You are on page 1of 20

ALFA IAS ACADEMY

MODERN INDIA

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Advent of Europeans
Portuguese Portuguese were the first to discover sea route to India Vascodagama (Portugal) reached Calicut on 27th may 1498 He was received by the Hindu ruler king Zamorin Francisco-De-Almeida First viceroy of Portuguese Known for his blue water policy Alfonso-De-Albuquerque Captured Goa from the ruler of Bijapur Portuguesefactories:Calicut ,Cochin,Cannanore ,Goa, Daman, Diu, Bassein

Establishment of East India companies English - 1600 Dutch - 1602 Danish - 1616 French - 1664 Dutch Dutch East India company was formed in 1602. They replaced Portuguese as most dominant power in the East. Pulicat was their main centre till 1690 and later Nagapattnam. Factories: Masulipatnam, Nagapatnam,Pulicat, Karaikal.

English English East India Company was established in 1600 English opened their first factory at Surat in 1608 Captain Hawkins came to the court of Jahangir in 1608 Sir Thomas Roe came to the court of Jahangir in 1615 Francis Day established the City of Madras in 1639

1 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Job Charnock purchased three villagesSultanuti, Govindpur and kalikata and constructed Fort William (Calcutta). Danish Formed East India Company in 1616 Serampore was their headquarters Established settlements of Tranquebar and Serampore French French East India Company was formed by Colbert in 1664 Factories Surat, Masulipatnam, Karaikal, Mahe, Yanam French governor Dupleix started Anglo French conflict. Carnatic Wars First Carnatic War (A.D 1746 A.D 1748) The war was an echo of Austrian war of succession English and French took opposite sides In the battle of AdayarNawab of Carnatic Anwaruddin was defeated by French. The war came to an end by the Treaty of Aix-la-chappele Second Carnatic war (1748 A.D 1754) Succession disputes between the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Nawab of Carnatic led to the war French supported Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib Battle of Ambur 1749 Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib killed Anwaruddin Robert Clive defeated Chanda Sahib and made Mohammad Ali as Nawab of Arcot Robert Clive was called as the Hero of Arcot Second Carnatic War ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry in 1755 Third Carnatic War ( A.D 1756 A.D 1763) The War was an echo of the war in Europe French general Count de Lally captured Fort St David. French were defeated at Wandiwash (1760) Pondicherry was returned to French by the Treaty of Paris

2 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Robert Clive (1765-67) First Governor of Fort William Hero of Arcot Captured Bengal in 1757 (Battle of Plassey) Introduced Dual System of administration.

Warren Hastings (1772 1785) Abolished dual system introduced by Robert Clive Established Board of revenue Abolished dastaks (free passes) Introduced prepaid postage system Established Civil Court of appeal SadarDiwaniAdalat Criminal Court of appeal SadarNizamatAdalat Rohilla war 1774 First Anglo Mysore war (1775 1782) Second Anglo Mysore War (1780 1784)

Lord Cornwallis (1786 1793) Purified Civil Service, he laid the foundation of the Indian Civil Service Separated three branches of service commercial, Judicial and revenue. Prepared comprehensive code known as Cornwallis code Introduced Permanent Settlement of Revenue Third Mysore War (1790 -1792)

Lord Wellesley (1798 1805) Bengal tiger Introduced Subsidiary alliance system Hyderabad was the first state which was brought under Wellesleys subsidiary alliance system Subsidiary alliance system Any Indian ruler who entered into the Subsidiary alliance with the British had to maintain a contingent of British troops.It was the duty of the British to safeguard that state from external aggression.

3 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Anglo Mysore wars 1st Anglo Mysore war - 1775 82

Governor

General

Warren Hasting Warren Hasting Lord Cornwallis Lord Wellesley

2nd Anglo Mysore war - 1780 - 84 3rd Anglo Mysore war - 1790 92 4th Anglo Mysore war - 1799

Lord Hastings(1813-23) He approved Ryotwari system of land revenue . Ryotwari system of land revenue was introduced in the Madras Presidency by Sir Thomas Munroe. He established Hindu college at Calcutta (1817) Considered as the maker of Bombay Presidency He suppressed Pindaris. Lord William Bentinck (1828 1835): First Governor General of India Introduced local language in lower courts and English in higher courts Abolished Sati by Regulation xvii on 4th Dec 1829 Suppressed thugs Introduced English Education He laid foundation of the Calcutta Medical College

Lord Dalhousie (1849-56): Youngest Governor general Introduced Doctrine of lapse Introduced Railways, Telegraph Laid foundation for modern postal system, postage stamps were introduced for the first time Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were founded in 1857 Known as father of Railways and Telegraph and hailed as maker of modern India First Railway line Bombay to Thane was opened in the year 1853. Implemented Woods Despatch on Education in 1854 .
4 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Lord Canning (1856 1862): The last Governor General and the first Viceroy. Mutiny took place in his time. On Nov, 1858, the rule passed on to the crown. Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse. The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were established in 1857. Indian Councils Act was passed in 1861. Lord Lytton (1876 1880): Organised the Grand Delhi Durbar in 1877 to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of Kaiser I Hind. Arms Act(1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms. Passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act (1878). Lord Ripon (1880 1884): Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians. Repealed the Vernacular Press Act (1882) Passed the local self government Act (1882) Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commissions recommendations). The Factory Act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour. Passed the ilbert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later. Lord Dufferin (1884 1888): Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure. Lord Curzon (1899 1905): Passed the Indian Universities Act (1904) in which official control over the Universities was increased. Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces 1, Bengal (proper), 2.East Bengal & Assam. Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province. Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1904), to restore Indias cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established. Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act (1899) and put India on a gold standard. Extended railways to a great extent.
5 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Lord Minto (1905 1910): The Indian Council Act of 1909 or the Morley Minto Reforms was passed. Lord Hardinge (1910 1916): Held a durbar in dec, 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King George V. Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911). A bomb was thrown at him; but he escaped unhurt (Dec 23, 1912). Gandhiji came back to India from S.Africa (1915). Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement. Lord Chelmsford (1916 1921): August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people. The government of India Act in 1919 (Montague Chelmsford reforms) was passed. Rowlatt Act of 1919; JallianwalaBagh Massacre (April 13, 1919). Non Cooperation Movement. An Indian Sir S.P.Sinha was appointed the Governor of Bengal. A Womens university was founded at Poona in 1916. Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new educational policy. Lord Reading (1921 1926): Rowlatt act was repealed along with the Press act of 1910. Suppressed non-cooperation movement. Prince of Wales visited India in Nov.1921. Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala. Ahmedabad session of 1921. Formation of Swaraj Party. Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922. Communist part was founded in 1921 by M.N.Roy. Kakory Train Robbery on Aug 9, 1925. Lord Irwin (1926 1931): Simon Commission visited India in 1928. Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929. Dandi March (Mar 12, 1930). Civil Disobedience Movement (1930).
6 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930. Gandhi Irwin Pact (Mar 5, 1931) was signed and Civil Disobediance Movement was withdrawn. Lord Willington (1931 1936): Second Round Table conference in London in 1931. On his return Gandhiji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed in Jan 1932. Communal Awards (Aug 16, 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. Gandhiji went on fast in protest against this . Third Round Table conference in 1932. Poona Pact was signed. Government of India Act (1935) was passed. Lord Linlithgow (1936 1944): Govt. of India Act enforced in the provinces. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. They remained in power for about 2 years till Oct 1939, when they gave up offices on the issue of India having been dragged into the II World War. The Muslim League observed the days as Deliverance Say (22 December) Churchill became the British PM in May, 1940. He declared that the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK and US, stating to give sovereign rights to those who have been forcibly deprived of them) does not apply to India. Outbreak of World War II in 1939. Cripps Mission in 1942. Quit India Movement (August 8, 1942). Lord Wavell (1944 1947): Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25, 1945 with Indian National Congress and Muslim League; failed. Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16, 1946). Elections to the constituent assembly were held and an Interim Govt. was appointed under Nehru. First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on Dec. 9, 1946. Lord Mountbatten (Mar.1947 Aug.1947): Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free India. Partition of India decided by the June 3 Plan. Indian Independence Act passed by the British parliament on July 4, 1947,
7 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

by which India became independent on August 15, 1947. Retried in June 1948 and was succeeded by C.Rajagopalachari (the first and the last Indian Governor General of free India) Zamindari System or the Permanent Settlement John Shore planned the Permanent Settlement Introduced in Bengal, Bihar, Banaras, North western provinces by Cornwallis in 1793. Ryotwari system Introduced mainly in Madras, Berar, Bombay and Assam. Sir Thomas Roe introduced this system in Madras presidency. Direct settlement was made between the government and the ryot (Cultivator) The land revenue was fixed for a period of 20 to 40 years. Mahalwari system (1833) Introduced in the Punjab, Central provinces and parts of North Western Provinces Basic unit of revenue settlement was the village (Mahal) The village community is responsible for paying the revenue Palayakkaras (Poligars) The system of poligars in Tamilnadu was by the extension ofVijayanagara rule in Tamilnadu Each palayakkarar has a territory or palayam consisting of few Villages. They give military service and tribute to the King. Poligar Region Pulithevar -Nerkkatumseval Kattambomnan- Dindugal KrishnappaNayak- Mysore Marudupandian -Sivaganga Marudupandian of Sivagangaorgainsed the South Indian confederacy against British. (Thiruchirappalli Proclamation was made) Kattaboman was hanged at Kayattar 17th October 1799 Nerkattumseval was captured by Col Campbell.
8 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Revolt of 1857 Character of Revolt Sir John Lawerence - ----Revolt was purely a military outbreak VirSarvarKar - ------------First war of Indian Independene S.N .Sen - ------------------- Revolt was part of the struggle for Indian Independence. Causes of revolt : 1. Doctrine of Lapse introduced by Lord Dalhousie. 2. Ruin of handloom industries. 3. New plantation system introduced in 1833. 4. Abolition of batta in military. 5. Introduction of Enfield Rifle. Revolt began on 29th March 1857 at Barrackpur MangalPande refused to use greased cartridges of Enfield rifle and attacked and killed his officer. Centres of Revolt and their leaders Delhi - Bahadur Shah II, General Bagat Khan Kanpur - Nana Sahib, Tantiya tope Lucknow -Begam of Oudh ( BegamHazratMahal) Bihar - Kunwar Singh Bareilley- KhanBahadur Khan Fate of leaders Bahadur Shah II- Deported to Rangoon BegamHazaratMahal- Escaped to Nepal Rani Jhansi - Died in Battle field Tantia Tope- Captured and killed Suppression of Revoltby English Generals Delhi- Nicholson, Wilsonand Baird Smith Kanpur -Colin Camphell Luknow- Colin Camphell Jhansi - Hugh Rose

9 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Social Religious movements

Vernacular press act and Arms act (1878) Lord Lytton first factory act 1881 Introduction of local self government by Lord Rippon in 1882 Ilbert Bill Agitation 1884 Calcutta corporation Act 1899 Police Commission - 1902 Universities act - 1904 Partition of Bengal -1905

BrahmoSamaj- Rajaram Mohan Roy 1828 AryaSamaj- SwamiDayandSaraswati 1875 Prathanasamaj- AtmaramPandurang Rama Krishna mission - Swami Vivekananda 1897 Theosophical Society Madam Blavatsky and Henry Olcott SatyashodakSamaj- Jyotibaphule -1873 Aligarh movement - Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Parsi Religious Reform Association - FurdonjiNaoroji,S.S.Bengalee SamarasaSuddhaSanmarghaSangam Ramalinga 1865 Self respectmovement - E.V. Ramasamy -1925 Raja Rammohan Roy Established BrahmoSamaj at Calcutta in 1828 Considered as a pioneer of Socio Religious movements in modern India He established AtmiyaSabha in 1815 He preached that there is one god - Monotheism Founded Hindu College along with David Hare in 1817 Bengali weekly SamvadKaumudi Persian weekly Mirat-ul-akhbar Swami DayanandSaraswathi He founded Arya Samaj in 1875 Believed that the vedas are the source of true knowledge . Motto Go back to Vedas Encouraged Inter-Caste marriages and window remarriages . Book SatyartaPrakash

10 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Started Suddhi movement to bring back Hindus who had Converted to other religions. Founded Dayanand Anglo Vedic (DAV) school in 1886 at Lahore Swami Vivekananda He preached Vedantic Philosophy. Vivekananda participated in the Parliament of Religions held at Chicago in1893. Founded Ramakrishna Mission.

Political Associations
Land holder Society 1837 The British India Association1851 Bombay Association 1852 East India Association 1856 Madras Native Association 1852 Poona SarvajanikSabha1870 Indian Association 1876 Madras MahajanSabha1884 Indian National Congress 1885 Servants of India society 1905 Indian Home Rule League 1916

Indian National Congress (INC) Founded by A.O.Hume , a retired civil servant First Session was held in Bombay in 1885 It was attended by 72 delegates W.C.Banerjee was its first President. Phases of Indian National movement

Moderate nationalism (1885-1905)

Extremist Nationalism (1905-1919)

Gandhian Phase (1919-1947)

Moderates: Early Nationalists are described as moderates as their demands were extremely moderate ,they did not demand immediate self government instead they demanded larger share in the government by expanding legislative
11 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

councils. They believed in peaceful bloodless struggle.They confined themselves to meetings,speeches,resolutions and petitions. Moderate leaders : A.O.Hume W.C.Banerjee Dadabhainaoroji Feroze shah Mehta Gopala Krishna Gokhale Madan Mohan Malvia BadruddinTyabji Justice Ranade G.SubramaniaIyer DadabhaiNaoroji Grand old Man of India His book : Poverty and Un British Rule in India Known for his Drain Theory Important facts Gopala KrishnaGokhale was the political guru of Gandhiji. DadhabhaiNaoroji was the first Indian to become a member of the British House of Commons. Moderate nationalism Moderates had total faith in the British sense of Justice Confined themselves to meetings, speeches , resolutions and petitions Confined their political activities to the educated classes only. Achievements of moderates Created a wide national awakening among the people Exposed the exploitative nature of British rule Succeeded in getting the Indian councils act 1892 passed by the British Parliament. Drawbacks of Moderates: Failed to realise the importance of mass struggle Failed to understand the true nature of British rule

12 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Failed to get anything substantial from the British through their constitutional methods. Extremists Extremists demanded complete independence Extremists advocated mass struggle against the British. Had no faith in the British sense of justice They believed that the political rights will have to be fought for They had the spirit of self reliance and self determination

Causes for the rise of Extremists Failure of moderates to win any notable success Economic conditions of India became worse Ill treatment of Indians in South Africa Japan defeated European power Russia Reactionary rule of Lord Curzon Extremists objective was to attainSwaraj or complete Independence.

Leaders of extremists BalGangadharTilak LalaLajputrai Bipin Chandra pal Aurobindo gosh

BalGangadharTilak Founder of popular anti British movement Known as Lokamanya Weeklies Maratta (English) Kesari ( Marathi ) Set up Home Rule League in Poona 1916 Deported to manadalay prison for 6 years Declared Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it LalaLajpatRai Known as Lion of Punjab Founded Indian home Rule League in USA in 1916 Received fatal blow while leading a procession against Simon commission
13 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Muslim League Formed by NawabSalimullah of Dacca in 1906 Lucknow session of Indian national Congress 1916 Divided Congress became united Luck now pact was signed Luck now pact 1916 - Signed by Congress and Muslim League Home Rule movement 1916 Aim : To get self government for India within British Empire two home rule leagues established. 1) Home rule league at Poona - B.G. Tilak Tilaks Movement concentrated only in Maharashtra 2) Home rule league at Madras - Mrs. Anne Besant Movement concentrated in rest of India August declaration which promised Self government led to end of the movement Partition of Bengal 1905 Bengal was partitioned to break the growing strength of Bengali nationalism and to divide Hindus and Muslim in Bengal. Partition of Bengal led to the rise of extremism in Indian National movement. Swadeshi movement Swadeshi movement was started in protest against the partition of Bengal Swadeshi movement involved.Boycott of government service schools Courtsetc, Promotion of National education Promotion of Swadeshigoods

Revolutionary Movement Abhinav Bharat - Savarkar brothers

Bharat mathaAssociation -NilkantaBramachari Ghadar party - LahaHardyal

14 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Region Bengal Maharashtra Madras Punjab London

Revolutionary organisations/ Revolutionaries AnusilanSamiti, Jugntar Abinav Bharat BharatMatha Association AjithSingh Shyamji Krishna Verma

Champaran Satyagraha 1 Launched by Gandhiji against the oppressiveEuropean Indigo planters at Champaran Kheda Satyagraha Gujarat Launched in support of the peasants who were not able to pay the land tax due to crop failure SardarVallabhai Patel joined Gandhiji in this Satyagraha. Ahmedabad mill strike 1918 Gandhiji undertook fast unto death for the cause of Ahmedabad mill workers Rowlat act 1919 (Black act) Rowlat act was passed to curb militant activities as per this act any person could be arrested on the basis of suspicion and no appeal could be filed against the arrest. JallianwalaBagh Massacre 13th April 1919 Two prominent leaders in Punjab Dr.Satyapal and Dr.SaifuddinKitchlew were arrested for protesting against Rowlat act. Large crowd of people gathered in a small park namedJallianwalaBagh in protest against arrest of their leaders The Army under the orders of General O Dyer blocked the entrance to the park and fired at the unarmed people killing more than 1000 people Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood in protest against this killing. Kilafat movement 1919 Turkey was defeated in the World War I treaty of Versailleswas signed which humiliated Muslims.
15 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Sultan of Turkey Caliph was regarded as religious head of all Muslims A movement was launched in India against the British called khilafat movement Prominent leaders of khilafat movement : AbulKalam Azad o M.A Ansari o SaifuddinKitchlew o Ali Brothers Khilafat movement merged with Non Cooperation movement by Gandhiji . Non cooperation Movement 1920 Aimed to protest against Rowlat Act, Jallianwalahbaghmassacre and to support khilafatmovement of Muslims. Approved by the Indian National Congress at Nagpur session on Dec1920 The movement was called off due to Chaurichaura incident in Feb 1922. Chaurichaura Incident 1922 In Uttarpradesh inchaurichaura village an angry mob set fire to the police station in which two police men were burned to death . Swaraj Party Suspension of Non Cooperation movement led to the split in congress in the Gaya session Motilal Nehru and Chittranjan Das formed a separate group with in the congress known as Swaraj party on 1st Jan 1923. Simon Commission (1927) Appointed to review the Act of 1919 Headed by Sir John Simon All its members were English men (no Indian member) so large scale anti Simon demonstration took place. LalaLajpatrai was seriously injured in the police lathi charge. The Simon commission report formed the basis for the Government of India act 1935. Nehru report A committee was set up to drawup a blue print for the future constitution of India headed by Motilal Nehru. The report given by this committee is known as Nehru report. The report favoured Dominion Status
16 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Muslim league rejected thereport. In 1929 Lahore session PoornaSwarajresolution was passed. Civil disobedience movement was launched in 1930 Dandimarchwas started on 12th 1930 from Sabarmathi ashram by Gandhiji.

Round table conferences 1st Round table conference November1930 London, congress boycotted 2nd Round table conference Sept 1931 London, Mahatma Gandhi participated but no agreement was reached. 3rd round table conference 1932, Congress did not participate. Gandhi Irwin pact 1931 In this Gandhiji agreed to suspend the Civil disobedience movement and to participate in the 2nd round table conference. Communal Award ,Aug 1932 Announced by British Prime minister Ramasy Mac Donald. It declared separate electorates for the depressed classes. Poona pact (1932) Gandhi saw the Communal Award as an attack on Indian Unity and nationalism and went onfast unto death. An agreement was reached between Gandhiji and Ambedkar called as Poona pact. In 1937 elections were held under the provision of government of India act 1935. Congress ministeries were formed in 7 states World War II broke out in 1st Sep 1939 British Government involved India without consulting the people of India. As a mark of protest against this Congress Ministries resigned on 12th Dec 1939. Muslim league celebrated that day as the Deliverance day Muslim league demanded the Creation of Pakistan in 1940. August offer ( 8th Aug 1940) Envisaged that after the war a representative body of Indians would be set up to frame the new constitution.Gandhiji not satisfied with the offer and launched Individual Satygraha.

17 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Individual Satyagraha 1940 Note :First to offer Individual satyagrahaAcharyaVinobaBhave Second to offer Individual Satyagraha Jawaharlal Nehru

Cripps mission 1942 Stafford Cripps was sent to secure Indian Cooperation for the world war Promised Dominion status Offered Setting up of Constituent Assembly Protection of minorities Gandhijicalled this as post dated cheque.

Quit India Movement 1942 - 1944 Mahatma Gandhiji believed that an interim government could be formed only after British left India. So the All India Congress Committee met at Bombay and passed the famous Quit India resolution. Gandhiji gave his call of Do or Die Indian National Army (INA) INAs Brigades SubhasBrigade Gandhi Brigade Nehru Brigade Rani LakshmibhaiBrigade (womens wing)

Cabinet mission plan 1946 Lord Atlee (Prime Minister of England ) conceded the Indians demand of right to self determination and framing of Constitution for India. Members of Cabinet mission Pathick Lawrence Sir Stafford Cripps A.V. Alexander PLAN: Proposed the formation of union of India comprising of both British India and princely states. Proposed setting up of an interim government
18 www.alfaiasacademy.com

ALFA IAS ACADEMY 98424 30133

ERODE

Muslim league and the Congress accepted the plan Result Election were held in 1946 for the formation of constituent assembly Interim government was formed under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru on 2nd Sep 1946. Mount batten plan 1947 Mount batten putforth the plan of partition of India on 3rdJuly 1947 Congress and Muslim league approved the Mount batten plan. Indian Independence act 1947 Indian Independence act was enacted Mount batten plan. by British Government to approve

British government would transfer the power to the Constituent assemblies of two dominions (India & Pakistan) Note :Radcliff Boundary Commission drew the boundary line separatingIndia and Pakistan Important Congress sessions : Year Place President Details 1885 Bombay W.C. BannerjiFirst session attended by 72 delegates 1886 Calcutta DadabhaiNaoroji 1887 Madras Syed BadruddinTybaji First Muslim President

1906 CalcuttaDadabhaiNaorojiThe word Swaraj was used for the first time 1907 Surat Rash Behari Gosh Split in congress 1908 Madras Rash Behari Gosh A constitution for the congress drawn 1916 Lucknow A.C. Majumdar was signed betweenCongress and Muslim league Reunion of congress ,Lucknow pact

1917 1922

Calcutta Mrs.Anni Besant First woman President Gaya C.R. Das Swarajya party formed
19

www.alfaiasacademy.com