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SOLARTHERMALTECHNOLOGIES

S SRINIVASAMURTHY S.
ProfessorofRefrigeration&CleanEnergyTechnologies ssmurthy@iitm.ac.in

India SpainWorkshoponRenewableEnergies Sevilla(Spain)


M h 14, March, 4 2011

Department ofScience &Technology

DireccinGeneraldeCooperacinInternacional

DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering gyMadras IndianInstituteofTechnology Chennai India

INDIAS POWERSCENARIO
India I di is i the th worlds ld six i largest l t energy market k t and d its it per capita consumption is expected to increase from 606 Kilo Watt Hour (kWH) in 2006 to 1,000 1 000 kWH by 2012. 2012 Indias total power generation capacity on July 31, 2006 was 126,838 MW. Of this, thi coal lbased b d units it generated t d 68,988 68 988 MW; MW hydropower generated 32,975 MW; gas based stations generated 13,581 MW; renewable sources generated 6,193 MW; nuclear power generated 3,900 MW and diesel generator generated 1,201 MW.

India is in the solar belt of the world. High incidence of solar radiation, geographic latitude, and demand pattern of energy provide appropriate conditions for utilization of solar energy in the country.

Indiahassignificantpotentialforharnessingsolarpower Solarresource Technicalinfrastructure Manufacturingcapability Manpower PolicyframeworkandGovernmentincentivesareinplace Activitiestobestructuredtoachievetheg goal


Source:IndiaMeteorologicalDept.SolarEnergyCenterHandbook

TheJ Th Jawaharlal h l lN Nehru h NationalSolarMission

MinistryofNewandRenewableEnergy GovernmentofIndia

InlaunchingIndiasNationalActionPlanonClimateChange onJune30,2008,thePrimeMinisterofIndia, Dr.Manmohan Singhstated:


Our vision is to make Indias economic development energy efficient. Over a period of time, we must pioneer a graduated shift f from economic i activity i i based b d on fossil f il fuels f l to one based b d on non fossil fuels and from reliance on nonrenewable and depleting sources of f energy gy to renewable sources of f energy. gy In this strategy, gy, the sun occupies centrestage, as it should, being literally the original source of all energy. We will pool our scientific, technical and d managerial i l talents, t l t with ith sufficient ffi i t financial fi i l resources, to t develop solar energy as a source of abundant energy to power our economy y and to transform f the lives of f our p people. p Our success in this endeavour will change the face of India. It would also enable India to help change the destinies of people around the world.

JawaharlalNehru NationalSolarMission
Under the National Action Plan on Climate Change 8 Missions have been proposed. In the Prime Ministers words Solar Mission was its centerpiece. centerpiece National Solar Mission is one of the major global initiatives in promotion of solar energy technologies. The Mission aims to achieve volume production, rapid diffusion and deployment of solar technologies across the country t at t a scale l which hi h leads l d to t cost t reduction d ti and d aiming i i to achieve grid parity by 2022.

WhySolarforIndia?
Most parts of the country receive good solar radiation Possible to utilize in grid connected as well as offgrid and distributed manner to meet growing demands an cover deficit areas Access and empowerment at grass root level Modular in nature, less gestation period, low maintenance and high reliability Abundant and clean source

JNNSMRoadMap
Application segment Target for Phase I (2010-13) 1,000 MW 100 MW 200 MW 2 million 7 million sq meters Cumulative Cumulative Target for Target for Phase 2 Phase 3 (2013-17) ( ) (2017-22) ( ) 4,000 MW 20,000 MW

Grid solar power incl. roof top Off-grid solar applications pp (incl. rural solar lights) Solar collectors

1,000 MW 10 million 15 million sq meters

2,000 MW 20 million 20 million sq meters

Strategy
Graduateddeploymenttonucleatecriticalmasstill costscomedownandthereafterrapidscaleup Enablingpolicyandregulatoryframework SupportingUtilityscalepowergeneration E Expanding di off ffgrid idapplications li ti AcceleratingResearchandDevelopment EnhancingDomesticmanufacturingbase

Policy yandRegulatory g yFramework


TarifffixedbyCentralElectricityRegulatoryCommission(CERC)forpurchase ofsolarpowerbyNTPCVidyut Vyapar Nigam(NVVN)www.cercind.gov.in CERChasannouncedtarifffor201011: PV CSP Rs.17 Rs 17.91 91perunit(US$0 0.39 39perunit) Rs.15.31perunit(US$0.34perunit)

AnnualtariffreviewbyCERCfornewprojects StateElectricityRegulatoryCommissionstofixtarifffordirectpurchaseof powerbyStateutilities SolarspecificRPOstartingwith0.25%proposedin1st phase,increasingto 3%by2022tobefixedafterpolicychange PolicyfortradableRECertificatefinalized.AvailableonCERCwebsite pilot tostart PolicytoencouragesettingupofmanufacturingunitsinIndia

Fi lIncentives Fiscal I ti
100% Foreign Direct Investment Zero Customs & Excise Duties on solar cells, modules and many raw materials 5% Customs and Excise duty on many other raw materials, components and grid power projects Tax holiday for (i) setting up units in backward and specified ifi d areas; and d (ii) grid id power projects j t 80% accelerated depreciation in the first year for certain capital investments Grant for carrying out research and development and technology validation projects

SolarPowerPurchasePolicy y(1) ( )
Inthefirstp phaseoftheMission1,000 , MWsolarpower p (connected ( to33KV ormoregrid)tobepurchasedbyNTPCVidyut Vyapar Nigam(NVVN) 500MWeachforsolarthermalandPV Permittedplantcapacityforaproject:5MWforPVandupto100MWfor solarthermal NVVNtopurchasesolarpowerfromdevelopers,bundleequivalentMW capacityofthermalpowerandsellbundledpowertoutilitiesatthe b dl dprice bundled i ( R Rs.5.5 5 5perkWh kWh,US$0.12) $0 12) DeveloperstosignPPAwithNVVNfor25years UtilitiescanmeettheirRPObypurchaseofsolarpower

SolarPowerPurchasePolicy(2)
100 MW capacity solar power projects connected to LT/11 KV grid (100 KW to 2 MW capacity each projects ) Commercial, institutional, industrial & other rooftops Ground mounted & tailend grid connected projects Tailend plants will help in improving the grid voltage and provide additional power specially for irrigation pumps and other loads in rural areas Up to 20 MW capacity projects can be taken up in a State to encourage geographical spread

GenerationBasedIncentive
Tariff fixed by y State Electricity y Regulatory g y Commission Power purchase by State utilities, with 25 years PPA Generation Based Incentive (GBI) to utilities by Government of India through Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) to reduce their burden GBI rate : tariff iff fixed fi d by b CERC minus i notional i l tariff iff of f 5.5 per kWh (US$0.12), with 3% annual escalation R Rs.

IREDA will start accepting applications for projects online 2010 on first come first served basis from 15th July,

Off gridSolarApplications
200MWcapacitysolarapplicationsinthefirstphase RefinancebyIREDAandotherFIs. Loansat5%annualinterestratewithconditions 30%subsidyforselectapplications 90%subsidyfornicheapplicationsinspecialcategoryStates andinotherremoteanddifficultareas Marketdrivenexpansionoftheprogramme.Additional channelsforsupplyandmaintenancebeinginvolved(RESCO, FinancialIntegrators Integrators,SystemIntegrators Integrators,Corporates, Corporates GovernmentAgenciesandBanksetc.)

OffGridSolarApplications
DetailedguidelinesavailableonthewebsiteoftheMinistry Standards,quality,accreditationandmonitoringarrangements Cansavesubstantialquantitiesofkeroseneanddieselandproveaccess Focuson solarlights, g ,specially p yinruralareas ruralpowersupply Solarpowertoreplacediesel Solarpowerfortelecomtowers Solarwaterheaters solarcookingforinstitutionaluse

R&DStrategy gy
ResearchatAcademic/ResearchInstitutionsonmaterials anddevices withlong gtermp perspective p AppliedResearchonexistingprocessesanddeveloping newtechnologies t h l i TechnologyValidationaimedatfieldevaluationof materials,componentsandsystems Development l of fCenters C of fExcellence ll ondifferent diff aspects ofSolarEnergy. SupportforIncubationandInnovation Internationalcollaborations institutional/industrial

FundingRequirements
G Governmenthas h approved dabudget b d of fRs. R 4 4,337 337crores (US$ 943million)forthefirstphaseoftheMissiontillMarch, 2013tomeettherequirement q offundsforGBI, ,capital p grantsandrefinancingofloans. 1,000MWgridconnectedprojectsaresupportedthrough b dli with bundling i hthermal h lpower,which hi hwould ldotherwise h i requireaboutRs.75,000crores (US$16.3billion)to purchasesolarp p power Forfurtherexpansionofprogramme,additionalfundswill berequired. GovernmenthaddecidedtosetupCleanEnergyFund,which willpartlysupportadditionalprojectsundertheMission

Conclusions
JawaharlalNehruNationalSolarMissionoffers opportunitiestoinvestin: Gridpowerprojects Offgridprojects Manufacturing R&D Enablingpolicyandregulatoryframeworkinplace Aggressive gg R&Dandlocalmanufacturing gnecessary yto reducethecosttoachievegridparity Partnershipsnecessarywithglobalstakeholders Newandinnovativefinancingarrangementsrequired
ForDetailsPleaseVisithttp:\\mnre.gov.in http:\\mnre gov in

LatestStatusof Achievementsof MNRE


Contact D Bib k Bandopadhyay Dr.Bibek B d dh Advisor;MNRE bbibek@nic.in

SolarDishStirlingEngine VelloreInstituteofTechnology
STIRLINGENGINE Type:Singleacting,90VEngine SweptVolume:160cm3 GrossPowerOutput:9.8kW NetPowerOutput:9.2kW k ReceiverGasTemperature:650C WorkingGas:Helium G P Gas Pressure:20150bar b CONCENTRATOR Diameter:8.5m Projectedarea:56.7m2 Focallength:4.5m Concentration i factor: f 2500 Reflectivity:94% MNREFundedProject
Contact:Dr.D.Subhakar;subhakar@hotmail.com

PANIITPROJECT
The Department of Science & Technology is supporting a project on Solar Thermal Power generation, with participation from all IITs and the National Th Thermal l Power P C Corporation. i A a part of As f this hi project, j a storage integrated i d 1 MW thermal power plant (average power for 8 hours/day) will be setup. This is based on direct steam generation using Fresnel and linear parabolic mirror arrays for concentrating the solar energy. energy Energy storage in the form of high pressure, high temperature steam will be carried out, in steam accumulators. This will be supplemented by sensible storage in the supporting blocks of collector tubes. To a smaller extent, storage in a cascade of molten salt and phasechange materials will also be attempted. For the generation of high temperature steam, inverted cavity type solar collectors with evacuated tubes will be employed. Special coatings will be employed l d for f increasing i i solar l energy absorption b i or to prevent heat h l losses. A fully instrumented research facility will help in the monitoring of the plant performance. Th plant The l will ill also l include i l d a reciprocating i i expander d type solar l power generation i device for auxiliary power and a small scale solar refrigeration unit for the instrumentation panels
Contact:Prof.T.Sundararajan (IITMadras) tsundar@iitm.ac.in

SOLARWATERHEATINGSYSTEMS
The gross potential for SWHS in India has been estimated to be 140 million sq. m. of collector ll area. A total of 3.53 million sq. m. of collector area has so far been installed in the country t for f solar l water t heating, h ti of f which hi h about 1.55 million sq. m. has been installed since 200506. A target of 5 million sq. sq m. m has been set for the 11th Plan (200712) and a goal of 20 million sq. m for 2020. As per The National Solar Mission, the targets for deployment of SWHS has been divided into three phases: 7millionsq.m.forPhaseIi.e.201013 15millionsq.m.forPhaseIIi.e.201317 q m.forPhaseIIIi.e.201722 20millionsq.

YearwiseachievementofSWHS (sq.Mtr.ofcollectorarea) Upto 200203 200203 200304 200405 200506 200607 200708 200809 200910 Total 6,50,000 6 50 000 1,00,000 1,50,000 2,00,000 4,00,000 4,00,000 4,50,000 , , 5,60,000 6,20,000 35,30,000

Source:MinistryofNewandRenewableEnergy

42,000lpd Hotwatersystemina ChennaiHotel

460m2SolarAirHeatingSystemfor ChilliDryingatErode,Tamilnadu

AVarietyofSolarCookersareinUse

CommunityCooking
A 160 m2 parabolic dish concentrator, the first of its kind, for use in milk pasteurization at a dairy at Latur, Maharashtra and a 16 m2 parabolic dish for steam cooking applications at Brahmkumari Shantivan Complex, Abu Road in Rajasthan have been installed. A solar bowl concentrator connected to a conventional oil fired boiler is i t ll d at installed t a community it kitchen kit h in i Auroville. This solar cooker cooks food for around 1000 people. The system consists of nontracking solar bowl concentrator of 15 m diameter fixed on the ground and cylindrical automatic tracking receiver pivoted at its focal point from one end.

Thermic fluid is used to transfer the energy collected by the receiver and the transferred energy will be stored in a heat storage tank. A large number of Schefler/dish type S l Solar C k Cookers h have b been i t ll d in installed i India.

SolarsteamcookingatMt.Abu

SOLARCOOLING
Current total installed cooling is 35000 Mwe forming 28.7% of the installed capacity. capacity Of the yearly capacity addition a staggering 25 to 30% of the power generation is estimated for Cooling. Non availability of Real Real Power Power in Rural India leading to 30 to 40 % of Post Harvest Produce being wasted and 1% only being processed.

The Solar Thermal Cooling Expert Group of MNRE


GOALS To develop and promote solar air conditioning systems in the capacity range of 1 TR to say 100 TR for applications in domestic, commercial and industrial sectors.. To develop and promote solar cooling systems for cold storage of perishable foods such as milk, fish, fruits, vegetables, etc., especially in rural and coastal areas. To develop p and p promote small p portable refrigerators g for vaccine storage in PHCs and also for domestic application in residential sector

CURRENT SITUATION A few demonstration projects on solar air conditioning are on in the country under the existing scheme of MNRE on solar steam generating systems: A 350 kW solar air conditioning system using Scheffler dishes is under installation at Muni Seva Ashram, near Vadodara with part support from MNRE. The solar heating system will be connected to their existing VAR system being run on wood fired boiler. The system is expected to save about 80% of the wood being used. A 300 kW TR solar l air i conditioning di i i plant l using i S h ffl dishes Scheffler di h h has b been installed at TVS Suzuki factory near Chennai and is under testing. A 80 kW solar air conditioning unit using imported heat pipe evacuated tube collector is under use for last three years at M/s Mamata Energy, Ahmedabad. A proposal for installing 500 kW solar air conditioning system at a hospital run b Municipal by M i i l Corporation, C ti Th Thane using i S h ffl dishes Scheffler di h h has b been received i d for f MNRE support. Installation work has already been started. A 30 TR capacity solar air conditioning plant using Scheffler dishes is under installation at M/s Magnetic Mareli Power Train India Pvt., Gurgaon.

ACTION PLAN TO FILL GAPS Improvements in Scheffler technology to reduce its manual operations, optimize it performance and lower the cost. Development of new designs of fully automatically tracked solar concentrators Development of smaller VAR machines (both wet and dry sorption) in capacity range of 1 to 15 TR with the involvement of Indian industries and research institutions. Optimum designing & integration of various components of solar air conditioning systems using available knowledge base. Standardization of various components of existing technologies on solar air conditioning and refrigeration. Energy storage technologies (hot water, chilled water, phase change materials, refrigerant storage etc.) need to be developed at commercial levels. levels

THANKYOUVERYMUCH
FurtherDetailsContact:ssmurthy@iitm.ac.in