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# Chapter 5 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION

The complete induction motor vector control system is basically designed according to the MATLAB simulation System blocks diagram shown in Fig. 4.1. Due to some practical limitations some modifications are made during the implementation stage. Hardware is implemented for 0.5HP motor instead of 4 kW motor which is simulated in MATLAB. Only two phase currents isa and isb are measured instead of all the three phases currents. For balanced condition, the three phases are balanced so and hence one phase current can be calculated from the other two phase currents. Same is applicable to the voltage. Fig? shows the complete block diagram of the hardware implementation.

Inverter Rectifier
230 V AC IGBT-IRG4PH50UD

## Voltage and Current Sensing Circuit

LC Filter LEM HX03 230/3V Step Down

3- 0.5 hp 230 V IM

CT1 CT2

PT1 PT2

Gate signals
IC-HCPL 3120 Optocoupler Drivers IC-74LS573

## Speed sensor Digital Signal Processor

1A 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B

A0

A2

PWM

A3 A4

PI PI PI PI

## a,b,c to - transformation & Vector Rotator

Is Is Vs Vs

Cos(e)

Unit Vector
Iq

Sin(e)

Flux estimator ds qs

Id

+ -

+ -

Id*

Iq*

r* Lm

PI

## /* wsl instead of the box ids,iqs

5.1 Design of Three Phase Inverter For implementation of this project The parameters of the induction motor which is controlled are given below. The two level (3 leg) inverter is used for controlling the induction motor.

+ -

*r

Iqs,Ids, Rr,Lr

+ +

Motor parameter used for hardware: Rated Power = 4000 W, Rated Voltage = 400 V, Frequency = 50 Hz, Number of poles =4, Stator Resistance = 1.405 , Stator Leakage Inductance = 0.005839 Henry, Rotor Resistance referred to stator = 1.395 , Rotor Inductance referred to stator = 0.005839 Henry, Mutual Inductance = 0.1722 Henry. The inverter design is based on the voltage rating, current rating and switching frequency. The switching frequency in drives application is typically selected between 2 kHz to 20 kHz. Here the switching frequency of the inverter is selected as10 kHz.why? which is suitable for 0.5HP Induction motor. DC Link voltage, Vdc= 2*VLL = 311 V One way to operate the inverter with 325 volts DC supply which is obtained from mains followed by capacitor filtering. but Due to high DC voltage, high dv/dt voltage spikes are produced which causes the voltage of the motor winding to exceed the insulation limit which will damage the motor. On 230 volts AC system three to four times of operating voltage, the voltage spikes are around 1200 - 1500volts. are available so that. With the help of step up transformer we can operate the inverter at with low DC link voltage. The switch voltage rating is 1200V and hence a lower DC link voltage of 120V-150V is selected and the step up transformer with delta/star or delta/delta connected at voltage of 110?/415Vor 110?/230V is used to run the motor (star (415 V) or delta (230 V). in this project provision is made to work with both ways with keeping the same IGBT. The net power capacity of the inverter is calculated as below,

Power rating of motor Power rating of inverter = -----------------------------------------------------------------(Efficiency of motor x efficiency of the inverter)*pf

Assuming efficiency of inverter as 85 %, the power rating of the inverter is calculated as = 370W/(0.6 x0.85*0.8) = 725 W 800 VA The gate driver selected is IC HCPL-3120 suitable to drive the IGBT IRG4PH50UD. The required isolated power supplies for the gate driver ICs is derived from 230 V / 16 V transformer with ten windings, out of which six are rated for 200mA continuous current rating , two for 500 mA and two are 500mA with 230 V/6 V rating . The six power supplies are used for the driver of the inverter and the remaining for auxiliary circuits like level shifter, current sensor in sensing board and buffer IC. The buffer IC used for interface between the DSP controller and the gate driver is 74LS573. The important components list for hardware setup of three phase inverter is as shown in Table 1. The summary of operational specifications of the inverter is as given in Table 2. Table 1: Components used for hardware setup of three phase inverter Sr. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 6. Component Switches Gate Driver Buffer Regulator Rectifier Type IGBT-IRG4PH50UD HCPL3120 74LS573 LM 7815/7805 DB107

Table 2: Specifications of the power circuitvector control system for hardware implementations

Parameters Power capacity Operating Voltage and frequency DC link Capacitor Inverter switching Frequency Filter Inductance Filter Capacitors ( 3 in delta )

Specifications 800 W 3 phase, 230 V, 50 Hz 1500 F / 900 V 10 kHz 3 mH 100 f / 440 V AC each

5.2 Design of Gate Driver Circuit To turn ON an IGBT, opto-coupler based gate driver IC HCPL-3120 is used as shown in Fig. 5.2. The DSP controller sends PWM pulses to buffer IC which in turns drives the input LED of HCPL-3120. The output of driver is connected through a small limiting resistor and reverse connected diode to IGBT as shown in Fig 4.3. 5.3 The output voltage of gate driver circuit is clipped at +15 volts and -15 volts by a pair of zener diode connected back to back .

## Fig. 5. 1: Opto-coupler based IGBT Gate driver HCPL-3120

Note: Fig. Input to remainder of drive circuit? Modify -- Input to drive circuit is okay ?
GND INPUT FROM DSP Vcc

74LS 573

330 ohm

1 2 3 4

8 5

10uF/63v

HCPL3120 7
6

10 ohm IN4148

TO GATE

TO EMITTER

Fig. 5. 2: Gate driver circuit for inverter switches. To turn ON the IGBT, switch gate to source voltage isshould be greater than the threshold voltage. If the gate to source voltage is less than the threshold voltage, then the IGBT will be turned off. Generally the threshold voltage is of +5 volts. Gate signals required isolation from power circuit which is achieved by means of opto-coupler circuit. The gate control signals are low voltage level signals .The low level PWM signal from DSP is isolated and amplified by the driver circuit. Six such circuits have been fabricated with individual power supplies for driving the IGBTs of inverter. 5.3. Design of PCB Layout for Inverter and Gate Driver using CadSofts Eagle software The single sided PCB layout of three phase inverter is as shown in Fig 5.4. The PCB is designed with the help of CadSofts EAGLE software(version 5.6.0). This PCB is designed for power supply section, driver section and inverter section. In driver circuit section, six gate driver ICs are used to drive six IGBT switches. The driver IC requires +15 volt power supply which is given derived from the isolated transformer with rectifier, and filter circuit, which is passed through fixed and voltage regulator (LM7815) IC. Current handling capacity of the power circuit track is of 4 A which is increased up to 8 A. mps by putting solder material on the track

Fig.5.4: PCB layout of inverter section Fig.5.5 shows the photo of inverter circuit with common heat sink to all,driver circuit, and auxiliary power supply circuit is fabricated on a board .

Fig.5.5 : Photograph of hardware of three phase inverter and gate driver with isolated supply The step down transformer has ten isolated secondary winding out of which six secondary

windings of 16 V, 200mA, two secondary windings of 6volt, 200mA and two secondary windings of 16volt, 500mA. To get the regulated 15 V supply for driver circuit (HCPL-3120), the six 16 V isolated windings of transformer is rectified and given to regulator IC LM7815C. Another two 16 volts 500mA isolated windings of the transformer are used to provide Auxiliary supply for current sensing amplifier circuit. Another two isolated windings of the transformer is giving 6 V AC. One isolated winding is rectified and given to the regulator which regulates output voltage to 1.5 volts. The regulator used is LM317. This 1.5 DC voltage is used to provide DC phase shift for the input signals of the processor. Second isolated winding is rectified and regulated 5 V DC which is used for buffer IC is also generated. */ Remove the repeated things. Briefly mention where supplies are used. 5.4 Design of Voltage and Current Sensing Circuit

The single sided PCB layout of voltage and current sensing circuit is shown in fig.5.6.Two LEM HX-03 type of current sensors are used to sense the currents of two phases of the induction motor driven by the designed inverter. Output of LEM current sensor is in the form of voltage which is in the range of -4V to 4V for the current range of 0-3 A, Two step-down transformers are used to sense voltages of the induction motor driven by the design inverter. The two PTs are used to sense Two phase voltages are sensed by potential transformers. The line to line voltage across the motor terminals is stepped down to 3 V with the help of transformers of 230V / 3V, 500mA ratings.

Fig.5.6 PCB layout of sensing board. The ADC of DSP is unidirectional and can handle only 3.3 V maximum so that all input sensed signals are adjusted below 3.3V with the help of potentiometer and shifted by +1.5 V DC. The pot used is of 10 k. Both sensed voltages and currents signals after suitable processing are fed

to DSP processor ADC pins. Fig.5.7 shows the photo of current sensor, voltage sensor and auxiliary power supply fabricated on one board.

DSP

Fig. 5.3: Component view of sensing board 5.6 Laboratory Setup of the Complete System The laboratory setup with a step up transformer and filter is as shown in Fig.5.8. Setup consists of Voltage Source inverter (VSI) and 0.37kW inductions motor. The induction motor which is fed by Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). The two current sensors-LEM HX-03 and two potential transformers are used to sense the currents and voltages respectively. Fig: 5.8&5.9 5.7 Description of TMS320F28069 The complete application is processed using the DSP software. The flowchart for the same is shown in fig 5.10. The three main operations are complete hardware can be processed as in sequence of three operation first voltage and current measurements of induction motor, second vector control algorithm and thirdthe PWM generation. With the help of ADC, we measurement the voltage and current. With the help of voltage model we calculate The flux and actual torque

is calculated from the sensed voltage and current using the voltage model. Using the equation explained in chapter no.3 is used for The implementation of vector control is done as explained in chapter 3.

START

A
Obtain error in current by comparing ref. current with actual current

## Return from ISR

*Read ADCch4(output of speed encoder) Spelling of reference? Check the spelling of other words. Modify the flow chart?

## Fig.5.10 ADC ISR flow chart?

The Texas Instrument Experimental kit TMS320F28069 is a rich in on chip peripherals and has many features making it suitable for power electronics applications Features of the controller 1. High-Efficiency 32-Bit CPU (TMS320C28x) 2. 80 MHz Clock (12.5-ns Cycle Time) 3. 16 x 16 and 32 x 32 MAC Operations 4. 16 x 16 Dual MAC 5. Harvard Bus Architecture 6. Atomic Operations 7. Fast Interrupt Response and Processing 8. Unified Memory Programming Model 9. Code-Efficient (in C/C++ and Assembly) Block diagram of TMS320F28069 It is 32-bit fixed point microcontroller which is used for controlling purpose in industries for automation, lighting, robotics, power supplies.

## Fig. 5.11: Block Diagram of TMS320F28069

The TMS320F28069 is also supports many communication protocol making it very suitable for various industrial applications. The dedicated ePWM (enhanced PWM) blocks make CPU to work efficiently for control algorithm. The Fig 4.10 shows the image of control stickexperimental kit of TMS320F28069

Fig. 5.12: Image of experimental kit of TMS320F28069 General-Purpose Input /Output (GPIO) The GPIO MUX registers are used to select the operation of shared pins on the 280x devices. The pins are named by their general purpose I/O name i.e. GPIO0 - GPIO34. These pins can be individually selected to operate as digital I/O, referred to as GPIO, or connected to one of up to one of three peripheral I/O signals (via the GPAMUX1, GPAMUX2 and GPBMUX1 registers). If selected for digital I/O mode, registers are provided to configure the pin direction (via the GPADIR and GPBDIR registers). Event Manager The event-manager (EV) modules provide a broad range of functions and features that are particularly useful in motion control and motor control applications. The EV modules include general-purpose (GP) timers, full-compare/PWM units, capture units, and quadrature-encoder pulse (QEP) circuits. The two EV modules, EVA and EVB, are identical peripherals, intended for multi-axis/motion-control applications EVA and EVB timers, compare units, and capture units function identically. However, timer/unit names differ for EVA and EVB. ADC The ADC module has 16 channels, configurable as two independent 8-channel modules to service event managers A and B. It has built in dual sample and hold. It provides simultaneous sampling and sequential sampling modes. It has fast conversion time up to12.5 MSPS.it has

2X8? channel multiplexed inputs. The start of conversion can be given by external pin .analog input range is 0 Vto 3.3 V. The digital value of the input analog voltage is derived by: Digital Value =4096*((analog input voltage-ADCLO)/3.3) The two independent 8-channel modules can be cascaded to form a 16-channel module. Although there are multiple input channels and two sequencers, here is only one converter in the ADC module. The two 8-channel modules have the capability to auto sequence a series of conversions, each module has the choice of selecting any one of the respective eight channels available through an analog MUX. In the cascaded mode, the auto sequencer functions as a single 16-channel sequencer. On each sequencer ,once the conversion is complete, the selected channel value is stored in its respective RESULT register. PWM An ePWM module represents one complete PWM channel composed of two PWM outputs: EPWMxA and EPWMxB, ePwm sub-module are as shown in Fig. 4.11. Each ePWM module supports the following features: Dedicated 16-bit time-base counter with period and frequency control Two PWM outputs (EPWMxA and EPWMxB) that can be used in the following configurations: Two independent PWM outputs with single-edge operation Two independent PWM outputs with dual-edge symmetric operation One independent PWM output with dual-edge asymmetric operation

## Fig. 5. 4: Sub-modules of an ePWM Module

Asynchronous override control of PWM signals through software. Dead-band generation with independent rising and falling edge delay control. PWM output signals (EPWMxA and EPWMxB): The PWM output signals are made available external to the device through the GPIO peripheral described in the system control and interrupts guide for your device. ADC start-of-conversion signals (EPWMxSOCA and EPWMxSOCB): Each ePWM module has two ADC starts of conversion signals. Any ePWM module can trigger a start of conversion. Which event triggers the start of conversion is configured in the Event-Trigger sub-module of the ePWM. Calculating PWM Period and Frequency The frequency of PWM events is controlled by the time-base period (TBPRD) register and the mode of the time-base counter. The time-base counter has three modes of operation selected by the time-base control register (TBCTL):

Up-Down-Count Mode: In up-down-count mode, the time-base counter starts from zero and increments until the period (TBPRD) value is reached. When the period value is reached, the time-base counter then decrements until it reaches zero. At this point the counter repeats the pattern and begins to increment.

Up-Count Mode: In this mode, the time-base counter starts from zero and increments until it reaches the value in the period register (TBPRD). When the period value is reached, the time-base counter resets to zero and begins to increment once again.

Down-Count Mode: In down-count mode, the time-base counter starts from the period (TBPRD) value and decrements until it reaches zero. When it reaches zero, the time-base counter is reset to the period value and it begins to decrement once again.