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A HISTORY OF
BYZANTINE MUSIC
AND
HYMNOGRAPHY

BY
EGON WELLESZ
FELLOW OF LINCOLN COLLEGE
OXfORD
SECOND ED IT ION
REV ISED AND ENLARGED
OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
O:\,jord U"it;ersity Press, Ely HOTue, Londo." IV, I
GLASOOW NII'W yom: TORO:-''TO MELBOURNI! \\ELl. INGTOS
SAIROBI DAR t:s SALAA\I LUSAKA ADDIS ABABA
CAPE TOWS MUSBl"RV IBADA-"
BOMBAY CALCl ," TTA MADRA.'i KARACIII LAIIORE DACCA
KUALA LU;o.IPUR SINGAPORE HOSG KONG TOK\'O
tniTlO, 11,1-19
\1(,0'0 tlll1LO' (lIt\I\l1l .1.'0 .'L 1<)11 1
IIU'IU'Tln \ I' IIMIlAL ....
11\ \1\1.1.' KI LlI I M
I'KI'"II II TO nil \ -"'1\
LI)(U, ' 97'
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
S
TUDIES in Byzantine music have made remarkable progress
SInce the pubhcah on of the first edition of this book in 19-f9. The
field of research has been widened by the inclusion of melismat ic
chant and other forms of liturgical chant whi ch we had hitherto
not a ttempted t o decipher. On t he other hand, the number of
schola rs working on Byzant ine music has increased and there are
more musicologist s interest ed in Byzantine music as an important
branch of Christian Chant in general.
F or these reasons it was not suffi cient t o reprint this book;
considera ble enlargement and revision have proved necessary.
The secti ons which needed most expansion were those on ' Byzan-
t ine Liturgy' (pp. 130- -f5), on the ' Poetical ForIIls' I (pp. 191-'7).
and 'Byzant ine Musical Not ation' (pp. 246-60, 271-84, 305-8).
A new secti on on ' Melismatic Chant and Psalmody' , a new fi eld
in our studies had to be added (pp. 329- 48, Appendix pp. -fOI -
lS). It was, necessary to bring the ' Introducti on'
up to dat e (pp. 20-28). Minor wer; put together In an
a ppended section under the htle Excursuses, t o which reference
is made in the t ext by an ast ensk '. . . .
As mentioned in t he preface of the fi rst editi on Byzantme
musical ma nuscri pts have neither a st andardized system of
accents nor of punctuation. They ha ve, however, dots, care-
full y at the end of t he lines of t he poems .. When
arc t a ken from manuscri pts, t he t ranscnpt IOn follows t e
original as closely as possible. k !l d La tin forms of names
Inconslst encICs between Gree Sa thors for exampl e
ld t be aVOided orne au , . ,
and terms cou no t d efer ' the Lat in form Hirmoiogi1l1ll ,
whose a li lcles a re q uo e , pro . Hinnolo io"
ot hers t he Greek spelling Hemll olo
p
15lO
f
" or A '1 F
15
n'en'd Jr of
f
I t t I lat e ro essor . " . ,.,
[ a m deeply gra t e u 0 le .·t d me to go in the Summer
U
· t who lln- I e
Princet on nI\'ersl Y',. Scholar t o the Dumbarton Oaks Re-
semester 195-1 as a \ ISltmfon (Harvard University), in Washmg-
search Libra ry and Coll ect, m osium on Byzantine Liturgy and
t on, and t o t a ke pa rt 111 P e in the Winter semester 1956-7
Music' . This st ay and ano on tl e Dumbarton Oaks Library,
ena bled me t o pursue my ';.or My thanks are due to John
whi ch speciali zes 1I1 Byzan me!:i U '

V1
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION
Tl h
Directar .o f t he Dumbartan Oaks Research Library and
lac er, 1 . d P f
Callectian, t a Professar Sirarpi e Der N erseSSlan, an t a ro essar
E. Ki tzinger, Directar .of St udi es, wha wark m
every canceivable way. 1I11ss Patn cla h ean , Fell a\\ .of Lady
Hall, Oxfard, h as agam been \'cry kmd m helpmg me
ta prepare the manuscn pt f01' the press. .
The last ward .of gratitude IS due ta my dear fnends and col-
leagues, Prafe sar Carsten Hoeg and Professor H . J. W. TIlI yard,
\I'ith wham I have had the pn nlege of ca-operatmg for more than
a quar ter .of a century an t he Jl olltlmcllla .IIusicae Byzal1lill ae.
Uxford
May I958
Nole 011 the Frontispiece
E. ] W.
THE plate given as frontl!:)piece is from, the the for}he
Convent of Our Lady of Good Hope (riis v1TEpayws OEOTOKOV TTlS BE{lalas Ei\. mSo»
at Constantinople. The Typikol1 was bought by George \ \ 'heeler, a Fellow of
Lincoln College, at .\theI1S during his journey to the East in 1675- 6 and gi\'cn to
the College together with other manuscripts. The fi rst part of the Typikon l was
compost>d Th('odora, the daughter of the Sebastokrator Constantine Coo1-
nco us Palaeologus, and niece of the Emperor " I II Palueologus (1259-
82), the first Emptror of the Palat'ologian dynasty.
Theodora and her husband, the Great Stratopl'darchcs John Comnenus
Doukas Synadcnos, wcre the founders of the Con\'enl of Our Lady o f Good
Hope, and Theodora, under the name of Theodoul<" becamc the first abbess.
The second part of the Typikon was written by her youngest daughter, the nun
Eudokia, who enlarged the monastery. The last pages were added by later
members of family in 1397, 13<}8, and 1402.
On folios one to mne we find a unique series of miniatures , rcpresentlllg the
family of the founders, on the tenth the Blessed Virgin of Good Hope, on the
eleventh Theodora-Theodoute as Abbess and on the last the Abb<:ss together
with the nuns. The plate here reproduced r<:prescnts the Protoseuastos Con-
stantin<: Comnel1us Raoul Palaco\ogus, a son-in-law of the foundress and his
wife Euphrosyne Doukas one of the daughters of the foundress .
The is an extremely fine example of Byzantine craftsmanship of t he
penod 111 which Byzantine music had reached its zemth.
, tut follo\\ed by the of the luundation of the Convent, i, giHn h)'
H. m 1m 'Ueux Typica byz:mtinl de I'epoque des Paleologue., in A/(mo/fI'J,
Dtllx./mtSnlt, tome X",, of the Academic Royall,: de Belgique ('921), pp. 18-1 05 and 14 1-72.
,
,
FROM THE
PREFACE T O THE FIRST EDITION
HE idea .of this baok goes back to a caurse of lectures which
I delivered tJ1!.rty years aga in the University .of Vienna.
At tha t tlme st udies m Byzantlne musIc were .only begi nning
and very few meladles had been transcribed. The subj ect , haw-
ever , seemed t a me sa absarbing t hat I decided ta continue
my investigatians and ta study t he whole camplex .of Eastern
Chnstlan mUSIc m .order t o get the right approach ta its most
impartant branch, t he music, in ceremonies and liturgy, .of the
Byzant ine Empire. In the introductary chapter the reader will
fmd a detailed repart .of these studies and t heir connexion with
t hase .of other schalars.
There is a great difference between t he scheme of t his baak as
it was .originally planned and its present form. A great deal of
what I had to say was worked out in books and articles pub-
lished since I917, ta which reference is made in t he bibliography.
The mast impartant decisian was to deal wi th the origins of
Christian music in a separate work, in which it was shown that
bath Byzantine and Western Chant uitin1ately deri ved from a
cam man saurce the music .of the Synagogue, and that a close
relatianship between a number of Western melodies and
the parallel Eastern versions .. This relationship bet ween East
and West , well knawn ta li t urglOlog1sts, had to be made clearto
students .of t he histary .of music by an analysIs of the
f Latin h mns with Greek pratatypes. I must the!efore er
a y. bl . t t l '· book Easlem E/e-
readers interested 111 t hese pra em. 0 liS: f
ments ill VI' "steYll Challt, published in I947 as the hrst "ol ume 0
the Ameri can Seri es .of t he lvIoll"",."ta J11t1SlCae ..
This separat e treatment .of the origins made It ;,
0

a histary .of t he develapment of musIc t fnl
y
to
graphy and it is hoped t hat this may be 0 servjlce nOd Byzan-
, al t t dents .of Eastern thea ogy an
musicalagists but so 0 s u . to .outline the back-
tine civilizatian. I alsa found It antine hymnography
ground, Greek and Hebrew, fram w 1C
th
/ ,: hile both words and
devela ped. I came ta audged by Patristic and
music were of Oriental ong1n th,e
y
and Neopjatonic
Byzantine writers 111 the li g t 0
viii PREFACE TO FIRST EIlITlON
thought, and that as hymnography developed the spirit of t he
Greek language transformed the expression of t he melodies, so
that this originally foreign material was naturalized by a con-
tinuous process of assimilation. .
For a long time the student of hymnography was dIscouraged
from an investigation of Byzantine poetry, partly by the bulk
of the material to be found in the service books, partly by t he
quality of much of it, verbose and lacking in inspiration in com-
parison with classical Greek poetry. It is true that in the great
mass of Byzantine liturgical poetry a large proportion is artisti-
cally worthless, but it is also true that much inspired poetry can
be found if the whole material is investigated. It is well known
that the same is true of Latin hymns, and, further, if a compari-
son is made, it will be found that many Byzantine hymns equal,
when they do not surpass, the best Latin poems in imaginative
power and technical achievement . It is from these hymns,
appreciated for what they are without reference to the standards of
classical poetry, that Byzantine hymnology must be approached.
It is impossible, however, to consider the texts apart from the
music. The fusion of words and music is complete: the texts
cannot be judged apart from the melodies nor the melodies apart
from the words to which they were sung. The Eastern melodies
show less variety in construction and detail than their Western
parallels, the Gregorian melodies. But once we are accustomed
to the fact that they are built up on a certain number of formulas
whIch are characteristic of the mode of the hymn we can see
how the musicians shaped and varied the patterns
transnutted to them from one generation to the next, embellish-
1I1g them shghtlr, untIl 111 the period of the Maistores, or Mclurgi,
the ornamentatIon became more fiorid and the music of greater
Importance than the words. This new development, which is a
purely mUSIcal one, has been dealt with in a number of detailed
studIes, above .al11l1 ].-B. Rebours's Traite de psaltique. I have
restncted the present history to the period in which
ymnography was productive from the point of view of both text
and musIc. I hope one d t 1 bl .
f th M I
· ay 0 )e a e to supplement It by a study
o e e urgt.
P Mr. Sisam, Secretary to the Delegates of the University
ress, lrst suggested, 111 19+1, that I should wrile a book for
PREFACE TO FIRST EIl[TIO:--: .
the Clarendon Press which would "
t di d I
. h sum up the results of
sues, an WIS to express my gratitude f h my
encouragement that he and the Dele ates t e Support and
started the work as soon as the mag . atvefgtven me. I
El
. W nuscnp 0 my Easter
ements til estern Chant was com ltd Ii . . n
August I946. That it took me so long t!,!ne
te
mshed 111
with which I had been acquainted since th I °d
n
a sU
f
Ject
t d' b I' eeary ayso my
s u les may e exp amed by the fact that I have not relied in
any sectIOn on reproducmg quotations of sources at second hand
but have always gone back to the oriPinal texts Thi d'
d
. 0-- '. s proce lire
prove exactmg but often led to unexpected and valuabl It
-1'1 . . e resu s.
11S was partIcularly the case in the chapters which dealt with
Greek musical theory, the pagan background,' the alchemical
treatIses, and musIc in ceremonies.
Since the covered by these sections was not part of
my former studies, I dIscussed many of them "ith my friends,
and asked them to read parts of the manuscript before I gave
It to the pnnter. I was fortunate in having the advice of P. Kahle
on Hebrew and Syriac poetry, of Rudolf Pfeiffer and Mrs. Isobel
Henderson on Greek musical theory, of P. Maas and G. Zuntz
on Byzantine poetry. I have also to thank the Rev. A. A. Farrer,
who rC"ised tile translations of the In-mns ....
A word must be said about the Greek quotations given in the
footnotes, and about the text, accentuation, and punctuation of
Greek hymns. There are few critical editions of Byzantine
ecclesiastical writers. Most of the quotations therefore had to be
taken from editions which are far from faultless. An attempt to
trace the texts back to the manuscripts would have made it
impossible to carry out the main purpose of the book. Thetext
of Ps.-Dionysius the Areopagite in i\ligne's Patrolog1a Graeca IS, as
everybody knows, in a very corrupt state; the text of NIcolas
Mesarites in Heisenberg's edition has an unusual accentuatIOn.
But since the present book is not intended for phIlologIcal R
ur
-
d t
t dardize the texts. 1 hIS
poses, no attempt has been ma e 0 san. . .'
would, in any case, have been t? create an artificlalulllformlty 111
texts spread over many centunes. t
. . I scripts have no accen s,
The texts of hymns In muslca . . .' d b d t
. .. . r d half-hnes IS mdlcate Y a 0
and the dlv1sIOn 1I1to mes an f I full-clause, or short
above the line. The clot means a hal -c aust, t the sense The
pause in the melody, and does not punc ua e .
" PREFACE TO EDITlO);
printed service books of the Greek Church keep the dot , but add
a quite arbitrary punctuation by commas and full stops, and
so do the various modern editions. Here too no attempt at
standardization has been made. In the manuscripts iota mb-
scriptum is used rarely and irregularly. It has usually been sup-
plied, in conformity with the modern method of printing classical
Greek.
Byzantine accentuation was not the same as that of classical
Greek; the system of pitch had been abandoned, and a stress
accent substituted. The music proves that, as far as poetry is
concerned, the line contains only three or four main accents. The
best method, therefore, of printing it would be to mark only
these, with acutes, as P. Maas proposed. This question, however,
is fully discussed in the chapter on words and music.
The present book was not merely written in Oxford. It owes
its shape and outline to the spirit of Oxford. I have already
mentioned some of my friends who were always ready to help
when the subject matter took me beyond the range of my own
studies. Miss Patricia Kean helped me to prepare the manu-
scnpt for the press and read the proofs. She also compiled the
Index, as she did for my Eastern Elements in Western Chant.
I wlsh to express to her my gratitude for her support.
The book could never have been written without the help
which I received from the University and the haven which
Lmcoln College gave me by electing me a Fellow in 1939. I
therefore Wish to dedicate it to the Rector and Fellows as an
expressIOn of my gratitude and friendship, and I have chosen as
frontispiece a mlmature from a manuscript in the possession of
Lincoln College, now deposited in the Bodleian Library ....
Lincoln Collcg/!
Oxford '94K

E. J W.
CONTENTS
ABBREVIA TlONS

XIV
INTRODUCTIO". A SURVEY Of STCDIES
AND HH!NOGRAPHY
I. BYZAXTI:\E MUSIC
IX BYZA:-ITIl\E MUSIC
II. EAHLY WonK ON BYZAXTIXE AX'D HYM:-':OGRAPHY
III. }.-8. PITRA AXD W. CHRI ST
IV. LATER STUDIES IX BYZAXTIXE IIYMNOGRAPHY
V. LATER STUDIES IX' BYZAX'TINE :'oIUSIC
VI. THE DECIPIIERI:-;C OF THE )tL'SIC
\'11. THE PRESE!'T STATE OF STUDIES IN BYZAXTlNE CHANT
l. THE ORIGINS OF BYZANTINE MUSIC
1. TilE OHIENTAL HYPOTHESIS
II. THE CO:'oIPOSITE CHARACTER OF BYZANTINE CI \'ILlZATJOX
Ill. THE VOCAL CHARACTER OF BYZAXTIXE
IV. TilE LEGACY OF TIlE SYSAGOGL"E
(a) Psalmody
(b) Hymns
(e) Spiritual songs
v, CONCLUSION
II. THE SURVII'AL OF GREEK ML' SICAL THEORY
l. THE PRISCIPLES OF GREEK THEORY
II. THE DOCTRI!'I.'E Of." 'ETHOS' GREEK THEORY
III. XEOPLATOXIC 0:\ Ml'SICAL TIIEORY
IV. THE BYZANTIXE (OXCEPTIOX OF ML'SIC
V. MUSIC IX TREATISES OF GREEK GXOSTICS AXD
(n) Gnostic Formulae of Incantation
(6) Greek ;\lchemists on i\lusic
III. THE PAGAN BACKGROL'XD
1. ABSE!'I.'CE OF MUSICAL DOCUMENTS
II. THE ATIITUDE OF THE CHl'RCH TO llt'SIC IS Pl'BLIC LIFE
III. ECCLESIASTICAL EDICTS AGAIXST PAGAl\' MUSIC
1\'. TilE TIIEATRE
V. THE PANTOMDIE
VI. PAGAS FEAST!)
VII.
(a) Olympic Games
(b) Maioumas
(c) The Calendae
MUSIC
. IDEAL
MUSICA PERNICIOSA ASD THE CHRISTI."!' .
\' III.
1
2

J
7
II
15
lJ
29
3
1
3
2
35
35
4
0
4'
4'
4
6
52
55
60
64
64
7
2
7
8
79
83
85
87
&)
89
9"
9"
9
'
94
••
Xll CONTENTS
1\'. 11\ CEREMO:-l IES
I OIUGI).; UF THE ACCLAMATIOXS
11. THE OF "IL'SIC IX THE CEREMO:" IES
Ill. THE onCAl'\'
I\", l"SE OF THE AC(LAMATTOXS
\', FV:\,CTlON OF THE ACCLM.IATIOXS
n. THE :\I[SIC OF THE A(CLA:\IATIOSS
I'. BYZA)';TI:-IE LITURGY
l. THE UTrRCIES OF ST. BASIL ASD OF ST. ('HRYSoSTOM AND THE
LITl'RGY OF THE PRESA:-\CTIFIED
II. THE AND THE SERVICE
III. THE OFFICE
1\', THE LlTL'RCILAL BOOKS
I"l. EARLY CHRISTI A),; HYMNS
I. THE PAGAl'\' ASO JEWISH
II. SY:\ESIUS
Ill. THE CHRISTlA)'; HY:\I!\ \\ ITH :\IUSI C
1"11 ORTHODOX THEOLOGY A:-.IV BYZA)';TI)';I': HYM:-.IOGRAPHY
l. THE CHARACTER OF BYZAXTlNE HY:\INS
II. TIlE ORTHODOX CHL'RCH
VlII. THE POETICAL FORMS: (I) TROPARI01\ AND KONTAKION
I. TROPARlO:>;
11. KO!'\TAKIO:\
IX. THE POETICAL FORMS: (Ill KANON
1. ORIGl!' AXIJ UE\'ELOPMEXT
II. Tin 5T1H.:CTCHE OF THE KANO:\
(II) The Hcsurrection Kanan
(6) Canticle and Ode
Ill. TIlE OF IIYM:'\-WRITI:-.IC
IV RYZASTiXE
X. BYZA:\TI:\E ML:SIlAL XOTATIO:-; 1
XI.
I. THE TWO SYSTUIS: ECPIIOSETIC .-\':\1)
11. :\()TATlO:\
IlYZ.\)';T1:\E \IUSlrAL NOTATION II. TilE ).;"L'MES
I. THE TiIREE PHASES OF SEt:MATIC :\OTArtO!\
II. EARLY BYZA:\TIS"E :o..:OTATION
Ill. THE SYSTEM OJ, )IIDDLE AS"I) 1. ,\I F llYZt\:\I ISE ."'."."." ,<
S"OTATIOK . "
IV, THE I:\TER\'AL SIG:o..:S
9
8
102
105
10
9
112
II4
12
3
124
125
12
9
157
159
171
179
198
206
206
222
229
239
261
271
CONTENT
V. THE 'GREAT HYPOSTASES'
\'1. TilE MODES
VII. THE ISTOSATiON
VIII. THE MODULATIOX SIGSS
XII. "HE TRA:-.JSCRIPTlO:\ OF BYZA:\TI).;E MELODIES
XIl!. THE STRt.:CTL: RE OF BYZA1\TI:\E MELODIES
I. HlIDt! STICHERA
II, MELISMATI C CI-IAS"T
Ill. PSALMODY
XIV. IVORDS AND MUSIC
EXCURSUSES
ApPENDIX I. HYMNS FROM THE HIRMOLOGION
ApPE"OIX II. HYMNS FROM THE STICHERARION
Ill. MELISMATl C CHANT
",Ppglll" II'. TABLE OF I)';TO:-iATION FORML"LAE A:\D I).; ·
CI PITS OF APPE:-iDED STICHERA
ApI'E''''X \'. TABLES OF FORML:LAE OF HIRm I:-J THE FIRST
MODE
BIBLIOGRAPHY
LIST OF HYM)';OGRAPHERS FRO)l THE FIFTH TO THE
FIFTEE)';TI-I CENTt.:RIES
LIST OF HYMNS. TROPAHIA, HIH)II, KONT.IKI.I
CI-IRO, OLOGICAL SURI'EY
I:-lDEX
PLATES
FrouliSpu((
Lincoln College D. 35, FoL (), Latl' :\ I I I th Ct'ntury
A I nul
1. List of Ecphonetic Signs
EC}lhonetic ),'otation .
II.
E
arl,' B)'zanulll'
Jll.
1\', Earl;' Byzantine i\otalio
ll
\', 'fiddl e Byzantine Notation .
"
1. ' \I 'ddle I-hzant ine :--;otatto
n
Late. I .
\'II. Late Byzantine
• ••
Xill
294
3
00
3
0
3
30g
3
12
326
330
34
0
34
8
3
62
37
0
3
8
4
442
445
447
449
ABBREVIA TIONS
NOTE. The jollowing abbreviations are used in the bibliography
and ill the jootllotes to the text:
AM.B.A.
A .B.S.
. Uf.
B.
B.Z.
C.A .H.
C .. \f.H.
C.S.H.B.
D.A.CL
E.O.
].H.S.
J.L.
].R.S.
J.T.S.
L.
O.C.
JUf.B.
P.G.
P.L.
Rass.G.
R.t.G.
R.G.
R.O.C.
Sb.B.A.
5.1 . .11.
T.S.G.
Z.'\f.W.
Abhandlungen der bayrischen Akademic der Wissenschaften,
philos.-philol. Cia sse.
Annual of the British School at Athens.
Acta Musicologica .
Byzantion.
Byzantinische Zeitschrift.
The Cambridge Ancient History.
The Cambridge Medieval History.
Corpus Scriptorum Hi storiac Byzantinorum.
Dictionnaire d'Archeologie chrCtienne et de Liturgie.
f:chos d'Orient.
The Journal of Hellenic Studies.
Jahrbuch rur Liturgiewissenschaft.
The Journal of Roman Studies.
The Journal of Theological Studies.
Laudate: Quarterly Review of the Benedictines of Nashdom.
Oriens Christian us.
Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae.
J. P. Patrologiae cursus complctus, series Gracea.
J. P. Migne, Patrologiae cursus completus, series Lalina.
Rassegna Gregoriana.
Revue des etudes grecgues.
Revue Gregorienne.
Revue de "Orient chretien.
der bayrischcn Akademie cler \Vi ssenschaften.
philos.-ph.lol. und hislor. Classe.
Sammelbande clef Intemationalcn ?\f usikwissenschaft.
Tribune de Saint Gervais.
Zeitschrift fUr :\fusikwissenschaft.
A SURVEY
INTRODUCTION
OF STUDIES IN BYZANTINE MUSIC
AND HYMNOG RAPHY
l. BYZANTINE 11 USIC
HE term 'Byzantine music' has been a I' d b
I I t E t ' . pp Ie y modern
I
sc 10 lards 0 < as em ecclesiastical chant, sung in Greek and
to t le me 0 les of a certain group of ceremon' I . h'
f I E h
· la poems m onour
o t le mperor, t e Impenal family and hl'gh di 't' f h
' gm anes 0 t e
Orthodox Church.. The restri ction of the term to these two
groups of chants IS not ql1lte accurate, for it excludes secular
mUSIC, to which Chnsttan authors and Byzantine historiographers
frequently r efer. No trace, however, of this secular music has
come down to us, and the only knowledge we have of it is derived
from the Fathers of the Church and the Byzantine chroniclers
who contrast the evil influence of theatrical music with the
purifying spirit of sacred music. Remnants of Byzantine popular
songs may st ill live in Greek popular music of the present day, but
no attempt has yet been made to analyse the melodic structure
of these songs and to separate the different layers by stylistic
analysis, a procedure which would enable us to compare the
corpus of secul ar melodies with ecclesiastical, and to determme
whether any relationship can be observed between them. We
must, therefore, use the term 'Byzantine music' here m the same
restricted sense as our predecessors; but we shall try to add some
information from literary sources so as to gwe a more complete
account of the position which both ecclesiastical and secular
music occupied in the Eastern Empire. kn I d of
T
f
,hl'ch our ow e ge
here a re three groups 0 sources on \\
the subject is based: . f ecclesiastical
(I) Manuscripts, containing (a) and other
hymns, chants from the Ordinary 0 and Pol c";ljllia, sung
liturgical melodies;. (b) acclamatIOns
the
Em {ror, the Em-
by alternating chOirs JJ1 honour of dPof the Church.
. d' 't . of the State an
press and high Ignl anes .
( ) l
' '. . aI tl orv and notatIOn. d
2 realises on mUSIC, 1e J • f al ceremonies an
(3) Descriptions of secular and ecclesla5/
c
'and instrumental
feasts accompanied by hymns, chan s,

11111S1C.
B
Ii II" "

2
A SURVEY OF STUDIES IN
As in all other studies connected with the history of medieval
. ogress is dependent on two factors: (I) the eXIstence
musIC, any pr . . ' . . al
of a sufficiently large number of manuscnpts conta1l1mg mUSIC
t t
· s from different succeSSIve penods to cover most of the
no a Ion 'bT f d
ground under consideration; (2) the POSSI Iity 0 con-
clusions as to the deciphering of the earher stages of notatlOn by
comparison with the final stage, the readmg of wlllch offers no
diffi culties.
We shall have t o prove explicitly later on that both these con-
siderations impose further restrictions on the scope of our 111-
quiries. Many of the early manuscnpts have pen shed,
probably because they were Illummated and were for that r eason
destroyed during the I conoclastic controversy. But ma.ny manu-
scripts containing hymns with superposed musIcal SIgns have
been preserved from the 'Second Golden Age' of Byzantme art,
from the ninth to the beginning of the thIrteenth century, and
even more from the third period between the conquest of Con-
stantinople by the Crusaders in 1204 and the end of the Empire

m 1453·
From the beginning of Byzantine studies in the West these
manuscripts aroused the interest of students investigating the
liturgy of the Eastern Church. The list of schol arly works begins
as early as the middle of the seventeenth century with two
publications, from both of which valuable information can even
now be obtained about the part played by music in the ser vice of
the Greek Church: Leo Allatius's De libris ecclesiastic is Graeco-
rum dissertationes duae (Paris, 1646), and J. Goar's Evxo>'6ywv
sive Rituale Graecomm (Paris, 1647). a commentary on the 'Great
Euchologium'. A. Kircher, on the other hand, a very unreliable
compiler , dealt only superficially with Byzantine music in his
l\Jusurgia ,miversalis sive arS magna consotli et dissoni, vol. i. 7,
pp. (Rome, 1650).
II. EARLY WORK ON BYZANTINE MUSIC AND
The first scholar to draw attention to the musical signs was
Montfaucon, the originator of Greek palaeography. He gives a
lIst of them 1Il hIS Palaeographia Graeca (Paris, 1708). pp. 23 1
sqq., WIthout trymg to transcribe them into Western musical
notation. An attempt to do this seems to have been made some
seventy years later by M. Gerbert, Abbot of St. Blasien, who dealt
I
. BYZANTINE MUSIC AND HYMNOGRAPHY 3
extensIvely WIth the music of the Easte Ch h' th
volume of hi s stud D . rn urc m e second
y e cantu et mustca sacra, a prima ecelesiae
ad praesens tempus (St . Blasien, 1774). Gerbert even claimed
m work to have succeeded in transcribing some of the melo-
dIes, but as he gave no examples of his accomplishments his asser-
tion cannot be proved. Another treatise of this period, based on
Late Byzantme mUSIcal theorists, can be found in the Geschichle
des transalptnen Dactens (VIenna, 1781- .r1. vol. ii, pp. fo,30-547, by
F. J. Sulzer, an assessor m the Austrian army. One would not
expect to find a learned dissertation on music in a book of this
kmd, yet Sulzer's work must be considered a careful attempt to
solve the of the last phase of Byzantine notation.
Whilst Sulzer s study remamed almost unnoticed, another at-
t empt , made some years later, met with greater success. This was
an essay 'De l' etat de l'art de musique en Egypte' by G. A. Villo-
t eau, published together with other studies on Oriental music in
the fourth volume of the Description de I'Egypte (Paris, 1799).
Villoteau' s work was the first comprehensive study on Greek
ecclesiastical music and of its notation and theory. It was written
by a musician of wide knowledge, and retained a prominent place
in musical literature up to the middle of the nineteenth century.
Villoteau's essay is the last of the first group of studies on Byzan-
tine music. Further progress, especially in coll ecting infolmation
about the earli er phases of Greek ecclesiastical music, could not be
made at that time, since the difficulty of deciphering the musical
signs seemed insurmountable. This fact also explains, in part,
the disinclination of students, writing on the hIstory of mUSIC, to
carry out investi gations into a remote subj ect which, like aU
branches of Byzantine art during the. greater part of the Illne-
teenth century, lay outside the general mterests of the penod, and
seemed therefore doomed to failure. .
A new impulse was needed to revive the study of Byzantme
Chan t. It came from the investigatlOns mto hymno-
. I f C 'd' I Pitra particularly from the publIcatIOn of hIS
giaplyo al lila , . h' h h e'
HYlnlloaraphie de l' .fglise grecque (Rome, 1867). 1Il W IC e x-
pounded his discovery that the hymns of the Greek Church wele
composed in strophes of equal metre. The dIscovery rna, e
by chance. During a stay in 5t. 1Il 1
studying a manuscript which con tamed d
a
:);,n h not only
Virgin. His curiosity was roused by re 0 s, w c
r •
, I
.....
4
A SURVEY OF STUDIES IN
divided the different sections, but also marked off phrases of
varyinl\' length. These red dots were to be found at t he same
intervals in e\-ery strophe, and always followed t he same number
of syllables. After further innstigations a second more splendid
copy of the same hymn was found with golden dots at t he exact
places where the plain copy h,ad dots. The Importance of, the
discovery was ob\·ious. 'Le pelerm etalt en du systeme
syllabique des hymnographes.'I After more than 200
manuscripts Pitra was able to state that hymns wer e
composed in metres, no longer basedon quantIty, as was the case
in classical poetry, but on the prIncIple of the stress accent .
Pitra's disco\'ery marked the begInnIng of systematIc research
into Byzantine hymnography; nearly every study written before
its publication is to-day only of historic interest' This fact
becomes evident when we consider that only four years before
the publication of Pitra's H)'1/1l1ograPhie a great authority on the
Eastern liturgy, J. M. Neale, wrote in the preface to his transla-
tions of Byzantine hymns: 'But in attempting a Greek Kanan,
from the fact of its being in prose (metrical Hymns, as the
reader will learn, are unknown) ,one is all at sea. ';Yhat
measure shall we employ? Why this more than that? Might we
attempt the rhythmical prose of the original, and design it to be
chanted?"
Once Pitra's discovery became known, it seemed strange that
the metrical structure of the hymns could have remained so long
obscure. Goar, at least, had a clear idea of the structure of the
hymns when he wrote in the Commentary of his Euchologillm
(16+7), p. +34:
notis musicis exaratos inter canlandum rarissime conspiciunt vel
hab,ent Gracci: communesquc ideo ct verbis ct cantu I11 cmoriae
enaclter lllfigunt hymnos, ad quorum normam alios pari syllabarum
I p. I r.
2. claim LO have b I fi d' .
b I II db' cen I Ie fSl (0 the mt'lrlca! structure "Of Bp.:anlinc hymns has
cen c 13 engc )' \\ \lcyer (Sp .,)' 'p' \ I 'k '
inSh. B.A. ',8 6) . . . . r In a paper I!ra,. lone und die byzantinische Strop.u ·
p. f' 9 ,pp. 10 "'}lIch he! prove!d that 1·. J. had come to the conclUSIons
at lIra, e!arher \V .
niJcbtlJ)· " / 1/ .( ..
mntn atl I/It a IUJ IlIS3) p "f h· I . d
the! rh)·tI . I ' . , rom W Ie I It appcan that in facl di!eovcre
Irnlca Itruelure both of Fa Ie d \\. h "
be!fore Pitra R d:' rn an CHe!rn ymns independently and some yean
unconlciousi
y
.agree! With thaI Pitra knew 1\101lc'. book and was
, J . T } It he m;&de hi, dl"coverv.
. I L Neale, HymnJ of tht Hamrn Ch . h II d '86 ' ...
in the lumptuoual)' print dr' h d.' Ute .. on, I 3i, p. XIII. llatherlcy made no change
court e ilIOn oj 1882 h· .1· I' I I I . I I ."
already a wdl.eltablished fact. I Y .... lie I tnne IIC r Iyl limen t lear), \\
BYZANTINE MUSIC AND HYMNOGRAPHY
numero constantes cantando inflect t ". 5
a1iis inscribunt, ut ad eorum regulam
un
, quorum Ideo pnmordla canticis
Hi vocantur Elpp.oi sive tractus mdlcent esse decantandos.
musicam inflexionem trahant. ,u qUi sequentes modulos ad Suam
This account covers the whole ground of p't ' d'
. . I ra s Iscovery' and
on some pomts It goes even farther. In a review of Pitra's book
which assumed the sIze of an independent work I H " St '
t
. d t th· , . llL. evenson
rIe a answer e questIOn As he explam' 't' b' f
. . S, I IS a VIOUS rom
passages In both Eastern and Western commentaries that th
hymns were thought to be written in a kind of 'cade ced ,e
S h I th
. I I n prose.
uc a r 1y mIca sc 1eme was not considered as a sufficient b .
f t
· If' aSls
or a poe Ica arm, smce no traces could be found either of classi-
cal metres or of the popular Byzantine Stichos politikos, with the
exceptIOn of three Kanons of St. John Damascene for Epiphany,
Easter, and Pentecost, composed in iambic verses. It was the
general view of ecclesiastical writers that these chants were
called hymns only because they were sung to melodies, the repeti-
tion of which made it necessary to divide the whole hymn into
sections, i.e. strophes. Apart from this arrangement, made neces-
sary by the repeti tion of the melody, they were regarded as
prose compositions. This is made clear by a passage in a com-
mentary by Theodorus Prodromos, dating from the twelfth cen-
tury, on hymns of Kosmas of Jerusalem and John Damascene.
He speaks of the Kanons of Kosmas as \\Titten in prose (8ixa
P.£TpOU). The same view is put forward five centuries later by a
\Vestern scholar, S. Wangnereck, commenting on the Odes of
the .Vellaia.'
Ill. J.-B. PITRA AND I\", CHRIST
Before Byzantinists had time to realize the implications of
Pitra's discovery, another work on the same subject was pub-
lished This was the A IIti/O/o
o
ia Graeca carJllllllilll elms/lallo""",
edited' by \\' . Christ and ;\C. Paranikas ( Leipzig, 1871), up to the
present the most comprehensive collectIOn of Greek
poetry from Early Christian times to the great perIod of ByzantIne
h' d n· J"St recque' Rrr'l,u tit! bislonqutJ (Pam,
I II. 1\1. StC\'Cn50n, 'L'lIymnograp e g I ]F B p' • rbtoJon P,oJrOtrU commmlarioJ in
IS76) pp. 48z·-HJ. See also II. 1\1. Ste!\cnso
n
- ... Itra, (R SSS)
. , J[. tt I"",,ms Di1mrJJc. CIC. orne, I .
carmina Siler" mtlodorum Cos mat un)l.. d I in luis amnibul .traphis ex mera
..: 'Non proindc :lmhig:ml ... :, "peated in H .• Maracci's J\/ariaie
. /, . I l/Ilnana l,rJc:: 11$ \ lew I
ornnlllO prOIJ COllsla re : It us I ,.': DC·· ( , 600-5), BOef (,'tn
66 ) .f Ol (.rcut'( t Turt, II, p .•
S. Joupbr hymn0x.raP?J (Rom!=·, .! I,,P, r·h .lI1no hi rolun!:u.'
fartlier, byasaunung lex POlluullum IJ(.ictU'> 8 r
6 A SURVEY OF STUDIES IN
hymnography. The collaboration of a student brought up in the
tradition of the Orthodox Church with a Western scholar who
had specialized in classical prosody fortunate. From
Paranikas, W. Christ learned the melodIes of the Greek Church.
When he tried to sing them himself, he became aware of t he
coincidence of the musical and verbal phrases.! Thus he made
the same discovery as Pitra, that of the Isosyllablc structure of
the phrases of each strophe of the Odes .. But he wen t a step
farther and attributed to the verbal accent ill the Ime of a Byzan-
tine hymn the function of the metrical. accent ill classIcal poetry.
The basic principle of the hypothesIs IS conect, and Clmst
ought to have stopped, but, influenced by his studies ill
prosody, he attempted to explain the rhythm of Byzantme
hymns by an elaborate system of metrIcal feet , as though·he were
dealing with classical poetry! ThIS view was erroneous on the
score of both text and music, because the poetry was no longer
based on quantity, and, before it came under the influence of
the Turks, the measured rhythm of Neo-Greek melodies was
unknown t o Byzantine music. It is difficult to reconcile this
theory with his other conjecture that the abandonment of quanti-
tative accentuation might be due to the influence of Hebrew
poetry, particularly the Psalms.
3
Indeed, it seems that Christ,
influenced by Pitra, was approaching a solution of the metrical
rules of Byzantine hymns, but was led astray by the modern
rhythmical version of the melodies. We are confirmed in this
opinion when we read the chapters on the music and the musical
notation. The music that Christ and Paranikas describe there is
Neo-Greek music after the reform of Chrysanthus in I 82 !.4
While Christ's anthology succeeded in raising the interest of
classIcal scholars 111 the art of hymn-writing, another collection of
hymns published only a few years later by J .-B. Pitra brought
htur?lOloglsts 111tO this new field of research. Pitra' s anthology,
pubhshedas the first volume of hi s Al1alecta Sacra spicilegio
Solesmenst (Paris, 1876), contains works of only twenty-
five hymn-wnters besIdes a number of anonymous poems, but
the most famous of them, particularly Romanus, are represented
by a great number of theIr poems. It is, in fact, one of Pitra'sgreat
I AI1/hoI. Cr., pruf. p v ,,' I I ...
, I b'd I ' I" 2. I v l( " pp. XXIII sqq.
I " p. XXIX.
" Chrys.anthus of Mlidytol Eioa '" 0 ' " _
(C
. I 8 ) I TV (WI"ITlI(OI' Kal npUKT! ..-ov (I(KAf/CHuoTudjr; 110IJU'K1jf
onstanllnop e, I 21 .
BYZANTINE MUSIC AND HYMNOGRAPHY
h
· 7
ac levements that he assigned to Romanus th t .
'. e mos promment
place m the collection, and drew the attention of Western scholars
to the poet, whom the day of his feast (I OctOber) tbe Eastern
praises as the first origin of the beautiful chants', 'the
father of hymnographers, the composer of 'angelic' hymnody'.!
After the example of Pltra into hymnography had
as Its mam object for some conSIderable time the reconstruction
of the t exts and metre of the Kontakia of Romanus.
IV. LATER STUDIES IN BYZANTINE HYMNOGRAPHY
The discovery of the poetical structure was only one, though
perhaps the most Important, of Pitra's contributions to the study
of Byzantine hymnography. Having succeeded in reconstructing
the metrical scheme, indicated in the manuscripts by the dots at
the end of cola and periods, he turned his attention to the origin
of the genre, approaching the problem as a liturgiologist, who
saw the hymns as part of the service and as subordinated to its
requirements. Though he came to no definit e conclusions, his
various remarks in the Hym1!ographie and the Analecla gave
valuable hints to his successors, above all, his suggestion that it
was in the hymnography of the Syrian and the other Eastern
Churches and even in the J ewish hymns, canticles, and psalms
that the ;rigins of Byzantine hymn-writing might be found.' .
Pitl-a's hypothesis was confi rmed by J. W. m. hIS
Regulae melrices Biblicae (Innsbruck, 1879), p. 3: rectam
odas Graecorum ecclesiasticas metns constare et a madrasc s
Syrorum deri vatas esse probabat, has ipsas e Heb(;eoruj
poesi ortum habere coniectavit'; but It was W. eyer
who first carried out detailed research mto Synac ly.
He showed that the hymns of Ephraem must be regar :et as
models for Greek !{ontakia, the early fonlllof Byzantu;e f of
., Ch ' f s' thIS IS tIe mam pom
'It waS-from SemItic n s Ian - rce of Christianity than the
essay ' who were nearel to the soua! try came to Greek and
Greeks and Romans, met with some opposi-
Latin Christians." Meyer s rS
f
the Alla/eeta Hy ","ica,
tion. G. AI. Dreves, the leame e1l.o
r
0 eview in the Gottillgisch.
attacked them particularly strong y mar ."
2 cr. Hymtlogrl1pbU, pp. Jr+'
S
. " . h O'chtung I B.A,
I cr . ..inal. acra, I, p. XX\!. . . I rhythml!c en I I
J 'r\ nf:mg und Ursprung def ]:atellllSC II .
x\'ii. z (l\lunich, 188+), p. l OS.
I
8 A SURVEY OF STUDIES IN
gelehrte Allzeigel/ (1886). But soon changed. H. Grimme
in his Del' Stropltenball, t1I den Epltraems des Syr.ers
(Freiburg i. B, 1893) supported W. JlIeyer s theory by comparative
studies in Syriac and Byzantme t Ins the con-
nexion between Syriac and Byzantme ecclesiastical poetry was
no longer disputed. Studies in. Byzanti?e hymnography were
rescued from their isolated pOSItIon and lmked up WIth work on
Semi tic poetry. .
Pitra's other suggestion, that JewIsh hymnograI;>hy should be
investigated, was followed up by D. H ,. MUller ill hiS stlmulatll1g
book Die Prapltelen in iltrer Form (VIenna,
18
9
6
) .
Though some parts of the book are now out of date, its leading
ideas have proved to be right. D. H. MUller showed that the
speeches of the Prophets were composed in a definite poetical
form, consisting of strophes and antistrophes which could be of
either equal or unequal length.
'
The unit of the strophe is the
sentence, co\'ering one or two lines. The combination of two or
more sentences of similar but not identical character is effected
by the poetical means of parailelis1II1Is lIlembrarum, e.g. Amos

IX. 3 :
Though they dig into hell, thence shall mine hand take them;
tbough they climb up to heaven, thence will I bring them down.
Strophe and antistrophe are related by the respoJlsia, a similar
poetical device which connects a group of sentences of either
similar or contrasting character, e.g. Amos i:
3· Thus saith the Lord; 6. Thus saith the Lord;
for three transgressions of for three transgressions of
Damascus, Gaza,
and for four, I will not turn and for four, I will not turn
away the punishment thereof; away the punishment thereof;
because they have threshed because they carried away
Gilead captive the whole captivity
with threshing instruments of to deliver them up to Edam.
lron.
It was shown by Muller that the poetical structure of the speeches
of the Prophets, fundamentally strophic in form and using the
could be traced back to Babylonian texts, thus con-
firmmg another hypothesis of Pitra.'
: p. H. Mil,lieT, DiePropbttc11, pp. 190-1.
t:nfin de St rcndre compte de \'hymnographic bibliquc, deB chants de l' antique
. , BYZANTINE MUSIC AND HYMNOGRAPHY 9
Muller s theory IS the basis of two essa b TI W
'U t I a1t h' , ys Y 1. ehofer '
n ersuc 1Ungen zur c nstlichen Epistologr h' ' l d 'U .
L
· ap le an nter-
suchungen zum led des Romanos auf die W· d k ft d
H
"Th I Ii I Ie er un es
erm . oug 1 tt e known, Wehofer's studies' E I Chr'
. dB' Ii m ar y IS-
tlan an yzantme terature are among the best on the subject,
and we shall have to refer to them when dealing with the origin
of Byzantme hymnography. He succeeded in demonstrating the
dependence of Romanus on Ephraem, not only in style and
literary form, but also 111 doctnne.', These detailed inquiries,
however, were made pOSSible by prevIOus research into the texts
of some of the Kontakia of Romanus by K. Krumbacher.
In his 'History of Byzantine Literature', first published in
1890, K. Krumbacher gave an excellent survey of ecclesiastical
poetry, which was enlarged in the second edition of the work in
1897.' Though less extensive than E. Bouvy's5 treatment of the
subject, it can still be regarded as the best introduction to the
works of the leading hymn-writers. This historical outline was
followed by a series of studies on Early Byzantine poetry, most
of them dealing with the reconstruction of the texts and the
metrical structure of the Kontakia of Romanus
6
Here, for the
first time, the principles of textual criticism applied to the editing
of Greek and Latin classical texts were applied to the works of
Byzantine hymnographers. In the preface toStudienZil Ramal/OS'
Krumbacher points out the difficulties he encountered m pre-
paring texts which could be considered philolOgically correct.
Arbitrary omissions and alterations by scnbes make a sahsfactory
edition of these hymns a much more difficult task than the edltmg
N'
. . . I des :lUront f:lit plus d'un emprunt. . est-ce
brad, :luquel nos prcmu'rs [= Early ChrIStian m. °1 I "Iphabctiquec les refnins, les
. . 1 t lei acrostiC Ie! es stance ...,
pomt de J:I. que nennent, non seu emen I d' lIabique dont oous avons
. . 1 5 sccrtt! de cette prow It sy I I '
alternane!!!, les parallellSmes, man tOUS e .' 'I d' ,'j d" psaumes et des hymnes.
. d P "'"qu,")' :Ivan-I p3S c
parle l ... Et annl Ie! c:tnuques 1I en a ,
) .- n. Pitra, p. H· . . .. bib I XI exliii (Viennl, 19"1), Zjo.
• k d d II" n /I un p 1.- IJ . " •
I SuzungJbu. J. IwlS. A /J. • us'.' f '\\" d th by A. Ehrhard and P. :\f:l:u, p. 19)·
l Ibid. cliv, paft 5 ( \ ' ienn:l, 1907), edlted:l . Die geinige Abhjngigkeit des Romano.
J cr. Un/us. ::. LuJ. J. Romanos, eh. 3, pp. qq
\' on Aphrcm dem Syrcr'" . eratur \'on Justinian bis %um Inde. ostrom.
.. Karl Krumbachcr • Gesehlehte d. b>:z. h II db cb d It/au. A/Ullumswm. lX. I.
. ' . h 8 ubluhed In t e aH U " (by de
ReI chel (P7' I·H3)', l\lumc , I 97) P / fin du ,ytbrne tOfl'!jU( dans. '!'nob ·• G I
S E. Botlvy, POtltS (I J.lU/oJts. E!udts IU: r Dyunrine hymn-writen is gl\'en ID ••
J'tg/Ul "IH"Ul (Nimes, 1886). A b,ograph,ca, 0, \ "ova,"";$" (Athens, 189")' R '
b 1 ••• , -rr0jl l1P, .. t"'{/\·'- _., 'S d' %U omano,
Papadopoulos, £opf3o>.a, ns TTj" ,aTOpICl' .. . , Sb B.A. (Munich, 1897)j len, (' b'd 9"1)'
/) The m:lin enay' of Krumbaehcr 3re: ',8 ). , Rom:ln05 und Kyfl3kos I I . 's''
(ibid. di98) , • Um:trbeitungen bei ROIll:lIl.OS (IbId .. ?9('b'd I nn.I) , 'j\liu:tllen ttl Rom:
tnO
,
" '... . I· 1 Klrdu:npoesle I I. .,-.,
O,e Akrostlclm m cler grtee lISe um 7 pp. 6!j-71..
Abb. lJ,.-1. (!\Iunich, '9°7),
10 A SURVEY OF STUDIES I N
of a classical text. This wearisome preparatory ,:"ork was so great
that it was impossible for Krumbacher to fimsh the complete
edition of the Kontakia of Romanus, on which he was at
the end of his life. The task has been completed by P. Maas. I n
the meantime selections from the Kontakla of Romanus were
bl
' h d by Italian scholars in two cntIcal editions: eight hymns
pu IS e E M' '3'
by G. Cammelli
2
in 1928, and ten hymns by . \Om III 1937· .
While these studies were proceedmg, progress was also made III
the investigation of the Semitic origin of Early Byzimtme poetry.
In an essay, Das Kontakion, P. Maas< put forward fresh eVidence
for the relation hip of the KontaklOn WIth the mam forms of
Syriac poetry, viz. Memra, MadnlsM, and SO&"ltM. The
was further investigated by C. £mereau 111 hiS thesIs Samt Eph-
relllie Syrien (Paris, 1919), and in numerous articles by A.
stark, a summary of which is given 111 hiS Ltturgle. comparee
(Amay, 1939) . Through these investigations the relatIonship of
the hymns of Ephraem and Romanus, for a long tIme the subject
of controversy, has been finally established. ,
The dependence of Romanus on Synac poetry, however, IS only
a detail, though an important one, in the problem of the develop-
ment of Byzantine homiletic poetry from Syrian sources, New
light has recently been thrown on the problem by the discovery,
by C. Bonner, of the Homily on the Passion of Melito, Bishop of
Sardis.' The publication of this document, which dates from the
second half of the second century, made it clear that the origins
of the poetical homily, Greek and Syrian, can be traced back to
the early days of Christian literature, Its use of hymnodic pas-
sages derived from the Psalms and the Wisdom books of the
Septuagint,6 and of other passages which seem to belong to a
Christian redaction of a Jewish hymn,' suggests that Melito's
homily must be considered as a link in a chain of poetical homilies
leading back to Jewish homiletics, This fact completely changes
our attitude to the question of the Syrian origin of the Kontakion,
I P. Maas', MS. of Kontakia of Romanu$ i. at Athens and w:u 10 be published by the Greek
Academy.
: Aft/ode. Inni, a cura di G. C.ammelli,. v,o!. ii ( Flof('l\cc, 1918)" .
E .. hom, Romano II Sauro trltICD t dun Innl rntd'll (runn 1937). From the biblio-
graphy at the end of Mioni', book the number of recent studies on can be seen.
• B.Z. xix (1910),185-306.
: and Documents, edited by Ki nopp l.ake and Silva Lake, vol. xii (N.Y. and Lond. , 19-1-0).
Ibid., p. 13.
7 Ibid., p. 'lS.
BYZANTINE MUSIC AND HYMNOGRAPHY
II
It is easy to understand that at an early stage I'n ' t' t'
mves Iga Ions
into the problem scholars were only attracted by the hymns of
Ephraem and Romanus because they were the most conspicuous
products of both Synac and Greek ecclesiastical poetry, F
thtth
' , or us,
however, now a e ImmedIate problem of their relationsh'
I d
't' , Ip
has been so ve ,I IS more Important to prove that an uninter-
rupted liturgical existed from the days of the Synagogue
to the Byzantme melodies of the mid-seventh century, according
to which the reading of the Scriptures was followed by the recita-
tion or chanting of a poetical homily,'
We shall also have to explain the reason for the abandonment
of this usage, leading virtually to the end of the Kontakion, and
to the rise of a new genre, the Kanon, differing from the Kon-
takion both musically and poetically.
v, LATER STUDIES IN BYZANTINE MUSIC
We have now to return to the study of Byzantine music, and
to give a survey of its development after the publication of
Villoteau's book of which we spoke earlier m thiS chapter. In-
vestigations into the music did not seem to have any prospect of
success at the beginning of the nineteenth century, as It was
recognized that the problem of Byzantine notation had first to
be solved before any attempt could be made to approach the
music itself. At that time the study of musIc palaeography,
of the most important branches of studies m the histor
h
y
°t
.' .' Tl problem of the Plamc an
music, was only III ItS begmnmg; Ie olars had not yet been
notations more important for \\ estern sch .'
, 'f h ' al SignS the neumes,
tackled as the significatIOn 0 t e muslC 'nil "ty m' all the
, H a certam Sll an
could not be defined, owe\'e:, both Eastern and Western,
notatIOns m liturgical pMlosophique de I'histoire de
was soon observed, In hiS 2 'ted out the similarity
I
. (P' 8 -) F J F diS pom d
a mus/que ans, 1 3) " ' d Etl 'opian notations, an
between ' Byzantine, Arn1eman, of neumes, which he
deduced from it the OrIental 0 g d bout way through the
R
'n a roun a ,
thought had come to ome I Th Oriental hypothesiS was
northern regions of Europe, e
. . h Sources of By tan-
. n An Invtstigllll
on
mtO c. e, '/. on the
I cr. my anicle: ';'\Idito's Homily on the P:USIO 'd P Kahle : ' Was Mehco _ 1-I onll}
tine lIymnography ', J.T.S. ('9·Q)' .. p -p, ..
Pau ion originally written in Synad " pp .. ' o. _qq.
1 Life in Blographlt ulufJtrstlle del mUSlCfrns, I. 5 :I

12
A SURVEY OF STUDIES IN
opposed by R. Ki esewetter, I who maintained that the neumes
originat ed in Rome. Kiesewetter' s arguments : etract
his former views. In the fourth volume of Ius H1 stOtre gell erale de
la musiqlle (Paris, 1877) we fi nd a new theory developed , v iz. that
t he neumes were of Germanic ori gin, as t he oldest documents
gave neumes of 'Lombardic'. charact er ! A third theory, increas-
ing still more the already eXlstmg confUSIOn, was put forward by
Th. Nisard.' who considered t he neumes t o be a kmd of t achy-
graphy al ready used by the Romans. While t hese hypotheses
were being discussed, E. de Coussemaker, a famous sch?lar ill t he
fi eld of medieval music, had already shown t he way whIch fi nally
led to t he deciphering of West ern neumes. He found out that
the main types of neumes deri ved from t he accents: acute, grave,
and circumflex.' Thus the often complicated forms of t he lat er
stages of notation could be traced back to t heir simple, primitive
forms.
Coussemaker's hypothesis on the ori gin of t he neumes was
generallyaccepted
5
as the solution of the problem, and gave rise
to detailed investigations into the musical notation of West ern
ecclesiastical manuscripts. In this particul ar field of studies
Benedictine monks of the abbey of Solesmes in F rance pl ayed an
important part from the middle of the nineteenth cent ury . The
aim of the School of Solesmes was the restoration of the Grego-
rian melodies to their original form, as t he study of the old ant i-
phonaries and graduals had shown t hat t he versions in t he official
liturgical books, based on the Edilio M edieaea did not conform
,
to those preserved in medieval manuscripts. Dom Andre Moc-
quereau (1849- 1930), founder and editor of the
I R. Kiesewetter" ()brr dre MUSlk d. nrurrrn Grrechen, nebst Abhandlung ubcr du Ent-
drs lIerrn an d. ( Leipzig, 1838), p. '7.
• Ie Lame fantastic h)pothesis oc.cun ag:lIn In O. )'le,scher, Die germotllScht'lI Neumm als
a/tcbr.lStllCbtn und grtgorwnlScbtn Gtsang ( Frankfort, 19
2
3). Cf. P. Wagner's r eview
Z.M.II', v (1922-3), S60-S.
1 h. r;;1Sard, Etudes sur les anciennes notations de l'Europe' RnJue Arche%g.
theory reappeared recently in K. A. PaOlcho, ' , " /-I
"'1' h
u
(avru"1S' (Athens, 1917), to which we will have to refer later on. For a short t ime
tIe t cory caused some confusion f . f d dl . I
I or It oun a Icrents among people who believed t hat t ie
present state of Neo·Greck mclod' 'd' I . I . .' I
M SS. lei was I cntlca Wit I that of the melodies prese r ved III medlCva
"' HiJtoirr de rHarmonie au mmlen age ,8"2 p ," .,
"c' . -J,;:., . ;:'"f'
Cit .. une cro)'ons·nou_ dUi . . . I . .
I I " ' .... n!tl\'cment acqu!!e 3 a sCience bien que ccux qUi ont
e p UI \'Ictoneusement IOUtenu cette tI ' C ,.' .
, , lest, comme ouuemalier par exemplI.' n'en pal
tOuJoun toutes les com!quenc "1' • ' .
. n' : : I . ea, el qu I S :lIent mcmc, par la manierc dont ils ont emul Le
I .erpro;:to;: es neumes paru en aVOll oubl': I " bl .. •
88
' II: a \'I: rlla C orl gme. Dom Pothier ft / (/od ll'sg,igoru" "rs,
I o,P'3 1. ,
. BYZANTINE MUSIC AND HYMNOGRAPHY
1It1tsteale, I demonstrat ed this in numerous artl'cl th d 13
t f t
" es on e evelop-
men . 0 neuma IC notation and on the rhythm of Plainchant
It IS well known that the main goal of the S h I f S I .
h
· d' c 0 0 0 0 esmes
was ac leve m 190 3 when Pius X in his Mot . I
I
· ,n;" u propno titer
pastora tS 0.u.
ett
ordered the restoration of the Grego ' I d'
. . . nan me 0 les
t o the prmclples expounded by Dom Mocquereau and
hiS collaborat ors. The effect of this important decision was an in-
creased effort to support the new Editio Vaticana of Plainchant
by mvestIgations mto the development of West ern neumes, and
these studies gave an ew Impulse to investigations into the Eastern
ecclesiasti cal notations, parti cularly into the notations of Byzan-
tine liturgical manuscri pt s.
J .-B. Thibaut, a French student of Early Christi an liturgy, had
already published two studies on Byzantine notation in the
Review oj the Russiatl A rehaeologieal Institute' Both he and J. -B.
Rebours had edited several treatises on Byzantine musical theory, '
but were unable to decipher the notation. O. Fleischer was able
to achieve an almost complete reconstruction of the melodic line
of melodies t ransmi tted in Late Byzantine notati on. In his book,
Die spatgrieehisehe Tonse/mlt (Berlin, 1904). Fleischer published
in facsi mile an elementary t reatise, a kind of grammar of music,
together with a critical edition of the Greek text, a translatIon,
and a commentary. He was apparentl y unaware that V.
hausen had already investigated a Papadtke In .hi: essay
Notenschrift der griechischen Kirche' In hiS Beltrage zltr gYl e-
ehisehen Paiaeographie, vi (1880),' where a list of seventy-seven
musical signs is given. Gardthausen, however, did not attempt
. .' ill f the signs as In his vIew
to explam the musICal Sign cance 0 ,
there was no sat isfactory solution to the .' all be-
The. manuscript Fleischer chose for hiS study ongln YM
f S Sal vatore near j es-
longed to t he Basilian monastery 0 an
U
" 't Library of
sina from which it was brought to the nn ersl y
,
. .. . ae cb<Jnt Tigoritn, a",brouin
l
f'/ozaTaht! goll/itan,
I Pa/tograpbll' MUSl cait-: LI'S p"""PI.1lI.\ ,1lss: dOg A drt \ (ocqutreau (TournaI, 188')-).
puhflh CI' jac-sllfllih pbolotypiqul'S, la S has' published, since '910, a
In addition to thi s monumental series, the Schoo? ,0 e ttudts dt chant socr; 1'/ de Ilfurglt,
.' Cf I Rl1'ue Grrgorunne, '
of J1tonogrupbll'S GrrgoTJrnnrs. . a so ...
puhlidled gince '9 11. . H ' olite ' russk, /nJi. III .
: 'La Notation de Saint Jeall Damascene. ou d ibid. \·i (t900), 360-90,
(Constilntinople, 1898), 138 sqq.; NOI:I,on. e, {ICJO'
r
}, "j. sCJ6 sqq. j ].-8, RebouN,
, J ).-13. ThibauI, de -' .
Qut'lques l\lss. de muslque bYl.3ntllle I 904 5
4 d. Jiicbs, Ak. J, II"JS. , 880.
14
A SURVEY OF STUDIES IN
Messina together with other musical manuscripts written in By-
zantine musical notation. The treatise which Fleischer edited
was intended for the use of the priests; hence the name Papadike,
by which it is known among Byzantine and Greek ecclesiastical
scholars. The Papadike has been transmitted in numerous copies,
some ofthem more comprehensive than others. Fleischer believed
that the Papadike of lIIessina contained the oldest and best ver-
sion; but now that other texts of the treatise have been examined
this view can no longer be maintained.' The importance of the
Papadike, however, as the best source of information about the
Late Byzantine, or Kukuzelean, notation is unquestionable, since
no other treatise contains so many tables clearly showing the
interval-value of the various musical signs. But the Papadike
must be used in conjunction with the other treatises which deal
more extensively with the rhythmical signifi cance of Byzantine
musical signs.
Fleischer's efforts to develop the method by which the melodic
framework of the Byzantine melodies could be transcribed into
our modem staff notation, mark the first step towards a solution
of the problem of Byzantine musical notation. It was soon recog-
I11zed that the pnnclples, which proved to be valid for daciphering
the last phase of Byzantine neumes, from the fifteenth to the
eighteenth century, could also be applied to that of the middle
period of notation, from the twelfth to the fifteenth century.
Only a year after the publication of Fleischer's book, Dom H.
of the Coll:gium, Graecum in Rome published his essay
Les Helrmol de Paques m Orlens Christianus in 1905, without
knowmg Fleischer's work. Dom Gaisser's article on the H eirmoi
the model-s trophes of the Easter Hymn, is the first detailed study
of Byzantme hymnography by a scholar equally capable of ap-
proachIng. the proble'!ls of the music and of the poetry. He also
made a skilful transcnptron of the melodic structure of the chants
but did not succeed in finding a solution to the modal and
rhythmical problems.
A contribution to Byzantine musical palaeography was made
I cr. my 'ludr Rh)'thmik der b· .. I N
Here thePapadikt of Cod graec Pet eumen', Z.M.IV. ii (1919-Z0),6zgsqq.
to hi, MonUmtnlS dt to . If. boro,po It. 711 ) by ].-13. Thibaul in the
as basi. for my "t';,qut'I dt' NgIiJt' gruque (19 13), was
without h:I\'ing been'oblig,d ,. h ellen
. 0 c ange my VIe.W It \:11 I· b
vernonl of the Papadikt as t·, I d b I .- \I , \0 .... ever, e necessary to collate all
, p anne. )' I Ie edlton of tl . \f ..
order to utablish which MS. contain . lC 1I O"UIll t' lIto I IIJIC(l(! /J)' ZlI fltIHoe, In
a the most rehable and complete text of thc treatise.
BYZANTINE MUSIC AND HY"'"
. .
by A. Gastoue m the mtroduction to h· C I 15
de musique byzantine, published by des m.anuscrils
musique (Paris, 1907). He pointed out as D e mtemahonale de
the close relationship of the different stages Galsser had done,
from the eleventh century to the modem eh yzantmeneumes,
A t bl t
.. h· rysantme notatIOn
a e con ammg t e musical notation of th T· .
, , r f e ropanon B'I9>'d
<",alp.a,au, rom seven manuscripts demonstrates the p.,
of his theory.' correctness
Hugo Riemann's Die byzantinische Nolel,sc',r':'t . b·
I I d (
. . ,. l' "", IO. .s I5·
J air IIIn ert Leipzig, 1909) marked a definite step backwards in
the progress hitherto achieved. Riemann lacked an d t
.. . B . a equa e
traInIng III yzantIne palaeography,Z and was hampered by his
preconceived Ideas on rhythm, which made him adapt all melo-
dies a four-bar system. With the discussion caused by Rie-
mann s book t.he deCISive phase of investigations into Byzantine
mUSical notatIOn began. It was opened by an article on the
hymns of the nun Kasia, in which H. J. \\T. Tillyard
'
refuted
Riemann's theories of the interpretation of both the inten·als and
keys. But the problem of rhythm, indeed the crucial problem,
still remained unsolved.
VI. THE DECIPHERING OF THE MUSIC
It was at this point that my own investigations started, the
first results of which had taken shape in two essays, published m
Oriells Christfal/us 'Die Kirchenmusik im byzantinischen Reich'
(19
l6
), and 'Die der byzantinischen Notation' (l9
lS
).
In studying the treatises on Byzantine musical theoryI succeeded
in fmding the clue to the deciphering of Byzantme musical
notation. p p d"k
From the theoretical treatises, particularly from the a a ' . e,
we learn that the interval-signs of the middle period
notation are divided into two groups, VIZ. Somata (uw!'aTa)
. . . aff notation on pp ... 6-7 is not 53tisflclOry,
I pp .. n' 5; GaSI011C!'S transcnplloll IOl0 mo?ern It.. etenee ::u a palacogr:apher. The
It is su/licient to gi\'(.· one example of Ri emann , 12' y' 6' since the Greek
.. . . . d· h MSS b\' the Greco.: cotters (J, 1', , '. b .
u.n:antllle modes 1-" IIldlc;lle ill I e I '. d I :lIld not ciphers. Riemann. ong
J
• II . . h m::nicians use etter-'.t - - h h .,1
;In , 10 OWII\<, them the B\,Z;lilllne mat e _ " ,h,)' did not ave t e us
. c. .... - - h h letters mtant. f'\ h "
Ignorant of fact tried to find out W ;II t e.. . I dered by the t .....o apoSlrop C'S ,
.h"pt', and the third 'letter y was wrinen eirher f , or "";p Y rl,n\.. .nd 6' for $Wpwr. CorlSe--
I . ", ' IOf,.u o.w<or, f h
Ie Iliterpreted (1' 51anding for fJ or b' Riemann in the second, 0 t e
quentl), melodies of the fir$! mode (0: ) art (raMCfI h> d those of the fourth (51 mlhe first.
lecond (/1') in the third, those of the third (y') in the I B.Z. xx (1911 h .f--20-8j.
.I Ii. J. \Y. Tillr
ard
, 'A l\ l usical Study of the 11}nlllJ 0 I
A SURVEY OF STUDIES IN
Pneumata (7Tv€VfLara). The Somata (bodies) can only move by
steps upwards and downwards. The Pneumata (spmts) can leap
over two, three, and four intervals. In addition there are some
signs which are neither Somata nor Pneumata, such as the
Aporrhoe a sign standmg for a gltdmg movement of
two consecutive descending seconds, and the Ison ([erov), mdicat-
ing the repetition of a tone at the same pitch. The latter sign is
neither Soma nor Pneuma, for It stands neIther for a movement
by steps nor by leaps. . . .
The system of Byzantine notatIOn shows a certam economy m
the use of interval-signs. The composer had only three signs at
his disposal for indicating the melodic movement of a second, a
third, or a fifth upwards, and three others for the same movement
downwards. He had to use a combination of two or three signs
when he wanted to indicate a fourth, a sixth, or an octave. This
was done by superimposing a Pneuma or where the interval of
an octave was wanted two Pneumata on a Soma. There is,
however, another combination of Somata and Pneumata to be
found in manuscripts of Byzantine music which the singer had to
interpret in a different way. \Ye learn from the Papadike that if
a Pneuma is preceded by a Soma, the intervals should not be
added as is the case when the signs are written one above the
other. The significance of a Soma followed by a Pneuma is that
it is only the interval represented by the Pneuma that is taken
into account, while, according to the theorists, the Soma is made
'voiceless' (a.cpwvov). The Papadihe is not very clear about the
slgmficance of the transformation of the Soma from its original
use as a Second into an additional sign. None of the scholars who
tried to decipher Byzantine musical manuscripts was able to give
a sattsfactory explanation of what the term' voiceless' meant.
Gaisser, Gastoue, and Fleischer did not pay any attention to the
remarkable fact that the Byzantine system of musical notation
contallled no less than six signs for the ascending second, while
only one can be found for the Ison, and for the third and fifth
upwards and downwards. Riemann did not overlook the fact,
but, lllfluenced by his rhythmical theories, he failed to see the
essent.lal pomt. But it seemed to me that the clue to the problem
Byzantme mUSical notatIOn was to be found in just these two
acts. that there were SIX different signs for the ascending second,
and that these Somata lost their interval-value in a certain com-
. . . BYZANTiNE MUSIC AND HYMNOGRAPHY
blllatlOn WIth Pneumata. I shall t t . "7
main points of my discovery.! ry 0 give a short account of the
A collection of treatises on Byzantin .
by J .-B. Thibaut and J .-B. Rebours theol)' published
about the SIX SignS which are used to . d' t etahiled mformahon
di d
mica e t e interval f
ascen ng secon . These signs do not 0 I . di 0 an
direction, but also the manner in ft melodiC
FIve of these signs combine with the inte aI I e executed.
dynamic or rhythmical nuance' one sign rtv
h
-vOaliue a parhcular
, ,e gon, stands for
the movement of the a second upwards without an
particular nuance. For wfltmg down other intervals tl Y
d
th B . ,e.g. a 11r
or J1 1, e yzantme composer had at his disposal I'n h
. I I" '. ' eac case,
a Slllg e neutra SIgn, I. e. a Sign Without any dynamic or rh th-
mlcal nuance. If he wanted to give this melodic step a partiZular
nuance, as Implted by one of the five signs for the second, he set
thiS Sign before the Pneuma indicating a third or fifth. In this
combination of the. two signs the Soma lost its interval-value,
it became' voiceless', but it retained its dynamic or rhythmical
significance, which it lent to the neutral sign. If the composer
wanted a fourth or sixth to be sung, he set one of the Pneumata
indicating a third or a fifth abo\'e a Soma. In this grouping the
Soma maintained its interval-value (thi rd +second = fourth;
fifth , second sixth), and the combination was executed ac-
cording to the nuance contained in the Soma. Thus the
Byzantine notation provided a most ingenious which
endeavoured to transmit a great variety of rhythmical and dy-
namic nuances, using only a very limited number of SignS .. Instead
of using six different neumes °for each interval to. the
most frequently occurring nuances, the Byzantine mubs.lclan
needed only six signs for the ascendillg second. By com
these signs with those for other inten·aJs he was able to 1 In
t
Ica
. . d d micall)' how eac I s ep 0
preCisely, both rhythmically an yna f ' dynamic signs
I d b f d O
nly a ew more
a me 0 y was to e per orme . f and at a later
were required to complete the 0 were
stage of notation, a large number 0 7 thaufiorid style of the
superposed to regulate the executIOn 0 m red signs,
so-call ed Koukouzelian penod. These CO P
. , :-.,',5. vii (lqIS).
. • db' O.C., .. ' , and
I cr. E. \\'elle' 1 'Zur Entzlfl'erung er )z.. .)8 and III (19:0-1" • )'
'D' , . Z 1111" II ('9'9--°" '
Ie Rlwthmik der byz N ('limen .J .. ,.. )-66
'01 ' . I 'I I d'en' B.Z. U'XIII. J .
ler RhYlhl1lus u. Vonrng der bYl:· j\ eo I C
h""I '
18 A SURVEY OF STUDIES IN
the 'Great Signs' (,.,.<yaAa. a.",.,.6.iha.), were obviously introduced to
facilitate the phrasing of the now very extended cantilenas.
I came to the conclusion that other scholars who had ap-
proached the problem of Byzantine notation had seen in these
complementary signs the essential rhythmIcal mdIcatlOns, and
were too ready to assume that the neumes indicated the steps of
the cantilenas. It was clear, however, from the study of manu-
scripts of the earliest phase of Byzantine notation that even as
early as the tenth century the neumes were used to direct the
singers how to execute the nuances of the melody. Beanng thIs
in mind it is possible to reach a better understandmg of Byzantme
musical notation and of its ingenious development from scanty
indications for the singer, in its first phase, to an elaborate system
at its acme.
The views developed here were confirmed by H. J. W. Till-
yard's studies on the same subject, which came into my hands in
1922. A Greek scholar , Tillyard had started his investigations
under the guidance of Dom H. Gaisser. Very soon, however, hi s
careful palaeographical studies made him oppose the views held
by Gaisser and Riemann, and he came to virtually the conclu-
sions outlined above
l
A difficult problem, to which Riemann'
had first drawn attention, still remained to be solved: the signifi-
cance of the signatures (,.,.apTup[a,), indicating the starting-note of
the melody, and the mode (.ryxoS") in which it had to be sung. This
problem, particularly perplexing in the case of the second mode,
was solved through ;h.e minute investigations of Tillyard, pub-
lIshed In hIS study, SIgnatures and Cadences of the Byzantine
Modes'.J .
Once the problem of Byzantine neumes had been solved the
transcription of Byzantine hymns from manuscripts of the
and thIrteenth centunes could be carried out more extensively.
The close collaboration between Tillyard and myself, beginning
In 19
2
7, l ed to the foundation in 193T of the J[olll/lII eHla .1f1lsicae
ntwaeafter a conference at Copenhagen, lo which C. Hbeg had
Invited us In the name of the Rask-Oersled Foundation. It was
deCided at the conference to use a uniform method for the tran-
scnptIons of Byzantine melodies and lo inlroduce, with slight
I cr. II. J. \Y. Tillp.rd 'Rhvllun in n· . 1\1 . • • I
'The Probl, f II - . I ....
T
,p.:mtIT\C UMC I A.I1. S. , no. xxi (19J(i) 125 - 41, :lll(
1" mo. }1.3nllne xli (11)2 1), 29-49. I
Die MOpTVpiO.l. d. byz. llturg. !\'ot;llio
n
' Sb IJ 1 00
'ADS' ( )" ... to02
. . " no. XXVI 1925),78-87. .
BYZANTINE MUSIC AND HYMNOGRAPHY
d'fi . 19
mo l catIons, the rhythmical signs already used' t .
tIons 1 Th R al D . m my ranscnp-
t d ' e oy . amsh Academy agreed to the plans for the
s u y and of Byzantme music put forward at the
conference, and deCIded t o publish the MOllumenta Musicae By-
zanttnae under the patronage of the U' A d' .
. mon ca cmIque Inter-
In order to gat her the material for our studies and
publIcatIons, C. Hiieg was sent to Greece and the Near East to
take photographs of the most important manuscripts. After a
few years of preparatory work a facsimile-edition of the Stiche-
ranon, Codex theo!. gr. 181 Vindob., was published jointly by the
edItors as the first volume of the main series of the !vI onumenta
Mus/cae Byzantwae (M.M.B. ) in 1935. In the same year the first
and second of the Subsidia, Tillyard's Handbook of the
MIddle ,Byzantine Notation, and Hiieg's La Notatioll
Ekphonettque, were pubhshed. The series of the Transcripta was
begun With Die Hymnen des Shcherarill lll /iir September (Wellesz)
In 1936, and The Hymns of the Sticherariltlll for November (Till-
yard) In 1938. A second volume of theF acsimilia, the H irmoiogilllll
Atholtlll, Codex +70 of the Iberon Monastery of Mount Athos, was
also published in 1938. Plans for further publications were dis-
cussed at a conference of the Union Academique Internationale
in London in May of that year, and at a meeting of the editors in
Oxford in May 1939. The outbreak of the war interrupted the
cont act of Tillyard and myself with Hiieg, who has neverthel ess
published in 19+1, Part I of Tillyard's The Hyll/ll s of lhe Octoec/Ll/s.
Thanks to the initiative of Mr. Th. Whittemore, Director of the
Byzantine Institute, Boston, and the support given by theAmeri-
can Council of Learned Societi es and the British Academy, an
American Seri es of the ;1101l1tIl/ellt([ ,11usicae Byzallti"ae was
started in 19+
1
which undert ook to my Easlem Elements
in IV estem Chall l and H. J. W. TIIlyard s tranSCrIptIOn of Twenty
Canolls from the Trillity ,11S., Call/bridge. In October '9+5, after
the end of the war, C. H6cg came to England agaIn, and at a
meeting of the editors in Oxford, plans for the future were diS-
cussed especially the edition of the transcrIptIons from the
Hirmoiogillll/ Athol/m which had been transcnbed by my fonner
pupils and collaborators Dr. .\ glaia AYOlitantl, Dr. Mana Stohr,
I ' rt of ehe conference in Z.M.II' . xiv ( 193 1- 1), 61, lind Tillynd'i 'Conferenc,e

Sec . '" ,1,_ beginning of his ,wdy 'The Morning Hymn. of the Emperor L('o ,
on yzantlllc I' Uti' ...
Part 1, A .B.S.} no. xxxi, pp. 115-
16
.
20
A SURVEY OF STUDIES IN
d If TI
le publication of the 1,724 hymns in t his manu-
an myse . . d' . f t l H ' .
.' . ogress' it began with the e ItIOn 0 le Irml
scnpt IS now 111 pr, ...
. I fi t'1 de b,,' C Hoeg who ga\'ea detaIled mtroductIOn t o
111 t le rs 11 0 J" .' a! bl
h t d
, f the Hirnlologion and comparatI ve notatIOn t a es
t e s u ) 0 .. f th fi t C
f
. anuscripts to the transcnptIOns 0 e rs anons
rom \'anous m
of the first authentic and first plaga! modes.
Our method of transcription has been adopted by stu-
dents who are working on Byzant1l1e mUSIC, e.g. by 0: Tlby 111 his
b k La ?nllsica bizaulina (1938) and 0 . Strunk m his artIcle on
Tonal System of Byzantine Music' in The ill/mcal Quarterly,
sqq D
om Lorenzo Tardo's transcnptIOl1s 111 his
194
2
, pp. 19
0
' . . h
L' A ntica melurgia bizall/ma (1938) vary rhythmically from t ose
of the ,)[ollllmcnia J1Izmcae Byzallt!1lac, but the sub-tItle of
Tardo' book nell' iuterpretaziollc della Swola illollasitca
Grotlct/errala- justifies his method .of. transcnptlOn,.?-s he IS
reproducing the loca! tradition of smgmg 111 the Basihan mon-
astery. . .. .
In practice, howe\'er, hardly any dlfterence 111 the executIOn of
the melodies can be noticed, as one can find out for oneself by
listening to records made at Grottaferrata under the supervision
of Dom Tardo and those made under my own supervIsIOn for the
History 0/ .1l1lsic ill Sound, vol. ii (H.M.V.).
This similarity in outlook, as far as the most important prob-
lems are concerned, led finally to a close co-operation between
the editors of the ,ll 01l1l111ellta and the scholars at the Badia
Greca of Grottaferrata. It was officially confirmed in 1950 by the
co-optation of the Very Rev. Archimandrite I sidoro Croce to
the Editorial Board. At that time already, Dom Bartolomeo di
alvo had joined Dom Tardo in working on the early phases of
the musical notation and has since produced a number of valu-
able studies.'
The general acceptance of our method of transcribing facili-
tated the spread of studies in Byzantine music. The growing
interest in Byzantine Chant became e\'ident at the Bicentennial
. I 1\: Sal\'o, notal.ione palcobilantina c b 'La tr;.dizion!! orale dci c:mti
hturgici delle colOniC Italch\lbancsi di SiciiiJ COmpaLlta con dci r.:odio.:i antichi bi'lJ.ntini',
Alii dtf IlIIunazlDnal .. d, MU11W 1,l(ru, 195' ; ' La not;lzione palcobil.antin:l. e la
lua lr3.5Crmone, /1011t/ /11I 0 drlla Badia d, C:10llfJjrrrl1lll, !\i.S. iv 11+ "3
0
;Lnd \' (195
1
),
92. I' 0, 22.0-- 3S; 'Qualchc apP\lnto 'lIIIJ chironomia ndla In II ,ica hi/;uu' ill:!', (), it'll/alia C /)rIS(I(III(1
I'fflOJI C, /, \'01. x,iii ( '957).
BYZANTINE MUSIC AND
2I
of Princeton University in 19{6, and at the first Congress of Sacred
MUSIC m Rome m 1950, where the present writer was in charge of
a section on Eastern Chant. The same interest was noticeable at
the second Congress in Vienna in 1954 and the third in Paris in
1957· 'I'Ve may ascribe the changed attitude towards our studies
partly to the growing appreciation of Byzantine Chant with which
wide circles became acquainted through records and radio partly
to the recognition of the importance of the knowledge of Eastern
Chant for the development of Western Chant, particularly of
those bilingual melodies in Western Graduals and Antiphonaries
of the Beneventan and H.avennatic rites, which are remnants,
one could say 'incrustations', of the early layer of chants in the
repertory of melodies which are now considered to be the chant
'vieux romain', the Roman Chant before the reshaping of the
melodies in the Carolingian era.'
Thus the im'estigation into the bilingual melody Ote to Stavro-
o quando in cruce of the Beneventan rite, which I had analysed
in my Eas/em Eit'lllellis in Weslern Challt (19{7) and compared
with the \'ersion of the Greek Troparion as it was sung in Con-
stantinople, on Mount A thos and in Grottaferrata, was of far
greater importance to studies in early \\' estern Chant than I
would ha"e dared to expect.
In his two studies on 'Les Chants en langue grecque dans les
liturgies latines' in Sam's ErCldiri, \·ols. i (19{8) and iv (1952),
Dam Louis Brou gi"es a list of forty-five bdmgual chants; but
these are only the melodies of which the texts have come down to
us in both Latin and Greek; they do not include those melodi es
which are obviously of Greek origin but have come down to us
only in the Latin \'ersion. _ ", .
o 168 of the Eastern Elemellts Charlemagne s act 1\ e m-
the Chant of the ChurCh, is mentioned
passage from De gestis Beati ( aroft Jlag"" quoted, 111 \I hlch It IS
. .' Chonh' ';w J,l CongrtJJO I"urn. d,
, Cf R Stablein, 'Zur Friihgc$c!lIchtt d. l'lomul' ,Dom 'I' ,'lu"lo 'Un importilnt tcmain
. . - b' Dom J. OUrler e •. . .
.\JUUflJ S<l(T"oJ, KOnJe, .195-·", I de Sainte du Rn-u(
du challt vicu,\-romam. Ie (,radu,d t "\'icux-romain", li.tc des milnUJcrltJ ct.
26-ri Dom !l uglo,. Lc . II. lIude, 'Die de"gr.egOrl3mSehcn
indirect" StJCns EruJITI, \"I ( 19,4), 90- 4"'b .', vlix ( '9" ) I-l-S-; 'Crcgonanuchcr Gcgng
, 'I' R (btQuartas. ,.... ,r "( .)
im Frankf!nr('lc '.' 01'11:. I' r ',""chit: r
u
, XII 19b, T .,
, d r k cher Lber 1f!If!r ung, • J ' '1'1 __ ) I--...on
in ahronlUcher un r,IO.IS.. Chant' ".7-, PL
I';. 'Rec!!nt In \\f!,(C'rn. SCT: f<)ltl ii. 75
1
} ':"57, In \hgnf!.i. '
1 In .11onumrnll1 Gamo1l1"U /luID",Il, "P,b,n 't1/rluJun', \'01. j (LC'lpzl8o 1911), dumUlC1
. ' •. ,j 'b J" g""g.;rIlJn
p, III hn EmJu TUlIg In
the report as.l '(;Iiry-ta)c',
22
A SURVEY OF STUDIES I
reported that Charlemagne ordered the translation into Latin of
some Greek hymns to which he had listened in concealment,
when members of a Byzantine legation sang chants of their
Church during their stay at the Franconian court. In an article
' Sur quelques tropaires grecs traduits en latin' in A 1males lvIusieo-
logiqlles, vol. ii (1954) the late J. Handschin went further into the
matter.
In another edi ti on of the Gesta he found a more detailed descrip-
ti on of t he chants the Byzantines sang ; these were the Antiphons
of the Morning Offi ces on the Octave of Epiphany Veterent
1I 0lll ill elll elflll sequentibus.' With the help of Dom B. di Salvo and
O. Strunk he was now able to show that the Greek chants which
were sung were closely relat ed to t he group of La tin chants which
ha\'e sur\,i \'ed in several Antiphonals, e.g. that of Worcest er ,
l'a!eograpllie .1fusicale, \ -01. xi i, pI. 58 sq.
The essent ial fact for us lies not so much in t he investigation
as to which of t he West ern manuscri pt s contain the best version
for compari son, but in the confirmation of the correctness of the
assumpti on whi ch I held from the beginning, i. e. tha t Byzantine
music was di atonic before the E mpire came under the over-
whel ming infl uence of Arabic, and . even more, of Turkish music.
Byzantine music cannot have sounded strange t o \Vest ern ears.
Woul d Charl emagne ha\'e told his clergy t o translat e the Greek
t exts into Latin, would he have ordered them t o incl ude a set of
Greek antiphons in the Latin Ser vice if the melodies had on ,
account o[ t heir intervals, sounded different from the liturgical
Chant he was used to? Certainl y not . Byzantine Chant must
have been as diatoni c as that of the La tin Church.
. The few details mentioned above are sufficient t o show the
Important role which chant in Greek played in the creation and
development of Lati n Chant, i. e. bot h, in the earl y days of
ChnstJamty, when It was introduced from the Syro-Pa lestinean
Church and, at a later date, when some chants \\'ere t aken o\'er
the Eastern Church.' :lIusicologists like A. Gastoue, W.
I' rere, and, above all , P. Wag-ner , who were liturgiologist s as well ,
I e. ,\teyer voo Knonau '\100 h ' S II . (. .
lhtuil ' f d '6' ac . anga cnm :'\:OtLcnll Balbulus) Dc Carolo I\ iagno,
- ungn' %ur 1:aUr an 1U" tn Gt'ub' ht 1/
xxxvi ('9' 0) )8 ' 1·1" . . Ie t. allusgt'g.1.'01/l lilS(lJr. VUI'l" da K ant otls St. CIII/etl,
I • liS text IS a repTlnt fro J ff" d" . I . ,
tom. iv pp 6) , . ' 1·1 f II I m a '6 C 'l lon 111 /Jwlwtbaa raum GefIlU11I,,:artll1l ,
,. 7
00
. Ie u text been us··d b I) I' I' . - .
in R-' d 6 .' .. y om 01 lIer In hh on the subject
u c a1ll g"gonen, x. 81- 3.
l. Cf. E. Wdlesz, 'Cregory the Great ' L I \11 I . ..
(
Pa ri I I . ) 6 I ctter on I H' t t' lila', Ali I/ ales i\llluCQ/oglqw:s lom e II
I pp. 7':!. . '
- ----------
BYZANTINE MUSIC AND HYMNOGRAPHY
. d 23
were convlIlce o[ the exist ence o[ thO . fl b .
. [ I III uence ut were not In
possessIOn 0 the materi al which would have proved their theor .
It was only aft er a great number o[ Byzantine melodies had be{n
transcnbed that It was possible to confi rm what until then h d
to be regarded as a hypothesis, though a very suggestive on/
\ ' 11 TH E PRESEx T STATE OF STl:DI ES 1:-1 BYZAXTl :-lE CHANT
Down t o about 1950 the t ranscripti ons of the editors of the
were t aken [rom the Hirmologion and Sti cherari on, the
hrst contalIllIlg melodi es in a more or less syll abic style, the second
one melodI es partl y III a slt ghtIy ornamented style. The decipher-
Ing of the. mUSIcal not atIon of the t hirteenth and fourteenth
centunes dId not offer any di ffic ulties in principle as long as one
had a clear, carefull y wnt ten manuscri pt to transcri be, since the
n ddl e of the not ation had been solved t hirt y years ago. The
dIffi cultI es consIsted III mIstakes of the scri bes, ill egible musical
SIgnS, and other fault s whi ch could be elimi nated by comparison
WIth other manuscnpts of the same monasti c tradition. The
task of transcribi ng the melodies from t he two coll ections and
the work on t he earli er phases of t he notati on was so substanti al
t hat t he editors had not been able to direct their attention to the
chants in t he melismati c style.
At the Congress in Rome P. A. Lail ), presented us with his
Doctorate thesis on a manuscri pt in t he Vati can li brary, Cod.
Borgia gr. 19. ' Here some of the richl y ornament ed melodi es are
transcribed and commented upon by Laily. Looking back we
may say that he came very near to a satisfactory solution.
At the same t ime C. Hiieg and r \' isited the Badi a di Grotta-
ferrat a near where the famous Codex Ashburnham. 6+
from the Laurenziana in Florence was on loan, and was shown to
us by the kindness of the \ 'cry Hc\". Archi mandri te and Dom
Bartolomeo di Sall·o. Codex ,\shburn ham. 6+ IS a Psaltlkon, a
book [or the soloist . ft contains in the main a coll ection of Kon-
ta ki a, but also liturgical chants proper. aU in the meli smatic
style of the thirteenth cent ury, t hat means 111 a \'ery Hond style,
though not yet in the rather supcrhelal coloraillra style of the
fourteent h and fi ft eenth centurIes.
I P. A. LnTly, Ilnalyu du Codl'x de musique grerque So. 19, BihholMqut ralirant (Fonds Borgia),

JcruJ:dcll1, 19.f1}·
24
A SURVEY OF STUDIES I N
Codex Ashburnham. 6+ is of part icular value to t he student of
Byzantine Chant because it contains in a \'ery legible not a tion
script all the twenty-four stanzas of the 'Akathistos' hymn,
the most famous Kontakion of the Greek Orthodox Church. It
was arranged that Hoeg should prepare a facsimile editi on of
Codex Ashburnham. 6+ and the present writer a transcripti on of
the ' Akathistos'.
We shall have to deal with the ambiguities of the notation in
a chapter on the melismatic chant which is added to this edition.
Here, hO\\'e\-er, it may be said that I worked for three years on
the deciphering of the notation, because the scribe had obviously
copied it from a manuscript in which the intervals were not fixed
and the sign of a descending third could mean either t hi rd or a
fourth, and so on. The work on the transcription of the' Akathis-
tos' confi rmed the view whi ch I expressed repeatedly, that Byzan-
tine musical notation was merely an aide-lIIt!moire to the singer,
not only in the earlier stages of musical notation when the range
of int en 'als was not fixed, but also in the notation of the thir-
teenth century, the so-called Byzantine' notation, with
theoretically fixed intervals. The singer who used the hymn-
book knew the melodies by heart . He therefore rarely corrected
mistakes of the scribe, resulting from carelessly copying an old
manuscript and leaving some ambiguous intervals written in the
old way. The notation, indicating the a pproximate interval, was
enough help t o sing the right notes. It would be wrong to decide
on notati onal grounds alone what to do in a case where no clear
decision can immediately be taken, we must find out what inter-
val the old scribe wanted to write down. That procedure made it
necessary to compare the melodic lines of all the twenty-four
stanzas t o see what the scribe wrote in the corresponding stanzas,
all whIch vaned at least sli ghtly from the model stanza, and
to hnd out that solution whi ch fitted best the
eVIdence and the run of the melody in the other stanzas. ;-..row
that tIllS work IS done, I the transcription of other Kontakia from
thIrteenth-century manuscripts offers no diffi culti es pro\'ided
that the are correct ; glancing over the pages of
the faCSImIl e edltl on we find certain traditional clauses and formu-
lae, the recurrence of a certain number of ornamcnts whi ch ap-
I E. Welle., Tb( AJlUlhWf)$ J-l \I AI LJ 'T' .
.f hb b
l
. ,ymll". . . rmU(lIp'u, vol. LX ( 19S7)i l'. lI u('g, elm/oranum
. I ur" Qllltnu, AI .,\} 11. racJ lflJl llQ, vol. i ... (L95(,).
------
BYZANTI NE MUSIC AND HYM:-iOGRAPHY 2-
pear to be characteristic of the genre, not only of a single Kontakion'
or DOXOlogy, or Alleluia. '
The transcription of the melodies and the investigation into
the early stages of Byzantine musical notation has prepared the
ground for the work whIch must now be done: the study of the
techl1lque of Byzantme mUSIcal composition, its characteristic
features, and Its place in the entirety of Christian Chant. This
IS a task to whi ch everyone who has worked in this field has paid
attentIOn, but whIch must be even further developed. It becomes
mcreasmgly Important as we see more and more that the study
of Byzantme Chan t cannot be restncted to the treasury of melodies
sung m the churches of the Empire, but that our studies must
include its ramifi cati ons towards the Latin West , and also to-
wards thc Sla\'oni c ]\orth and East.
A beginning been made in both directi ons. \\"e have already
mentIOned the East ern elements 111 the \\' est and their influence
upon a re-apprai sal of plain chant. Im'esti gation into the Old
Sla\'oni c notation has confirmed what Russian musicologists
l
stated at the beginning of our century, i. e. that Byzantine Kanons,
Kontakia, and Sti chera were taken O\'er by the Sla\'oni c neigh-
bours in the 1\orth, most probably the BII/gllrs, and transmitted
to the Russians in Old Sla\'oni c, a translation in which the stresses
of the text correspond admirably to the high points of the melodic
line'
It would surpass the scope of the present book to discuss the
problems of Old Sla\'onic notati on and melody construction in
relation to those of Byzantine music. We must lea\'e such a
discussion to scholars who ha\'e specialized in these subjects.
The questi on of notati on has recently been deal t \I'i th by Madame
Palikarova \' erdeil in her Doctorat e theSIS, La A.flls/ qlle byzalltme
I lit er .. t ure gi "rn In O. . Die :\OIJI ionl'n dC's Alt-rusmchen K.irchengeungts·,
P"bflkallo,ulI J. lilt, ,\lUI. Ca., Folg(' .
l Prof. Roman lIan"lTd srent In Jan. the
libr;IT\' in and compJrcd with nit' the. 'tIling 01 tile: \\ ord$ 10 the mUSIC,. R.
J
k
c' I . r" fOld Sl:nonic metrlCs, I from that of Greek :lccentu.:lltlon.
a Ol'son Irom tie pomt 0 0 . f a- a f-iUI-ard doctorate
\\' c hot h IlorLed on the made' from the Chdandar rbagm,'L"u\'I' . .", ' I 'h -10'-
L" I ,I " Clo.m! r r
'fl." !J\,z.,n/In.· F!cmt"nlS 'n 'b" d'· d r E Koschmirdtr·t
.' Old 51 . d II IIIl1nt t hanl (an t It rom .
3vonIC : .\!: '-lhlo.mJI, d, Hoi 'f, ."RuJ. d_ /I'm .. Phllosoph. -
' 1)1(' :\ ovgorodcr ", I I Slavonic Ilirmologia and the
b
, ./ \'F . . (", ··\"II(HI"") whopnnuonrlt efltlt ( .
1ft. : " ',' '.' hI aralleh from a Ru"ian i\IS. In
By/.mt me COlI. COlsllll ::::0, and on t t' ,Ig P
Krjuki nOlat ion,
26 A SURVEY OF STUDI ES I N
chez les B1dgarcs dies Russi's,' a nd the probl ems of melody con-
struction have been expounded in a ver y compre hensive s tudy by
M. Veli mirovic.z There is, howen' r , one point to be mention ed
which seems to me of para moun t impor tance, i.e. the impera ti ve
need of connecting our studies with t hose of Compara ti ve Lit ur-
giology.
On ,·arious occasions I pointed out that it was indispensable
t o place Byzantine hymnography in its li turgical en vironment.
This became even more urgent when our studies were ex tended
to the various forms of mel ismatic c hant. The first opportuni ty
of demonstrat ing the importance of bri nging t he chant into close
relation with its liturgical function offered it self a t t he 'Sym-
posium on Byzantine Liturgy and Music' at the D umbar ton
Oaks Research Library and Coll ection in Washington in J954, at
whi ch I read two papers on the su bj ect: a gen eral survey of
' Byzantine i\'[usic a nd its place in the Liturgy' and a special o ne
on ' The Akathi st os Hymn' ;3 Oli,·er Strunk read a paper on ' T he
Byzantine Offi ce in Hagia Sophia' in which he examined t he
'Chanted Office of the Great Church' and the d i fferences b e t ween
monasti c and non-monasti c practice.' r n the same way C. Hoeg's
Tableau allaZytiquc in the preface t o the facsimil e ed it ion of t he
COIl/acarill m AshbuYllhalll eJISC
5
gi'-es a cl ear and succinct guide to
the liturgical functi on of the hymn, its connexion with the feast
of a Saint or an Apostl e.
The days ha ve gone by when the text of a hymn was considered
Without bearing in mind tha t it was sung, not read; a nd when,
on the other hand, a rtifi cial rhyt hmical schemes were in t roduced,
without t a king noti ce of the rhythmical sign s with which Byzan-
tme mUSical not atIOn a bounds. There is general agreement, at
least among mUSicologist s, that words and music are inseparably
hnked t ogether and that the t ext should not be a ltered to bring
It mto confonnrty With that of other manuscripts on purely
plulologlcal grounds. I n my study of the t ext of the Allathistos
6
I ventured t o say tha t the so-called south Itali an manuscri pt
traditIOn did not on gmat e in the Basil ean monast eri es of Sicily and
I M .A/ .B. Subudw vol. iii (' 9- 3) , cr b
' ;) . . note 1 a ove.
l Cf. E. Wellell ' T he Akath, ' S' .
I
, . "i ("' . 1> 0',. tuuy III Bl1.:l.ntlOC Dumbarl otl Dllb
1" am " 1955/6), I.p - .f , 1
: ? ,f.,O' ·' IS',r,unk" 'The Othce at Il agi:1 Sophia' ibid. pp. 1 -- 2;,2.
" , .• , '11($111111111, \'01. , \. ' , ,
6 Cf. J/ ,M, I1. 7" rl1ll1("pl <l \'01 i, I'
, .,' .XXXY.
------------------------
. BYZANTINE MUSIC AND HY)[NOGRAPHY 27
Calabria, but can be traced back t o the St. Catherine' s mo t
i\1 L . . nas ery
on J ount .• mal a nd originated on Syro-Palestinean soil. '
As far as we can see at present the differences in text and
melody can be reduced t o two main groups of manuscripts: to
t hose den\"lng from the monastic centre of J erusalem and to those
U1 use m the n orthern sphere of the Empire, rcpresenting the
nte of the episcopal ch,urches, above all that of Hagia Sophia,
the Impen al Church of (onstantmople; but as in West ern liturgy
the da ta .,dllch we gat her from the manuscripts do not show a
clear di\,l slOn . The struggle between t he monasteri es and the
episcopal churches went on for many centuries, in the course of
whi ch both rit es acquired elements from the opposite camp. It
\\'Ill be a most rcwardll1g t ask t o foll ow up the trend of thought
developed by A. Baumstark in his t wo outstanding essays,' when
the bulk of Byzantine Chant is avail able in print and t o compare
t he resuit wi th tha t gained from parall el st udi cs in Western Chant.
This brings us t o t he end of our sun-ey. It can be seen from it
that the hard work of genera ti ons of scholars was fi nall y crowned
with success. The main hindrances t o a precise and reliable
inter pretati on of t he signs of t he Byzantine musical notation
from t hc end of t he twclfth century ha, -e defi nitely been remo' -ed.
,\ t the same ti me great progress has been achie,-ed in clarifying
t he character of the early phases of Byzanti ne musical notati on.
\York recently done in the field of our studi es rests on a secure
basis a nd neeel no longer be set out in this sun· cy; it will be re-
fer red to a t the appropriate place in thi s book and rcglstered In
the Bi bli ography.
Here I should like to emphasize once more that the st udy of the
music of t he Eastern Church is of far-reachi ng importance for
the hist ory of music in general. A great wealth,
unknown n1tl sic is being made acceSSIble SlI1ce t he \\ ork o.C t rans
cripti on of Byzanti ne neumcs into modem staff not atwn has
I
P f' r \ Lowe' to whom I told Illy lin( of t hought in 1956, fully
, I :lIn glad to <.1.1' I I:lt ro e"or . t. .' 1..' I . hi· c,d "ud\' on 't\n unknown
d ' I nl(' with Ill! r ('c(nt \ pu 1111 •
apPTon:d of m.r ;',11 .,' _ ___ ' in which ht'com('s to (h(Slm(eon-
Latin Psaltcr on \ Iount Sm:u, I .. qq,," \I ,unt Sinai it bt'eom('s ( "idenl
., I f K Wile, wt'rt' wntten ".
c1u,lOns. I'rom anum 'l'T 0 on,· . L I." ',d ,. ,,·pical of §QUlh Italian ;\1 55.
d
. d 1 wluen were 3 W3}' rt'g u. .-
(h;1l features of an \ ss Th( J;1me c:m be 5!lid about (('((u31 "an:l n( ", wl( h
aTe actually eharaett'rhlle of - L •. I
which we shall ha \'e to (lcalll1orc al tht' prop(r pace.. . I (' .r ( _
. . .6( d dIe :\llkon.t311IlnOpoI113IU,e Ie
2 T Vl'ikon der I,U(" ) S-II,' 'DcnkmJler clcr
. . hb bf' Lr t1"wrnJ(hJ;' \1 19
2
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ordnung , .ltl I II( I urgl . • , 0 C S(r, III "01. ii (19:':;-)' pp. 1-) ': ,
gcschichtc du bYlanlllusehcn Ri tUll. . ,., I