said Jasmine. The tape is on the table, said Ray. I do not see the tape. I see a stapler, said Jasmine. The tape is next to the stapler, said Ray. I see it now! I will x the map, said Jasmine. Thank you, said Ray.

stapler tape table

47

1
Do you pass tests? Yes, I do.

2
Do you ask questions? Yes, I do.

3
Do you nish homework? Yes, I do.

48

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 6 TIME FOR CLASS

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

4
Does he take notes? Yes, he does.

5
Does Mr. Kelly teach lessons? Yes, he does.

6
Does he solve problems? No, he does not.

49

CHAPTER TOPIC : TIME FOR CLASS LESSON FOCUS : ACTIVITIES IN THE CLASSROOM

Dialogue

#11
Mrs. Romero: Hello. I am Mrs. Romero. Andrew: Hi. My name is Andrew. Mrs. Romero: It is nice to meet you. Do you have this class now? Andrew: Yes, I do. Mrs. Romero: Please ask questions if you need help. Andrew: OK. Do I have a desk? Mrs. Romero: Yes, you do. You sit here. Andrew: Thank you.

50

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#12
Sasha: Do you enjoy Social Studies? Maggie: Yes, I do. Do you like Social Studies? Sasha: No, I do not. I like Math. I solve problems using numbers. Maggie: I do not like solving problems. Can you help me nish my homework for Math? Sasha: Of course! Maggie: Thank you.

51

CT_Labels

answer questions ask questions

desk

52

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 6

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

New Student
Samantha Johnson
#11

The

Class was almost over. A new student walked into the classroom. Mrs. Cho walked over to the girl.

Hello. I am Mrs. Cho, Mrs. Cho said. Hi. My name is Megan, the new student said. It is nice to meet you. Do you have this class now? Mrs. Cho asked. Yes, I do, said Megan. Please ask questions if you need help, Mrs. Cho said. OK, said Megan. Do I have a desk? Yes, you do. You sit here, Mrs. Cho said. Thank you, said Megan.

53

answer questions

Megan sat next to Jasmine. I can answer questions for you, said Jasmine. It is hard being a new student. Yes, it is hard. Thank you, said Megan.

teach lessons

ask questions

Megan asked questions about the class. Does Mrs. Cho teach lessons about geography? asked Megan. Yes, she does. We learn about places around the world, said Jasmine. I like learning about other countries, said Megan. Me, too, Jasmine said.

54

THE NEW STUDENT

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 1

Do we take notes? asked Megan. Yes, we do. We take notes in our notebooks, said Jasmine. I do not have a notebook, said Megan. I have two. You may have one, said Jasmine. Thank you! said Megan.

take notes

solve problems Math

#12

nish homework

pass tests

Do you enjoy Social Studies? asked Megan. Yes, I do, answered Jasmine. Do you like Social Studies? No, I do not. I like Math. I solve problems using numbers, said Megan. I do not like solving problems. Can you help me nish my homework for Math? Jasmine asked. Of course! said Megan. Thank you, said Jasmine. Megan was glad to help Jasmine pass tests in Math. Jasmine was nice to Megan on her rst day of school.

55

UNIT 1

CHAPTER

English in Your Life

School Days

56

57

1
Rogers class is Science.

2
Romeo and Kates class is Math.

3
Sheryl, Lynn, and Noahs class is Physical Education.

58

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 1 SCHOOL DAYS

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

4
Lauras class is Social Studies.

5
Melanies class is Homeroom.

6
Rosss class is Language Arts.

59

CHAPTER TOPIC : SCHOOL DAYS LESSON FOCUS : TYPES OF CLASSES

Dialogue

#13
Mr. Franklin: What is your rst period class? Susan: First period is Social Studies. Mr. Franklin: Is Mrs. Penny your teacher? Susan: No, she is not. Mrs. Penny teaches Language Arts. Mr. Franklin: What class do you like the best? Susan: I like Drama with Mr. Stewart. Mr. Franklin: Where is Mr. Stewarts classroom? Susan: It is across from Mrs. Pennys classroom.

60

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#14
Phillip: Who teaches Math? Lilly: Mr. Barr teaches Math. Phillip: Is he the Math teams coach? Lilly: Yes, he is. Mr. Barrs trophies sit on his desk. He is a good coach. Phillip: I like Coach Clark. Lilly: Coach Clark is a fun Physical Education teacher.

61

CT_Labels

drum science projects Math trophies Band

Science

Physical Education

Social Studies Homeroom Drama

Language Arts phone

62

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 1

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

A Phone Call
Louisa Hernandez
#13

from a Friend
What is your rst period class? asked Shawn. First period is Social Studies, answered Tony. Is Mrs. Penny your teacher? asked Shawn. No, she is not. Mrs. Penny teaches Language Arts, said Tony. What class do you like the best? Shawn asked. I like Drama with Mr. Stewart, said Tony. Where is Mr. Stewarts classroom? asked Shawn. It is across from Mrs. Pennys classroom, answered Tony.

Tony and Shawn were best friends. Shawn and his family moved to another town over the summer. Now Shawn went to a different school. Tony called Shawn on the phone. Shawn asked about Tonys classes.

63

What other classes do you have? Shawn asked. I have Science second period, said Tony. Do you like Science? asked Shawn. It is hard, answered Tony. You always helped me with science projects.

science projects

Science

Homeroom

Do you have Mrs. Blake for Homeroom? asked Shawn. Tony said, No, I do not. The Homeroom teacher is Mr. Han. He is a good teacher, said Shawn. Yes, Mr. Han is an excellent teacher, said Tony.

64

A PHONE CALL FROM A FRIEND

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

drum

Shawn said, I have Physical Education and Band. I do, too! Do you like Physical Education? Tony asked. I do, but I like Band better. I play the drums, Shawn said. I like Band, too, said Tony.

Band

Physical Education

#14

Math trophies

Who teaches Math? asked Shawn. Mr. Barr teaches Math, answered Tony. Is he the Math teams coach? Shawn asked. Yes, he is. Mr. Barrs trophies sit on his desk. He is a good coach, said Tony. I like Coach Clark, said Shawn. Coach Clark is a fun Physical Education teacher, Tony said. Shawn liked talking to Tony. He missed his friend. Shawn wanted Tony to see his new school. Tony planned to visit in a month.

65

1
The auditorium is big.

2
The gym is clean.

3
The library is quiet.

66

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 2 SCHOOL DAYS

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

4
The cafeteria is loud.

5
The hallway is long.

6
The classroom is small.

67

CHAPTER TOPIC : SCHOOL DAYS LESSON FOCUS : PLACES INSIDE A SCHOOL

Dialogue

#15
Roberto: Excuse me. Where is the main entrance? Judy: Do you have a map of the school? Roberto: No, I do not. Judy: OK. Go down the hallway. The hallway is short. Roberto: Where do I go next? Judy: Turn left by the classroom. Roberto: What does the classroom look like? Judy: The classroom door is red.

68

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#16
Gwen: I am lost. Brian: What are you looking for? Gwen: I am looking for the main entrance. Brian: The main entrance is at the end of the hallway. Gwen: What is near it? Brian: The main entrance is near the gym. The gym is loud. You can hear the gym class. Gwen: Is the main entrance large? Brian: Yes, the main entrance is large. It is hard to miss.

69

CT_Labels main entrance classroom gym

hallway

auditorium

stage

cafeteria

library

ofce librarian

70

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 2

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

s y n To
Visit
Louisa Hernandez
#15

Tony went to visit Shawn at Shawns new school. Shawn told Tony to meet him at the main entrance. Tony walked into the school through the back door. He did not know where the main entrance was. He asked a student standing in the hallway.

Excuse me. Where is the main entrance? Tony asked. Do you have a map of the school? asked the student. No, I do not, answered Tony. OK. Go down the hallway. The hallway is short, the student said. Where do I go next? asked Tony. Turn left by the classroom, said the student. What does the classroom look like? Tony asked. The classroom door is red, answered the student.

71

Tony began walking. He did not listen to the students directions. He turned right at the end of the hallway. Tony entered the cafeteria. There were long tables inside. No one was eating. Lunch was over.
cafeteria

library

Tony did not see the classroom that the student told him about. He was lost again. Tony walked through the library. There were rows and rows of books. The librarian sat behind a desk. The library was quiet.
librarian

72

TONYS VISIT

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Tony found the auditorium. It was dark inside. Some students were standing on the stage. They were practicing a play. Tony liked to act. He wanted to be in the school play.

auditorium

stage

Tony left the auditorium. He was confused. A teacher asked Tony if he needed help.
#16

gym main entrance

I am lost, said Tony. What are you looking for? asked the teacher. I am looking for the main entrance, said Tony. The main entrance is at the end of the hallway, said the teacher. What is near it? asked Tony. The main entrance is near the gym. The gym is loud. You can hear the gym class, the teacher said. Is the main entrance large? asked Tony. Yes, the main entrance is large. It is hard to miss, said the teacher. Shawn was waiting for Tony at the main entrance. Tony was excited to see his friend!

73

1
I will dance with the dance team.

2
Zoe will run with the track team.

3
They will help with the student council.

74

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 3 SCHOOL DAYS

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

4
Coach Mackey will practice with the baseball team.

5
Rosie will play with the band.

6
You will swim with the swim team.

75

CHAPTER TOPIC : SCHOOL DAYS LESSON FOCUS : EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES

Dialogue

#17
Selma: You have a busy schedule. Vicky: I know. I have a lot of extracurricular activities. Selma: On Tuesdays I will run with the track team. Vicky: What will you do on Wednesdays? Selma: On Wednesdays I will play with the band. Vicky: What instrument do you play? Selma: I play the drums. Vicky: That sounds fun!

76

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#18
Jake: What will you do in the spring? Lindy: I will swim with the swim team. Jake: You are an excellent swimmer. Lindy: Thank you. Will you swim with the swim team? Jake: I will be playing baseball. I cannot practice with the baseball team and swim with the swim team. Lindy: Being on two teams is a lot of work.

77

dance with the dance team help with the student council

practice with the baseball team

trumpet

swim with the swim team run with the track team

play with the band

calendar

78

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 3

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

g P n i lans k a M
Louisa Hernandez
#17

Tony visited his friend Shawn at school. It was fun seeing what Shawns school was like. Tony and Shawn sat down to plan the next visit. They looked at a calendar.

You have a busy schedule, Tony said. I know. I have a lot of extracurricular activities, Shawn said. On Tuesdays I will run with the track team, Tony said. What will you do on Wednesdays? asked Shawn. On Wednesdays I will play with the band, Tony answered. What instrument do you play? Shawn asked. I play the trumpet, answered Tony. That sounds fun, Shawn said.

79

dance with the dance team

Are there a lot of extracurricular activities at your school? Tony asked. Yes, every day after school there is an activity, Shawn said. My sister Lisa will dance with the dance team this year, Tony said. That is great! She is a good dancer, said Shawn.

help with the student council

My sister is also busy, Shawn said. What activity will she do? Tony asked. This year she will help with the student council, Shawn said.

80

MAKING PLANS

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

The two boys turned the page in the calendar. Tony said, I like the cold months. January is my favorite. I like March. Spring break is in March, Shawn said. What activities will you do in the spring? Tony asked. I will play baseball. I will practice with the baseball team every day after school, Shawn said.

practice with the baseball team

#18

swim with the swim team

What will you do in the spring? Shawn asked Tony. I will swim with the swim team, Tony said. You are an excellent swimmer, said Shawn. Thank you. Will you swim with the swim team? asked Tony. I will be playing baseball. I cannot practice with the baseball team and swim with the swim team, Shawn said. Being on two teams is a lot of work, Tony said. Tony and Shawn decided to see each other over a weekend. They were excited for the next visit.

81

UNIT 1

CHAPTER

English in Your Life

s e i T y l i m a F

82

83

1
My mother is happy.

mother

father

2
Your father is sad.

3
His sister is shy.
sister

84

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 4 FAMILY TIES

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

4
Our brother is afraid.

brother

5
Her grandmother is angry.

grandmother

grandfather

6
Their grandfather is surprised.

85

CHAPTER TOPIC : FAMILY TIES LESSON FOCUS : FAMILY MEMBERS

Dialogue

#19
Nadia: It is nice to see you. My brother is happy to see you, too. Alejandro: Your brother is quiet. Nadia: Yes, he is shy. My brother likes to be alone. Alejandro: My sister likes to be alone, too. Nadia: My brother and your sister are a lot alike. I think they will be friends. Alejandro: I agree!

86

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#20
Mr. Alden: Your daughter Pam is growing up. Mr. Howard: I know. She is smart. Mr. Alden: Do you help Pam do her homework? Mr. Howard: Yes, I help her with reading. Her mother helps her with math. Mr. Alden: That is great! She will do well in high school. Mr. Howard: Her brother will do well, also. Mr. Alden: I am glad to know that.

87

uncle cousin uncle aunt cousin cousin father mother grandfather grandmother cousins (sisters) cousin cousin

great uncle great aunt brother Keisha great uncle great grandfather

puppy dog

88

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 4

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

THE

F r a e m k r ily a P REUNION
Reed Hunter
#19

Keisha and her family arrived at her grandmothers house. Today was the family reunion. Family members from other states came to visit. Keisha saw her cousin Suzie. They only saw each other once a year.

It is nice to see you. My brother is happy to see you, too, Keisha said. Keisha pointed to her brother, Alan. Your brother is quiet, Suzie said. Yes, he is shy. My brother likes to be alone, Keisha said. My sister likes to be alone, too, Suzie said. My brother and your sister are a lot alike. I think they will be friends, Keisha said. I agree! said Suzie.

89

Alan joined Keisha and Suzie. Our family is big! Keisha said. It sure is, said Alan. Keisha pointed to a woman and a man. I know Robin and Stanley. They are our aunt and uncle, Keisha said to Alan. Who is that? Alan asked. That is Sharon. She is our cousin, Keisha answered.

uncle aunt

cousin

mother

Do I know her? Suzie asked. She pointed to a woman standing under a tree. That is my mother ! said Keisha. Keisha was surprised. Suzie knew Keishas mother. Your mother looks different. I did not know it was her, said Suzie. She cut her hair, said Keisha.

90

THE PARKER FAMILY REUNION

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Keisha saw her grandfather. Who is Grandpa George hugging? Keisha asked. He is hugging our great aunt. Her name is Louise. Their father is Thomas. He is our great grandfather. He is ninety years old, Alan said.

grandfather

great aunt

Great Grandfather Thomas was talking to Keishas father, Phil. They were talking about Keisha. #20
father

great grandfather

Your daughter Keisha is growing up, Thomas said to Keishas father. I know. She is smart, said Phil. Do you help Keisha do her homework? asked Thomas. Yes, I help her with reading. Her mother helps her with math, answered Phil. That is great! She will do well in high school, said Thomas. Her brother will do well, also, said Phil. I am glad to know that, said Thomas.

91

1
My dog is fatter than your dog.
fatter

2
My uncle is thinner than your uncle.

thinner

taller

3
My dad is taller than your dad.

92

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 5 FAMILY TIES

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

4
My mom is the shortest mom.
shortest

5
My cousin is the youngest cousin.

youngest

6
My aunt is the oldest aunt.
oldest

93

CHAPTER TOPIC : FAMILY TIES LESSON FOCUS : DESCRIBING THE FAMILY

Dialogue

#21
Wendy: What is your brother Travis like? Patricia: Travis is taller than your brother. Wendy: My brother is short. He is shorter than me! Patricia: That is true. He is the shortest boy here. Wendy: Is Travis taller than your dad? Patricia: No, he is not. Wendy: Does your brother like to dance? Patricia: Yes! Come on. I will introduce you.

94

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#22
Peter: Do you like being the youngest child? David: Yes, I can play with the older children. Peter: Are they nice to you? David: My brother and one sister are nice. My oldest sister is mean. Peter: It is tough being the youngest. David: I know!

95

dog

youngest

oldest chicken older shorter

hungrier

taller

messiest

thinner shortest ketchup hamburger picnic

fatter

puppy

96

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 5

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Catch Up
Reed Hunter
#21

Keisha was at her family reunion. She was eating lunch with her cousin Zeke. Keisha and Zeke had never met. They wanted to learn about their family.

What is your brother Brett like? Keisha asked. Brett is taller than your brother, Zeke said. My brother is short. He is shorter than me! Keisha said. She pointed to Alan. That is true. He is the shortest boy here, said Zeke. Is Brett taller than your dad? asked Keisha. No, he is not, answered Zeke. Does your brother like to dance? Keisha asked. Yes! Come on. I will introduce you, said Zeke.

97

Alan was with his cousin Sonja. They each had a new puppy. My puppy is fatter than your puppy, Alan said. Your puppy eats a lot. My puppy runs everywhere. Of course my puppy is thinner than your puppy, Sonja said.

thinner

fatter

puppy

messiest

Some of the family members were eating hamburgers. Uncle Stanley got ketchup on his shirt. This is the messiest meal I have ever eaten! Stanley said. Aunt Robin reminded him about the spaghetti he ate last night. That was messy, too! Stanley said. You are just a messy eater! Robin said. Stanley and Robin laughed.

ketchup

hamburger

98

COUSINS CATCH UP

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Keisha and Zeke joined Alan and Sonja. Do you know who that is? Sonja asked. She pointed to a man sitting at a table. That is Gary. He is our uncle, Keisha said. He is angry, Alan said. Rex stole his food, Sonja said. She pointed to a dog eating a piece of chicken. The dog is hungrier than Gary! Zeke said. The cousins laughed.

dog

hungrier chicken

The Parker family was enjoying their picnic. Great Grandfather Thomas, the oldest member of the family, was talking to Molly. Molly was the youngest member of the Parker family. She was three years old.
#22

youngest

oldest older

Do you like being the youngest child? Thomas asked. Yes, I can play with the older children, Molly answered. Are they nice to you? Thomas asked. My brother and one sister are nice. My oldest sister is mean, Molly said. It is tough being the youngest, Thomas said. I know! Molly said. Great Grandfather Thomas gave Molly a big hug.

99

1
My sisters doll is more beautiful than your sisters doll.
more beautiful

more stylish

2
My nieces clothes are more stylish than your nieces clothes.

more frightened

3
My sons cat is more frightened than your sons cat.

100

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 6 FAMILY TIES

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

4
Your dads pies are the most delicious pies.

5
Your daughters dog is the most playful dog.

6
Your nephews hug is the most loving hug.

101

CHAPTER TOPIC : FAMILY TIES LESSON FOCUS : COMPARING THE FAMILY

Dialogue

#23
Victor: Hectors clothes are more stylish than my clothes. Ricky: Why do you say that? Victor: I like his clothes. They match well. Ricky: I like your clothes. Victor: Thank you. Ricky: I like your hat. Where did you buy it? Victor: I bought it at the store on Elm Street. Ricky: Is the store next to the bakery? Victor: Yes, it is. The bakerys bread is the most delicious bread. Ricky: I agree!

102

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#24
Amy: Joeys puppy is the most loving puppy. Braden: Yes, his puppy likes to be hugged. Amy: Garys dog is the most playful dog. His dog plays with a ball. Braden: Joeys puppy cannot catch a ball. Amy: I know. I tried to play with him. Braden: Joeys puppy is clumsy.

103

store

clothes

market fruit

most delicious

album more stylish hat

picture

104

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 6

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Photo Album
Reed Hunter
#23

The

Family

The Parker family reunion was over. Keisha put her pictures in an album. Alan and Keisha looked at the pictures.

Zekes clothes are more stylish than my clothes, said Alan. Why do you say that? asked Keisha. I like his clothes. They match well, said Alan. I like your clothes, said Keisha. Thank you, Alan said. I like your hat. Where did you buy it? asked Keisha. I bought it at the store on Elm Street, answered Alan. Is the store next to the market? Keisha asked. Yes, it is. The markets fruit is the most delicious fruit, said Alan. I agree! said Keisha.

105

Alan and Keisha looked at another picture. Did you like Aunt Robins cake? Alan asked. Yes, it was more beautiful than Uncle Lous cake, Keisha said. They both tasted good, Alan said. My favorite cake was the cake that Aunt Robin made, Keisha said. I agree. Aunt Robins cake was delicious, said Alan.

more beautiful

cake

friendlier

Alan said, I am glad our cousin Max came. He is friendlier than our cousin Brett. Did you know that Brett did not want to come? asked Keisha. Why? Alan asked. His baseball team had a game, said Keisha.

106

THE FAMILY PHOTO ALBUM

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 2

Here is Uncle Stanley. He scared us with a mask, said Alan. You were more frightened than I was! said Keisha. I know. You were not afraid. You laughed, said Alan. Uncle Stanley was funny, said Keisha.

mask

more frightened

most loving

most playful ball

Keisha looked at a picture of Sonja with her puppy. Uncle Garys dog was also in the picture. #24 Sonjas puppy is the most loving puppy, Keisha said. Yes, Sonjas puppy likes to be hugged, said Alan. Garys dog is the most playful dog. His dog plays with a ball, Keisha said. Sonjas puppy cannot catch a ball, Alan said. I know. I tried to play with him, Keisha said. Sonjas puppy is clumsy, said Alan. Alan and Keisha laughed. They were excited for the next Parker family reunion.

107

UNIT 1

CHAPTER

English in Your Life

t e e w S Home Home

108

109

1
The house has a bedroom.

2
The house has a dining room.

3
The house has a garage.

110

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 1

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

4
The apartment has a bathroom.

5
The apartment has a living room.

6
The apartment has a kitchen.

111

CHAPTER TOPIC : HOME SWEET HOME LESSON FOCUS : ROOMS INSIDE A HOME

Dialogue

#25
Penny: I like this house. Spencer: Yes, its nice. The house has a large living room. Penny: Will Mom and Dad buy it? Spencer: I think they will. Penny: Why? Spencer: The house has a big kitchen. Penny: I like big kitchens. Spencer: I do, too.

112

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#26
Realtor: The house has a garage. Woman: How many cars t into the garage? Realtor: It ts two cars. Woman: Does the garage have a closet? Realtor: No, but the closet next to the bathroom has plenty of space. Woman: I love this house! Realtor: Im glad you like it.

113

house

Patricia

Ramon

living room

dining room bathroom door stairs closet garage cars

table

chair

kitchen

hallway bedroom

Mr. Martinez

Mrs. Martinez realtor

114

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 1

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

A New House
Sara Siegal
#25

The Martinez family wanted to buy a new house. Mr. and Mrs. Martinez had a daughter named Patricia and a son named Ramon. Patricia and Ramon were excited to move. One afternoon the family looked at a house that was for sale. Patricia and Ramon talked about the house.

I like this house, said Patricia. Yes, its nice. The house has a large living room, said Ramon. Will Mom and Dad buy it? asked Patricia. I think they will, Ramon answered. Why? Patricia asked. The house has a big kitchen, said Ramon. I like big kitchens, Patricia said. I do, too, Ramon said.

115

Patricia and Ramon went down the stairs. Ramon passed a bedroom. He looked inside. I want this bedroom ! he yelled. It has a bathroom ! Fine, said Patricia. There is another bedroom. It also has a bathroom. I think it is at the end of the hallway. I want to see it, said Ramon.

stairs bathroom

hallway bedroom

Ramon walked down the hallway. He entered the kitchen. This is not a bedroom, Ramon said. Patricia laughed. She walked over to Ramon. The kitchen is nice. I would not sleep here, though! Patricia said.

kitchen

hallway

116

A NEW HOUSE

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

Look! The dining room is through that door. Lets go inside, Ramon said. Ramon and Patricia walked into the dining room. There was a large table and four chairs. Mr. Martinez called from outside, Ramon! Patricia! Where are you? We are in the dining room ! Ramon called. What is there? asked Mr. Martinez. A table, answered Patricia. How many chairs are there? asked Mr. Martinez. There are four chairs, said Patricia. Perfect! said Mr. Martinez.

dining room

door table

chair

Mrs. and Mr. Martinez were outside of the house. Mr. Martinez was talking to the realtor.
#26

bathroom closet

garage cars

Mr. Martinez

Mrs. Martinez realtor

The house has a garage, the realtor said. How many cars t into the garage? Mr. Martinez asked. It ts two cars, the realtor answered. Does the garage have a closet? asked Mr. Martinez. No, but the closet next to the bathroom has plenty of space, said the realtor. I love this house ! Mr. Martinez said. Im glad you like it, the realtor said.

The Martinez family decided to buy the house. They agreed that it would make a wonderful place to live.

117

1
I have to clean the room.

2
He has to sweep the oor.

3
You have to take out the trash.

118

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 2

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

4
They have to make the bed.

5
You need to dust the furniture.

6
He needs to vacuum the carpet.

119

CHAPTER TOPIC : HOME SWEET HOME LESSON FOCUS : CHORES

Dialogue

#27
Soon-Jin: There is a lot to do! Tuan: Yes, we have to clean. Soon-Jin: The mud on my shoes is all over the oor. Tuan: Will you vacuum the carpet? I need to sweep the oor. Soon-Jin: That is a great plan. Tuan: The house will be clean in no time.

120

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#28
Ben: Are we nished cleaning? Emily: No, I have to dust the furniture. Ben: I think the furniture looks clean. Emily: There is a lot of dust on it. Ben: Do you want help? Emily: I need to take out the trash. Will you do it? Ben: Of course!

121

wall

painting

furniture

make the bed unpacking

clean the room

sweep the oor boxes broom mud shoes vacuum the carpet mop the oor

122

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 2

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

an

oving In M d
Sara Siegal
#27 #1

Cleaning Up

The day nally arrived for the Martinez family to move into the new house. It was a beautiful morning. The family carried boxes and furniture inside. Ramon looked around.

There is a lot to do! said Ramon. Yes, we have to clean, Mr. Martinez said. The mud on my shoes is all over the oor, Ramon said. Will you vacuum the carpet? I need to sweep the oor, Mr. Martinez said. That is a great plan, Ramon agreed. The house will be clean in no time, said Mr. Martinez.

123

Mr. Martinez picked up a broom. He called to his wife. I will sweep the oor in the kitchen. Will you mop the oor when Im done? he asked. Of course, answered Mrs. Martinez. Thank you, said Mr. Martinez.
broom

sweep the oor

mop the oor

wall

I will clean my bedroom, said Patricia. She took her clothes out of boxes. Then she hung a painting on the wall. Patricia was almost nished unpacking. Something did not look right. I have to make the bed ! Patricia thought. She made the bed and looked at the room. Her bedroom looked great!
unpacking

make the bed

124

MOVING IN AND CLEANING UP

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

Mrs. Martinez was in the living room. There was a large mess. There were boxes everywhere. Patricia, will you help clean the room? Then I need to mop the oor in the kitchen, Mrs. Martinez said. OK, Mom, Patricia said.

clean the room

boxes

The Martinez family cleaned all day.


#28

dust

dust the furniture

take out the trash

furniture

Are we nished cleaning? Patricia asked. No, I have to dust the furniture, Ramon said. I think the furniture looks clean, said Patricia. There is a lot of dust on it, said Ramon. Do you want help? Patricia asked. I need to take out the trash. Will you do it? asked Ramon. Of course! answered Patricia.

Soon the house looked very clean. Everybody was excited to be nished with the chores.

125

1
I moved the bed.

2
Ashley xed the lamp.

3
You cleaned the table.

126

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 3

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

4
We pushed the couch.

5
He opened the dresser.

6
She watched the television.

127

CHAPTER TOPIC : HOME SWEET HOME LESSON FOCUS : FURNITURE

Dialogue

#29
Mario: I like your bedroom. It looks different. Jos: I moved the bed. Mario: I like where it is. Jos: I need to buy a new lamp for the table. Mario: Why? Jos: I dropped the lamp yesterday. It doesnt turn on. Mario: Thats too bad. I liked your lamp. Jos: Thanks. Will you help me choose a new one? Mario: Yes, of course!

128

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#30
Jennifer: Did you clean your bedroom? Derek: Yes, I did. Jennifer: What did you do after you cleaned? Derek: I was tired. I relaxed on the couch. Jennifer: Did you watch the television? Derek: Yes, I watched my favorite show! Jennifer: Did you enjoy it? Derek: I enjoyed it very much.

129

bed

table

lamp

130

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 3

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

in the h t n o AM

New House
Sara Siegal
#29

The Martinez family was enjoying their new house. One morning Mr. Martinez walked into Patricias bedroom.

I like your bedroom. It looks different, said Mr. Martinez. I moved the bed, Patricia said. I like where it is, Mr. Martinez said. I need to buy a new lamp for the table, said Patricia. Why? asked Mr. Martinez. I dropped the lamp yesterday. It doesnt turn on, Patricia said. Thats too bad. I liked your lamp, said Mr. Martinez. Thanks. Will you help me choose a new one? Patricia asked. Yes, of course! said her father.

131

Mr. Martinez and Patricia walked to Ramons bedroom. They wanted to ask Ramon if he needed anything from the store. They were leaving to buy a new lamp. Ramon was resting on his bed. The bedroom was very messy. Mr. Martinez was angry with Ramon. He told Ramon that the bedroom needed to be cleaned.
bed

lamp

dresser

pants

Mr. Martinez and Patricia left the house. Ramon picked up his clothes from the oor. He folded his shirts and pants. Then Ramon put them in the dresser.

shirt

132

A MONTH IN THE NEW HOUSE

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

Ramon cleaned the table beside his bed. Mrs. Martinez looked into his bedroom. Im glad you are cleaning. Your bedroom was such a mess! Mrs. Martinez said.

bed

table

Later Mr. Martinez and Patricia came home. They had a new lamp. Ramon was sitting on the couch in the living room.
television lamp show

#30

Did you clean your bedroom? Mr. Martinez asked. Yes, I did, said Ramon. What did you do after you cleaned? asked Mr. Martinez. I was tired. I relaxed on the couch, answered Ramon. Did you watch the television? Mr. Martinez asked. Yes, I watched my favorite show ! said Ramon. Did you enjoy it? Ramons father asked. I enjoyed it very much, said Ramon. Patricia and Mr. Martinez were tired from shopping. They joined Ramon on the couch and talked about their day.

couch

133

UNIT 1

CHAPTER

English in Your Life

Getting n w o T d Aroun

134

135

1
I was in a bank.

2
He was at a post ofce.

3
Jeanie was at a movie theater.

136

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 4

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

4
They were in a restaurant.

5
You were in a library.

6
We were at a shopping mall.

137

CHAPTER TOPIC : GETTING AROUND TOWN LESSON FOCUS : PLACES IN A TOWN

Dialogue

#31
Jodie: Excuse me. Where is the movie theater? Bart: Its easy to nd. Do you know where the library is? Jodie: Yes, I was at the library yesterday. Bart: The movie theater is behind the library. Jodie: Thats perfect! I need to stop by the library to return this book. It was a great book. You should read it. Bart: Im always looking for good books. Maybe Ill see you at the library sometime. Jodie: Yes, I go there a lot. Thanks for your help.

138

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#32
Melissa: Where can we eat? Raquel: There is a restaurant across the street. I was there last week. It has good food. Melissa: I dont have enough time to sit in a restaurant. Raquel: I was at the shopping mall yesterday. There was food at the food court. Do you want to eat there? Melissa: Yes, thats a great idea! Raquel: OK, lets go.

139

town

library movie theater post ofce bank

mailing a letter

money

street

Natalie

140

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 4

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

LOST!
James Elliot
#31

Natalie moved to town last week from Arizona. A girl from class named Elizabeth invited Natalie to a movie. Natalie agreed to meet Elizabeth on Saturday at 4:00 P.M. Natalie lived close to the movie theater. She decided to walk there. On Saturday Natalie left her house at 3:00 P.M. She thought she knew where to go. Then she realized she was lost. Natalie saw a girl named Andrea. Andrea was in her science class. Natalie decided to ask Andrea for directions.

Excuse me. Where is the movie theater? asked Natalie. Its easy to nd, Andrea said. Do you know where the library is? Yes, I was at the library yesterday, said Natalie. The movie theater is behind the library, said Andrea. Thats perfect! I need to stop by the library to return this book. It was a great book. You should read it, Natalie said. Im always looking for good books. Maybe Ill see you at the library sometime, said Andrea. Yes, I go there a lot, said Natalie. Thanks for your help.

141

post ofce

Natalie followed Andreas directions. She passed the post ofce. It was a large, brick building. A woman was mailing a letter. Natalie wanted to write a letter to her friend in Arizona. She could mail it at the post ofce the next time she went to the movie theater.

mailing a letter

bank

money

Next to the post ofce was a bank. Natalie knew that she had enough money for the movie. She did not need to go inside the bank to get money.

142

LOST!

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

Natalie walked to the end of the street. She was worried she would be late. Natalie bumped into a boy from class named Ryan. Hi, Natalie! said Ryan. Hi, Ryan, said Natalie. Im sorry for bumping into you. I am late meeting Elizabeth. We are meeting at 4:00. Its only 3:30, said Ryan. He pointed to his watch. I have thirty minutes before I need to be at the movie theater, said Natalie laughing. I thought I was late! Would you like to get some food before I watch the movie? #32 Sure! Ryan said.

watch

street

shopping mall food court


Restaurant

restaurant

Where can we eat? asked Natalie. There is a restaurant across the street. I was there last week. It has good food, Ryan said. I dont have enough time to sit in a restaurant, said Natalie. I was at the shopping mall yesterday. There was food at the food court. Do you want to eat there? asked Ryan. Yes, thats a great idea! said Natalie. OK, lets go, Ryan said.

street

The shopping mall was very close. Natalie invited Ryan to join her and Elizabeth at the movie theater. Ryan gladly agreed to go.

143

1
How did you go to the bank? I went by bus.

2
How did you go to the library? We went by taxi.

3
How did he go to the restaurant? He went in a car.

144

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 5

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

4
How did they go to the shopping mall? They went in a truck.

5
How did Elena go to the post ofce? She went on a bicycle.

6
How did you go to California? I went on an airplane.

145

CHAPTER TOPIC : GETTING AROUND TOWN LESSON FOCUS : TRANSPORTATION

Dialogue

#33
Erin: I need to go downtown. What is the best way to get there? Prashanta: I usually go by bus. Erin: The bus left an hour ago. Could I walk to downtown? Prashanta: No, downtown is too far away. I went there on a bicycle once. Erin: Did it take you a long time to get there? Prashanta: No, it did not take long. Erin: Thats a great idea. I will ride my bicycle. Thank you.

146

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#34
Dawn: Where is the shopping mall? Otto: Its close by. Where did you come from? Dawn: I was on 1st St. Then I went one block and saw River Rd. Otto: Did you turn right? Dawn: No, I turned left. Otto: You needed to turn right on River Rd. We were at the shopping mall on River Rd. last week. Did you forget? Dawn: I remember now. I went in a car with my parents. You and your dad drove in a truck to meet us. Otto: Yes, thats right.

147

downtown

bus

helmet

bicycle

148

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 5

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

James Elliot
#33

Elizabeth was excited to see the new movie at the movie theater. She heard it was very funny. Elizabeth needed to know how to get to the movie theater. She saw her dad in the garage. She decided to ask him.

I need to go downtown. What is the best way to get there? asked Elizabeth. I usually go by bus, answered her dad. The bus left an hour ago. Could I walk to downtown? Elizabeth asked. No, downtown is too far away. I went there on a bicycle once, said her dad. Did it take you a long time to get there? asked Elizabeth. No, it did not take long, her dad said. Thats a great idea. I will ride my bicycle. Thank you, said Elizabeth.

149

Elizabeth put on her helmet. She waved goodbye to her dad. It was 2:30 P.M. She was meeting her friend Natalie at 4:00 P.M. Elizabeth rode her bicycle down the sidewalk. She stopped at a stop sign. An airplane ew above her. Elizabeth looked up to the sky. I want to be a pilot on an airplane one day, Elizabeth thought. Elizabeth loved taking trips with her family on airplanes.

sky helmet airplane

stop sign

bicycle

sidewalk

car taxi

bicycle

Elizabeth continued riding her bicycle. She saw her neighbors, the Wilsons. They were getting into a taxi. Elizabeth stopped to say hello. Why are you taking a taxi? asked Elizabeth. We are going to the airport. We dont want to worry about parking our car there, said Mr. Wilson. We always go by taxi to the airport, said Mrs. Wilson. Have a great trip! said Elizabeth. Thank you, the Wilsons said.

150

FINDING THE WAY

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

Elizabeth checked her watch. She did not want to be late to the movie. She rode her bicycle down the road. A train was passing. Elizabeth waited for it to go by. Elizabeth suddenly realized she was lost. She knew the movie theater was next to the shopping mall. She forgot how to get to the shopping mall! Her friend Taylor and his mother drove by in a car. Taylor rolled down the car window. You look lost, Taylor said.

train

bicycle

#34
Where is the shopping mall? asked Elizabeth. Its close by, Taylor said. Where did you come from? I was on 1st St. Then I went one block and saw River Rd., said Elizabeth. Did you turn right? asked Taylor. No, I turned left, said Elizabeth. You needed to turn right on River Rd. We were at the shopping mall on River Rd. last week. Did you forget? Taylor asked. I remember now. I went in a car with my parents. You and your dad drove in a truck to meet us, said Elizabeth. Yes, thats right, said Taylor.
bicycle

truck

car window

Elizabeth thanked Taylor. Soon she arrived at the movie theater.

151

1
The police ofcers helped the man.

2
The doctors needed a bandage.

3
The paramedics lifted the woman.

152

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 6

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

4
Fireghters arrived at the re.

5
The nurses checked on the child.

6
The veterinarians rushed into the room.

153

CHAPTER TOPIC : GETTING AROUND TOWN LESSON FOCUS : EMERGENCY NEEDS

Dialogue

#35
Edward: Help! There was a car accident! Grace: Where did it happen? Edward: It happened down the street. Grace: I have to nd a doctor. Will you call the police station? Edward: I called the police station already. I asked them to hurry. Grace: I hear the police ofcers arriving. The sirens on their cars are loud. Edward: Im glad help is here.

154

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#36
Paul: Do you need a paramedic? Allison: No, Im OK. I think my dog is hurt. Paul: There is an animal hospital close by. The veterinarians are very nice. Allison: How do you know? Paul: I took my cats there. Allison: Were your cats sick? Paul: No, they needed checkups. I liked the veterinarians at the animal hospital a lot. Allison: I will take my dog there. Thank you.

155

hospital police station doctor re truck

ambulance

siren

paramedics

police ofcer

accident

police car

nurse

156

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 6

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

James Elliot

#35

Elizabeth arrived at the movie theater at 3:00 P.M. Natalie was already there. Natalie waved her hands in the air. She was not waving to say hello. Natalie looked scared. Elizabeth jumped off her bicycle. She ran over to Natalie. Whats wrong? asked Elizabeth.

Help! shouted Natalie. There was a car accident! Where did it happen? asked Elizabeth. It happened down the street, answered Natalie. I have to nd a doctor. Will you call the police station? Elizabeth asked. I called the police station already. I asked them to hurry, said Natalie. I hear the police ofcers arriving. The sirens on their cars are loud, said Elizabeth. Im glad help is here, Natalie said.

157

ambulance

A police car arrived. An ambulance followed it. A police ofcer jumped out of her car. Get out of the street! she ordered. You need to make room for the ambulance to drive through. Several cars pulled over to the side of the road. People stood on the sidewalk.

police ofcer

police car

re truck

A re truck arrived. The reghters jumped out of the re truck and ran to the car. Luckily there was no re near the accident.

accident

reghters

158

EMERGENCY!

UNIT 1 CHAPTER 3

The man who was driving the car was sitting on the sidewalk. He looked scared. The mans dog sat close by. A nurse who worked in a nearby hospital was checking to see if the man was hurt.

nurse

#36
veterinarian cat animal hospital checkup

paramedic nurse

Do you need a paramedic? asked the nurse. No, Im OK. I think my dog is hurt, answered the man. There is an animal hospital close by, said the nurse. The veterinarians are very nice. How do you know? the man asked. I took my cats there, the nurse said. Were your cats sick? asked the man. No, they needed checkups. I liked the veterinarians at the animal hospital a lot, said the nurse. I will take my dog there. Thank you, said the man. The nurse agreed that the man was not hurt. The man was glad that there were such friendly people in town.

159

UNIT

English in Your World


Chapter

Chapter 1
A Bike for Jin Shopping for Clothes At the Grocery Store Looking for Lunch At the Table A Delicious Lunch! 168 176 184 194 202 210

Chapter

Chapter 2
Watching the Weather Planting a Garden Garden Animals Excited about the Vacation Mountain Hike A Day at the Beach 220 228 236 246 254 262

Chapter

Chapter 3
At the Doctors Ofce Training at the Gym The Race Is On! Party Plans Surprise! What a Party! 272 280 288 298 306 314

UNIT 2

CHAPTER

English in Your World

u o Y l i t Shop Drop!

162

163

1
You had a dollar bill.

2
I had ve cents.

3
They had a cash register.

164

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 1

1 UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

4
She had a receipt.

5
It had a price tag.

6
He had a credit card.

165

CHAPTER TOPIC : SHOP TEXT TIL YOU DROP! LESSON FOCUS : MONEY TEXT

Dialogue

#37
Megan: I want to buy a new bike. I had an old bike. I gave it to my cousin. Saleswoman: Some bikes are expensive. Megan: How much money does the bike cost? Saleswoman: Lets look at the price tag. This bike costs 100 dollars. Megan: I had a few dollar bills saved up. I spent them last week. Saleswoman: You will need to save your money. Megan: Youre right.

166

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#38
Devont: How much is the new bike? Salesman: It costs 100 dollars. Devont: Great! I will buy it. I thought I had cash. I only have a credit card. Salesman: Thats ne. Devont: May I have a receipt? Salesman: Of course. Do you have a helmet to wear? Devont: I had a helmet. I lost it three months ago. Salesman: I will help you choose a new one. Devont: Thank you.

167

Mr. Kwan Mrs. Kwan

credit card

cash register

receipt

price tag

Bae Jin dollar bills

168

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 1

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Bike
for

Jin
Gerry Ohn
#37

It was almost Jin Kwans birthday. The Kwan family was planning a party for her. One afternoon Jin went to the shopping mall with her parents and her brother, Bae. They needed to buy some items for the party. Jin and Bae walked over to a store. There was a red bike in the window.

I want to buy a new bike, said Jin. I had an old bike. I gave it to my cousin. Some bikes are expensive, said Bae. Jin asked, How much money does the bike cost? Lets look at the price tag, answered Bae. This bike costs 100 dollars. I had few dollar bills saved up, said Jin. I spent them last week. You will need to save your money, said Bae. Youre right, Jin said.

169

Jin stared at the bike for a long time. It was shiny and new. The bike seemed fun to ride. Bae wanted to help his sister. I will give you some money as an early birthday gift, said Bae. Really? Jin asked. Yes, I know you want the bike, Bae said.

I will see how much money I have in my wallet, said Bae. Thank you, Bae, said Jin. I have a 20-dollar bill, Bae said. Bae earned the money babysitting last week.
20-dollar bill

wallet

170

A BIKE FOR JIN

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Jin reached into her purse. I only have change in my purse, she said. That is an extra ninety cents ! laughed Bae. We dont have enough money, said Jin. Jin frowned. We can save our money together, Bae said. Then we can share the bike.

cents purse

Mr. and Mrs. Kwan knew that Jin wanted the bike. They thought it would be a great birthday present. Mrs. Kwan walked up to the salesman standing behind the cash register.
#38
salesman

receipt

credit card

How much is the new bike? Mrs. Kwan asked. It costs 100 dollars, said the salesman. Great, I will buy it, said Mrs. Kwan. I thought I had cash. I only have a credit card. Thats ne, said the salesman. May I have a receipt? asked Mrs. Kwan. Of course, the salesman answered. Do you have a helmet to wear? I had a helmet, Mrs. Kwan said. I lost it three months ago. She needed a new helmet for Jin to wear. The salesman said, I will help you choose a new one. Thank you, said Mrs. Kwan.

171

1
I am going to buy a shirt.

2
He is going to buy the jacket.

3
Mary and Christine are going to buy jeans.

172

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 2 1

1 UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

4
Carl is going to pay for the shoes.

5
We are going to pay for the socks.

6
They are going to pay for the hat.

173

CHAPTER TOPIC : SHOP TEXT TIL YOU DROP! LESSON FOCUS : TEXT CLOTHING STORE

Dialogue

#39
Diego: Which jacket do you like? Rico: I like the blue jacket. Diego: Blue is a nice color. Rico: The jacket matches my jeans. Diego: Are you going to buy the jacket? Rico: I am going to wait. Maybe the jacket will go on sale. Diego: That is a good idea.

174

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#40
Zach: I am going to buy the brown shoes. Eve: I like those shoes. You are going to need socks to wear with them. Zach: Youre right. What color socks match the shoes? Eve: I like the red socks. Zach: I like the red socks, too. I am going to go to the cash register to pay for the shoes and socks. Eve: I will go with you. Zach: OK. Thank you for helping me shop. Eve: Youre welcome.

175

clothes

jeans

jacket

176

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 2

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Gerry Ohn

#39

It was getting late. The shopping mall was going to close soon. Jin wanted new clothes to wear to her birthday party. Jins mother gave her money to spend on clothes. Jin saw some jackets that she liked.

Which jacket do you like? asked Mrs. Kwan. I like the blue jacket, said Jin. Blue is a nice color, her mother agreed. The jacket matches my jeans, Jin said. Are you going to buy the jacket? asked Mrs. Kwan. I am going to wait, Jin answered. Maybe the jacket will go on sale. That is a good idea, said Mrs. Kwan.

177

May I get a new shirt? Jin asked. OK, said Mrs. Kwan. There are nice shirts at this store. Jin said, Here is one that matches my pants. Jin pointed to a green shirt. That will look wonderful! her mother said.

shirt pants

sweater

Next Jin and her mother looked at the sweaters. Mrs. Kwan asked, Which one do you like best? I like this sweater, said Jin. She pointed to a sweater with black stripes. Jin tried it on. Her mother agreed that Jin should buy it.

178

SHOPPING FOR CLOTHES

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

hat

Mrs. Kwan asked, Would you like to look at a hat, too? What do you think of this hat, Mom? asked Jin. She put a strange hat on her head. It looks funny with your sweater! said Mrs. Kwan. She laughed. I agree! said Jin, grinning.

sweater

Id like to look at shoes, said Jin. Mrs. Kwan and Jin walked over to the shoes. There were many to choose from.
#40

socks

shoes

I am going to buy the brown shoes, Jin said. I like those shoes, said Mrs. Kwan. You are going to need socks to wear with them. Youre right, Jin said. What color socks match the shoes? Jin and her mother turned to look at a display of socks. Mrs. Kwan said, I like the red socks. I like the red socks, too. I am going to go to the cash register to pay for the shoes and socks, said Jin. I will go with you, said Mrs. Kwan. OK, Jin said. Thank you for helping me shop. Youre welcome, her mother responded.

179

1
Where did you nd the turkey? I found it in the deli.

2
Where did you nd the baker? I found him in the bakery.

3
Where did you nd the oranges? I found them in the produce section.

180

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 3 1

1 UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

4
Where did you nd the milk? I found it in the dairy section.

5
Where did you nd the ice cream? I found it in the frozen food aisle.

6
Where did you nd the cashier? I found her at the checkout counter.

181

CHAPTER TOPIC : SHOP TEXT TIL YOU DROP! LESSON FOCUS : GROCERY TEXT STORE

Dialogue

#41
Linda: Excuse me. Where did you nd the turkey? Todd: I found it in the deli. Linda: Thank you. I have one more question. Todd: Yes? Linda: Where did you nd the eggs? Todd: I found them near the dairy section. Linda: Where is the dairy section? Todd: The dairy section is at the back of the store. Linda: Thank you for your help. Todd: Youre welcome.

182

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#42
Kate: Oh no! We bought vanilla ice cream. We needed to buy chocolate ice cream. Eric: I will go back into the grocery store. Where did you nd the ice cream? Kate: I found it in the frozen food aisle. Eric: You didnt nd the ice cream in the dairy section? Kate: No, I found it in the frozen food aisle near the TV dinners. Eric: OK. I will be back soon. Kate: Thank you.

183

dairy section

bakery

deli

produce section

frozen food aisle dumplings milk cheese turkey eggs ham

household items shopper

food list

grocery store

184

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 3

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Grocery
Gerry Ohn
#41

At the

Store
Excuse me, Jin said. Where did you nd the turkey? I found it in the deli, said the woman. Thank you, said Jin. I have one more question. Yes? replied the woman. Where did you nd the eggs? asked Jin. I found them near the dairy section, said the woman. Jin asked, Where is the dairy section? She had never shopped at this grocery store. The dairy section is at the back of the store, the woman answered. Thank you for your help, said Jin. Youre welcome, replied the woman.

The Kwan family needed food and other items for Jins birthday party. The morning of the party they went to a grocery store. Bae and Mrs. Kwan went to get household items. Jin and Mr. Kwan were in charge of the food list. They could not nd turkey. They asked another shopper for help.

185

deli

Lets walk to the deli, said Mr. Kwan. Thats a good idea, said Jin. I see it next to the produce section. Are you sure you want turkey? asked Mr. Kwan. Yes. Can we buy ham, too? Jin asked. I love turkey and ham ! Of course, said Mr. Kwan.

produce section

ham

turkey

dairy section

frozen food aisle dumplings milk

cheese

Jin looked at the food list. We also need dumplings, she said. Those are in the frozen food aisle, Mr. Kwan said. The frozen food aisle is near the dairy section, said Jin. Great! You can get the milk and cheese. I will get the dumplings, said Mr. Kwan.

186

AT THE GROCERY STORE

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Next Mr. Kwan led Jin to the bakery. Why are we in the bakery? asked Jin. Isnt cake on the food list? asked her father. No, said Jin. Surprise! said Mr. Kwan. Mr. Kwan had already ordered a birthday cake for his daughter. Jin was excited. That looks delicious! said Jin when she saw the cake. I will eat a big piece tonight!

bakery

cake

food list

Jin and her father found Bae and Mrs. Kwan at the checkout counter.
#42
dairy section grocery store frozen food aisle

ice cream TV dinners

checkout counter

Oh no! said Jin. We bought vanilla ice cream. We needed to buy chocolate ice cream. I will go back into the grocery store, Bae replied. Where did you nd the ice cream? I found it in the frozen food aisle, said Jin. You didnt nd the ice cream in the dairy section? Bae asked. No, Jin said. I found it in the frozen food aisle near the TV dinners. Bae said, OK. I will be back soon. Thank you, said Jin. Jin couldnt wait for her party. There would be so much delicious food!

187

UNIT 2

CHAPTER

English in Your World

! t a E o t Out

188

189

1
Jen ate vegetables.

2
Alvin ate fruit.

3
We ate bread.

190

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 4 1

1 UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

4
I ate soup.

5
She drank water.

6
They drank juice.

191

CHAPTER TOPIC : OUT TO EAT! LESSON FOCUS : FOOD AND DRINK

Dialogue

#43
Kristy: Im hungry. I want to eat lunch. Melanie: Where do you want to go? Kristy: I like the restaurant across the street. I ate lunch there last week. Melanie: What type of food does the restaurant serve? Kristy: It has delicious salads. The chef uses fresh vegetables. Melanie: What else does the chef make? Kristy: The chef makes fresh juice. I drank three glasses. Melanie: I love juice! Lets go to that restaurant.

192

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#44
Kenny: The menu says that this restaurant has fruit. Keiko: Yes, it does. I ate strawberries here last week. Kenny: Lets order strawberries and bananas. Keiko: That sounds delicious! Kenny: I need a drink, too. I drank all of my water. Keiko: Theres the waiter. Kenny: Great. I will order the fruit and drinks.

193

Spencer

Miles

street

chef waiter restaurant

vegetables

chicken bananas bread

fruit

salad

strawberries potato rice newspaper waitress juice

water menu

soup

194

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 4

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Looking For

Lunch
Jennifer Baxter
#43

Spencer and Miles played soccer together on Saturday mornings. They just nished their soccer game. It was almost noon.

Miles said, Im hungry. I want to eat lunch. Where do you want to go? asked Spencer. I like the restaurant across the street. I ate lunch there last week, said Miles. What type of food does the restaurant serve? asked Spencer. It has delicious salads. The chef uses fresh vegetables, said Miles. What else does the chef make? asked Spencer. The chef makes fresh juice. I drank three glasses, said Miles. I love juice ! Lets go to that restaurant, Spencer said.

195

The restaurant was crowded. Miles and Spencer waited for a table. They watched people eating. One woman sat alone. She read a newspaper. A waitress brought her a basket of bread.

bread

waitress newspaper

water

Two women at another table ate soup. The soup was hot. One of the women drank a glass of water to cool her mouth. The other woman dipped a piece of bread into her soup.

soup

196

LOOKING FOR LUNCH

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

A man sat at a table with his son. A waiter served their food. The man had ordered chicken and rice. His son got a potato and vegetables. Can I get you anything else? asked the waiter. No, the food looks great! answered the man.

waiter

vegetables chicken

potato

rice

A family was reading some menus. There was a mother, father, and daughter. The daughter pointed to the menu.
bananas fruit

#44

strawberries waitress

menu

The menu says that this restaurant has fruit, the girl said. Yes, it does. I ate strawberries here last week, said the mother. Lets order strawberries and bananas, said the girl. That sounds delicious! said the mother. I need a drink, too. I drank all of my water, the girl said. Theres the waitress, the mother said. Great. I will order the fruit and drinks, said the girl. Miles and Spencer felt hungry as they watched the people eat. They were excited to try the food. It looked delicious!

197

1
I would like a napkin.

2
He would like a spoon.

3
She would like a fork.

198

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 5 1

1 UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

4
You can get a bowl.

5
Mike can get a plate.

6
Sheila can get a glass.

199

CHAPTER TOPIC : OUT TO EAT! LESSON FOCUS : PLACE SETTINGS

Dialogue

#45
Felicia: I dropped my fork on the oor. Manuel: I would ask the waiter for a new fork. Felicia: Thats a good idea. My spoon is dirty, too. Manuel: You can use my spoon. I am not going to need it. Felicia: Thank you. Manuel: Youre welcome.

200

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#46
Koda: Excuse me. I would like another glass of water. I spilled my water on the table. Waiter: Of course! Would you like anything else? Koda: Can I have a napkin? Waiter: Yes, I can get you a napkin. What else do you need? Koda: I dont need anything else. Thank you. Waiter: Im glad I can help.

201

apron toast silverware plate tray spoon eggs

napkin glass

oatmeal

bowl fork

202

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 5

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Table
Jennifer Baxter
#45

At the

At 12:30 P.M. Spencer and Miles were nally seated at a table inside the restaurant. They waited for the waiter.

I dropped my fork on the oor, Miles said. I would ask the waiter for a new fork, said Spencer. Miles said, Thats a good idea. My spoon is dirty, too. Spencer handed him his spoon. You can use my spoon. I am not going to need it, he said. Thank you, Miles said. Youre welcome, said Spencer.

203

Spencer looked at the other tables. A woman was eating a large bowl of oatmeal. It looked delicious. Spencer thought that he might also order a bowl of oatmeal.

oatmeal

bowl

A man and a woman at another table each ate a plate of eggs and toast. Miles could smell the food at his table. He knew that eggs were good for him. He decided that he would order eggs.
toast eggs plate

204

AT THE TABLE

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

A waiter was clearing some plates at a table close to Miles and Spencer. He stacked the plates as he placed them on a tray. He put glasses and silverware on the tray, also.
glass

silverware plate

tray

tray

apron

napkin

glass

Miles and Spencer were talking at the table. Miles lifted his arm and spilled his glass of water. The waiter put down his tray. He walked over to Miles. #46 Excuse me. I would like another glass of water. I spilled my water on the table, said Miles. Of course! Would you like anything else? the waiter asked. Can I have a napkin? Miles asked. Yes, I can get you a napkin. What else do you need? the waiter asked. I dont need anything else. Thank you, Miles said. Im glad I can help, the waiter said. The waiter took a napkin out of his apron. He and Miles dried the table. Miles and Spencer were nally ready to order their food.

205

1
He places an order at the counter.

2
Alicia reads the menu at a table.

3
I pay the bill at the cash register.

206

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 6 1

1 UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

4
We eat a snack at the snack bar.

5
They speak to the waiter in a restaurant.

6
You order a drink in the cafeteria.

207

CHAPTER TOPIC : OUT TO EAT! LESSON FOCUS : AT A RESTAURANT

Dialogue

#47
Waitress: Hello. Ill be your waitress. Are you ready to place an order? Julia: No, I need a minute to read the menu. What do you recommend? Waitress: I like the pasta dish. It is served in a large bowl. Julia: Do you have omelets? Waitress: No, we stopped serving breakfast at 11:00. Julia: I need time to decide. I may just want to eat a snack. Waitress: OK. I will come back soon.

208

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#48
Waiter: How was the meal? Elena: The meal was delicious. Waiter: Im glad you liked it. Would you like to order a drink before you leave? Elena: Yes, may I have some tea please? Waiter: Of course. Would you like milk in your tea? Elena: Yes, I would. Where do I pay the bill when I am ready to leave? Waiter: You can pay at the cash register. Elena: Great! Thank you.

209

turkey sandwich

pasta speak to the waiter omelet

eat a snack

place an order

read the menu

210

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 6

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

A Delicious Lunch!
Jennifer Baxter
#47

Spencer and Miles were hungry for lunch. It was already 1:00 P.M. A waitress walked to their table.

Hello. Ill be your waitress. Are you ready to place an order? the waitress asked. No, I need a minute to read the menu, said Spencer. What do you recommend? I like the pasta dish, the waitress answered. It is served in a large bowl. Do you have omelets? asked Miles. No, we stopped serving breakfast at 11:00, the waitress said. I need time to decide. I may just want to eat a snack, said Spencer. OK. I will come back soon, the waitress said.

211

Spencer and Miles read the menu over and over. They didnt know what to order. Im very hungry, Spencer said. Yes, Im ready to eat. We played soccer all morning, Miles said.

read the menu

turkey sandwich

speak to the waiter

Two women sat at a table near Miles and Spencer. I know what I want to eat, one of the woman said. I know, also, said the other woman. Good. Were ready to speak to the waiter, said the rst woman. The waiter walked over to the table. We would like two turkey sandwiches, said the woman. Miles thought that a turkey sandwich sounded delicious.

212

A DELICIOUS LUNCH!

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 1

Miles and Spencers waitress returned. Are you ready to place an order? the waitress asked. Yes, we are, Miles said. Miles ordered a turkey sandwich with a side of fruit. Spencer had a bowl of soup and a salad.

place an order

#48
pay the bill

tea

order a drink

How was the meal? asked the waitress when the boys nished eating. The meal was delicious, said Spencer. Im glad you liked it. Would you like to order a drink before you leave? the waitress asked. Yes, may I have some tea please? asked Spencer. Of course. Would you like milk in your tea? the waitress asked. Yes, I would. Where do I pay the bill when I am ready to leave? Spencer asked. You can pay at the cash register, the waitress answered. Great! Thank you, said Spencer. Spencer and Miles thought the restaurant was excellent. They wanted to come back soon.

213

UNIT 2

CHAPTER

English in Your World

Back e r u t a N to

214

215

1
I planted a garden on a sunny day.

2
I stayed inside the house on a cloudy day.

3
I carried an umbrella on a rainy day.

216

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 1

1 UNIT 2 1 CHAPTER 2

4
I dressed in warm clothes on a snowy day.

5
The kite swayed in the air on a windy day.

6
I skated on the lake on an icy day.

217

CHAPTER TOPIC : BACK TO NATURE LESSON FOCUS : WEATHER

Dialogue

#49
Mother: How was the weather in the park today? Daughter: The weather was warm and sunny. Mother: What did you do at the park? Daughter: I jogged for thirty minutes. Then it became cold. Mother: The sky is cloudy now. Daughter: Yes, the clouds came quickly. I nished the jog and walked home. Mother: Im glad. I think it will rain.

218

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#50
Franklin: The weather is very snowy. Luisa: Yes, the roads are icy, too. Franklin: Look! Our neighbor slipped on the sidewalk. Luisa: Is he OK? Franklin: Yes, our neighbors son helped him stand up. Luisa: Im glad. We need to be careful. Franklin: I know. I cant wait to have sunny days again.

219

cloudy weather sunny

rain

jogged park

garden

porch

220

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 1

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Watching the Weather


Sylvia Ortiz
#49

Walter wanted to plant a garden in front of his familys house. First he went to the park early in the morning to exercise. He wanted to look at the gardens. They might give him ideas for his garden. Later Walter returned from the park. His sister Liz greeted him on the porch.

How was the weather in the park today? asked Liz. The weather was warm and sunny, Walter replied. What did you do at the park? Liz asked. I jogged for thirty minutes, Walter said. Then it became cold. The sky is cloudy now, said Liz. Yes, the clouds came quickly, said Walter. I nished the jog and walked home. Liz said, Im glad. I think it will rain.

221

Liz was right. The weather soon became rainy. I hoped to plant a garden today, said Walter. It is too rainy. You will have to wait, Liz replied. You are right, said Walter. It is too windy and chilly outside.

rainy windy

chilly

Lets go inside, said Liz. That is a great idea, Walter said. I will draw a plan for the garden on paper. I will help you, Liz said. Thank you! replied Walter.

plan

222

WATCHING THE WEATHER

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

sunny

Walter and Liz sat in the living room. They began planning the garden. Liz drew the front yard on a sunny day. Walter used colored pencils to draw plants in a garden.
plants

garden front yard

colored pencils

snowy

Soon they nished their drawing. Walter and Liz walked to the porch. It was snowy outside!
#50

icy

slipped

Walter said, The weather is very snowy. Yes, the roads are icy, too, said Liz. Look! said Walter. Our neighbor slipped on the sidewalk. Is he OK? asked Liz. Yes, our neighbors son helped him stand up, Walter replied. Im glad, Liz said. We need to be careful. I know, Walter replied. I cant wait to have sunny days again.

223

1
Will you rest on the grass? Yes, I will.

2
Will the cat climb the tree? Yes, it will.

3
Will David smell owers? Yes, he will.

224

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 2

1 UNIT 2 1 CHAPTER 2

4
Do you pull weeds? Yes, I do.

5
Does Liza see the cactus? Yes, she does.

6
Does he swing from a vine? Yes, he does.

225

CHAPTER TOPIC : BACK TO NATURE LESSON FOCUS : PLANTS

Dialogue

#51
Malena: I am going to plant a garden beside this tree. Felipe: Will you plant owers? Malena: Yes, I will. I want to plant tulips. Felipe: I love tulips! They are my favorite ower. Malena: Do you want to help me plant? Felipe: Yes, I do! I would love to help you.

226

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#52
Father: I need to pull the weeds in the garden. Son: Will you wear gloves? Father: Yes, I will. The weeds are thorny. Son: Can I help? Father: I have only one pair of gloves. Will you cut the grass? Son: Yes, I will. Do you have a lawnmower? Father: Yes, I do. It is next to the tree.

227

branches

vines tree

lawnmower

tulips

tools

seeds owers weeds

grass

228

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 2

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Planting a
Garden
Sylvia Ortiz
#51

The weather was cold and snowy for many days. Finally the sun came out. It was a bright and warm morning. Today was a perfect day for Walter and Liz to start planting their garden. Walter and Liz walked outside. Walter already had his supplies. He showed his sister where he wanted to plant the garden.

Walter said, I am going to plant a garden beside this tree. Will you plant owers? asked Liz. Yes, I will, said Walter. I want to plant tulips. I love tulips ! Liz said. They are my favorite ower. Do you want to help me plant? Walter asked. Yes, I do! Liz replied. I would love to help you.

229

There was a lot of work to do before Walter and Liz could start planting. First Walter and Liz needed to decide how large they wanted their garden to be. Liz found four sticks. She pushed a stick in the ground to mark each corner of the garden. Then Walter linked each of the sticks together with string.

stick

string

owers

cactus

dug tulips

Next Walter and Liz needed to prepare the soil for planting. Walter brought some tools from the garage. He dug holes in the soil. Then Liz helped him plant seeds. The seeds would grow into vegetables. Walter planted tulips and other owers. He even planted a cactus !

seeds soil tool

230

PLANTING A GARDEN

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

There were some vines hanging from the tree near the garden. They were long and green. I am going to cut those vines, Walter said. Why? Liz asked. They block the sun from the owers, said Walter.

vines

tree

#52

tree

lawnmower

grass

I need to pull the weeds in the garden, Walter said. Will you wear gloves? asked Liz. Yes, I will, answered Walter. The weeds are thorny. Can I help? asked Liz. I have only one pair of gloves, Walter replied. Will you cut the grass? Yes, I will, said Liz. Do you have a lawnmower? Yes, I do. It is next to the tree, answered Walter. Walter pulled all the weeds. Liz mowed the grass. Both Walter and Liz were excited to show the garden to their parents. Soon it would grow beautiful owers and delicious vegetables.

gloves weeds

231

1
The squirrel held a nut.

2
The bird built a nest.

3
The raccoon sat in the park.

232

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 3 1

1 UNIT 2 1 CHAPTER 2

4
The mouse found a hole.

5
The rabbit hid in a den.

6
The bug ew to a ower.

233

CHAPTER TOPIC : BACK TO NATURE LESSON FOCUS : ANIMALS

Dialogue

#53
Chien: Look! A bird built a nest in that tree. Samuel: I saw the nest yesterday. Chien: Did you see the baby birds? Samuel: Yes, I did. I watched the mother feed the babies a bug. Chien: The baby birds were probably hungry. Samuel: I think they were. They ate the bug quickly.

234

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#54
Alice: A mouse just ran into that hole! Eduardo: I dont like mice. Alice: I dont like mice, either. The mouse found a good place to hide, though. I cant grab it. Eduardo: I saw the mouse earlier. It hid in another hole. A rabbit chased it out. Alice: The mouse was probably scared. Eduardo: I think it was.

235

raccoon

bird squirrels skunk

bug

nest

butteries

rabbit

bumblebees caterpillars

mouse

hole

236

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 3

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Animals
Sylvia Ortiz
#53

Garden

The garden that Walter and Liz planted grew fast. They were thrilled. The food and owers growing in the garden also brought some new visitors. One afternoon Walter and Liz were outside watering the vegetables. Liz looked up at the tree next to the garden.

Look! said Liz. A bird built a nest in that tree. I saw the nest yesterday, Walter replied. Did you see the baby birds? asked Liz. Yes, I did, answered Walter. I watched the mother feed the babies a bug. Liz said, The baby birds were probably hungry. I think they were, said Walter. They ate the bug quickly.

237

Walter was happy the birds made a nest near the garden. He liked to hear them sing. Caterpillars, butteries, and bumblebees were enjoying the owers and vegetables. Look at all the bumblebees around the owers! said Walter. I prefer watching the butteries, Liz said.

butteries

bumblebees

caterpillars

rabbit

What other animals live in our garden? Walter asked. Yesterday I saw a rabbit running through the yard, said Liz. I saw a rabbit, too, said Walter. Ive also seen lots of squirrels.

squirrels

238

GARDEN ANIMALS

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Once I even saw a raccoon. I like skunks more than raccoons, though, said Liz. I think theyre cute. Did you hear the joke about the skunk? Walter asked. I dont want to, laughed Liz. It probably stinks.

raccoon

skunk

Suddenly Liz pointed to the bottom of the tree.


#54

rabbit

Liz said, A mouse just ran into that hole! I dont like mice, replied Walter. I dont like mice, either, said Liz. The mouse found a good place to hide, though. I cant grab it. I saw the mouse earlier, said Walter. It hid in another hole. A rabbit chased it out. The mouse was probably scared, said Liz. I think it was, Walter agreed. Walter and Liz were happy with how nice their garden turned out. They enjoyed working outside together and looking at all the bugs and animals.

mouse

hole

239

UNIT 2

CHAPTER

English in Your World

! n o i t a c Va

240

241

1
I will bring the toiletries.

2
They will carry the luggage.

3
She will get the ticket.

242

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 4 1

1 UNIT 2 1 CHAPTER 2

4
He is going to pack the medication.

5
I am going to show the identication card.

6
You are going to remember the camera.

243

CHAPTER TOPIC : VACATION! LESSON FOCUS : PACKING YOUR BAGS

Dialogue

#55
Cara: Im packing my bag for the trip. Kendall: What are you going to bring? Cara: I will bring toiletries. I have a toothbrush, toothpaste, soap, and shampoo. Kendall: Great! You should pack medications, also. Cara: Yes, I am going to pack my medicine. Kendall: You wouldnt want to get sick on the trip. Cara: No, I wouldnt!

244

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#56
Paul: We are going to walk through airport security. I will hold my ticket and identication card in my hand. Jeff: Why? Paul: The security guards need to see them. Jeff: I have not been to an airport in a long time. I am going to get my ticket and ID out of my bag. Paul: That is a good idea. This is going to be a fun trip. Jeff: Yes, Im excited.

245

hiking boots

camera

rolls of lm

bathing suits travelers checks toiletries shampoo soap luggage

envelope

toothpaste toothbrush medications

246

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 4

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

about the

Vacation
Jason Morris
#55

The Gonzales family was going on summer vacation. David and Robert were excited. The family was going to leave early in the morning. It was getting late in the afternoon. David went to his bedroom to pack his bag. Robert followed him. What are you doing, David? asked Robert.

Im packing my bag for the trip, David said. What are you going to bring? Robert asked. I will bring toiletries, David said. I have a toothbrush, toothpaste, soap, and shampoo, he added. Great! Robert said to his brother. You should pack medications, also. David agreed, Yes, I am going to pack my medicine. You wouldnt want to get sick on the trip, Robert said. No, I wouldnt! David said.

247

David and Robert set their luggage on the bed. They thought about what they should take on the trip. Were going to the mountains rst, David said. We will need shoes to wear on a hike, Robert said. Both boys packed their hiking boots.

hiking boots

luggage

camera

rolls of lm

bathing suits

Then were going to the beach, David said. We will need our bathing suits, Robert said. Dont forget the camera ! David said. Yes, we will take a lot of pictures, Robert said. Do we have lm? asked David. Yes, we have three rolls of lm, answered Robert.

248

EXCITED ABOUT THE VACATION

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

David had an envelope lled with pieces of paper. What are those? Robert asked. These are travelers checks. You can use them as money. Theyre safer than cash to travel with, though, David said. We can pack them with our toiletries and medication, Robert said.
airport

travelers checks toiletries shampoo soap comb toothpaste toothbrush medications

envelope

The brothers nished packing. They went to sleep. The next day the family arrived at the airport early in the morning. They waited in line to go through airport security. Robert spoke to his brother.
#56

ticket

identication card/ID

security guard

airport security

We are going to walk through airport security. I will hold my ticket and identication card in my hand, David said. Why? Robert asked. The security guards need to see them, David answered. I have not been to an airport in a long time. I am going to get my ticket and ID out of my bag, Robert said. That is a good idea. This is going to be a fun trip, David said. Yes, Im excited, Robert said.

249

1
I hike in the forest.

2
Jason swims in the lake.

3
Amanda climbs a mountain.

250

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 5 1

1 UNIT 2 1 CHAPTER 2

4
They sh in the river.

5
He nds a waterfall.

6
You follow the trail.

251

CHAPTER TOPIC : VACATION! LESSON FOCUS : IN THE MOUNTAINS

Dialogue

#57
Emilio: I am excited to be in the mountains! I love the outdoors. Rosie: Me, too! Emilio: What do you like to do? Rosie: I like hiking in the forest. Emilio: Do you get lost? Rosie: No, I follow the trail. I carry a map, also.

252

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#58
Nikki: I caught a sh in the lake. Dad: Thats great! You are good at shing. I shed in the river and didnt catch anything. Nikki: Thats too bad. The sh swim in the lake more than the river. Dad: What are you going to do with the sh? Nikki: Im going to clean it. Will you cook it? You cook very tasty sh. Dad: Thank you. Of course I will cook the sh!

253

mountain

forest hiking trail

tent

map

camp re pit

254

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 5

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Mountain Hike
Jason Morris
#57

The Gonzales family began their vacation in the mountains. David and Robert helped their parents build a camp. They set up tents. Mr. and Mrs. Gonzales made a re pit. Everyone was very happy to be on vacation.

I am excited to be in the mountains ! I love the outdoors, David said. Me, too! Robert agreed. What do you like to do? David asked. I like hiking in the forest, Robert answered. Do you get lost? David asked. No, I follow the trail. I carry a map, also, Robert said.

255

It was a beautiful afternoon. Mrs. Gonzales allowed the boys to go hiking through the forest. She told them to be careful and to stay close to the camp. David and Robert agreed. Dont worry, Mom. We will carry a map and follow the trail, David told her. I also have my whistle in case we need you, Robert said.

forest

whistle

map trail

hiking

mountain

sh

river

David and Robert walked along the trail. They came to a wide river. They saw sh swimming in the river. I will visit this river again tomorrow, David said. Look! You can see a mountain over the tops of the trees! Robert said. It is beautiful here, said David.

trail

256

MOUNTAIN HIKE

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

forest

The trail took the brothers through the forest. David and Robert saw birds, squirrels, and even a deer. It was a sunny and warm day. Then David and Robert saw the river run over a cliff. Look! Its a waterfall ! David said.

cliff deer waterfall

river

trail

David and Robert walked back to the camp. They told their parents about the beautiful waterfall. Mrs. Gonzales told the family what she did during the day.
#58

lake

sh

camp

I caught a sh in the lake, Mrs. Gonzales said. Thats great! You are good at shing, Mr. Gonzales said. I shed in the river and didnt catch anything. Thats too bad, Mrs. Gonzales said. The sh swim in the lake more than the river. What are you going to do with the sh? asked Mr. Gonzales. Im going to clean it, answered Mrs. Gonzales. Will you cook it? You cook very tasty sh. Thank you, said Mr. Gonzales. Of course I will cook the sh !

257

1
Ill dig in the sand.

2
Theyll sail on a boat.

3
Hell surf on a wave.

258

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 6 1

1 UNIT 2 1 CHAPTER 2

4
Shell listen to a seashell.

5
Youll oat in the ocean.

6
Well gather on the beach.

259

CHAPTER TOPIC : VACATION! LESSON FOCUS : ON THE BEACH

Dialogue

#59
Denise: What will you do at the beach today? Ray: Ill relax on the sand. What are you going to do? Denise: I am going to surf on the waves. Ray: Do you know how to surf? Denise: No, but Ill take a lesson. Ray: Have fun! Denise: Thank you.

260

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#60
Robby: We are going to ride in a boat. Would you like to come? Molly: Yes, I would. May I eat lunch rst? Robby: Well bring lunch on the boat. Molly: Thats a wonderful idea. Then we can eat and look at the ocean. Robby: Yes, itll be beautiful. Molly: I cant wait!

261

waves surf

ocean

beach

sand

262

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 6

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Jason Morris

#59

The next stop on the Gonzales familys vacation was the beach. The sun was bright in the sky when the family arrived at the beach at noon. David and Robert couldnt wait to swim in the ocean.

What will you do at the beach today? David asked. Ill relax on the sand, Robert said. What are you going to do? I am going to surf on the waves, David answered. Do you know how to surf? Robert asked. No, but Ill take a lesson, David said. Have fun! Robert said. Thank you, said David.

263

Robert relaxed on the sand. He put on sunscreen. Then he put on his sunglasses and lay on his towel. Something sharp poked him. It was a seashell that was under his towel. He put it to his ear. He could hear the ocean.

sunglasses seashell

sand

towel

sunscreen

wave

surng

ocean

surfboard

David carried his surfboard into the ocean. An instructor was giving surng lessons. David joined her class. First swim in the same direction as the wave, the instructor said. Swim until the wave is under you. Then stand up on your surfboard. David followed the instructors directions. It was hard at rst. Soon he was able to stand up on the surfboard. He had a great time surng.

264

A DAY AT THE BEACH

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 2

Soon David was tired. He joined his brother Robert on the beach. The boys spent the rest of the morning building a large sandcastle. They used sticks and seashells to decorate it.

sandcastle beach sticks

seashells

Mr. and Mrs. Gonzales walked over to their sons. They were going to go sailing on a boat.
#60

sailing ocean

boat

We are going to ride in a boat, Mr. Gonzales said. Would you like to come? Yes, I would, said David. May I eat lunch rst? Well bring lunch on the boat, Mr. Gonzales answered. Thats a wonderful idea, said David. Then we can eat and look at the ocean. Yes, itll be beautiful, said Mr. Gonzales. I cant wait! David said.

265

UNIT 2

CHAPTER

English in Your World

Body s k r o W

266

267

1
Lift your arms.

2
Kick your legs.

3
Clap your hands.

268

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 1

1 UNIT 2 1 CHAPTER 3

4
Shake your head.

5
Move your ngers.

6
Flex your feet.

269

CHAPTER TOPIC : BODY WORKS LESSON FOCUS : PARTS OF THE BODY

Dialogue

#61
Dr. Rogers: Hello. Im Dr. Rogers. Marissa: Hi, Im Marissa. Im here for a checkup. Dr. Rogers: Great. Lets get started. I will check your ears rst. Turn your head. Marissa: I have very good hearing. Dr. Rogers: Yes, your ears look good. Now ex your leg. Marissa: My knee hurts. I fell last week. Dr. Rogers: Youll need to put ice on it. Marissa: OK, Dr. Rogers. Thank you.

270

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#62
Patient: I fell on my arm. Doctor: Lets nd out if its broken. Lift your arm. Does it hurt when you move it? Patient: Yes, it hurts a little. Doctor: Move your ngers. Do your ngers hurt? Patient: No, my ngers dont hurt. Doctor: Your arm isnt broken. Be careful using it, though. You need to let your arm heal. Patient: Thank you.

271

doctors ofce

checkup

head

ear ice

hand

leg

knee

272

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 1

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Doctors
Ofce
Wynne Bosik
#61

At the

Grace enjoyed running. She wanted to run in a race. However, last week she hurt her knee. Graces mom told her to visit the doctor. She didnt want Grace to run in the race if she was hurt. Grace went to the doctors ofce the next morning. The doctor shook Graces hand.

Hello. Im Dr. Lee, the doctor said. Hi, Im Grace. Im here for a checkup, said Grace. Great. Lets get started, Dr. Lee said. I will check your ears rst. Turn your head. I have very good hearing, Grace said. Yes, your ears look good, replied Dr. Lee. Now ex your leg. My knee hurts, said Grace. I fell last week. Youll need to put ice on it, Dr. Lee said. OK, Dr. Lee, Grace said. Thank you. A nurse brought Grace some ice to put on her knee.

273

Did you hurt your foot when you fell? asked Dr. Lee. I dont know, said Grace. Lets check your foot, said Dr. Lee. Take off your shoe. Grace took off her shoe. She lifted her foot. Dr. Lee looked at it. Your foot isnt hurt, Dr. Lee said.

foot

Lets check your throat, said Dr. Lee. Open your mouth. Grace opened her mouth. Dr. Lee looked inside. Great, said Dr. Lee. Your throat and mouth look healthy.
throat

mouth

274

AT THE DOCTORS OFFICE

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Now I will check your eyes, said Dr. Lee. Dr. Lee shined a light into Graces eyes. You are very healthy, Grace, said Dr. Lee. Stay off your knee for a week. Then you can run. Thank you, Grace replied.

light eye

waiting room

Dr. Lee and Grace walked through the waiting room toward the door. Grace saw her friend Ethan. Ethan was holding his arm. Dr. Lee walked over to him. She asked Ethan what happened.
#62

arm

ngers

I fell on my arm, Ethan said. Lets nd out if its broken, said Dr. Lee. Lift your arm. Does it hurt when you move it? Yes, it hurts a little, said Ethan. Move your ngers, Dr. Lee said. Do your ngers hurt? No, my ngers dont hurt, replied Ethan. Your arm isnt broken, said Dr. Lee. Be careful using it, though. You need to let your arm heal. Thank you, Ethan said.

275

1
I am running on the treadmill.

2
I am lifting weights.

3
I am exercising at the gym.

276

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 2 1

1 UNIT 2 1 CHAPTER 3

4
I am eating healthy food.

5
I am joining a tness class.

6
I am stretching my muscles.

277

CHAPTER TOPIC : BODY WORKS LESSON FOCUS : HEALTH

Dialogue

#63
Yin: What are you doing to train for the race? Elina: I am joining a tness class. Yin: May I join the tness class with you? Elina: Of course. Yin: What else are you doing to train? Elina: I am running on a treadmill. Yin: Thats a good idea. I am excited to run the race. Elina: Me, too.

278

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#64
Andre: You look very healthy. Belinda: Thank you. I am exercising at the gym. Andre: Do you lift weights? Belinda: Yes, I am lifting weights two times a week. Andre: You look strong. Belinda: Thank you. I feel great.

279

gym running on a treadmill

joining a tness class

280

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 2

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Training at the
Wynne Bosik
#63

Gym
What are you doing to train for the race? asked Ethan. I am joining a tness class, answered Grace. May I join the tness class with you? Ethan asked. Grace answered, Of course. What else are you doing to train? asked Ethan. I am running on a treadmill, Grace said. Thats a good idea, said Ethan. I am excited to run the race. Me, too, said Grace.

Grace and Ethan met at the gym one morning. They were going to train for the race together. Ethan did not know how to train.

281

instructor

Grace and Ethan went into the room where the tness class was held. Come in, said the instructor. We are stretching our muscles. Ethan and Grace sat on mats. They stretched their muscles with the class.

tness class

stretching our muscles

mat

tness class

Grace and Ethan listened to the instructor of the tness class. Everybody do twenty jumping jacks! said the instructor. This is hard, said Grace. Ethan agreed. They both knew that the exercise was good for them, though.
exercise

instructor

282

TRAINING AT THE GYM

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

After the tness class, Grace and Ethan went to get a snack. Grace bought a banana. I am eating healthy food, she said. Eating healthy food will make me strong. I should eat healthy food, too, Ethan said. He bought some yogurt.

banana

eating healthy food yogurt

exercising at the gym lifting weights

Ethan saw his friend Jamal. Ethan had not seen Jamal for a long time. Jamal walked over to Ethan and Grace.
#64

You look very healthy, Jamal said. Thank you, said Ethan. I am exercising at the gym. Do you lift weights? asked Jamal. Yes, I am lifting weights two times a week, Ethan said. You look strong, said Jamal. Thank you, said Ethan. I feel great.

283

1
The woman has blonde hair.

2
The women have white teeth.

3
The man has a pointy nose.

284

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 3 1

1 UNIT 2 1 CHAPTER 3

4
The men have big shoulders.

5
The child has red cheeks.

6
The children have little toes.

285

CHAPTER TOPIC : BODY WORKS LESSON FOCUS : DESCRIBING THE BODY

Dialogue

#65
Amari: I see a large crowd at the park. The people have banners. Dameon: There is a race. Amari: I wouldnt want to run this morning. Its cold. My teeth are chattering. Dameon: Yes, it is cold. My cheeks are red. Amari: The men and women have warm jackets. Dameon: Im glad we are wearing warm clothes, too. I am going to watch my friends run. Would you like to come? Amari: Yes, I would.

286

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#66
Kyle: Im thirsty. Loretta: Those people have water. They are passing it out for free. Kyle: I dont see the people. Loretta: Do you see the man with the red hair? Kyle: No. Loretta: Do you see the woman with the rosy nose? Kyle: Yes, I see her. Now I see the people. Do you think the water has ice? Loretta: No, the water doesnt have ice. It is too cold to drink ice water.

287

banners crowd

race

cheek

teeth

288

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 3

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Wynne Bosik

#65

The day of the race arrived. Jamal was walking toward the race to watch Grace and Ethan run. He saw his friend Nina.

I see a large crowd at the park, said Nina. The people have banners. There is a race, said Jamal. I wouldnt want to run this morning, Nina said. Its cold. My teeth are chattering. Yes, it is cold, agreed Jamal. My cheeks are red. The men and women have warm jackets, said Nina. Im glad we are wearing warm clothes, too, said Jamal. I am going to watch my friends run. Would you like to come? Yes, I would, answered Nina.

289

Nina and Jamal joined the crowd. The crowd was huge. Children sat on their parents shoulders to see the runners. The children waved their hands in the air. The runners are coming! The runners are coming! yelled a child. The crowd cheered.

crowd

shoulders

race

nish line

Jamal and Nina met Ethan and Grace at the nish line after the race. Congratulations on nishing the race, said Jamal. Thank you, Ethan said. Were glad you came to watch, said Grace.

290

THE RACE IS ON!

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Ethan sat down on the grass. He took off his shoe. What are you doing? asked Grace. I have a pebble between my toes, said Ethan. Did the pebble bother you during the race? asked Grace. Yes, it did. I didnt want to stop, though, said Ethan. Ethan stood up. Grace was looking around the park.

pebble toes

#66

hair

nose

I am thirsty, said Grace. Those people have water, said Ethan. They are passing it out for free. I dont see the people, Grace said. Do you see the man with the red hair? asked Ethan. No, answered Grace. Do you see the woman with the rosy nose? Ethan asked. Yes, I see her, said Grace. Now I see the people. Do you think the water has ice? No, the water doesnt have ice, answered Ethan. It is too cold to drink ice water. Grace and Ethan drank the water. They were proud of each other for nishing the race.

291

UNIT 2

CHAPTER

English in Your World

e t a r b e l e C o t e m Ti

292

293

1
Did you have fun at the wedding? I had a great time!

2
Did you have fun at the graduation? I had an amazing time!

3
Did you have fun at the New Years Eve party? I had a lot of fun!

294

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 4 1

1 UNIT 2 1 CHAPTER 3

4
Did you enjoy your anniversary? I had a wonderful time!

5
Did you enjoy your birthday? I had a blast!

6
Did you enjoy the Fourth of July party? I enjoyed it very much!

295

CHAPTER TOPIC : TIME TO CELEBRATE LESSON FOCUS : REASONS TO CELEBRATE

Dialogue

#67
Donna: I had a lot of fun at your graduation party! Lori: Thank you. It was the same day as my sisters wedding. Donna: Thats right. Did you enjoy the party? Lori: I had a great time! Donna: A lot of people were there. Lori: Yes, the party was a big success.

296

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#68
Travis: Did you enjoy the New Years Eve party? Scott: I had great time! Travis: I think New Years Eve is my favorite holiday. What holiday do you like? Scott: I like the Fourth of July. Travis: What do you like to do on the Fourth of July? Scott: I watch reworks. It is so much fun!

297

anniversary

party

married wedding graduation

298

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 4

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

ty Par Plans
Carmen Ricardo
#67

Alana wanted to plan a surprise birthday party for her friend Sabrina. One morning she met with Sabrinas older brother Roy. Roy thought a party was a great idea. He wanted to help Alana plan. Roy found a family photo album. He thought it could give them ideas for the party. Roy and Alana looked at the pictures. The rst picture was taken after Roys graduation.

I had a lot of fun at your graduation party ! said Alana. Thank you, said Roy. It was the same day as my sisters wedding. Thats right, replied Alana. Did you enjoy the party? I had a great time! Roy said. A lot of people were there, said Alana. Yes, said Roy. The party was a big success.

299

The next picture showed Roys parents celebrating their anniversary. This picture was taken on my parents 25th anniversary, said Roy. Twenty-ve years is a long time to be married, said Alana. Yes, it is, replied Roy.

anniversary

married

party

birthday

Alana turned to the next page in the photo album. There was a picture of Roys birthday party. How old did you turn on this birthday? Alana asked. I turned 18 years old, said Roy. The party looks fun, said Alana. It was, said Roy. I invited all of my friends. We should invite all of Sabrinas friends to her party, said Alana. Dont forget Sabrinas family, said Roy, smiling. I wont forget, said Alana.

300

PARTY PLANS

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

The next picture in the album was taken during Thanksgiving. We always eat a turkey on Thanksgiving, said Roy. Everybody in our family cooks food. I will need to cook food for Sabrinas party, said Alana. Thats a good idea, Roy said. I will help you.

Thanksgiving

Fourth of July

Heres a picture of a New Years Eve party I went to last year, said Roy.
#68

New Years Eve

reworks

Did you enjoy the New Years Eve party? asked Alana. I had a great time! answered Roy. I think New Years Eve is my favorite holiday, said Alana. What holiday do you like? I like the Fourth of July, Roy said. What do you like to do on the Fourth of July? asked Alana. I watch reworks, said Roy. It is so much fun! Alana and Roy closed the photo album. The pictures gave them a lot of good ideas for Sabrinas birthday party.

301

1
Whose cake is this? Its mine.

2
Whose gift is this? Its yours.

3
Whose decorations are these? Theyre ours.

302

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 5 1

UNIT 1 2 CHAPTER 1 3

4
Whose balloon is this? Its his.

5
Whose card is this? Its hers.

6
Whose invitations are these? Theyre theirs.

303

CHAPTER TOPIC : TIME TO CELEBRATE LESSON FOCUS : AT A PARTY

Dialogue

#69
Felix: Whose balloons are those? Shane: The balloons are yours. Felix: Whose cake is that? Shane: The cake is yours, also! Felix: I didnt buy balloons or a cake. Shane: Surprise! Happy Birthday! Felix: Now I understand! Thank you!

304

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#70
Aunt: I have a card and a special gift to give you. Niece: Thank you! What is the gift? Aunt: Its a watch. Niece: The watch is beautiful! Aunt: It was my fathers. Then it was mine. Now it is yours. Niece: Thank you so much! What a thoughtful gift!

305

balloon

decorations

streamers

candles

cake

306

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 5

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Surprise!
Carmen Ricardo
#69

Sabrinas birthday nally arrived. Alana and Roy planned a surprise birthday party for her. Sabrina came home in the evening. Roy and Alana were waiting in the living room.

Whose balloons are those? asked Sabrina. The balloons are yours, answered Alana. Whose cake is that? Sabrina asked. The cake is yours, also! said Alana. I didnt buy balloons or a cake, Sabrina said. Surprise! yelled Alana. Happy Birthday! Now I understand! said Sabrina. Thank you!

307

All of Sabrinas friends and family were hiding in the kitchen. They rushed out to surprise her. Happy Birthday, Sabrina! everybody yelled. How did my friends and family know about the party? Sabrina asked Alana. I sent invitations, said Alana. She showed Sabrina one of the invitations. Im happy that so many people came to the party, said Sabrina.

invitation

decorations balloon streamers

The living room was covered with decorations. There were balloons and streamers. There was also a large table with food on it. There was a beautiful cake on the table. The cake had candles on it.

candles

cake

308

SURPRISE!

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Sabrina helped give out pieces of cake after she blew out the candles. The guests talked and ate. Everybody was having a good time. This cake is delicious, said one of Sabrinas guests. I am going to eat another piece, another person said.

cake

Sabrinas mother walked over to Sabrina. She had a surprise to give to her daughter.
#70

card gift

watch

I have a card and a special gift to give you, Sabrinas mother said. Thank you! said Sabrina. What is the gift? Its a watch, said her mother. The watch is beautiful! said Sabrina. It was my fathers. Then it was mine. Now it is yours, said Sabrinas mother. Thank you so much! Sabrina said. What a thoughtful gift ! Sabrina wore the watch for the rest of the evening. She thanked everyone for the wonderful party.

309

1
He hosted a bad party.

2
They danced to bad music.

3
She gave a bad speech.

310

MAKING CONNECTIONS: LESSON 6 1

UNIT 1 2 CHAPTER 1 3

4
He invited good guests.

5
We cooked a good feast.

6
You sang a good song.

311

CHAPTER TOPIC : TIME TO CELEBRATE LESSON FOCUS : HOW TO CELEBRATE

Dialogue

#71
Father: Did you dance to music? Grandmother: No, I didnt dance. The music was bad. I think the guests danced to the worst music. Father: I liked it. I have heard worse music. Grandmother: I enjoyed when the guests sang a song. Father: Yes, I like singing. I had a great time. Grandmother: I hope the party next year is as fun as this party. Father: Im sure it will be.

312

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#72
Glen: You hosted the best party Ive ever been to! Cruz: Thank you. Im glad you enjoyed it. Glen: I had a great time! Cruz: What did you think of your dads speech? Glen: You gave a better speech. Dad was nervous. Cruz: Yes, he was.

313

danced to music

sang a song

314

READING FOR UNDERSTANDING: LESSON 6

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

What a Party!
Carmen Ricardo
#71

Sabrina, Alana, and Roy rested on the couch after Sabrinas birthday party. They were tired. It was late in the evening. The guests had left. Sabrinas mother walked into the room. That was a fun party, said Sabrinas mother.

Did you dance to music? asked Alana. No, I didnt dance, said Sabrinas mother. The music was bad. I think the guests danced to the worst music. I liked it, said Alana. I have heard worse music. I enjoyed when the guests sang a song, Sabrinas mother said. Yes, I like singing, Alana said. I had a great time. I hope the party next year is as fun as this party, said Sabrinas mother. Im sure it will be, said Alana.

315

Im glad you invited guests, said Sabrina. I invited your friends, said Alana. Roy invited your family. Thank you! It was great to see everybody! said Sabrina. I think everyone was happy to celebrate with you, said Alana. I had a great time. It was fun to host a party !

host a party

invited guests

cooked a feast

There was still a lot of food left on the table. Sabrinas dad was nibbling on the last piece of cake. Alana, you cooked a feast ! said Sabrinas dad. Roy did most of the cooking, said Alana. The food was delicious! Sabrinas dad said. Thank you, said Roy.

316

WHAT A PARTY!

UNIT 2 CHAPTER 3

I want to listen to music while I clean up the decorations, said Roy. He played a song on the stereo. This is a great song, said Sabrina. Would you like to dance? asked her brother. I love dancing. I danced to music during the party, said Sabrina. Sabrina and Roy danced around the living room. The family laughed.

danced to music

stereo

gave a speech

#72

hosted a party

You hosted the best party Ive ever been to! said Sabrina. Thank you, said Alana. Im glad you enjoyed it. I had a great time! Sabrina said. What did you think of your dads speech? asked Alana. Roy gave a better speech, Sabrina said. Dad was nervous. Yes, he was, said Alana. Alana and Sabrina laughed. Sabrina gave her dad a hug. He laughed with them. The party was a success. Alana was already thinking of next years party. She planned to make that party even better!

317

UNIT

318

What makes a great explorer?


Chapter

New Sights to See


The Quest for Gold I Am Captured! from Gullivers Travels A Walk on the Moon Matthew Henson: Arctic Explorer

320 328 332 340 344

Chapter

Breaking New Ground


Neenas Invention Kitchen The Time Machine Invention Sensation In the Shower With Andy

346 354 358 366 370

Chapter

Unearthing the Past


In the Valley of the Kings Digging Up Bones The Archaeology Club Discovery in Egypt

372 380 384 392 396

319

UNIT 3

CHAPTER

What makes a great explorer?

New Sights to See

320

Analyzing Visuals
Why do you think the land, or different countries, looks this way on this map? What do you think this map has to do with great explorers?

321

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 1

discover
If something is discovered, someone has found it. The doctors discovered a back problem.

explorer
An explorer is a person who goes to different places and tries different things to nd out what they are like. This diver is an explorer of the ocean.

voyage
A voyage is a long journey. These people are boarding a train for a voyage.

322

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#73
Mom: What are you watching? Son: Im watching a show about famous explorers. Mom: Do you want to be an explorer? Son: Yes, I want to travel around the world on voyages. Mom: I met an explorer once. Son: Did you ask any questions? Mom: Yes, I asked what she liked about exploring. Son: What did she say? Mom: She said she liked to discover new places. Son: I would like to discover a new place someday, too.

323

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 2

desert
A desert is a large area of land, usually in a hot region, which has almost no water, rain, trees, or plants. The desert is very hot and dry.

leader
The leader of a group of people is the person who is in charge. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a leader in the civil rights movement.

native
Something is native to a place when it comes from, is born in, or grows up there. The kangaroo is native to Australia.

324

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#74
Parker: I like the stories we are reading in class. Sam: Yes, Gulliver and Coronado are both interesting. Parker: I think I like the story of Gullivers Travels better because it is ction. Sam: I like Coronado better than Gulliver. Parker: Why do you like Coronado? Sam: He was the leader on a quest for gold. He traveled through mountains and deserts. Parker: Traveling through the desert must have been hard. Sam: He had help from the native people who knew the land. Parker: I wonder if the native people Gulliver meets will help him.

325

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 3

navigate
When someone navigates, he or she leads a group of people through an area toward the place they want to go. These people are both trying to navigate, but they cant agree.

search
If you search for something, you look carefully for it. These people are searching for animals after an oil spill.

trail
A trail is a path through elds, mountains, or forests. This trail goes through a forest.

326

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#75
Historian: These are the maps that Coronado made as he searched for gold. Student: What are the lines on the maps? Historian: The lines show the trails Coronado traveled. Student: Do the maps show where the Seven Cities of Gold are? Historian: No, Coronado never found the cities. Student: Thats too bad. Historian: Yes, but he still became a famous explorer. Student: Why is he famous? Historian: Coronado is famous because his maps helped others navigate through North America.

327

trail

Francisco Coronado

soldier

328

THE QUEST FOR GOLD

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 1

The Quest for Gold


John de Luna Illustrated by Tom McNeely

February 1540
Gold! I, Francisco Coronado, am on my way to nd the Seven Cities of Gold. Here in New Spain, we hear stories of their riches. A few men have been there before me. Friar Marcos was one. He said, There is much gold. I, Coronado, will nd these cities. I will claim their riches for my country, Spain. My friend Don Antonio is the leader of New Spain. New Spain is our name for Mexico. He has put me in charge of this trip. I have 300 soldiers and more than 1,000 native people to help. Don Antonio has put a lot of trust in me. We left this morning. We will travel up the west coast. Next we will follow a trail through the desert. We will reach the mountains. Then we will nd our cities of gold!

April 1540
We have made our rst stop. Many men will stay behind. My small group will carry supplies on our horses. It will be much easier to travel with fewer men.

June 1540
The desert trail is hard. It is not how Friar Marcos said it would be. Horses and men are dying. Our food is running out. I hope the trail is the only thing Friar Marcos was wrong about! We are now near Cibola. Cibola is the rst of the Seven Cities of Gold. We cannot wait to nd food and gold there.
Why does Francisco Coronado want to nd the Seven Cities of Gold?

329

July 1540
We asked the natives of Cibola to accept the King of Spain as their leader. They would not. So we attacked. Finally the natives gave up. Then we got corn and meat for our meals. Why are we here? Cibola is just a crowded town. There is no gold here. Friar Marcos was wrong about this place. What if he was wrong about all the cities? What will I tell Don Antonio?

August 1540
That liar Friar Marcos! There are no riches here. His Seven Cities of Gold are seven little villages of mud! Yet there must be gold somewhere! I know it! I will nd it! First I will care for my men. I will ask the villagers to make peace. Then I will search again. I will not rest until I nd gold.

330

THE QUEST FOR GOLD

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 1

Coronado continued his search for gold for almost two years. He never found his treasure. When Coronado died, he thought he had failed. His journey was very important, though. His maps helped others. Later, more Europeans came to explore and live in the Americas.

What makes Coronado a great explorer?

331

I Am Captured! from Gullivers Travels


Hundreds of tiny ropes crisscrossed my body. Each was no thicker than a thread, but they were very strong. A pin-sized stake driven into the ground secured the ropes in place.

It was a person! A tiny man no more than six inches tall stood on my chest.

332

UNIT 3

Jonathan Swift, adapted by Jason Morris

Illustrated by Drew Rose

CHAPTER 1

I had not eaten for some time, so I was very hungry. I pointed to my mouth to show the tiny people what I meant.

A great cheering spread through the crowd. I leaned back, full and content, and the tiny people danced and clapped for joy.

333

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 4

brave
If you are brave, you are willing to do dangerous things. These brave reghters are trying to put out this dangerous re.

determined
If you are determined to do something, you have decided to do it and will not let anything stop you. These men are determined to nish the long race.

achieve
If you achieve something, you succeed in doing it or causing it to happen. This boy has trophies and medals for everything he has achieved in school and sports.

334

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#76
Louise: I would like to ask Matthew
Henson about being an explorer.

Sasha: What would you ask him? Louise: I would ask him how he achieved his goal of traveling to
the North Pole.

Sasha: I think Matthew would answer that he achieved his goal because he was determined. Louise: Yes, he was very determined. He never gave up
on his goal.

Sasha: It was not an easy goal


to reach.

Louise: No, the voyage to the North


Pole was very dangerous.

Sasha: Matthew was brave. I would like to do something brave one


day.

Louise: I hope you do.

335

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 5

astronaut
An astronaut is a person who travels into space. This astronaut is oating in space.

goal
A goal is something that you hope to do. The goal of this game is to make each side of the cube the same color.

space
Space is the huge area that surrounds stars and planets. There are many planets in space.

336

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#77
Student: What is your favorite part about being an astronaut? Astronaut: I like seeing the stars and planets from space. Student: Was it always your goal to travel into space? Astronaut: Yes, I hoped to stand on
the moon one day. I was excited when I nally landed there.

Student: What did it feel like to walk


on the moon?

Astronaut: It felt amazing. It is quiet


and empty.

Student: You were brave to travel so


far from Earth.

Astronaut: Astronauts are


explorers. They want to visit new places.

Student: I want to be an astronaut. Astronaut: I think you would like it.

337

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 6

manage
If you say you managed to do something, you mean that you were able to do it, even if it was difcult. People are watching this boy manage to stay on the board while doing his trick.

pioneer
A pioneer is the rst person to do a new activity or process. The rst people to climb to the top of a mountain are pioneers.

surface
The surface of something is the top part or the outside of it. This lizard has lots of bumps on the surface of its skin.

338

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#78
Lola: I cant believe humans managed to travel to the moon. Brian: I know. Neil Armstrong is a true pioneer of space travel. Lola: What do you think it feels like to step on the surface of the moon? Brian: The story said that the surface of the moon is rocky. Lola: Do you think rocky surfaces feel different on the moon? Brian: I dont know. Lola: We should become astronauts. Then we could learn for ourselves. Brian: That is a good idea. It wont be easy, though.

339

family

television

astronaut

340

A WALK ON THE MOON

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 1

MOON
Alice Cook Illustrated by Frank Harris
I will always remember the summer of 1969. There are many reasons why. I turned 12. My cousin came home from the war in Vietnam. It was also the summer that people walked on the moon. We had learned all about the space program in school. I loved space. I read all about the Apollo missions. I had space posters in my room. I sat out in the yard on clear nights. I looked at the sky for hours. I dreamed that I might go to the moon one day. Maybe I could even live up there! The space race was already going. President Kennedy had set a goal. He wanted to send a mission to the moon. He said we could do it by the end of the decade. Now we were going to try. On July 16th 1969, Apollo 11 launched into space. It had three astronauts on board: Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Mike Collins. They were on their way to the moon. Would they get there? Would they land? Would they walk on it? The whole world was watching. I was watching, too. I was on vacation with my family. We rented a place in Virginia Beach every summer. Usually I spent my days outside with my little brother, Ben. That summer, I checked the news every chance I got. Get out of the house, Alice, my mother said. Enjoy your free time! Go to the beach. Go for a swim. Ride your bike. Just give the TV a rest. We wont let you miss anything big. Its all big! I said as I went back outside. I always took the radio with me.

A Walk on the

What was special about the Apollo 11 mission?

341

At last the day had arrived. It was four days after the launch. The astronauts were about to land on the moon. After dinner, we gathered around the TV. We listened to the words spoken from so far away. 100 feet . . .75 feet. . . Then we heard what we had waited for. Houston, the Eagle has landed. We jumped out of our seats. We hugged. We yelled at the top of our lungs. In fact, we could hear people cheering for miles. Then there was another wait. The astronauts still had to get out of the ship. Two hours later, it was time. By then Ben was asleep. It was about 11:00. The astronauts were ready to come out. I woke up Ben. I knew he had to see it. The picture on the TV changed. It was Neil Armstrong. We saw him right there in black and white on the TV screen. He was really on the moon! He was climbing down a ladder. He stopped on the last rung. Then he planted his left boot on the rocky surface of the moon.

Thats one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind, Armstrong said. We cheered all over again. For the next two hours, we watched the astronauts short stay on the moon. They pushed a ag into the ground. They got a call from the president. I kept looking out the window at the moon. It seemed so big and bright. Four days later, we were all in front of the TV again. We watched the astronauts splash down in the ocean. They had made it home. We were so happy they were safe. They should take the word cant out of the dictionary, my father said. If they can send men to the moon, there isnt anything we cant do. It was true. The men of Apollo 11 had shown us that anything was possible.
What made the men of the Apollo 11 mission great explorers?

342

A WALK ON THE MOON

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 1

343

Matthew Henson: Arctic Explorer


Ahdoolo! Ahdoolo! the man cheerfully yelled again.

He was the expeditions best man at handling the dogs used to pull the sleds, a skill he had learned from his Inuit friends.

344

UNIT 3

Sean Dolan

Illustrated by Tsai

CHAPTER 1

If his calculations were correct, he had not only reached the Pole, but gone beyond it!

That photograph showed Matthew Henson with the ag of his country at the top of the world.

345

UNIT 3

CHAPTER

What makes a great explorer?

  \ c ^ ` V Z 7g Y c j d g <  CZl

346

Analyzing Visuals
How might this man have been a great explorer? How might an inventor be a great explorer?

347

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 1

admire
If you admire someone, you like and respect that person. The talent of an ice skater is something to admire.

innovative
Something that is innovative is new and original. This woman took the innovative step of changing her car into a work of art.

invent
If you invent something, you are the rst person to think of it or make it. Someone invented her robotic hand.

348

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#79
Brother: What are you working on? Sister: Im inventing a robot to
clean my room.

Brother: Why are you doing that? Sister: I have decided that being innovative could save me a lot
of time.

Brother: I admire you for that idea. Sister: Thank you, but the robot is not working. It wont move. Brother: Can I help you? Sister: Yes, you can help me think of a solution. Brother: Do you want to use my toy car? You could use the wheels. Sister: Thats a great idea! Thank
you!

349

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 2

ordinary
Ordinary people or things are not special in any way. The bone in this dogs mouth is plain and ordinary.

solve
If you solve a problem or question, you nd a solution or an answer to it. He is solving the math problem.

remarkable
Someone or something that is remarkable is very impressive or unusual. Saint Basils cathedral is a remarkable building.

350

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#80
Alex: Time travel is a remarkable idea. Isabel: It certainly isnt ordinary. Alex: How did the inventor from The Time Machine come up with his idea? Isabel: He was very creative. Alex: I want to travel through time. Isabel: Time travel isnt real. Alex: I believe it is possible. Isabel: The story is ction. Alex: Maybe one day someone will solve the problems of time travel. Isabel: It will probably be a long time before that happens.

351

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 3

astonished
If you are astonished, something has surprised you a lot. The boy is astonished by the result of the test.

essential
Something that is essential is absolutely necessary. Water is essential to drink while you exercise.

variety
If something has variety, it has many things that are different from each other. This fruit stand has a variety of fruit.

352

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#81
Interviewer: How did you invent Applehamjam? Neena: Well, rst I tried mixing a variety of foods together. Interviewer: How did they taste? Neena: Most of the foods did not taste good together. Interviewer: Did you expect the Applehamjam to be a success? Neena: No, I was astonished that it tasted so good. Interviewer: Why do you think it was successful? Neena: I think the ham is essential. Interviewer: It goes wonderfully with the apple taste. Neena: Thanks.

353

354

NEENAS INVENTION KITCHEN

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

Neenas Invention Kitchen


Nika Reyes Illustrated by Larry Reinhart
After school Id be in the kitchen. Id be up to my elbows in something. Once Dad stuck his head in. He asked, Whats that goo, Neena? Keylimepizzasauce ice cream! I said. Sounds good! he said, trying to smile. I didnt mind. I knew one day Id do it. Id invent a food so tasty, So wonderful . . . People would line up down the block Just for a tiny taste. I worked alone except for Mr. Sniff. Hes my biggest fan . . . or was. One day I had a great idea Strawberrymayomustard sauce! It sounded good at the time. I think Mr. Sniff kind of overdid it. He ran out the doggy door, Straight to the birdbath. After he drank, he stayed outside, Licking the dirt, licking the trees. It cant taste that bad! I yelled. I tasted a spoonful. I spat it out. I wiped my tongue with my apron It did taste that bad! My eyes suddenly felt hot and wet. Maybe Ill never do it, I thought. Maybe the only food I can invent Is food so gross, so disgusting . . . People run away after a tiny taste.

Why is Neena upset?

355

chef

Neena

Mr. Sniff

356

NEENAS INVENTION KITCHEN

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

Dad could tell my feelings were hurt. Neena, come here, he said. I want to tell you a story. Dad and I went into the living room. (The kitchen smelled kind of awful.) We sat on the couch and Dad began. He told me about George Crum. George was a chef like me. OK, a chef like I wanted to be. George worked at a restaurant. One day a customer sent his food back. He said his fries were too thick. George sliced thinner fries. The customer sent those back. So George took a potato And cut the thinnest slices he could. Just try to eat that! he said, laughing. He fried them up and sent them out. It was a joke, but everyone loved them. He had invented potato chips! The story made me feel better. I went right back into the kitchen. Every day I mixed and baked. I tried a little of this with a little of that.

At last I knew I had found it! I put a little on a doggy treat And held it out for Mr. Sniff. He gave it a smell, then a slow lick. Then he gobbled up the whole thing. He wagged his tail, begging for more! Applehamjam!? Dad said. Ew! Then he tried it and ate the whole bowl! He invited over Aunt Lupe, who said, Im going to call a few friends. Then she called to invite over Her whole book club! In an hour, my arms hurt from mixing. I peeked out the window and smiled. Id nally done it! Id invented a food so tasty, So wonderful . . . People were lined up down the block Just for a tiny taste.

What makes Neena a great explorer?

357

The Time Machine


I invited my four best friends to my house in London.

I took an object the size of a clock from a cabinet.

358

UNIT 3

H.G. Wells

adapted by Les Martin

Illustrated by Vicki Bradley

CHAPTER 2

I saw my housekeeper whiz into the room. She cleaned it in record time.

Around me was a world of wonders.

359

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 4

abandon
To abandon something means to leave it behind. Someone abandoned this car long ago.

damage
If you damage something, you harm it or break it. The cat damaged the chair.

dilemma
A dilemma is a situation without an easy solution, usually because all the choices are equally good or equally bad. This girl is facing a dilemma about what jeans to buy.

360

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#82
Josh: Have you ever invented anything like Andy has? Natalie: No, have you? Josh: Last year I tried to make my own toothbrush. Natalie: Was your old toothbrush damaged? Josh: No, I wanted one that brushed around my braces. I had to abandon the idea, though. Natalie: Why did you give up? Josh: Well, I had a dilemma. My old toothbrush didnt work very well, but the new one that I made hurt my mouth when I brushed. Natalie: Did you go back to using the old toothbrush? Josh: Yes, and I still get food stuck in my teeth all of the time. Natalie: Thats too bad!

361

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 5

laboratory
A laboratory is a room or a building where scientists do research and experiments. These scientists work in a laboratory.

natural
Natural things exist in nature and were not made by people. The natural arches in these rocks took thousands of years to form.

obstacle
An obstacle is something in your way that makes it hard to get where youre going or to do what you want to do. These cows are obstacles for the car driving on the road.

362

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#83
Lucy: I cant believe the mess Andy made! Wesley: I know. I would get in so much trouble if I did that. Lucy: Hearing that story makes me want to invent something. Wesley: Me, too! Maybe we could invent a new food. Lucy: I would like to work with natural foods. Wesley: Thats a good idea. Lucy: We dont have anywhere to work, though. Wesley: Thats an obstacle. Lucy: Maybe we could use the school laboratory. Wesley: Well probably make a bigger mess than Andy!

363

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 6

gather
When you gather things, you collect them all into a group. This woman gathers fruit to eat for breakfast.

process
A process is a set of changes or actions in a certain order. Preparing milk to buy and drink is a process.

research
If you research something, you try to nd facts or more information about it. The boy has to research three different kinds of rocks for his school report.

364

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

Dialogue

#84
Lien: I wonder why Kavita became an inventor. Emma: I think she enjoyed inventing. Lien: I wonder how long she had to research before she invented that gas tank cap. Emma: You have to gather a lot of information to invent something new. Lien: Yes, the invention process is long. Emma: Having an idea is the easy part. Lien: I think I would work hard if I came up with a good idea for an invention. Emma: Maybe we should invent a new video game. Lien: Id like to research information for that!

365

Kavita

beaker

rotten fruit

366

INVENTION SENSATION

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

Sensation
Olga Gomez
Where do inventors get their ideas? For Kavita Shukla, her family played a big part. Kavitas rst invention was for her mom. She had lost three gas caps from her car. She forgot to screw the caps back on. Kavita came up with the Smart Lid. The Smart Lid signals when it is not screwed on. Kavita got a patent for the Smart Lid. A patent says that an invention is new and different. It says that no one can make that invention without an OK from the inventor. The idea for Kavitas next invention began when she was 12. She was visiting her grandmother in India. The tap water there was full of bacteria. Kavita drank some while brushing her teeth. She thought she would get sick. My grandmother gave me yellow curry powder. She said, Take this, and youll be ne, Kavita said. I didnt think it would work, but I didnt get sick. The powder had fenugreek in it. Fenugreek is a spice. Kavita soon went home to the United States. She wondered if fenugreek kills germs. So she did some tests. First Kavita got dirty pond water. She added fenugreek to it. Later Kavita checked on the water. She thought that it would look like water mixed with fenugreek, but it didnt. The fenugreek and the bacteria had made clumps. Kavita scooped out the clumps. Then the water was clean. Kavita made her next discovery by chance. She had forgotten about one jar of water. That water had fenugreek in it. Later, Kavita found the water. No new bacteria had grown in it.

invention

What gave Kavita the idea to experiment with fenugreek?

bacteria

germs

367

Then Kavita found rotten fruit in her refrigerator. She had an idea. Fenugreek had stopped germs from growing in water. Could it stop bacteria from growing on fruit? Could it make fruit stay fresh longer? Kavita mixed fenugreek with water. She put the mix in a spray bottle. Then she sprayed fresh fruit with the mix. The spray worked. It slowed down the rotting process. It even made the fruit taste better. Kavita took her idea further. Could she add fenugreek to food wrappers? Would that make fruit stay fresh longer, too? Kavita did another test. She put fenugreek water on a paper towel. The paper towel dried. Then she put fruit on it. She did the same thing to a paper towel soaked in soap and water. Next she put fruit on a plain towel. Then Kavita waited. The fruit on the plain paper towel started to rot. So did the fruit on the paper towel with soap and water. Yet the fruit on the fenugreek towel did not. It stayed fresh!

Kavita did more tests with food wrappers. Her fenugreek wrappers kept foods fresh for weeks longer than plain wrappers did. This was a great nd! Fenugreek is natural and safe. Fenugreek wrappers are cheap and easy to make. It was very simple, Kavita said. That is why it is so useful. Fenugreek wrappers can be used in places that dont have refrigerators. Its a cheap and natural way to protect food. Kavita got a patent for her fenugreek wrappers. She also got many awards for her work. To top it off, YM magazine called her one of the 20 Coolest Girls in America.

What makes Kavita a great explorer?

368

INVENTION SENSATION

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 2

369

In the Shower With Andy


Ever since Ive been old enough to take showers, Ive been trying to nd a way to ll a shower cubicle up with water.

I pick it up and begin bashing the tap with it. That should loosen it.

370

UNIT 3

Andy Griffiths

Illustrated by Judy Love

CHAPTER 2

At last! Im through!

The ceiling caves in.

371

UNIT 3

CHAPTER

What makes a great explorer?

Unearthing the Past

372

Analyzing Visuals
Why might archaeologists, or scientists who study people who lived a long time ago, have wanted to dig up these statues? Why might archaeologists be great explorers?

373

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 1

adventure
An adventure is a journey or series of events that are unusual, exciting, and perhaps dangerous. These climbers are on an ice climbing adventure.

ancient
If something is ancient, it is very old or has existed for a long time. These pots and vases are ancient.

expert
If someone is an expert, he or she is very skilled at doing something or knows a lot about a particular subject. This veterinarian is an expert at helping animals.

374

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#85
John: I want to be an archaeologist. Kim: I think that would be a boring job. John: Why do you say that? Archaeologists go on adventures! Kim: Archaeologists spend their days digging in the dirt. John: Yes, but they learn a lot about ancient history. Kim: Thats true. They are experts on how humans used to live. John: I think it would be interesting to know about the past. Kim: I agree. Ive changed my mind. I think being an archaeologist would be fun.

375

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 2

envision
When you envision something, you imagine it or picture it in your mind. This boy can envision himself as an astronaut one day.

discouraged
If you are discouraged, you have lost your enthusiasm to do something. This football player is discouraged because his team lost the game.

investigate
If someone investigates something, he or she tries to nd out more about it. This boy is investigating something through the microscope.

376

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#86
Teacher: What do think of the story about Susan Hendrickson? Student: I am amazed that she didnt become discouraged. Teacher: Why does that amaze you? Student: Susan searched for a long time. I would have given up investigating. Teacher: Can you envision how she felt when she nally found the T. rex bones? Student: She probably felt excited. Teacher: I agree. Susan was determined to succeed. Student: Yes, she was. I admire her a lot.

377

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 3

magnicent
Something that is magnicent is extremely good, beautiful, or impressive. The peacock has magnicent feathers.

precious
If something is precious, it costs a lot of money or is something very special to you that you would not want to lose. A diamond is a precious stone.

underground
Something that is underground is below the ground. Many caves are underground.

378

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#87
Stephen: King Tuts tomb was a magnicent discovery. Mary: It makes me wonder what else is underground. Stephen: We could be standing over the precious ruins of an ancient city! Mary: Why do you call ruins precious? Stephen: Ruins teach us about history. If we never nd and study them, we will never learn about important parts of the past. Mary: Thats true. Do you think there are still ruins to be discovered? Stephen: Yes, I think there are. Mary: I hope so. Id like to nd them.

379

cliffs of limestone

380

IN THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 3

In the

V alley of the ings K


Molly Smith Illustrated by Luigi Galante
under the sand that Seb and the team of archaeologists were here to nd. This was the Valley of the Kings. It was where many tombs had been discovered. The tombs were for kings of ancient Egypt. They had been built thousands of years in the past. Even in the heat, it gave Seb chills to think about what he might be standing on. The valley was like the worlds most amazing graveyard. It was hard to imagine the treasures that might be hidden down there.

Seb set down his pick axe. He wiped his face. It was near noon. The sun was hot and high in the sky. He felt like he could see the heat. He thought about his home in Luxor. It was just across the Nile River. He wished he could splash his face with cool water from the river. Here on the West Bank, the desert sands stretched for miles. Seb looked at the hills of sand and cliffs of limestone. The land seemed to rise up. It reminded him of the Great Pyramids. However, humans did not make these shapes. They were made by nature. It was what was buried

What are Seb and the archaeologists looking for?

limestone rock

tomb grave ancient very old

381

Seb was part of a crew led by the archaeologist Howard Carter. Carter was looking for King Tutankhamuns tomb. He had tried to nd it for years and years. That November was going to be his last try. Sebs friends had told him he was a fool to join Carters crew. That man has dug up every inch of the lower valley, his friend Sudi said. Youll be out in the heat all day for nothing! Ill be here on the cool banks of the Nile. Youll be sorry. King Tuts tomb had not been discovered for over 3,000 years. Seb thought it might still be 3,000 more before it actually would be. It was just the third day of the dig. He had started to wonder why he had agreed to come.

Seb heard the call for lunch. He saw the camels walking toward the big, white tent. They were bringing in fresh water and food. Seb got in line behind the other workers. Seb loved to learn about ancient Egypt. He knew that was why he was there. All the hard work would be worth it if he found something . . . anything. Then all at once, Sebs daydreams were over. Weve found something! Carter yelled. Its a door!
Why do Sebs friends think he shouldnt join in the search for King Tuts tomb?

tomb

382

IN THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 3

Seb knew there had been some work on clearing an area. He did not know it was this big. He quietly walked toward the area with the others. Some workers were moving rocks from a stairway leading into the ground. At the bottom of the steps was a door. It has the royal seal, Seb gasped. It surely does, replied Carter. Good eye, young man. The door was not to be opened until Lord Carnarvon arrived. He had given Carter the money for the dig. He wanted to be there for the opening. Finally the big day arrived. The whole crew was gathered around the steps. Seb got a spot in the front. Carter turned to the group and pointed to Seb.

You there, with the good eye, he said. Can you get me a candle? Seb ran as fast as he could to the supply tent. He grabbed a candle and dashed back. Seb broke through the crowd. Sir, here is your candle, he said. Good luck! Seb watched as Carter drilled a hole in the door. The candle ickered as hot air escaped from the underground room. Seb squinted to see what was ahead. Then he saw a glint of gold! This is it, Seb thought. We have found King Tuts tomb!

What makes Seb and Howard Carter great explorers?

seal marking

383

Digging Up Bones
One adventure always seemed to lead to another in Susan Hendricksons life.

The badlands of South Dakota are one of Earths great dinosaur graveyards.

384

UNIT 3

Natalie Lunis

CHAPTER 3

By studying Sues skull, they discovered that T. rex had a better sense of smell than they expected.

Tyrannosaurus Sues future might turn out to be as exciting as the dinosaurs past.

385

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 4

reveal
If you reveal something that has been out of sight, you uncover it so that people can see it. The magician reveals the rabbit in his hat.

site
A site is a piece of ground that is used for a particular purpose or where a particular thing happens. These people are visiting the site of their new house.

suspense
Suspense is the feeling you get when you know that something is about to happen very soon. The movie had a lot of suspense.

386

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#88
Silvia: Can you imagine being on a real archaeological dig site? Milena: Yes, it would be amazing. Silvia: Last night I dreamed that I was looking for old jewelry on an archaeological dig. Milena: Did you nd anything? Silvia: Well, I looked down and saw something shiny. I started to dig. Milena: Did it take long to dig up the object? Silvia: No, I couldnt stand the suspense. So I reached down and jerked the object out of the ground. Milena: What was it? Silvia: It was never revealed! Milena: Why not? Silvia: My alarm clock woke me up just as I was about to see what the object was!

387

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 5

interesting
If you think something is interesting, it has attracted your attention because it is exciting or unusual. The girl looks at the turtle because it is interesting.

equipment
Equipment is made up of the things used for a specic job or hobby. Singers use a lot of equipment to make their music sound better.

eventually
Eventually means in the end, especially after a lot of problems. The marble will eventually reach the end of the obstacle course.

388

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#89
Hernando: Eventually Id like to become an archaeologist. Myra: What do you want to do before you do that? Hernando: I want to be a painter. Myra: Do you think itll be easy to do both? Hernando: If I become a painter, then Ill already have the equipment to be an archaeologist. Myra: Why do you think that? Hernando: They both use brushes. Myra: I dont think they use the same kind of brushes. Hernando: Then Ill just buy archaeology brushes to paint with. Myra: That would make interesting art.

389

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 6

evidence
Evidence is anything that you see, experience, read, or are told that causes you to believe that something is true or has really happened. The teeth marks on the laundry were evidence that the dog pulled it down.

grateful
If you are grateful for something that someone has given you or done for you, you wish to thank them. The soup kitchen workers were grateful for the students who came to help.

plenty
If there is plenty of something, there is a lot or enough of it. There was plenty of food for everyone during the festival.

390

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 3

Dialogue

#90
Jung: Do you think the Archaeology Club is going to nd anything? Katie: I dont know. Theyve had plenty of time to look. Jung: Theres no evidence that theres even anything to nd. Katie: It is still probably fun to look. Jung: I wish we had an Archaeology Club at our school. Katie: Why dont you start one? Jung: Im too busy with soccer to run a club. Katie: Maybe we could ask someone else to lead it. Jung: I would be grateful if someone would start the club.

391

artifacts

shovel

excavation site

392

THE ARCHAEOLOGY CLUB

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 3

Javier Moreno Illustrated by Seitu Hayden


Folville Middle School was cool. It had an archaeology club. Monica, Stephen, and twins Sonja and Nora were all members. Mr. Ramirez was their teacher. The Archaeology Club loved to spend time after school searching for clues to the past. Theyd spent a lot of time outside of town looking with Mr. Ramirez. Their biggest nd so far was a dinosaur bone. Their mission, however, was to nd proof that the Yurok Indian tribe had once settled that area of the state. One day the archaeologists were huddled together during club time. They passed a newspaper back and forth between them. Why are you kids so excited? Mr. Ramirez asked. Stephen showed their teacher the newspaper with the story. A new mall is being built, he said. Youre excited about shopping? No, Mr. Ramirez, Sonja replied. A new mall means theyll be digging soon. That means a new excavation site for us, said Nora. We hope to search the area for Yurok artifacts, Monica added. Mr. Ramirez rubbed his chin thoughtfully. Well, the city wont just let you start digging. You better get permission rst. So the Archaeology Club began writing letters. They wrote the mayor, the city council, and the school board. They argued that the mall could not be built without a search for archaeological artifacts. Weeks went by. No one answered their letters.

What is the main mission of the Archaeology Club?

archaeology study of the past nd discovery

excavation site place to search artifact something old

393

The team did not give up. They began writing letters every day. Someone would have to listen eventually. The week before school ended, Mr. Ramirez got a phone call. It was the head of the city council. The Archaeology Club would have one week in June to search. After that, construction on the new mall would begin. The archaeologists cheered. Then they began getting their equipment ready for the excavation. The excavation site was a large, dirt hole. Bulldozers, cranes, and dump trucks were parked nearby. The construction workers wanted the week to be over. They were ready to start building. Sonja and Nora used hand shovels. They dug up anything that caught their eye. Then Monica used a brush. She cleaned off the interesting things the twins found. Stephens job was to catalogue the objects Monica gave him. The team would later study them. What do you kids hope to nd? Mr. Ramirez asked. He wiped his forehead. It was a hot day out in the June sun. Well know when we nd it, Monica answered. Four days passed. The team found nothing but rocks and more rocks.

How did the club get permission to dig?

There has to be something here, Sonja said. There has to be, said Nora. Well, we better nd it fast, Stephen replied. Tomorrow is our last day to look! The archaeologists were up early on their last day. They worked harder than ever. Soon it was afternoon. Theyd still found nothing. The area is too big, Sonja said. Our shovels are too small, said Nora. Stephen looked sad. Maybe there was nothing for us to nd. Well, you kids did a great job anyway, Mr. Ramirez told them. You never gave up with your letters. You never gave up here on the dig. Thats what being a real archaeologist is all about. Monica began packing up her brushes. Then she stopped. Something brownish-red was sticking out of the dirt. Whats that? she asked, pointing. Sonja and Nora quickly dug it up. Monica dusted it off. It was a broken piece of clay. Its from a clay pot! Stephen exclaimed.

catalogue to write down

394

THE ARCHAEOLOGY CLUB

UNIT 3 CHAPTER 3

Look at those markings, Mr. Ramirez said. Thats not just any clay pot. Thats a clay pot of the Yurok tribe! You mean we did it? Sonja asked. You mean we found what weve been looking for? asked Nora. Mr. Ramirez smiled. You kids just found evidence that the Yurok Indians once settled this area!

The young archaeologists cheered, danced around, and hugged. It looked like the new mall would have to wait. There were still plenty more artifacts for the Archaeology Club to discover rst.

What makes the Archaeology Club great explorers?

clay pot

evidence proof

395

Discovery in Egypt
Carefully she brushed away the dirt to reveal a dirty, ancientlooking disc.

Dr. Sharp was nearly speechless when he saw the amulets.

396

UNIT 3

Jonny Zucker

Illustrated by Christina Rother

CHAPTER 3

Serena and Tyrone were overjoyed to head out toward the mountain site again with the other archaeologists.

Mom pointed at the stone wall of a cave. Do you see that? she asked.

397

UNIT

398

What can we do to protect the worlds natural resources?


Chapter

Too Much Trash


Talking Trash Garbage! The Recycle Cycle Kory Johnson: An Environmentalist for Life

400 408 412 420 424

Chapter

The Effects of Fossil Fuels


Long Ago Leftovers Are Going Fast Weather Gone Wild A Warming World Oil Spill!

426 434 438 446 450

Chapter

Steps in the Right Direction


Renewable Resources Revving Up Green Machines Build It Green! Cool School

452 460 464 472 476

399

UNIT 4

CHAPTER

What can we do to protect the worlds natural resources?

400

Analyzing Visuals
Why do you think the barge in this photograph is full of trash? How might this barge be helping to protect our natural resources?

401

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 1

consequence
A consequence is what happens because you did or did not do something. The consequence of knocking over the rst domino is that all the dominos will fall down.

enormous
If something is enormous, it is almost larger than you can imagine. The man stands by the enormous rock.

increase
When something increases, there is more of it or it gets larger. The use of cell phones has increased in the past few years.

402

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#91
Lee: Yesterday I read about an enormous island of trash oating in the Pacic Ocean. Jeff: How big is it? Lee: Its bigger than the whole state of Texas. Jeff: Thats huge! Lee: The islands size increases every year! Jeff: Where did all of that trash come from? Lee: Mostly the trash comes from people who have thrown it into the ocean. Jeff: You cant toss garbage into the ocean without consequences.

403

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 2

repulsive
Repulsive means horrible and disgusting. Mustard on a sandwich is repulsive to this woman.

putrid
Something that is putrid is rotten and smells terrible. She nally found what was making the room smell putrid.

startle
If you startle someone, you surprise or scare that person by saying something or moving suddenly. The boy is startled by the scorpion.

404

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#92
Mary: Are you going swimming today? Elizabeth: No, Ill sit on the beach. Mary: Why dont you want to swim? Elizabeth: Im tired of swimming in repulsive water. Mary: Yes, there is a lot of trash in the ocean. Elizabeth: Swimming isnt fun anymore. Mary: Yesterday I saw a woman come out of the water. She had an old newspaper stuck to her clothes. Elizabeth: Im not even startled when I bump into cans and old shoes. Mary: The whole beach smells putrid. I wish people would stop putting trash in the water.

405

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 3

appealing
Someone or something that is appealing is pleasing or attractive. The girl loves vegetables, so the salad looks appealing.

convenient
Something that is convenient is handy because it is easy to use or works well in a particular situation. A DVD machine is convenient for a person who does not want to go to a video store.

disposable
Something that is disposable is made to be thrown away after it is used. We used disposable knives, forks, and spoons so that we wouldnt have to wash any dishes.

406

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#93
P.J.: Do you always bring your own bag to the grocery store? Jerome: Yes, I do. Disposable bags add to the trash problem. P.J.: What if you forget to bring your bag? Jerome: I always keep it somewhere convenient, like near the door. P.J.: That sounds easy. Jerome: I wish the grocery store would make it appealing to other people to bring their own bags. P.J.: I know. The store should give you a discount on your groceries if you bring a bag. Jerome: I am saving the store money by not using plastic bags!

407

trash

408

TALKING TRASH

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 1

h s a r T g Talkin
Thomas Walsh
Trash is waste. Its the junk we dont need. Its food scraps. Its paper, grass, and leaves. Its plastic, glass, and metal. It is everything that is thrown out. No matter how you describe trash, one thing is for sure. There is a lot of it! People in the United States are making more waste than ever. In 1960 we made about 88 million tons of trash each day. That is about 2.7 pounds per person. Today we make over 245 million tons of trash each day. That is about 4.5 pounds per person. Each day, this country makes enough trash to ll over 60,000 dump trucks. Each year we ll enough trucks to stretch about halfway to the moon. So what is all of this garbage? Think about your trash. What do you throw away most? Scientists have looked into the trashcans of the United States. They published the results. They found out that paper makes up the largest part of the United States waste34.2%. Around 13.1% is waste from yards, such as leaves and tree limbs. Leftover food makes up 11.7%. Plastics, at 11.9%, are also a big part of the trash thrown away in a year. We throw away trash all the time. We toss it in a can. We put it by the curb. We take it to a dump. However, we can never really make trash go away. It just goes to a new place.
Why might someone say that the United States has a trash problem?

409

Total U.S. Waste in a Year


Paper Yard Trimmings Food Scraps Plastics Metals Rubber, Leather, and Textiles Glass Wood Other
7.3% 7.6% 11.9% 11.7% 34.2% 5.2% 5.7% 3.3%

13.1%

Garbage trucks pick up our waste. Then they take it to landlls. Landlls are not just dumps. They are made to keep the trash contained. Trash can leak into our water, however. It can also poison the land.

Each landll has a liner that keeps trash in. This helps protect the groundwater. Also, soil is put on top of the layer of trash that forms each day. This helps it smell better. It stops the wind from blowing the

410

TALKING TRASH

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 1

trash around. It helps keep out insects and rats. The trash in a landll may stay there forever. What will we do when we run out of places to put trash? Many people say that one way to help stop trash buildup is to make less in the rst place. Much of the waste in landlls could have been reused or recycled. Think about that the next time you throw away trash! There are things you can do to cut down the amount of trash you throw away. Do you drink bottled water? Consider buying a water lter for your sink. Then you can keep relling the same water bottle. This will also save a lot of money!

When you wash your hands, do you dry them with paper towels? If so, you have to throw the towels away. Why not use a cloth towel instead? Cloth towels can be washed. They can be used over and over. Think about how much that would help the trash problem! Here are some more easy tips. Drink from a washable mug instead of a disposable paper or plastic cup. Use cloth instead of paper napkins. Use rechargeable batteries. Take a cloth bag with you to the grocery store. Then use it to take home your groceries instead of plastic bags.

What can we do to help solve the trash problem?

411

Garbage!
You tossed your trash in wooden barrels lined up on the pavement.

Bathers at New Jerseys crowded beaches were sometimes startled when they swam up against objects such as oating mattresses and dead dogs.

412

UNIT 4

Evan and Janet Hadingham

Illustrated by Al Lorenz

CHAPTER 1

Back when your greatgrandparents were children, a trip to a grocery store was very different from what it is today.

Food companies compete with each other to make their packages brighter, shinier, and more appealing.

413

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 4

environmentalist
An environmentalist is someone who wants to protect and save the natural environment. This woman is an environmentalist because she does not use chemicals in her garden.

perseverance
If someone shows perseverance, that person has continued to do something and has not given up. The man showed a lot of perseverance by learning how to ride a bike with one leg.

protest
When you protest something, you let people know that you are against it. These people made signs to protest something that they dont like.

414

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#94
Sarah: Hello, Im a writer for my school newspaper. May I ask you a few questions? Environmentalist: Sure! Sarah: Why are you here today? Environmentalist: Im here with other environmentalists to protest a law. Sarah: Whats the law about? Environmentalist: The law makes it easier for companies to dump toxic waste into the ocean. Sarah: What is toxic waste? Environmentalist: Toxic waste is garbage that can make people sick. Sarah: Thanks for protesting this law! We need to keep the ocean clean. Environmentalist: Youre welcome. With enough perseverance, the government will change the law!

415

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 5

alternative
An alternative is something you can do or choose instead of something else. The girl did not like the blue shirt, so the red shirt was a good alternative.

recruit
If you recruit people for something you are doing, you convince them to help you do it. The girl did a cheer to recruit drivers to get their cars washed.

recycle
If you recycle something, you take something that has already been used and nd a way to use it again. Art can be made by recycling old toys and machines.

416

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#95
Anna: I heard you are starting a new club. Jared: Yes, Im starting a club to save the earth. Anna: What are you going to be doing? Jared: First of all, Im bringing these boxes to the cafeteria so that students can recycle. Anna: Thats a good idea. Jared: Recycling is a great alternative to throwing away bottles and cans. Anna: Do you need any help with your club? Jared: That would be great. Thank you. Anna: Ill make a poster to recruit members for the rst meeting.

417

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 6

capable
You are capable of something if you are able to do it. You need strong arms to be capable of playing baseball.

durable
If something is durable, it is strong and lasts a long time. This armor was made to be durable.

replenish
If you replenish something, you make it full or complete again. The boy replenished his glass of juice.

418

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 1

Dialogue

#96
Mr. Oliver: Hi, Josh. I heard you joined the Recycling Club. Josh: Yes, I did. I like it. Mr. Oliver: What has the club been doing? Josh: One project Im proud of is Operation Water Bottle. Mr. Oliver: Whats that? Josh: The club started a project to convince students to stop buying bottles of water. Mr. Oliver: Why would you do that? Josh: It is a waste of plastic to buy disposable plastic bottles. Instead we told students to use more durable water bottles. Mr. Oliver: So students can replenish their water bottles with water over and over again? Josh: Yes, they can ll their bottles with water from the school drinking fountains. Mr. Oliver: Im glad the Recycling Club is capable of changing the way students think about recycling!

419

recycling bin

420

THE RECYCLE CYCLE

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 1

Ellen A. Goodenow

Recycle! Thats a word you have probably heard over and over. Your school probably recycles paper. It may recycle cans and bottles, too. You put these things in special trashcans or boxes. Then someone takes them from your school. Have you ever wondered where these things go? How do they become new goods?

Factories buy the plastic pieces. They make the pieces into new items. They may even become new bottles!

Glass
People have used glass for thousands of years. Glass is easy to make and clean. It can be used over and over. It can also be beautiful. Glass takes a long time to break down, though. It stays in dumps for a very long time. What happens when you recycle a glass jar? First it goes to a recycling center. Then it goes to a special plant. At the plant, a machine crushes the jar. The crushed glass goes to a glass factory. The factory mixes it with sand, rock, and other things. An oven heats the mix until it melts. It becomes a liquid. The liquid is reshaped. When it cools, it may be a new bottle for a drink!
What is a difference between the way plastic and glass items are recycled?

Plastic
Plastic is very useful. It is light and tough. We use it to make bottles and jars. We use a lot of plastic. It can take many years to decompose, or break down. So it lls our dumps. Dont worry. There is good news. It is easy to recycle plastic. Then it can be used again. Put a plastic bottle into a recycling bin. Here is what happens to it: First your bottle gets mixed with other plastic things. They all go to a recycling center. The center squishes them into a big cube. Next the cube goes to a special plant. A machine breaks the cube into tiny pieces. Another machine cleans the pieces.

goods

things made to be sold

421

Four Steps to Recycling


You recycle glass, plastic, paper, and aluminum. The old materials are sold to factories. They may also be made into new materials and sold.

You buy a new item made from recycled material. Later you recycle part or all of the item. Then the cycle starts again!

Factories turn the materials into new goods.

422

THE RECYCLE CYCLE

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 1

Metal
Many people recycle soda cans. They are made out of aluminum. Aluminum is a metal. It is strong, but it can bend, too. This metal takes hundreds of years to break down. When it is recycled, it is just as strong as when it is new. What happens when you recycle a soda can? A truck takes the can to a plant. The plant washes it and melts it. Next it molds the melted metal into a cube. Then the metal cube goes to another plant. Machines melt the cube again. Last it is rolled into sheets. Factories buy the metal sheets to make new food cans, foil, and more.

Keep the Cycle Going


Your job is not done when you put trash in recycling bins. You can buy goods made from recycled materials. You can buy goods that are easily recycled, too. How? First read the label before you buy. Ask some questions. Is the item made from recycled materials? Can I recycle it when I am done? If not, look for something else that will do the same job and can be recycled. Of course you can also use old goods over again. This saves even more. With your help, the recycle cycle turns old goods into new ones. It helps Earth at the same time!

Paper
It is hard to imagine a school without paper. Paper is made from wood. It is also the most common item found in dumps. For every 100 pounds of solid waste, 34 pounds may be paper. Thats a lot of trees! When you recycle a newspaper, it rst goes to a recycling center. Then a truck takes it to a paper plant. There it is sorted. Machines take out ink and other things. This turns the paper into pulp. The old paper pulp is mixed with new wood pulp. At last the pulp becomes paper for sheets, boxes, and more.
molds makes

How does recycling protect the worlds natural resources?

423

Kory Johnson: An Environmentalist for Life


Night after night I heard my mom go into her room to make sure the oxygen was working.

It started with seven kids, right around my kitchen table.

424

UNIT 4

Phillip Hoose

Illustrated by Rich Stergulz

CHAPTER 1

We made phone calls all over the U.S. and ordered educational materials.

Ten years later, anytime theres a truck on the freeway, Im wondering whats in it.

425

UNIT 4

CHAPTER

What can we do to protect the worlds natural resources?

The

S L E U F L FOSSI

f o s t c e f Ef

426

Analyzing Visuals
Where do the smoke and gases from the factory come from? What effect do you think these gases might have on the environment?

427

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 1

excessive
If something is excessive, there is more of it than is needed or usual. This man is bringing an excessive amount of luggage on his trip.

harmful
Something that is harmful has a bad effect on someone or something else. This worker wears a mask and gloves to protect himself from the harmful toxic waste.

tendency
If someone has a tendency to do something, it means that he or she is likely to do it. This girl has a tendency to bite her ngernails when she daydreams.

428

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 2 1

Dialogue

#97
Stephen: I never knew that fossil fuels could be harmful to the environment. Miss Ashford: I think a lot of people have a tendency to forget. Stephen: It seems like everything uses fossil fuels, though. Miss Ashford: Yes, most cars still use gasoline. Most electricity comes from oil and coal. Stephen: So what can we do? We have to use fossil fuels every day! Miss Ashford: Its important to not use an excessive amount. Stephen: Whats a way to use less fossil fuels? Miss Ashford: You could carpool or ride the bus when traveling. Stephen: That is a great idea!

429

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 2

climate
The climate of a place is the type of weather it has on most days. The climate of this island is hot and wet.

disaster
A disaster is when something very bad happens. It was a disaster when the big storm hit the island.

extreme
An extreme feeling, situation, or action is one that is very strong or very intense. These skydivers feel extreme fear and excitement.

430

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 2 1

Dialogue

#98
Ling: Hey, Luke! Luke: Hi, Ling. Ling: I cant stop thinking about that story we heard today. Luke: Can you imagine what it would be like to live in a different climate? Ling: Its hard. I wonder what it would be like if the weather was much hotter. Luke: That would be a disaster! I dont like extreme heat. Ling: The world would be completely different. Luke: Do you think it will ever happen? Ling: I dont know. It seems like it might if people dont try to change.

431

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 3

bleak
If a situation is bleak, it is bad and unlikely to get better. Not many people want to be outside on a bleak winter day.

infer
If you infer that something is the case, you gure out that it is true based on what you already know. The weather experts inferred that the storm could become dangerous because the clouds were dark.

invade
If people or animals invade a place, they enter it with force and in large numbers. The ants invaded the sandwich.

432

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 2 1

Dialogue

#99
Karen: That story we heard today worries me. Brooke: Im worried, too. The future looks bleak. Karen: I cant believe how much the earth could change. Brooke: Its amazing what scientists can infer about the future. Karen: I know. I would have never thought poison ivy might change and invade the earth! Brooke: Im glad it hasnt happened yet. Karen: Me, too. I hope it doesnt ever happen. Brooke: If it does, the world could become a scary place!

433

This chart shows the kinds of energy that the United States uses.

434

LONG AGO LEFTOVERS ARE GOING FAST

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 2

Dee Wallace Illustrated by Domanic Li


We use energy every day. We use it for heating, running machines, and in our cars. Where does this energy come from? We get it from fossil fuels. These fuels come from inside the earth. They were formed from fossils. Fossils are the leftovers of plants and animals that lived long ago. Fossil fuels are very useful. They can cause problems, though.

How Fossil Fuels Form

300400 million years ago First, plants and animals die. Layers of mud and sand cover them.

50100 million years ago Next, more layers cover the dead plants and animals. Heat and pressure turn them into oil, gas, or coal.

Today Last, people dig coal from the earth. They drill down into rock to reach the oil and gas.

435

Kinds of Fossil Fuels


Coal, oil, and natural gas are fossil fuels. People burn them. Burning them gives off energy.

Coal
Coal is a black rock. Some coal is deep under the ground. Miners must dig deep to get it. Other coal is close to the surface. First, steam shovels strip off layers of earth. Then, miners can get to the coal. People burn coal to fuel power plants. Power plants make electricity.

Oil
Oil is a yellowish-black liquid. It is deep in the ground. To get oil, an oil company drills into rock. When a drill hits oil, the company builds a well to pump it out. Most oil products are fuels. They run cars, trucks, buses, and planes. Factories also use oil to make plastic.

Natural Gas
Natural gas is a colorless gas. It is mostly found in the ground near oil. Natural gas ows from the ground through wells. Natural gas has many uses. It heats homes. It fuels stoves, water heaters, and dryers.

Industry & Manufacturing 32%

Transportation 28%
What are some ways that fossil fuels are used?

Residential 22%

Commercial 18%

These are some of the ways energy is used in the United States each year.

436

LONG AGO LEFTOVERS ARE GOING FAST

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 2

Problems and Solutions


Fossil fuels can dirty land, water, and air. The fuels are running out, too. People are now working to solve these problems.

Mining and Drilling


Getting fossil fuels from the ground causes problems. Mining coal can strip the land. Drilling for oil and gas can upset the land and water. Today there are strict laws about mining and drilling. People must be more careful now than in the past.

Burning Fuels
People must burn fossil fuels to use them. Burning hurts the land and air. Burning gives off carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a gas. Many scientists believe it causes global warming. That means the earth is warming up too much. Burning coal and oil gives off other gases, too. These gases dirty the air. People are working on these problems. They have found ways to make coal and oil burn cleaner. Many new cars now give off fewer gases. People are nding ways to use power from the wind, water, and sun. They do not need to burn anything to use them.

Using Up Fuels
When we burn fossil fuels, we use them up. Then they are gone forever. We are using up these fuels fast. The only answer is to use less. We can do this in two ways. We can use other energy sources. For example, some power plants do not use coal. They use water power instead. Water power cannot be used up. We can also use less fossil fuel. For example, we can turn down the heat. Then we use less natural gas. Its up to everyone to use less fossil fuel.

What is something you can do to use less fossil fuel?

437

Weather Gone Wild


In the last 100 years, Earths average temperature has gone up almost 1 degree.

All that adds up to larger poison ivy plants that have more potent poison.

438

UNIT 4

Kristi Lew

Illustrated by Kristen Guerin

CHAPTER 2

The stinging giants can grow to be 6 feet wide and weigh as much as 450 pounds!

You could start an environmental club, set up a recycling center, or plant a garden at your school.

439

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 4

consult
If you consult someone, you get advice or information from that person. The woman consults the pharmacist about which medicine to use.

propose
If you propose a plan or idea, you suggest it. She proposed that they paint their room gray.

rely
When you rely on someone, you count on that person to do something for you. This boy can rely on his sister to lead him to school.

440

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 2 1

Dialogue

#100
Student: I wish our school didnt rely so much on fossil fuels. Teacher: So do I, but the school tries to save energy where it can. Student: I dont think the school does enough. Teacher: What do you propose? Student: I have lots of ideas! The school should consult me. Teacher: Whats one of your ideas? Student: The weather is beautiful today. Lets save energy by turning out the lights and having class outside!

441

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 5

fragile
If something is fragile, it is not very strong and you have to be careful not to break it. Glass sculptures are fragile and must be held carefully.

incident
An incident is an event, usually an unpleasant one. The waiter was embarrassed after the incident of dropping his tray.

undertaking
An undertaking is a large or difcult task. He knew that running up the stairs would be a big undertaking.

442

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 2 1

Dialogue

#101
Volunteer: Thanks for coming to volunteer today! The oil spill caused a lot of problems. Jess: Where should I start? Volunteer: You can join the team looking for animals. Jess: What do I do if I nd one? Volunteer: Be careful. These animals are sick and fragile. Jess: Are they sick from the oil? Volunteer: Yes, they have been covered in it. They have probably swallowed a lot of it, too. Jess: This oil spill is a horrible incident. Volunteer: Now all we can do is try to clean it up. We have to save as many animals as we can. Jess: Its a big undertaking. Im glad I can help!

443

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 6

prospect
The prospect of something is the chance that it might happen. The prospect that the meat might fall kept the dog close to the grill.

glacier
A glacier is a huge piece of ice that moves very slowly. Scientists worry that glaciers are melting.

vanish
If something vanishes, it disappears suddenly in a way that cant be explained. I thought my dog had vanished, but then I found him in my boot.

444

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 2 1

Dialogue

#102
Lucy: I keep thinking about how all the glaciers in the world are melting. Anjali: I have been thinking about it, too. Lucy: Im worried that the glaciers wont just vanish. If they melt, all of that water will go into the ocean. Anjali: So? Lucy: That means the oceans will rise really high. Anjali: All of that water would cause a lot of problems. Lucy: The rising water would be really dangerous for people like us who live near the ocean. Its a scary prospect.

445

glacier

446

A WARMING WORLD

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 2

P. John Wolf
For thousands of years, glaciers have covered the Alps. Many people go there to ski on the snow and ice. Now ski areas are in trouble. The glaciers are melting. Each year they get smaller. Soon some areas may have no snow at all. Why is the snow melting? Scientists blame global warming. Global warming is the slow warming of Earth. Over the past 100 years, the air and water on Earth has warmed up. If global warming continues, the world could be 3 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit hotter by 2100. The greenhouse effect is good for living things. It makes Earth warm enough for life. Without it, Earth would be too cold. Over the past 100 years, though, more gases have gone into the air. The blanket of gases is now thicker. It traps more warmth. So Earth is warmer. Power plants, cars, and factories are most likely to blame. They burn fossil fuels. This gives off lots of gases. Many people believe that global warming affects Earth. They believe that it causes changes in the weather. Europe has had bad heat waves, for example. There have been more droughts and oods. Hurricanes are worse now, too. These changes affect all living things. A bad heat wave can kill thousands of people. Droughts and oods kill animals and crops. Hurricanes can destroy cities and kill people.

Causes
To understand global warming, you have to understand the greenhouse effect. Here is how it works. First, the sun warms Earth and the air around it. Then, gases in the air act like a blanket. They trap the suns warmth. Last, the trapped heat helps keep Earth warm.

How is global warming changing the world?

447

Melting Ice
Look at the two photographs on this page. They were both taken in Glacier National Park from the same place. The top photograph was taken in 1913. The bottom was taken in 2005. Do you see the difference? Glacier National Park once had 150 glaciers. In June 2006 there were only 35 glaciers left. The ice caps at the North and South Poles are melting, too. This affects life near the Poles. Polar bears, for example, hunt on ice bergs in the warm months. Now these bergs are disappearing. If they go away altogether, polar bears will die out.

Rising Oceans
As the worlds ice melts, fresh water mixes with ocean water. Then the oceans rise. Right now the oceans rise by an eighth of an inch a year. At that rate the ocean would rise by one foot by 2100. Some experts think that it may rise 8 feet or more by 2100. Rising oceans may ood shore areas. Millions of people would have to leave their homes. Flooding would destroy the homes of shore animals and plants, too.

448

A WARMING WORLD

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 2

What Can We Do?


Its not too late to help. We must cut down on greenhouse gases. More than half of U.S. greenhouse gases come from power plants. Power plants can cut down on the gases they put out. They can also run cleaner. Some states are passing stronger laws, too. The laws force the power plants to keep the air clean. Some power plants do not burn fossil fuels. Instead, they use water power. Other plants make power from the sun and wind. To help, you can use less power. For example, turn off TVs and lights when youre not using them. The less power you use, the less the power plants have to make. That means less greenhouse gases.

Cars make about one quarter of our greenhouse gases. So some car companies build cars that run cleaner. Some states are passing laws that help, too. They want laws that make all new cars run cleaner. You may not drive, but you can still help. Walk or bike instead of getting a ride. Write to lawmakers. Ask them to pass laws that cut down on gases from cars. The United States makes more greenhouse gases than any other country. We can change this. We can slow global warming if we try.
How does slowing down global warming help protect our natural resources?

449

Oil Spill!
Thick, black oil owed out of the Exxon Valdezs smashed tanks.

The oil stuck to the feathers of many ducks, geese, and other seabirds. The birds couldnt swim or y.

450

UNIT 4

Melvin Berger

Illustrated by Ron Mahoney

CHAPTER 2

For larger spills, the experts may set the oil on re.

One way to save oil is to use less electricity. Electricity is often produced by burning oil.

451

UNIT 4

CHAPTER

What can we do to protect the worlds natural resources?

e h t n i d e s t p c e te p SU x ne n o i t c e r i trD h oes Rig e H

452

Analyzing Visuals
What might be important about a modern car like the one in the photograph? How do you think some modern cars can help to protect the worlds natural resources?

453

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 1

conserve
When you conserve something, you save it from being used up or destroyed. She turned out the lights when she left a room to conserve energy.

optimistic
If you are optimistic, you are hopeful and look at things in a positive way. The boy was optimistic that the water would reach his boat.

source
The source of something is the person, place, or thing that it comes from. The skunk was the source of the awful smell.

454

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 1

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 3 1

Dialogue

#103
Andy: Why are you sitting under the tree? Darius: Im conserving my energy for my baseball game later. Andy: You look like youre in a good mood. Darius: Yes, Im happy. Andy: Why? Darius: My class is nally done reading about the sources of environmental problems. Andy: Were you getting tired of reading about the problems? Darius: No, but Im an optimistic person. I think we can x the problems if we all work together.

455

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 2

futuristic
Something that is futuristic looks or seems unusual, like something from the future. These futuristic sunglasses have a computer built into them.

salvage
If something is salvaged, someone manages to save it. The television has been salvaged from the dumpster.

unconventional
Someone or something that is unconventional is different from the usual. This dogs fur makes it very unconventional.

456

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 2

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 3 1

Dialogue

#104
Ryan: Thats a really unconventional bag! Did you make it yourself? Jen: Yes, I made it out of old CDs. Ryan: Where did you get the CDs? Jen: My sister was throwing them away. I managed to salvage them before she took out her trash. Ryan: The bag looks very futuristic. Jen: I wanted it to look that way. Ryan: I really like it! Jen: Thank you!

457

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 3

dedicate
If you say that someone has dedicated himself to something, you mean that the person has given a lot of time and effort to it because he thinks it is important. This man has dedicated his time to his train collection.

economical
If something is economical, it doesnt take a lot of money to buy or use it. Riding the bus is an economical way to travel.

eliminate
If you eliminate something, you remove it completely. This spray will eliminate bad breath.

458

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 3

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 3 1

Dialogue

#105
Laura: I really want to buy a hybrid car when I turn sixteen. Rachel: Theyre nice, but theyre so expensive! Laura: Maybe they wont cost so much by the time Im old enough to buy one. Rachel: You have three years to save up enough money. Laura: If I dedicate myself to babysitting, maybe Ill save up enough money. Rachel: You will have to babysit a lot! Laura: I will also have to eliminate all of the things I waste money on. Rachel: Does that mean you wont come to movies with me anymore? Laura: No, well just go on Dollar Night! Rachel: Thats a very economical choice!

459

wind machine

460

RENEWABLE RESOURCES

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 3

Renewable Resources
Phillip Chen
Slow down! Thats what scientists are saying to the world. They are worried. They see what people are doing to Earth. Many of their worries are about fossil fuels. We use fossil fuels more than anything else for energy. Fossil fuels are far from perfect. They pollute, or dirty, the planet. Even if they were good for the environment, however, there is still one big problem. Fossil fuels are non-renewable. That means they can run out. In fact, they are already beginning to. So what happens next? We need fossil fuels to make the things we use work, right? Wrong. There are other ways to get energy. There is renewable energy. This kind of energy is always being remade by nature. Some sources of renewable energy are solar power, water power, and wind power. Renewable energy is sometimes called clean or green. This is because it doesnt pollute the air or water as much as nonrenewable energy. You may ask, Why dont we use it more? There are some reasons. Fossil fuels work all of the time. This isnt true of all renewable energy. We cant store wind and sun. Sometimes the wind doesnt blow. The sun is sometimes behind the clouds. We also use fossil fuels because they cost less. Using renewable resources would save money over a long period of time, but they cost more upfront. It costs a lot of money to make the change.

What is one thing wrong with fossil fuels?

461

Scientists are working to solve the problems with renewable energy. It will take time. It is possible, though. We can make cleaner, greener, and cheaper energy. There are probably ways we havent even thought of yet. Scientists are testing many different ideas. Here is a look at three solutions that are being used already.

Solar Power
Solar power is energy that comes from the sun. There are many ways to use solar power. What makes you feel hot on a summer day? You got it! Solar power. The sun has made energy for billions of years. The sun sends out as much energy every hour as all
This car runs on solar power!

of the earths people use in a year. The sun is also free to use! Solar power can be made into other forms of energy. You know about light and heat. Did you know it can also make electricity? We can do this using special fuel cells. Fuel cells turn light into energy. They do it without polluting. You have probably seen them on calculators! Big solar panels can run a car. Some are even put on roofs of houses. There they catch sunlight. They can help power a whole house.

What is one good thing about solar power?

solar car

462

RENEWABLE RESOURCES

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 3

Water Power
Water is one of the oldest sources of energy. Water rushing in a river holds a lot of energy. The same thing happens with waterfalls, like Niagara Falls. To get the energy, people put a machine in the water. It usually has a wheel. The water spins the wheel in a circle. The moving wheel makes electricity. One example of how we can use water for power is the Hoover Dam. This power plant uses the water from the Colorado River to make electricity. It can make enough electricity to power a city of 750,000 people!

Wind farms are groups of wind machines. The worlds largest wind farm has over 400 wind machines. They make enough power for 230,000 homes per year. Renewable energy is a good solution to the problems of fossil fuels. Now we just have to make more things that use it. We also have to make these things at a price people can afford!
How does using renewable energy help protect our natural resources?

Wind Power
People have used wind power for a long time. Today we have huge machines to catch wind. They turn it into power. Most wind machines have blades like a huge fan. They are sometimes as tall as a 20-story building. The largest wind machines in the world have blades longer than a football eld! Wind moves the blades. The blades are connected to a machine. As the blades turn, the machine makes energy.

power plant

electricity factory

463

Revving Up Green Machines


Automobiles are a major source of pollution.

Getting energy out of hydrogen to power a car involves a device called a fuel cell.

Hydrogen

Fuel Cell

Air

Water

464

UNIT 4

Emily Sohn

Illustrated by Jeff Grunewald

CHAPTER 3

The Rocky Mountain Institute, for instance, supports a move toward lighter automobiles.

So is the use of alternative fuels, such as natural gas and biodiesel, which can come from vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled restaurant grease.

465

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 4

design
The design of something is the way that thing was made or planned. This woman looks at the clothing designs.

emphasis
Emphasis is special importance that is given to one part of something. Dentists put a lot of emphasis on how important it is to brush your teeth.

gadget
A gadget is a small machine or device that does something useful. This gadget is used for squeezing the juice out of lemons.

466

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 4

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 3 1

Dialogue

#106
Clint: Your computer is plugged into your bag! Dustin: The design of the computer uses energy from the sun. Clint: Is that a solar panel on the bag? Dustin: Yes! It recharges my laptop when Im at the beach. Clint: The solar panel bag is a useful gadget. Dustin: It doesnt work if its cloudy, though. Clint: Its still amazing. Dustin: Thanks! I like gadgets that have an emphasis on being Earth-friendly.

467

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 5

efcient
Something or someone that is efcient does a job without wasting time or energy. Geese travel in a V shape because its the most efcient way to y long distances.

elect
If you elect to do something, you choose to do it. The woman elected to order the chicken from the deli.

passionate
A passionate person has very strong feelings about something. These fans are very passionate about their favorite team.

468

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 5

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 3 1

Dialogue

#107
Becky: What are you doing for your science project this year? Claire: Im building a model of a green house. Becky: Good idea! Im impressed by how passionate some people are about building green homes. Claire: Me, too. I got the idea from a story I read in class. Becky: What are you putting in your model house? Claire: I elected not to use solar panels. I would need too many for them to be efcient. Becky: What are you doing instead? Claire: I am putting in a special oor. Hot water runs under it and heats the whole house! Becky: How does the water get hot? Claire: The water comes from a tank outside. The sun heats it up. Becky: I like that idea!

469

VOCABULARY IN ACTION: LESSON 6

distinguish
If you can distinguish one thing from another, you can tell the difference between them. Only their mother can distinguish these puppies from one another.

persuade
When you persuade someone, you get that person to think its a good idea to do something. The girl tried to persuade her mother to let her stay out an hour later.

resourceful
Someone who is resourceful is good at nding ways to solve problems. She forgot her umbrella, so the woman had to be resourceful to stay dry.

470

DEVELOPING ORAL LANGUAGE: LESSON 6

UNIT 4 1 CHAPTER 3 1

Dialogue

#108
Craig: This is the green house I told you about. Trish: Its hard to distinguish it from the other houses on the block. Craig: I wouldnt have noticed it if my dad hadnt pointed out the solar panels. Trish: I wish more people could be persuaded to build green houses. Craig: The problem is that building green houses still costs so much money. Trish: I know. Green houses are very expensive. Craig: They do save a lot of money later, though. Trish: There are a lot of ways to save money and energy without building a new house. Craig: Thats true. You just have to be resourceful.

471

green house

472

BUILD IT GREEN!

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 3

Theodore Greenberg

Imagine a house full of the latest gadgets. They all run on power from the sun. The house stays cool in summer. It stays warm in winter. It is made from recycled wood and metal. The inside is bright and sunny. It has a modern design. It also has special fans and vents to keep the air clean. The house does not cost a lot to buy. Best of all, it is built to keep people healthy! Does it sound like a house of the future? It isnt. This is a green house, and it is coming soon to a town near you.

When you hear the words green house, you may think of a room with many windows and plants in it. Maybe you think of a house painted green. There is another kind of green house, though. These houses are friendly to Earth. They use less power than other houses. They make less waste. They are also healthier for people. Other buildings can be green, too. Green ofces, stores, and schools are popping up all over the country. Why do people call them green? These buildings are kinder to Earth. People hope that they will help to keep Earth itself green!

What is a green house?

473

Green houses are good for people and the environment.

People need clean air, water, and land. We get these things from Earth. Earth is in danger, though. It is in danger when we use too much power. It is in danger when we dirty its air, water, and land. Buildings add to these problems. Buildings use a lot of power. They make waste. Buildings make almost a third of the waste in our country. They also dirty the air and water. The air and water inside

buildings gets dirty, too. This can make people sick. This is why people build green. Green buildings can cost more to build at rst. Over time, though, they may save money. This is because people may not have to pay to clean up Earth later. People may also get sick less. This is because green buildings are cleaner inside.

474

BUILD IT GREEN!

UNIT 4 CHAPTER 3

Leaders across the world want people to build green. They have made rules for green building. They made a system that rates buildings. The ratings tell how kind a building is to the environment. California has many green buildings. You can nd green schools in Oakland, Los Angeles, Long Beach, Santa Ana, and more. Studies show that students may even learn better in green schools.

What is one reason to build green?

example. This cuts down on the waste that ends up in dumps. It also cuts down on the new items that must be made. Green buildings also keep people healthy. They use cleaner, safer materials. They have vents and fans to keep air clean. They have more windows to let fresh air in, too. They may even be sunnier inside. This helps people stay happy! In the coming years, you will probably see more green buildings in your state. Maybe you will even go to a green school. With the help of green buildings, people can take care of Earth and stay healthy at the same time.
How do green buildings help protect the worlds natural resources?

How does a building get to be green? There are many ways. People build green buildings near trains and buses. Then people do not have to drive cars as much. Green buildings use less water and power. They may have many windows. Then people do not have to turn on lights as much. Many green buildings get power from the sun, too. Green buildings are made with recycled goods. Some materials come from other buildings. For example, a green home might have a working sink that someone threw out. Other materials are made from old things used in a new way. Counter tops might be made from old newspapers, for

475

Cool School
Everything from the schools lights to the lockers is designed to conserve resources like energy and building materials.

That way, when classrooms heat up in the afternoon sun, students can open the windows to let in the cooling winds.

476

UNIT 4

Emily Costello

CHAPTER 3

So the school installed an underground tank to capture this overowing rainwater, which is then used to keep the campus grounds lush.

Case Middle School includes dozens of green features never before used in a project this size in Hawaii.

477

Glossary
a
ancient (adjective) very old archaeologist (noun) a scientist who looks for things from the past and studies them archaeology (noun) the study of the past artifact (noun) an item from the past

(noun) an alphabetical list of words or terms, with explanations, found in or relating to a specic subject, text, or dialect; a brief dictionary

e
evidence (noun) proof of something excavation site (noun) a place where archaeologists search for items by digging in the ground

b
bacteria (noun) germs

f
nd (noun) an unexpected discovery

c
calorie (noun) a unit of measurement for the energy in food catalogue (verb) to write down in order to keep track of something conductor (noun) a leader

g
goods (noun) things made to be sold

l
limestone (noun) a type of rock

d
decompose (verb) to break down or rot disease (noun) a sickness

m
mold (verb) to make or form

478

GLOSSARY

p
power plant (noun) a factory that makes electricity

s
seal (noun) a marking or stamp

t
tomb (noun) grave

479

Index of Authors and Titles


The Archaeology Club 392395 At the Doctors Ofce 272275 At the Grocery Store 184187 At the Table 202205 Baxter, Jennifer 194197, 202205, 210213 Berger, Melvin 450451 A Bike for Jin 168171 Bosik, Wynne 272275, 280283, 288291 Build It Green! 472475 Chen, Phillip 460463 Cool School 476477 Costello, Emily 476477 Cook, Alice 340343 Cousins Catch Up 9699 A Day at the Beach 262265 A Delicious Lunch 210213 de Luna, John 328331 Digging Up Bones 384385 Discovery in Egypt 396397 Dolan, Sean 344345 Eliot, James 140143, 148151, 156159 Emergency! 156159 Estebans Interview 1821 Excited about the Vacation 246249 The Family Photo Album 104107 Finding the Way 148151 First Day of School 1013 Garbage! 412413 Garden Animals 236239 Gomez, Olga 366369 Goodenow, Ellen 420423 Greenberg, Theodore 472475 Grifths, Andy 370371 Hadingham, Evan and Janet 412413 Hernandez, Louisa 6265, 7073, 7881 Holdenberg, Michael 1013, 1821, 2629 Hoose, Phillip 424425 Hunter, Reed 8891, 9699, 104107 I Am Captured! from Gullivers Travels 332333 Interview with a Teacher 3639 In the Shower with Andy 370371 In the Valley of the Kings 380383 Invention Sensation 366369 Johnson, Samantha 3639, 4447, 5255 Kory Johnson: An Environmentalist for Life 424425 Lew, Kristi 438439 Long Ago Leftovers Are Going Fast 434437 Looking for Lunch 194197 Lost! 140143 Lunch in the Courtyard 2629 Lunis, Natalie 384385 Making Plans 7881 Map Time 4447 Matthew Henson: Arctic Explorer 344345 A Month in the New House 130133

480

Moreno, Javier 392395 Morris, Jason 246249, 254257, 262265, 332333 Mountain Hike 254257 Moving In and Cleaning Up 122125 Neenas Invention Kitchen 354357 A New House 114117 The New Student 5255 Oil Spill! 450451 Ohn, Gerry 168171, 176179, 184187 Ortiz, Sylvia 220223, 228231, 236239 The Parker Family Reunion 8891 Party Plans 298301 A Phone Call from a Friend 6265 Planting a Garden 228231 The Quest for Gold 328331 The Race Is On! 288291 The Recycle Cycle 420423 Renewable Resources 460463 Revving Up Green Machines 464465 Reyes, Nika 354357 Ricardo, Carmen 298301, 306309, 314317 Shopping for Clothes 176179 Siegal, Sara 114117, 122125, 130133 Smith, Molly 380383 Sohn, Emily 464465 Surprise! 306309 Swift, Jonathan 332333 Talking Trash 408411 The Time Machine 358359

Tonys Visit 7073 Training at the Gym 280283 A Walk on the Moon 340343 Wallace, Dee 434437 Walsh, Thomas 408411 A Warming World 446449 Watching the Weather 220223 Weather Gone Wild 438439 Wells, H.G. 358359 What a Party! 314317 Wolf, P. John 446449 Zucker, Johnny 396397

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Further Reading

3
What makes a great explorer?
George, Jean Craighead. My Side of the Mountain. New York, NY: Dutton Childrens Books, 2004. Goodman, Elizabeth and Tom McNeely. A Long and Uncertain Journey: The 27,000 Mile Voyage of Vasco De Gama. New York, NY: Mikaya Press, 2001. Kimmel, Eric A. Sword of the Samurai: Adventure Stories from Japan. New York, NY: Harper Collins Childrens Books, 1999. Kroll, Steven. Lewis and Clark: Explorers of the American West. New York, New York: Holiday House Publishing, 1996.

4
What can we do to protect the worlds natural resources?
Atkins, Jeannine and Venantius J. Pinto. Aani and the Tree Huggers. New York, NY: Lee & Low Books, 1995. Atwell, Debbie. River. New York, NY: Houghton Mifin, 1999. Cherry, Lynne. The Great Kapok Tree: A Tale of the Amazon Rain Forest. Orlando, FL: Voyager Books, 1990. Moller, Anne and Brigitte Weninger. Precious Water. New York, NY: North-South Books, 2000.

482

California Gateways Independent Reading Library


Amistad: Fight for Freedom by Sunita Apte and Debra Hess Lexile score 220 Champion of Freedom by Trina Robbins and Debra Hess Lexile score 320 Danger on Ice by Lisa Wroble Lexile score 490 Escape from Nazi Berlin by Debra Hess Lexile score 190 Follow that Car! by Stewart Carroll Lexile score 450 A Life in Their Hands by Ramon Corujo Lexile score 340 No Pay? No Way! by Holly Huppert Lexile score 280 On Trial in Rome by Debra Hess Lexile score 230 Radiation, Rats, and Mutant Monsters! by Audrey Carangelo and Debra Hess Lexile score 280 Skateboard City by Ann Weil Lexile score 350 Teenage Plant Food by Audrey Carangelo and Debra Hess Lexile score 200 The Worlds Greatest Showman by Kirsten Anderson Lexile score 500

483

California Language Arts Content Standards


Reading
1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
1.1.12 Use knowledge of vowel digraphs and r-controlled letter-sound associations to read words. 1.1.13 Read compound words and contractions. 1.1.14 Read inectional forms (e.g., -s, -ed, -ing) and root words (e.g., look, looked, looking). 1.1.15 Read common word families (e.g., -ite, -ate). 1.1.16 Read aloud with uency in a manner that sounds like natural speech. 2.1.1 Recognize and use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., diphthongs, special vowel spellings) when reading. 2.1.2 Apply knowledge of basic syllabication rules when reading (e.g., vowel consonantvowel = su/per ; vowel-consonant/consonantvowel = sup/per ). 2.1.3 Decode two-syllable nonsense words and regular multisyllable words. 2.1.4 Recognize common abbreviations (e.g., Jan., Sun., Mr., St.). 2.1.5 Identify and correctly use regular plurals (e.g., -s, -es, -ies) and irregular plurals (e.g., y/ies, wife/wives). 2.1.6 Read aloud uently and accurately and with appropriate intonation and expression.

Concepts about Print


1.1.1 Match oral words to printed words. 1.1.2 Identify the title and author of a reading selection. 1.1.3 Identify letters, words, and sentences.

Phonemic Awareness
1.1.4 Distinguish initial, medial, and nal sounds in single-syllable words. 1.1.5 Distinguish long- and short-vowel sounds in orally stated single-syllable words (e.g., bit/bite). 1.1.6 Create and state a series of rhyming words, including consonant blends. 1.1.7 Add, delete, or change target sounds to change words (e.g., change cow to how ; pan to an). 1.1.8 Blend two to four phonemes into recognizable words (e.g., /c/a/t/ = cat; /f/l/a/t/ = at). 1.1.9 Segment single-syllable words into their components (e.g., cat = /c/a/t/; splat = /s/p/l/a/t/; rich = /r/i/ch/).

Vocabulary and Concept Development


1.1.17 Classify grade-appropriate categories of words (e.g., concrete collections of animals, foods, toys). 2.1.7 Understand and explain common antonyms and synonyms. 2.1.8 Use knowledge of individual words in unknown compound words to predict their meaning.

Decoding and Word Recognition


1.1.10 Generate the sounds from all the letters and letter patterns, including consonant blends and long- and short-vowel patterns (i.e., phonograms), and blend those sounds into recognizable words. 1.1.11 Read common, irregular sight words (e.g., the, have, said, come, give, of ).

484

2.1.9 Know the meaning of simple prexes and sufxes (e.g., over-, un-, -ing, -ly ). 2.1.10 Identify simple multiple-meaning words.

2.2.7 Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs. 2.2.8 Follow two-step written instructions.

2.0 Reading Comprehension

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis

Structural Features of Informational Materials


1.2.1 Identify text that uses sequence or other logical order. 2.2.1 Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in expository text.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-LevelAppropriate Text


1.3.1 Identify and describe the elements of plot, setting, and character(s) in a story, as well as the storys beginning, middle, and ending. 1.3.2 Describe the roles of authors and illustrators and their contributions to print materials. 2.3.2 Generate alternative endings to plots and identify the reason or reasons for, and the impact of, the alternatives. 2.3.3 Compare and contrast different versions of the same stories that reect different cultures. 2.3.4 Identify the use of rhythm, rhyme, and alliteration in poetry.

Comprehension and Analysis of GradeLevel-Appropriate Text


1.2.2 Respond to who, what, when, where, and how questions. 1.2.3 Follow one-step written instructions. 1.2.4 Use context to resolve ambiguities about word and sentence meanings. 1.2.5 Conrm predictions about what will happen next in a text by identifying key words (i.e., signpost words). 1.2.6 Relate prior knowledge to textual information. 1.2.7 Retell the central ideas of simple expository or narrative passages. 2.2.2 State the purpose in reading (i.e., tell what information is sought). 2.2.3 Use knowledge of the authors purpose(s) to comprehend informational text. 2.2.4 Ask clarifying questions about essential textual elements of exposition (e.g., why, what if, how ). 2.2.5 Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas. 2.2.6 Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text.

Writing
1.0 Writing Strategies

Organization and Focus


1.1.1 Select a focus when writing. 1.1.2 Use descriptive words when writing. 2.1.1 Group related ideas and maintain a consistent focus.

Penmanship
1.1.3 Print legibly and space letters, words, and sentences appropriately. 2.1.2 Create readable documents with legible handwriting.

485

Research
2.1.3 Understand the purposes of various reference materials (e.g., dictionary, thesaurus, atlas).

Grammar
1.1.2 Identify and correctly use singular and plural nouns. 1.1.3 Identify and correctly use contractions (e.g., isnt, arent, cant, wont ) and singular possessive pronouns (e.g., my/mine, his/her, hers, your/s) in writing and speaking. 2.1.3 Identify and correctly use various parts of speech, including nouns and verbs, in writing and speaking.

Evaluation and Revision


2.1.4 Revise original drafts to improve sequence and provide more descriptive detail.

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)


1.2.1 Write brief narratives (e.g., ctional, autobiographical) describing an experience. 1.2.2 Write brief expository descriptions of a real object, person, place, or event, using sensory details. 2.2.1 Write brief narratives based on their experiences: a. Move through a logical sequence of events. b. Describe the setting, characters, objects, and events in detail. 2.2.2 Write a friendly letter complete with the date, salutation, body, closing, and signature.

Punctuation
1.1.4 Distinguish between declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences. 1.1.5 Use a period, exclamation point, or question mark at the end of sentences. 1.1.6 Use knowledge of the basic rules of punctuation and capitalization when writing. 2.1.4 Use commas in the greeting and closure of a letter and with dates and items in a series. 2.1.5 Use quotation marks correctly.

Capitalization
1.1.7 Capitalize the rst word of a sentence, names of people, and the pronoun I. 2.1.6 Capitalize all proper nouns, words at the beginning of sentences and greetings, months and days of the week, and titles and initials of people.

Written and Oral English Language Conventions


1.0 Written and Oral English Language Conventions

Sentence Structure
1.1.1 Write and speak in complete, coherent sentences. 2.1.1 Distinguish between complete and incomplete sentences. 2.1.2 Recognize and use the correct word order in written sentences.

Spelling
1.1.8 Spell three- and four-letter short-vowel words and grade-level-appropriate sight words correctly. 2.1.7 Spell frequently used, irregular words correctly (e.g., was, were, says, said, who, what, why ). 2.1.8 Spell basic short-vowel, long-vowel, r-controlled, and consonant-blend patterns correctly.

486

CALIFORNIA LANGUAGE ARTS CONTENT STANDARDS

Listening and Speaking


1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies

Comprehension
1.1.1 Listen attentively. 1.1.2 Ask questions for clarication and understanding. 1.1.3 Give, restate, and follow simple two-step directions. 2.1.1 Determine the purpose or purposes of listening (e.g., to obtain information, to solve problems, for enjoyment). 2.1.2 Ask for clarication and explanation of stories and ideas. 2.1.3 Paraphrase information that has been shared orally by others.

1.2.4 Provide descriptions with careful attention to sensory detail. 2.2.1 Recount experiences or present stories: a. Move through a logical sequence of events. b. Describe story elements (e.g., characters, plot, setting). 2.2.2 Report on a topic with facts and details, drawing from several sources of information.

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication


1.1.4 Stay on the topic when speaking. 1.1.5 Use descriptive words when speaking about people, places, things, and events. 2.1.5 Organize presentations to maintain a clear focus. 2.1.6 Speak clearly and at an appropriate pace for the type of communication (e.g., informal discussion, report to class). 2.1.8 Retell stories, including characters, setting, and plot.

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)


1.2.1 Recite poems, rhymes, songs, and stories. 1.2.2 Retell stories using basic story grammar and relating the sequence of story events by answering who, what, when, where, why, and how questions. 1.2.3 Relate an important life event or personal experience in a simple sequence.

487

Acknowledgements
Literature
Bearport Publishing Company, Inc.: T. Rex Named Sue by Natalie Lunis from T. Rex Named Sue: Sue Hendricksons Huge Discovery; 2007, Bearport Publishing. Chelsea House Publishers: Matthew Henson: Arctic Explorer by Sean Dolan, Copyright 1992 Chelsea House Publishers, a division of Main Line Book Co. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux: Kory Johnson: An Environmentalist for Life from WE WERE THERE, TOO! By Phillip Hoose. Copyright 2001 by Phillip Hoose. Reprinted by permission of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, LLC. Harcourt, Inc.: Discovery in Egypt by Jonny Zucker, Copyright 2008 Harcourt Achieve. Harper Collins: Oil Spill! by Melvin Berger, Copyright 1994 by Melvin Berger, HarperCollins Childrens Books. Science News for Kids: Revving Up Green Machines by Emily Sohn, Science News for Kids, taken from http://www. sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050608/Feature1.asp. Scholastic, Inc.: Cool School by Emily Costello, Science World, 4/17/2006, Vol. 62 Issue 13, p22-24. Simon and Schuster: from Garbage! by Evan and Jan Hadingham, Pp. 8-11, 14-16, Copyright 1990 by Evan and Jan Hadingham and WGBH Educational Foundation, Simon and Schuster. Weekly Reader Publishing Group: Twisted! by Pearle Tesler, Current Science (USA), 13 September 2002, Volume 88, Issue 2, pg. 4-5. Special permission granted by Weekly Reader, published and copyrighted by Weekly Reader Corporation. All rights reserved. Weekly Reader Publishing Group: Weather Gone Wild by Kristi Lew, Current Health 1, Apr/May2007, Vol. 30 Issue 8, p24-27. Special permission granted by Weekly Reader, published and copyrighted by Weekly Reader Corporation. All rights reserved. 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Photography
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Illustration
Cover: Roger Beerworth; pp. 89 Tim Jones; pp. 10, 12, 13 Dan Bridy; pp. 1617 Tim Jones; pp 18, 20, 21 Dan Bridy; pp. 24, 25 Tim Jones; pp. 26, 28, 29 Dan Bridy; pp 3435 Diana Kizlauskas; pp 36, 3839 Frank Harris; pp. 42, 43 Diana Kizlauskas; pp.44, 46 47 Frank Harris; pp. 5051 Diana Kizlauskas; pp. 52, 54, 55 Frank Harris; pp. 6061 Reggie Holladay; pp. 62, 64, 65 Judith A. Hunt; pp. 6869 Reggie Holladay; pp. 70, 72 73 Judith A. Hunt; pp.7677 Reggie Holladay; pp. 78, 80, 81 Judith A. Hunt; pp. 8687 Tom McKee; pp. 88, 90, 91 Don Dyen; pp. 9495 Tom McKee; pp 96, 98, 99 Don Dyen; pp. 102103 Tom McKee; pp. 104, 106, 107 Don Dyen; pp. 112,

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