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air

V.T. Morgan

Indexing term: Cables and overhead lines

1

,

Abstract: A method is given in IEC Publication 287-2 for calculating the current rating of cables in still air. This method requires that the external thermal resistance Tz of the cable be known, where TZ is inversely proportional to h (AOJ-' and q = 5/4. It is assumed that both the heat-dissipation coefficient h (W/m2 K5/4) and q are independent of AOs, the temperature rise of the surface of the cable. It is shown that these assumptions are incorrect, both for a single core or cable and for multi-core bundled cables. Values of h and q - 1 are presented for one-, two-, three- and fourcore cables. with At), up to 100 K and core diameter up to 0.15 m.

At) = temperature rise, K 1 = thermal conductivity, W m '/K v = kinematic viscosity, mZ/s U = solar absorptivity Subscripts a = ambient c =conductor f = film temperature s = surface t = total

1

Introduction

List of symbols

A =coefficient C,, = Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.67 W/mz/K4 D, = cicumscribing diameter of bundled cable, m D,*= diameter of a core, m E =coefficient g =coefficient g' = acceleration due to gravity, m/sZ Gr = Grashof number h = heat-dissipation coefficient, W/mZ/K4 h,, = convective heat-transfer coefficient, W/m'/K h, = radiative heat-transfer coefficient, W/m2/K h, = total heat-transfer coefficient, W/mZ/K H = intensity of global solar radiation, W/m2 I =current, A rn =exponent n = number of cores P = power per unit length, W/m Pr = Prandtl number q =exponent R = resistance per unit length, m' TI = internal thermal resistance, Km W' T: = external thermal resistance, Km W' Z =coefficient B = temperature coefficient of cubical expansion, K E = emissivity 0 = temperature, "C

There is a worldwide trend towards the use of insulated conductors (cables) for the overhead distribution of electric power. This trend can be attributed to the advantages of such cables where the proximity of buildings and trees causes problems with the use of bare overhead conductors. The risk of bush fires being caused by molten metallic particles, which can be ejected when bare conductors clash, is also eliminated. The rating of such overhead cables is often calculated using the IEC method [I]. For a cable having no metallic sheath or armouring, and neglecting dielectric heating, the rating I , in still air, is obtained from AOc - OD: HT,*

I = [ R ( T , nT:) where AOC is the temperature rise of the conductor, or conductors, above ambient; R is the AC resistance per unit length of each conductor at the maximum working temperature (<9O"C for XLPE-insulated cables); D is the solar absorptivity of the surface of the cable; H is the intensity of solar radiation; D : is the external diameter of each core or cable; TI is the internal thermal resistance of the insulation; and TX is the external thermal resistance from the surface of the core or cable to ambient, where T,* = [sD: h ( A O J - ' ] - ' (2) h is the heat dissipation coefficient (W/m' KP)for a single core or cable, 8 0 , is the temperature rise of the surface of the core or cable above ambient temperature, and q - 1

+

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'I2

(1)

0 IEE, 1994 received 19th November 1991 Paper 9939C (PS), The author is with the CSlRO Division of Applied Physich, National Measurement Laboratory, Bradfield Road, West Lindfield, Sydney, NSW, Australia

IEE Proc.-Gener. Trunsm. Distrib., Vol. 141, N o . 3, M a y 1994

**The author thanks the Electricity Supply Association of Australia for financial support.
**

215

210 0.73 5.22 7. 3. is the thermal conductivity of the air film at the surface for the film temperature Or. For Table 1 : Constants for total heat-dissipation coefficient D:.345 3.40 6.45 5.57 3.11 0.92 5.37 4.53 4.28 2.30 4.02 Y 3.72 2.. Y = 6 6 K <A@.-Gener. < lWC.880 0.65 2.10 0.120 0.92 5.00 3.9.88 2.46 3.13 0.83 5. 5 and 6. in the range 0.94 2.925 0.08 4.80 1.30 2. + e. and v. ABJv.18 x 7.00 4.263 0.5(0.230 0.82 3. and for 0.16 4.12 7.38 3.98 3. : hc hR hcon (4) where h.15 9.45 4.40 4.49 3.823 0.(ABs)-'4-') (14) For an isolated single core or cable. W m-' n = l n=2 Y K-O n=3 Y 3. Typical plots are presented in Fig.63 2.349 0.27 5.86 4.85 4.51 6.2 x The Grashof number is given by (8) (9) Gr = Dz3g'6.09 0. Gr is the Grashof number. Distrib.67 2.20 5.74 2. m h.X=33 K < A @ $ < 66 K.47 2.35 5.09 4.79 2. A and rn are constant coefficients for limited ranges of the product GrPr.14 0.09 x 6.00 1.02 7. 141.35 2.350 0.26 5. No.74 3.860 0.316 0.01 m steps in 0 :.87 2.9 0.(0. .47 6.330 - 216 I E E Proc.63 6.00 2.42 2. where g' is the acceleration due to gravity. 6.32 2.165 0.53 6.63 Z g E 0. Cabis the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. 1.74 5.80 5.74 4.337 0.72 4.63 5.23 4.62 3.75 2.66 5.460 0.87 4.325 0.142 0. + 273)-' + 9.30 2.77 5.32 x IO-' Pr = 0.) (7) - and 131 U 0 . = o.41 3.5 x 10-'8.64 w 0.73 5.86 5.17 w 7.02 5.98 2.63 5.68 2.46 5.15 m.67 3.58 5..715 - (11) (12) (13) 2.70 3.69 2.50 3. was plotted against the surface temperature rise A9. and I.369 0.220 0. 8. = I .34 6.23 7.95 2.07 2. and natural convection h.70 2. = AD: h(ABJq (3) P .37 5.94 4. Vol.06 0.07 6.00 5. (W/m' K) for each core or cable is equal to the sum of the heat-transfer coefficients for radiation h. < 100 K.521 0.15 4. @.54 6.70 5.30 5. Transm.01 0.41 5.=25"C.86 4.330 0.335 0..19 3.03 3.11 4. is the kinematic viscosity of air.01 5.12 0.320 0.20 6.06 4.02 0.53 3.322 0.30 4.< 33 K.92 3.61 4.32 3. I .0242 + 7.90 1.51 4.68 6.07 0.22 6. = 0.26 2.78 2.41 7.. 3 and 13 that The total heat-transfer coefficient h.670 0.68 4.39 2.05 0.59 5. which is known as the Rayleigh number [2].18 6.57 5.86 3. where e. the calculated value of h .010. = 1.08 5.447 0.16 4.605 0. 0.23 n=4 Y 3.43 6.82 2. P r is the Prandtl number.55 4.54 2. is the temperature of the surface.96 5.26 4.24 4. + 27314] (5) h = h.300 0.77 3.83 2. = (0.34 6.92 w 8. and = C.42 2.98 5.20 4.03 0.75 5.95 5.86 6.36 4.00 4.01 6.226 q-1 W = 10 K <A@.68 5.22 x 5.73 6.80 w 8.00 0.85 5.04 6. with e.14 3.14 5.79 5.07 3.04 0. = 25°C and E = 0.35 4.24 2. (10) and [3] 2 Heat-transfer coefficients v.25 6.28 6. 1 1 I 8 I - 5 I 1 .88 7. for 5 K steps in the range 10-100 K .5 x 10-48.. A(GrPr)"/D: In eqns.29 5.835 0. The gra- h. which is stated to be equal to 1/4 in Reference 1.39 6.62 2.78 6.46 4.89 3.42 3. May 1994 .08 0..23 6.05 4.75 2.is a coefficient.83 3.11 4.93 3.66 2.135 0.94 7. E=0.522 0. f i r is the temperature coeffjcient of cubical expansion of air at the film temperature.35 5.20 4.56 x 5. E is the emissivity of the surface of the core or cable.135 0.03 4.92 2.73 2.340 0.E[(B. Aes it can be seen from eqns.80 4.19 5. = nD: h.12 6.62 4.479 0.1 Single core or cable The Prandtl number is found from [3] 2. As the total heat loss per unit length is also given by The total heat loss per unit length from each core or cable is obtained from P.02 2. + 273)4 .99 4.29 4.24 4.

*) h = h. 2. of the circumscribing circle. Derived values of h and q . The IEC document [l] gives an approximate expression for the variation of h with 0:: An approximate expression for the heat-dissipation coefficient h (W/m' K4) is similar to that for the single core or cable. of the circle that circumscribes the bundle. three or four single cores or cables are twisted together. Morgan [2.165 for a single core or cable. derived from curves such as Fig. For 10 K < ABs < 33 K.resulting in three different gradients for various ranges of At?*. 2 Vuriation o f the total heat-transfer coeflcient o f a two-core bundled cable with surface-temperature rise and core diameter 8.01 m < D : < 0. 3 5 Discussion 20 30 40 50 M) 708090103 temperature rise. = 20: for a two-core cable.-Gem. are also presented in Table 1. are given in Table 1. rather than 0:. As in the single-core case. three-core and four-core bundles are presented in Table 1. 41 suggested that the heat-dissipation coefficient for the bundle be based on an effective diameter. to conform with the IEC document [l]. 1-4 and Table 1 that the exponent q . h. h is based on D . 2) and a twisted multi-core bundled cable (see eqn. 3. g and E for the three ranges of temperature rise.. three-core and four-core bundled cables are shown in Figs.15 m. = 25°C.1 = 0.1 and h for each range of temperature rise are given in Table 1. 1. 141. 17) varies with the surfacetemperature rise. Using D. = 66 K. as for the single-core cable.. No. and h. It was assumed that h is independent of temperature rise. Derived values of 2. 4 Variation o f the total heat-transfer coeficient of a four-core bundled cable with surfice-temperature rise and core diameter 8. = 2 5 C . and does not have the constant value of 1/4. There are disconn=2 30 LO 50 60 70 80901M) temperature rise. In the range 33 K < ABs < 66 K. D.9 10 2 51 I 20 It should be noted that the single-core diameter 0: is used rather than the diameter D. . Distrib. K Fig. 2-4. D.1 of the surface-temperature rise in the calculation of the external thermal resistance of both a single core or cable (see eqn. we have n=3 - I + + R(T1 + UT. K Fig.230 for both single 217 . T z . I E E Proc. Transm. such as the diameter D . h.120-0. Vol. M a y 1994 It can be seen from Figs. q .135 for a multi-core bundled cable. and 0. it is inappropriate to use the heat-dissipation coefficient h for a single core or cable when calculating the external thermal resistance T: of the bundle. was plotted against the temperature rise ABs.210-0. q .. 15: Z h=-+E ( D : Y (22) where Z .(ABs)-'4-'' (21) where D. However. Values of Z .1 for these three ranges of AB. = [I (2/d3)]D: for a three-core cable in trefoil. = (1 42)D: for a four-core cable in square array.g and E for two-core. given in eqn.151 tinuities at approximately ABs = 33 K and AB. = 0: for a single core. the calculated value of h... and D . E = 0. as assumed in the IEC document [l].2 Bundled cables When two.9 10 1 I I 0. g and E are constant coefficients in the range 0.1 = 0.E = 0. Thus D. and typical plots for two-core. refer to the multi-core cable [2]. h. The derived values of q .

E and g in the approximate equations for h have also been : up to 0. Res. 1982. This also applies to multi-core bundled cables. on Insulated lines and cable systems (Distribution 2000)..1 (= 1/4) are constant for a particular cable diameter.T.15 m. 65-72 3 MORGAN. 1 International Electrotechnical Commission: ‘Calculation of the continuous current rating of cables (llXIo/o load factor)’. the IEC value of 1/4 is approximately correct only for AOs = 33-66 K. h and q . Vol. 29th-31st May 1991. All determined for ABs up to 100 K and 0 these values are tabulated in Table 1. The steady-state thermal model’. Publication 287-2. Elect. Part 1. In the grouping h ( A O J . 140. which is the usual range of operation of cables. V. pp. 141. C. I E E Proc. 5 References It has been shown that the equation in IEC Publication 287-2 [l] for calculating the external thermal resistance of a single core or cable in still air is incorrect. Amendment 2.’ . 5. Trnnsm. 1993. 119-139 4 MORGAN..T.: ‘External thermal resistance of aerial bundled cables’. Hence. Power Syst.. 1982. 1988 2 MORGAN. rather than the diameter 0: of a single core.1 both vary with the surface temperature rise ABs. q . Conf.320-0.: ‘The thermal rating of overhead-line conductors.: ‘The current rating of aerial bundled cables’. Values for the coefficients 2. pp. Sydney. 301-314 218 I E E Proc. 3. No.1 = 0. for which h is based on the cicumscribing diameter D. it was assumed that both the heatdissipation coefficient h and the exponent q . for 66 K < ABs < 100 K. and. pp.and multi-core cables. Distrib. May 1994 .-Genm.340. Proc. V. 4 Conclusions Values of h and q have been obtained graphically for various ranges of AB. V. In fact.T.

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