Thyroid T3, T4

Nuclear Receptors of: Most tissues Bone Marrow GI tract Bone Cardiac

Sympathomimetic (↑ HR, CO, Resp., metabolism), ↑ protein synthesis ↑ O2 consumption, heat (d/t ↑ metabolism) Erythropoeisis ↑ motility ↑ bone turnover Alters myosin isoenzymes ↑ bone resorption (↑Ca+2) ↑ Ca+2 reabsorption, PO4-3 secretion ↑ Ca+2absorption via Vit. D Organomegaly,↑ Organ function ↑ linear growth ↓ hunger ↑ glycogen storage, ↑ synth cholesterols, ↑ glycolysis ↑ TG storage, ↑ glucose uptake, ↓ lipolysis ↑ protein synthesis (aa uptake), ↑ glycogen synthesis (↑ glucose transport), ↓ aa release (m/ breakdown) ↑ aa uptake, ↑ glycogenolysis, ↑ gluconeogenesis, ↑ ketogenesis ↑ lipolysis (FFA) ↑ Hunger ↓ Hunger ↓ Hunger ↑Ca+2, ↑PO4-3 absorption

TSH stims Iodine

Hypothyroidism -Children-cretinism -Adults-myxedema- fatigue, constipation, puffy face/hands, weight gain, m. weakness (accumulation of GAGs) Hyperthyroidism – Grave’s Dz goiter, ophthalmopathy, palpitations, ↓ weight, heat intolerance Hypo-low blood Ca+2 can cause tetany Hyper-hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia

Parathyroid PTH

Bone Kidney Intestine Bone, Heart, Lung Chondrocytes Hypothalamus Liver Adipose Muscle

Ca+2 in blood

Liver IGF-1 Pancreas


β-Cells – Insulin

High blood glucose stim Glucagon-Like Peptides (GLP) stim SST inhibits

GLUT2 - β cell glucose sensor GLUT4 - activated by insulin - ↑# on cell surface to ↑ glucose uptake in skeletal, cardiac m., adipose

α-Cells – Glucagon

Liver Adipose

Stim – aa, ACh, Epi, Low blood glucose Inhibit- glucose, insulin, SST, FFA Fasting releases

GI Tract Stomach – Ghrelin Small Intestine – CCK Sm./Lg. Intestine – PYY Kidney 1,25-OH-D Adipose Leptin

Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Hypothalamus GI Tract


From skin, diet - Liver→25-OH-D

Adrenal Cortex Zona GlomerulosaMineralocorticoids (Aldosterone)


Maintain plasma volume via Na+ retention, K+ excretion

Renin-Angiotensin system

Hyper-1°/2° Aldosteronism-HTN d/t hypernatremia & ECF expansion; m. weakness, fatigue d/t hyperkalemia Hypo of aldosterone-1° Adrenocortical Insufficiency (Addison’s Dz)-dehydration, HTN, hyponatremia (Na+ wasting), hyperkalemia (K+ retention) Helps relieve stress (Stress activates CRH release) ↑ release in morning (so wake with normal blood glucose), peak ~1 hr post. wake Hyper-Cushings Dz-truncal obesity, moon facies, HTN, gonadal dysfxn Hypo of cortisol-1° Adrenocortical Insufficiency (Addison’s Dz)- fatigue, hyperpigmentation, GI abnormalities

Zona FasciculataGlucocorticoids (Cortisol, Hydrocortisone) Gonadocorticoids (androgens)

CNS CV Liver Lungs Pituitary Kidney Bone Muscle Immune CT

Zona ReticularisGlucocorticoids, weak androgens (DHEA)

↓CRH, ADH; ↑appetite Maintain sensitivity to vasoconstrictors ↑ Gluconeogenesis (which ↑ lipolysis) Fetal lung devo ↓ ACTH ↑ GFR ↑ Resorption, ↓ Formation Catabolic (↑aa), ↓ insulin sensitivity Suppresses (↓ inflammation) ↓ Collagen synthesis See above DHEA precursor for T (negligible in males)

CRF-ACTH system

CRF-ACTH system

CAH- ↓ response to ACTH→ ↑ androgens – female pseudohermaphroditism - Adrenal Androgen HyperS – hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, acne, virilization of females Tumor (pheochromocytoma) may cause sudden onset HTN, headache, sweating, palpitations, tachycardia

Adrenal Medulla Catecholamines (Norepi, Epi)

Fight-or-flight response (↑HR, CO, BP, Resp. rate, bronchiole dilation, vasoconstrict skin/gut, vasodilate heart, skeletal m.)

ACh ↑ exocytosis of secretory granules

Sex Organs Testosterone Testes


Maintain spermatogenesis, male duct morphology, accessory sex glands, 2° sex characteristics ↑ FSH, LH receptors on follicle and theca cells –primes follicular tissue for progesterone ∆ SM cell length Mucus watery, abundant - + for sperm Promotes ciliogenesis and mitosis Epithelium thick, cornified, filled w/ glycogen Local levels modulate ovulation Quiet SM cx (w/ relaxin) Mucus thick, sparse - – for sperm Stim secretory activity and SM cx Epithelium thin, sloughed cells nucleated Maintains corpus luteum until placenta takes over making progesterone and estrogen GH-like - stim gluconeogenesis in maternal liver

FSH stims Leydig cells – Activin and Inhibin from testes regulates FSH



Ovary Uterus Cervix Oviduct Mucosa Vagina Mucosa Ovary Uterus Cervix Oviduct Mucosa Vagina Mucosa Corpus Luteum


Placenta hCG hCS Estrogens


Lots of aromatase in placenta→convert almost all androgens Made from DHEA sulfate from fetal adrenal

Marker of fetal health/brain devo – made from DHEA sulfate

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