UNIT 1: INTERNATIONAL TRADE VOCABULARY DEFINITION The condition of self-sufficiency, esp.

economic The amount by which expenditures or liabilities exceed income or assets The quantitative limits on the 3 Quota import of particular product or commodities the difference between what a 4 Balance of payment country receives and pays for its exports and imports of goods Selling goods abroad at a price 5 Dumping below that charged in the domestic market An amount, quantity, etc.., greater than needed The difference between a country’s total earnings from exports and its total expenditure on imports Trade in services (banking, insurance, tourism, and so on) Taxes charged on imports Trade in goods Direct exchanges of goods, without the use of money Any program, policy, or system of laws that seeks to provide protection for property owners, wildlife, the environment, etc. The theory proposes that all nations will raise their living standards and real income if they 1 Bán phá giá Cán cân thanh toán quốc tế Hạn ngạch TRANSLATION IN VIETNAMESE 1 Autarky Sự tự lực (đb là về kinh tế)



Sự thâm hụt



Sự dư thừa, thặng dư

7 8 9 10

Balance of trade Invisible imports and exports Tariffs Visible trade / merchandise trade

Cán cân thương mại

Thương mại dịch vụ Thuế quan Thương mại hàng hóa Hàng đổi hàng


Barter / counter trade



Chính sách bảo hộ


Comparative cost principle

Nguyên tắc so sánh giá

Ability of a nation to produce a good more efficiently than any other nation Inability of a nation to produce a goods more efficiently than other 16 Comparative advantage nations. usually in the form of gold. Renew the loan Postpone General Agreement on Tariffs and Lệnh cấm vận Tài khoản vốn Lợi thế so sánh Lợi thế tuyệt đối Chủ nghĩa trọng thương 15 Absolute advantage Capital account 17 18 Embargoes 22 23 24 Infant industry Rollover Reschedule GATT Nền công nghiệp non trẻ Gia hạn khoản vay Cho hoãn nợ. as in experience or learning. Restrictions on the convertibility of a currency into other currencies The industry is a beginner. Trade theory holding that nations Mercantilism 14 should accumulate financial wealth. giãn nợ Hiệp ước chung về thuế và 2 .specialize in the production of those goods and services in which they have the highest relative productivity. but an ability to produce that good more efficiently than it does any other good A national account that records transactions involving the purchase or sale of assets Complete ban on trade (imports and exports) in one or more products with a particular country Laws stipulating that a specified 19 Local content requirements amount of a goods or services be supplied by producers in the domestic market. by encouraging exports and discouraging imports. novice. Regulatory control or bureaucratic 20 21 Administrative delays Currency controls rules designed to impair the rapid flow of imports into a country.

come to nothing.2 5 Collapse Trad to break down. fail thương mại Sụp đổ 3 .

4 .

and money market accounts that accepts time deposits The bank of government which can lend money to other banks in times of need A financial institution that deals with raising capital. Insurance and much more It is a financial institution. client card. 5 . owned by its members that offers banking and other financial services. key It is a card issued by a bank. credit Thẻ ATM union or building society. savings accounts. The funds are withdrawn directly from either the bank account or from the remaining balance on the card Vietnamese Ngân hàng thương mại Ngân hàng trung ương Ngân hàng đầu tư Commercial Bank Central bank Investment Bank Merchant bank Ngân hàng bán buôn Universal bank Supranational bank Finance house Building society Ngân hàng đa năng Định chế tài chính quốc tế Công ty tài chính Hiệp hội nhà ở Credit card Thẻ tín dụng Debit card Thẻ ghi nợ ATM card (bank card. who pays back the bank or finance company at a later date It is a plastic card that provides the cardholder electronic access to his or her bank account/s at a financial institution. A card which guarantees payment for goods and services purchased by the card holder. financing international trade and managing corporate mergers and acquisitions A financial institution primarily engaged in offering financial services and advice to corporations and wealthy individuals on how to use their money It is both a Commercial bank and an Investment bank and participates in many kinds of banking activities It is formed by two or more central governments to promote economic development for the member countries The Finance House provides you with the ability to source Mortgages. especially mortgage lending. It can be used at an ATM for deposits.Unit 2: Banking & Unit 8: Central Banking English Provides checking accounts.

cash card) withdrawals. through a variety of different channels Deposit account or A deposit account is a current time or notice account. account information. used for raising national fund when Tài khoản giao dịch Tài khoản tiền gửi có kỳ hạn Tài khoản cá nhân Lệnh trả tiền tự động Chứng khoán khoản thế chấp dựa vào Lãi suất liên bang (ở Hoa Kỳ) Quản lý danh mục đầu tư Thời gian đáo hạn Hệ thống trung gian tài chính Tình trạng ổn định về tài chính Dự trữ ngoại hối Ủy quyền theo pháp luật Financial stability Foreign reserve Legal mandate Government securities Chứng khoán chính phủ 6 . performance Maturity Time at which a note or bond is due Clearing system System for transferring bonds and cash between buyers and sellers. at a banking institution that allows money to be deposited and withdrawn by the account holder Personal account An account which be used by an individual for their own needs Standing order An instruction a bank account holder gives to their bank to pay a set amount at regular intervals to another account Mortage-backed Asset-backed security that represents securities a claim on the cash flows from mortgage loans through a process Federal funds rate   Portfolio Making decisions about investment management mix and policy. savings account. and balancing risk against.card. for the purpose account/ current of securely and quickly providing account) frequent access to funds on demand. and other types of transactions Transactional A deposit account held at a bank or a account (checking financial institution. Transfers of bonds are usually made by book entry transfer. matching investments to objectives. Capability to allocate funds efficiently and absorb shocks as they arise Total of a country's gold holdings and convertible foregin currencies and bonds An act by which one individual empowers another individual to conduct transactions for an individual in that person's name Securities issued by government. or other account type of bank account. asset allocation for individuals and institutions.

unconditional order by one party (the drawer) to another (the drawee) to pay a certain sum.Mortage-backed securities necessary. either immediately (a sight bill) or on a fixed date (a term bill). for payment of goods and/or services received Document that orders a person or organization to pay a fixed sum of money on demand or on a specificed date Process through which the global banking system acts on behalf of an exporter to collect cash payment or a time draft from the importer Đồng ý chuyển thanh toán hóa đơn đến người xuất khẩu Ngân hàng thông báo Chấp nhận thanh toán đổi chứng từ Trả trước 2 3 4 5 6 7 Applicant Benificiary Bill of exchange Người khởi tạo Người thụ hưởng Hối phiếu 8 Bill of lading 9 Bills for collection Hối phiếu nhờ thu 7 . usually bonds Asset-backed security that represents Chứng khoán a claim on the cash flows from khoản thế chấp mortgage loans through a process dựa vào UNIT 3: FINANCING FOREIN TRADE 1 Agree to remit payment of the invoice back to the exporter Advertising bank Acceptance Advance payment Bank that advises the letter of credit and sends the orginal 4C for the exporter In which accepts bill of exchange after period of time. upon maturity Exporters receive payment from an overseas buyer in full or in part before the goods are dispatched Who ask his bank to apply LC (the buyer) Who is benefited from letter of credit usually the seller or exporter a written.

1 0 1 1 1 2 Clean collection Collecting bank Collection payment by bill of exchange to which Phương thức nhờ thu trơn documents are not attached Bank that receives payment of bills for their customers account (the exporter’s bank) Method of payment that the exporter cannot collect the sum of money from the importer by himself. A definite undertaking of the confirming bank. in addition to that of the issuing bank. forwards it to an advising bank for delivery to the beneficiary A letter from a bank guaranteeing that a buyer's payment to a seller will be received on time and for the correct Hóa đơn Ngân hàng phát hành 2 6 Letter of credit Tín dụng thư 8 . Therefore the exporter has to remit for remitting bank. although he had previously agreed to pay Document allowing someone to claim ownership of goods payment by bill of exchange to which commercial documents are attached International trade procedure in which the credit worthiness of an importer is substituted by the guaranty of a bank for a specific transaction Từ chối thanh toán 1 hối phiếu đã được chấp nhận khi đến hạn thanh toán 1 3 Confirmation 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 Control of the goods Defer presentation Dishonours an accepted bill upon maturity Document of title Documentary collection Documentary credit Phương thức nhờ thu kèm chứng từ Tín dụng chứng từ 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 Fail to accept the bill of exchange Full set of BL In accordance with the original sales contract Intermediary Invoice Issuing bank Từ chối chấp nhận hối phiếu All the necessary shipping documents Theo hợp đồng mua bán gốc Person or company that acts as a middleman in a transaction list of goods sold as a request for payment Buyer's or importer's bank which establishes (opens) a L/C in favor of a beneficiary. to honour or negotiate a complying presentation Quyền kiểm soát hàng hóa To delay passing the bill to the importer The importer does not pay.

amount 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 0 3 1 Maturity Maturity Open account date when a bill of exchange is due for payment Date when a bill of exchange is due for payment Credit relationship in which the buyer pays upon the receipt of goods. or on deferred payment basis Kỳ hạn thanh toán Phương thức ghi sổ Relevant documents The documentation against acceptance of the bill (D/A) Các chứng từ liên quan An arrangement in which someone has Chấp nhận thanh toán đổi the right to collect imported goods only chứng từ after they have signed an agreement at a bank to pay for the goods and have shown proof of having signed it An arrangement under which an exporter instructs the presenting bank to hand over shipping and title documents to the importer only if the importer fully pays the accompanying bill of exchange or draft Documents that give their bearer or holder the title to the goods specified therein To check the correctness of letter of credit In the incorrect condition for operation or use Failure to pay a valid (proper and legal) bill of exchange which has been duly presented for acceptance To write a bill of exchange (= document used in trade that orders payment for goods or services) To make payment for goods or services accordance with the invoice value Thanh toán ngay 3 2 The documentation against payment (D/P) 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 4 0 The documents of tittle to the goods To authenticate the letter of credit To be not in order To dishonour an acceptance bill upon maturity To draw a bill of exchange on sb To remit payment of the invoice Remit Undertaking Chứng từ sở hữu hàng hóa Xác nhận thư tín dụng Không đúng thủ tục Từ chối thanh toán một hối phiếu đã được chấp nhận khi đến hạn phải thanh toán Phát hành hối phiếu đòi nợ ai đó Chuyển tiền để thanh toán hóa đơn Chuyển tiền. hoãn lại Lời hứa đảm bảo Promis or gurantee given to or by a bank 9 .

Accounts receivable =creditors . Amortization 10. utility bills Include profits from investments in other companies The loss in value of a tangbile asset Khấu hao tài sản cố định The loss in value of an intangbile asset Khấu hao Refer to money paid to the bank for loans or received from the bank for balances Lãi suất Money paid to shareholders Cổ tức Transfer to the Balance sheet. dividends 12. salaries of manual workers Giá vốn hàng bán Include salaries of sales and office staff.operating income 8. Revenue = income = turnover = sales = the top line 5. Interest 11. then deduct all of the costs related to producing that revenue Báo cáo kết quả kinh doanh Report the company’s financial condition on a specific date. Cost of goods sold = direct costs 6. The basic equation that has to balance is: assets = liabilities + shareholders’ equity Bản cân đối kế toán Companies need a separate record of cash receipts and cash payments Báo cáo lưu chuyển tiền tệ the entire amount of income before any deductions are made Doanh thu Include manufacturing costs. Depreciation 9. marketing costs. It begins with total sales. Retained profit 13. where it joins the amounts from previous years Lợi nhuận giữ lại The amount owed to the business by customers Khoản phải thu 10 3. Balance sheet Sumarize business activity over a period of time. Cash flow statement 4. Non.UNIT 4: Accounting and Financial statement 1. Operating expenses = indirect costs/ overhead 7. The profit and loss account = income statement = the P&L 2.

Fixed assets 17. Intangible assets 18. income. Share capital The value of raw materials & stock Hàng tồn kho Include ‘marketable securities’ Tài sản ngắn hạn Inclde long-term financial investments Tài sản cố định Inclde patents. Bút toán ghi sổ đơn Means each is recorded in two accounts: one is debited and the other is credited Bút toán ghi sổ kép 11 23. journals. Daybook Is a descriptive and diary-like record of day-today financial transactions. Bank debt = loan capital 19. Single-entry book-keeping 26. Accounts payable 20. trademarks & goodwill Tài sản vô hình Include any overdraft Nợ The money owed to suppliers Khoản phải trả Amount raised at initial flotation on the stock market Vốn chủ sở hữu Is the recording of the value of asset. and expenses in the daybooks. in which debit and credit entries are chronologically posted to record changes in value 21. Double-entry book-keeping . Sổ nhật ký Is a formal and chronological record of financial transactions before their values are accounted in general ledger as debits and credits. Book-keeping Bút toán ghi sổ 22. Ledger 25. Current assets 16.14. Inventory 15. liabilities. Sổ cái Is a one sided accounting entry to maintain financial information. Journal 24. each recorded individually with its balance. and ledgers. Sổ gốc Is a record of accounts.

if not all. country… diversifies. it Diversify increases the range of goods or services it produces Đa dạng hóa A public offer to a company’s stockholders to A take over bid buy their stocks at a certain price during a limited period of time. of the target Acquisition (take over) company's ownership stakes in order to assume control of the target firm Mua lại The percentage of an industry or market's total Market share sales that is earned by a particular company over a specified time period Thị phần If a business. Trả giá thu mua The reduction in long-run average and Economics of scale marginal costs arising from an increase in size of an operating unit Lợi thế kinh tế theo quy mô A situation in which a company tries to buy Hostile takeover/bid another company which does not want to it to be bought Phản đối thu mua An investor who buys a larger number of share Corporate raider in a corporation whose assets appear to be undervalued Người vây hãm/ đột kích công ty Private equity consists of investors and funds 12 Private equity company .Unit 7: M&A The joining together of two or more companies Merger or organizations to form larger one Sáp nhập A corporate action in which a company buys most. company.

Phí thông báo Larger corporation or groups of companies offering a number of different products or services. Tập đoàn Buying a company in order to sell its most Asset stripping valuable assets at a profit Việc bán riêng từng tài sản của một doanh nghiệp nhằm thu được lợi nhuận Buying as many of a company’s stocks as A raid possible on the stock market Mua hàng loạt cổ phiếu các công ty Two companies making the same products combined Sáp nhập theo chiều ngang A company either acquires or merges with another company in an immediately-related stage of production and distribution Sáp nhập theo chiều dọc A company acquires another company in an Diversification mergers entirely different sphere Sáp nhập đa dạng hóa Advising fee Conglomerate Horizontal mergers Vertical mergers 13 .that make investments directly into private companies or conduct buyouts of public companies that result in a delisting of public equity Công ty vốn cổ phần tư nhân The acquisition of another company using a significant amount of borrowed money (bonds Leveraged buyout (LBO) or loans) to meet the cost of acquisition Các nhà quản lý 1 cty tiến hành mua lại hoặc kiểm soát phần lớn công ty mục tiêu Money paid to investment banks for work done.

Unit 9: Exchange rates 14 .

điều tiết A sytem which is determined purely by Thả nổi tỉ giá hoàn supply and demand. Another verb for fixing exchange rates Cố định against something else A trader who approaches the finacial markets with the intention to make a profit by Nhà đầu cơ. 1 Terms Revaluation Explaination in English Vietnamese Increasing the value of an otherwise fixed Nâng giá tiền tệ exchange rate. Commodity. such as money. not necessarily in that order. A method of exchange by which goods or services directly exchanged for other goods or Trao đổi hàng hóa services without using a medium of exchange. To specify or require something. A sytem in which central bank intervene at Thả nổi tỉ giá có the intervention points. A đổi distinguishingcharacteristic of money is its 2 Gold standard Floating exchange rate 3 4 Intervene 5 Stipulate 6 Peg 7 Speculator 8 Barter 9 Dirty floating exchange rate Clean floating exchange rate Dealer Merchant Suspend 10 11 12 13 Hedging 14 Single currency 15 15 Medium of exchange . To temporarily cease an activity already Lơ lửng commenced in progress. The use of gold as the standard value for Bản vị vàng the money of a country. or a financial instrument used incommercial transactions between buyers and sellers as ameasure and Phương tiện trao standard of value. currency.No. as in a Quy định written contract or formal agreement. A central bank buys or sells in oder to increase or decrease the value of their Can thiệp currency. Try to insure against unfavorable price Phòng hộ movements by way of futures contract Two or more states share the same Đồng tiền chung currency. One exchange rate is determined by supply Tỷ giá thả nổi and demand. toàn A person who buy goods from any or all sources for resale to anyone and everyone for Thương nhân profit. tích trữ buying low and selling higher.

16 .

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