Hormone

Thyroid T3, T4

Target
Nuclear Receptors of: Most tissues Bone Marrow GI tract Bone Cardiac

Action
Sympathomimetic (↑ HR, CO, Resp., metabolism), ↑ protein synthesis ↑ O2 consumption, heat (d/t ↑ metabolism) Erythropoeisis ↑ motility ↑ bone turnover Alters myosin isoenzymes ↑ bone resorption (↑Ca+2) ↑ Ca+2 reabsorption, PO4-3 secretion ↑ Ca+2absorption via Vit. D Organomegaly,↑ Organ function ↑ linear growth ↓ hunger ↑ glycogen storage, ↑ synth cholesterols, ↑ glycolysis ↑ TG storage, ↑ glucose uptake, ↓ lipolysis ↑ protein synthesis (aa uptake), ↑ glycogen synthesis (↑ glucose transport), ↓ aa release (m/ breakdown) ↑ aa uptake, ↑ glycogenolysis, ↑ gluconeogenesis, ↑ ketogenesis ↑ lipolysis (FFA) ↑ Hunger ↓ Hunger ↓ Hunger ↑Ca+2, ↑PO4-3 absorption

Regulation
TSH stims Iodine

Clinical/Other
Hypothyroidism -Children-cretinism -Adults-myxedema- fatigue, constipation, puffy face/hands, weight gain, m. weakness (accumulation of GAGs) Hyperthyroidism – Grave’s Dz goiter, ophthalmopathy, palpitations, ↓ weight, heat intolerance Hypo-low blood Ca+2 can cause tetany Hyper-hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia

Parathyroid PTH

Bone Kidney Intestine Bone, Heart, Lung Chondrocytes Hypothalamus Liver Adipose Muscle

Ca+2 in blood

Liver IGF-1 Pancreas

GH

β-Cells – Insulin

High blood glucose stim Glucagon-Like Peptides (GLP) stim SST inhibits

GLUT2 - β cell glucose sensor GLUT4 - activated by insulin - ↑# on cell surface to ↑ glucose uptake in skeletal, cardiac m., adipose

α-Cells – Glucagon

Liver Adipose

Stim – aa, ACh, Epi, Low blood glucose Inhibit- glucose, insulin, SST, FFA Fasting releases

GI Tract Stomach – Ghrelin Small Intestine – CCK Sm./Lg. Intestine – PYY Kidney 1,25-OH-D Adipose Leptin

Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Hypothalamus GI Tract

PTH

From skin, diet - Liver→25-OH-D

Hormone
Adrenal Cortex Zona GlomerulosaMineralocorticoids (Aldosterone)

Target

Action
Maintain plasma volume via Na+ retention, K+ excretion

Regulation
Renin-Angiotensin system

Clinical/Other
Hyper-1°/2° Aldosteronism-HTN d/t hypernatremia & ECF expansion; m. weakness, fatigue d/t hyperkalemia Hypo of aldosterone-1° Adrenocortical Insufficiency (Addison’s Dz)-dehydration, HTN, hyponatremia (Na+ wasting), hyperkalemia (K+ retention) Helps relieve stress (Stress activates CRH release) ↑ release in morning (so wake with normal blood glucose), peak ~1 hr post. wake Hyper-Cushings Dz-truncal obesity, moon facies, HTN, gonadal dysfxn Hypo of cortisol-1° Adrenocortical Insufficiency (Addison’s Dz)- fatigue, hyperpigmentation, GI abnormalities

Zona FasciculataGlucocorticoids (Cortisol, Hydrocortisone) Gonadocorticoids (androgens)

CNS CV Liver Lungs Pituitary Kidney Bone Muscle Immune CT

Zona ReticularisGlucocorticoids, weak androgens (DHEA)

↓CRH, ADH; ↑appetite Maintain sensitivity to vasoconstrictors ↑ Gluconeogenesis (which ↑ lipolysis) Fetal lung devo ↓ ACTH ↑ GFR ↑ Resorption, ↓ Formation Catabolic (↑aa), ↓ insulin sensitivity Suppresses (↓ inflammation) ↓ Collagen synthesis See above DHEA precursor for T (negligible in males)

CRF-ACTH system

CRF-ACTH system

CAH- ↓ response to ACTH→ ↑ androgens – female pseudohermaphroditism - Adrenal Androgen HyperS – hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, acne, virilization of females Tumor (pheochromocytoma) may cause sudden onset HTN, headache, sweating, palpitations, tachycardia

Adrenal Medulla Catecholamines (Norepi, Epi)

Fight-or-flight response (↑HR, CO, BP, Resp. rate, bronchiole dilation, vasoconstrict skin/gut, vasodilate heart, skeletal m.)

ACh ↑ exocytosis of secretory granules

Hormone
Sex Organs Testosterone Testes

Target

Action
Maintain spermatogenesis, male duct morphology, accessory sex glands, 2° sex characteristics ↑ FSH, LH receptors on follicle and theca cells –primes follicular tissue for progesterone ∆ SM cell length Mucus watery, abundant - + for sperm Promotes ciliogenesis and mitosis Epithelium thick, cornified, filled w/ glycogen Local levels modulate ovulation Quiet SM cx (w/ relaxin) Mucus thick, sparse - – for sperm Stim secretory activity and SM cx Epithelium thin, sloughed cells nucleated Maintains corpus luteum until placenta takes over making progesterone and estrogen GH-like - stim gluconeogenesis in maternal liver

Regulation
FSH stims Leydig cells – Activin and Inhibin from testes regulates FSH

Clinical/Other

Estrogen

Ovary Uterus Cervix Oviduct Mucosa Vagina Mucosa Ovary Uterus Cervix Oviduct Mucosa Vagina Mucosa Corpus Luteum

Progesterone

Placenta hCG hCS Estrogens

Estriol

Lots of aromatase in placenta→convert almost all androgens Made from DHEA sulfate from fetal adrenal

Marker of fetal health/brain devo – made from DHEA sulfate

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